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Results in Journal Small Ruminant Research: 6,167

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, M.J. Emmanuel, A.A. Yahaya, A.Y. Baba, L.S. Yaqub, H.U. Buhari, T. Dzenda, M.U. Kawu
Published: 24 September 2021
Abstract:
The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the thermoregulatory, haematological, oxidative stress and serum electrolyte variations in an indigenous, hairy thin-tailed Yankasa (n = 10) and a recently introduced, wooly fat-tailed Ossimi (n = 10) sheep in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone during the peak of the hot-dry season. Thermoregulatory variables were recorded in the morning and afternoon hours, while samples were collected to evaluate variations in blood parameters. The results revealed that the rectal, skin, eye and fibre surface temperatures, as well as respiratory rate significantly (P < 0.05) increased from morning to afternoon hours in both sheep types. The heart rate significantly increased from morning to afternoon hours in wooly fat-tailed sheep, but no significant increase was observed in the hairy thin-tailed sheep. The wooly fat-tailed sheep exhibited higher (P < 0.05) heart rate and eye temperature than the hairy thin-tailed sheep in the afternoon hours. In the morning hours, the skin temperature was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the hairy thin-tailed sheep than the wooly fat-tailed sheep. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility was higher (P < 0.05) in hairy thin-tailed than wooly fat-tailed sheep. No significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between sheep types in respiratory rate, sweating rate, rectal temperature, haematological parameters, serum malondialdehyde, potassium and sodium ion concentrations. It is concluded that the wooly fat-tailed sheep showed greater sensitivity, but higher erythrocyte membrane integrity during the hot-dry season. The non-significant difference between sheep types in most evaluated parameters suggests a relative similarity in their responses to heat stress, affirming the prime influence of adaptation to heat, and not fibre type, in the development of heat tolerance in the sheep.
Published: 21 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 205; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106537

Abstract:
Nutritional requirements at the end of gestation in ewes carrying multiple fetuses are rarely fully met in pasture production systems. Thus, concentrate feeds entail an alternative for increasing herd productivity. However, daily offer of complementary feed in extensive livestock production systems is not always possible due to climatic or geographic constraints or to labor shortages. One alternative is to offer large amounts of concentrate feed with the addition of NaCl that limits voluntary consumption, eliminating the need for daily supplement delivery. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of high salt levels added to concentrate feed on pre- and post-lambing twin-gestating ewes and their responses on feed intake, colostrum and milk production and composition, plasma biochemical profile variation and lamb growth. Twenty-four adult Corriedale females were housed in individual stalls and divided into four treatments: S13: ad libitum concentrate feed plus 13 % of salt; C13: the same amount of concentrate feed consumed by S13 ewes the day before, but without salt; S17: ad libitum concentrate feed with 17 % of salt, and C17: the same amount of concentrate feed consumed by S17 ewes the day before, but without salt. Fresh water and forage were offered in ad libitum amounts. Treatments were applied in the period of highest ewe nutrient demand, from day 123 of pregnancy to day 21 of lactation. The four percentage points in salt content resulted in a decrease of organic matter daily intake of concentrate (23 % of reduction in pre-lambing and 35 % of reduction in post-lambing for S17 relative to S13; P = 0.0134 and P = 0.0164, respectively). Lamb birth weights were similar between S13 and C13 (P = 0.1002) and between S17 and C17 (P = 0.8449) treatments. Colostrum and milk production did not differ between S13 and C13 (P = 0.9776 and P = 0.8928, respectively) or between S17 and C17 groups (P = 0.4943 and P = 0.7705, respectively). Plasma insulin, hematocrit and total protein levels were not influenced by the treatments and these parameters remained within normal physiological limits. Thus, the addition of 13 or 17 % of salt to concentrate feed did not affect the reproductive capacity of ewes or offspring growth, showing that ewes are able to withstand high doses of NaCl and supporting the potential of salt as a limiter of voluntary intake in pre- and post-lambing diets.
, Victor Hugo Medina, Edgar Sebastian Villagra
Published: 21 September 2021
Abstract:
In Neuquén Criollo goat production systems, the sale of goat kids for slaughter is the main source of income. Marketing kids weighing at least 14 kg live weight before 90 days of age improves economic returns due to better meat quality, while also reducing doe lactation requirements and subsequent pressure on grazing land. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS) in does from the Neuquén Criollo breed during the last third of gestation and lactation, on subsequent kid survival, birth weight and growth rate. Thus, two groups of does were penned and fed at two distinct nutritional levels during the last third of gestation and lactation period: High Condition Score (BCS3) and Medium Condition Score (BCS2), to maintain a BCS of 3 and 2, respectively. Kids remained with their dams without nutritional supplementation from birth to weaning. The results indicated that BCS of the dam contributed substantially in the kids’ live weight (LW) in different stages: at birth (BW), at slaughter (50 days of age = 50D) and at weaning, (90 days of age = 90D) and these differences were maintained during rearing (220 days of age = 220D). The single and twin male goat kids of the BCS3 group reached slaughter weight (15.16 ± 0.08 and 14.15 ± 0.51 kg, respectively) at 50 days of age (50D), whereas male kids from the BCS2 group did not reach slaughter weight in an equivalent timeframe. Furthermore, the single and twin female goat kids born from BCS3 group between 50 and 90 days of age doubled in weight compared to those born from the BCS2 group. Consequently, single and twin female kids born from BCS3 group only reached 17.52 ± 0.12 kg and 15.52 ± 0.43 L W, respectively, in the first breeding season (220D). Results highlight the need for supplementation management strategies to increase does’ BCS during gestation and lactation; in order to improve kids’ BW, reduce kid mortality and to ensure target slaughter weights are achieved before 2 months of age. Developing early supplementation strategies in the last stage of lactation before weaning and in the rearing period post-weaning may increase survival and anticipate the reproductive age of female kids.
, , Kathy J. Austin, William R. Lamberson, Kristi M. Cammack, Gavin C. Conant
Published: 21 September 2021
Abstract:
Antibiotics are used as feed additives for domesticated ruminants as they can improve feed efficiency and simultaneously reduce disease. However, the effects of such antibiotic usage on the symbiotic relationship between those animals and their ruminal microorganisms is not well understood. We used shotgun metagenomics to compare the microbial communities from 16 sheep fed an antibiotic-supplemented diet to those of 16 sheep fed an unsupplemented diet. Metagenomic reads from each sheep were mapped to a microbial metabolic network which was linked to the host metabolic network by sets of metabolites that are assumed to be absorbed by that host. Several differences in the global structure of this network were evident between the two groups of animals. There were 546 microbial enzymes that were significantly different in their relative abundance between the two groups. On a broader scale, the animals fed antibiotics showed a set of microbial enzymes that were closer in network space to the host metabolism than were the enzymes of the microbes of animals not fed antibiotics. There were also differences in the microbial taxa present in the two groups of animals, with members of the genus Prevotella representing approximately 68% of microbial individuals in sheep not fed antibiotics, but only 46% in antibiotic-fed sheep. We found greater microbial taxonomic diversity in sheep fed antibiotics. The addition of antibiotics to ruminant feed alters both the taxonomic and functional structure of their ruminal microbial communities, even if the overall effects of these changes are not fully understood.
O. Zapata, A. Cervantes, A. Barreras, , V.M. González-Vizcarra, A. Estrada-Angulo, , , R.A. Zinn, I.G. Martínez-Alvarez, et al.
Published: 21 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106538

Abstract:
Probiotics (beneficial living microorganisms) and prebiotics (fiber, cell wall material, mannan polysaccharides derived through hydrolysis of yeast cell walls) are feed additives that may have beneficial extra-nutritional pharmaceutical and/or metabolic effects on livestock health and growth performance. Due to differences in modes of action, their combination may have additive effects on digestion and fermentation in ruminants. For this reason, four male lambs (Dorper; 45.1 ± 2.7 kg initial weight) with “T” cannulas in the rumen were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the effects of single or combined supplementation of probiotics and prebiotics on ruminal fermentation and total tract digestion. Dietary treatments consisted of a cracked corn-based basal finishing diet supplemented with: 1) no eubiotics (Control); 2) 3 g of live saccharomyces cerevisiae /lamb/day (2 × 1010 cfu/g, SC), 3) 3 g of mannan oligosaccharide (30 % w/w) plus b-glucans (20 % w/w) /lamb/day (MOS), and 4) combination of 1.5 g/day SC and 1.5 g/day MOS (SCMOS). Compared to controls, SC supplementation tended (P = 0.09) to increase total tract digestion of DM and OM, and increased (P< 0.05) total tract digestion of N, starch, and digestible energy (DE). Compared with Control, MOS increased total tract NDF (7.9 %, P< 0.01) and starch digestion, and tended to improve total tract digestion of (P = 0.09), N (P = 0.07), and DE diet (P = 0.07). Compared to Control, SCMOS increased (P ≤ 0.03) total tract digestion of all fractions evaluated, including a 4.2 % (P< 0.01) increase in DE. Although lambs fed MOS had greater (6.7 %, P = 0.02) NDF digestion than those fed SC, differences in total tract digestion of DM, OM, N, starch and DE diet were not appreciable (P ≥ 0.24). Compared with SC and MOS fed separately, SCMOS increased (P< 0.05) total tract digestion of N and NDF. Supplemental MOS and SCMOS tended (P = 0.09) to promote greater ruminal pH than the Control. Combining supplementation decreased (P ≤ 0.03) the molar proportion of butyrate and ruminal ammonia, consistent with decreased of ruminal concentration of C. aminophilum. Probiotic/prebiotic supplementation of high-energy lamb finishing diets enhances total tract digestion and digestible energy. Reduction hyper-ammonia producing ruminal bacteria with the combination probiotic plus prebiotic may contribute to improved dietary N economy. The combination of probiotics with prebiotics potentiate positive effects on digestion and ruminal fermentation in lambs fed a high-energy diets.
Published: 20 September 2021
Abstract:
The rural territories linked to European sheep systems still cover wide areas and provide multiple ecosystems services although the current situation of the associated biodiversity is not fully understood. In this study the foliage arthropods (including pollinators), the vegetation cover and height, the number of flowers and plant species richness were evaluated in 9 sheep grazed lands from 5 EU countries with different livestock management strategies and dominant vegetation. The total abundance of arthropods, the abundance of Diptera and Heteroptera, sward height and plant species richness were higher in more extensive than in more intensively managed farms. The total abundance and the abundance of most of the orders were highest in mountain areas (MP) and lowest in improved pastures (IMP) whereas the total arthropod richness showed no differences and the richness of pollinators was lower in IMP than in MP (p < 0.01) and semi-natural pastures (SN, p < 0.01). The grass cover was higher in IMP than in the rest of the areas whereas forb cover was higher in SN than in IMP (p < 0.01). The plant species richness peaked in MP whereas the number of flowers showed no significant differences. Sward height correlated positively with forb cover, plant species richness, the richness of the whole arthropod community, the abundance of several orders like Araneae, Diptera or Homoptera, as well as with the richness of the pollinator community. The community composition of the total arthropod fauna (p < 0.01) and the pollinators in particular (p < 0.05) differed between management strategies and more diverse groups were linked to the areas under more extensive management. Both communities (total and pollinators) also differed in composition between the types of vegetation (p < 0.01) and less diverse assemblages with low abundant taxa were associated to IMP and SN whereas more diverse groups were linked to MP and grassland-forest (WP) in both cases. A better understanding of the flora-fauna dynamics in sheep grazed pasturelands is essential for the proper conservation of the biodiversity and other ecosystem services, as well as for the maintenance of sustainable sheep systems relying on the natural resources.
, Juan José García-García, Mónica Montañés, Alberto Benito, , , Irene Viola, , Nathanael Ko, Vasco Cadavez, et al.
Published: 20 September 2021
Abstract:
In order to evaluate the welfare of lambs reared up to 4 months of age in different management systems in Europe, nine lamb meat farms (3 in Spain, 2 in Portugal, 1 in Germany, 1 in Slovenia and 2 in Italy) belonging to different production systems (intensive, semi-intensive, semi-extensive, extensive, shepherded) throughout Europe were visited. The first level welfare assessment according to the AWIN protocol for sheep was used, the data collection flow being as follows: (1) qualitative behaviour assessment (QBA), social withdrawal, stereotypy, excessive itching, panting; (2) fleece cleanliness, fleece quality, tail length, faecal soiling, lameness; (3) familiar human approach; (4) stocking density, access to shade/shelter, water availability; (4) lamb mortality. A great heterogeneity was observed because the breeds and the productive systems in which the animals have been raised are very different; only one of the purely extensive farms had no sheds for the animals, whereas the stocking density in confined animals was always appropriate. The results showed a high degree of compliance with the needs of the animals, which also corresponded to good productive results, but the objectification of the emotional state through the QBA yielded highly variable results, those animals reared under intensive and semi-intensive farms grouped around positive descriptors, which may indicate that lambs reared in intensive conditions show a different and apparently calmer mental state than those reared in very extensive conditions.
Published: 20 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 205; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106535

Abstract:
The global decline in the wool market has increased the importance of sheep meat markets, inducing changes in production systems, especially among family livestock farmers. In Brazil, this situation has a significant impact on the productive dynamics within smallholdings in the South of the country. Since little is known about the current configuration of these markets following such changes, this article is aimed at mapping the marketing channels accessed by family farmers to sell lambs, to understand the dynamics that guide these transactions. To this end, 39 interviews were carried out with family livestock farmers who breed sheep in southern Brazil, and, complementarily, 34 social actors participating in different sheep meat marketing channels were interviewed. The findings show that 74.4 % of family livestock farmers sell lambs or sheep meat using as their main marketing channels informal sales to individuals (38.5%), sales through farmers' associations (33.3%), and sales through either middlemen or livestock dealers (10.2%). Findings suggest that the family farmers’ choices do not follow the mainstream logic of supply and demand, and that one of the main challenges to the operation of this market is supply regularity, overcoming seasonality of breeding. It is possible to affirm that the former strength of the wool market remains rooted in the imaginary of family livestock farmers, a reference that justifies not only the persistence of this activity, but also the reduced interest in commercializing sheep for meat. The sheep meat market that could generate satisfactory income for the family farmer, appears as a space yet to be explored. Thus, research findings may help to better define actions and priorities regarding the fostering of the sheep meat market, especially regarding programs for organizing the production chain, building a regular supply and resignifying the activity among family farmers.
P.A. Gonzalez-Rivas, P. Prathap, K. DiGiacomo, J.J. Cottrell, B.J. Leury, S.S. Chauhan,
Published: 17 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106523

Abstract:
Previous studies have suggested that feeding slowly fermentable grains might improve heat-tolerance in ruminants, due to increased post-rumen starch digestion and a reduction in the heat increment of feeding. During heat stress gastrointestinal function may be compromised which could impact on the site and extent of digestion. To characterize the in vitro rumen starch and DM disappearance of corn, wheat, and 3% NaOH-treated wheat grains, grain samples were incubated during 0, 5, 8, and 24 h at 39 °C in buffered rumen fluid. Then faecal pH and whole tract apparent starch, DM, and organic matter (OM) digestibility were determined in wethers fed, with either corn (CD), wheat (WD) or 3% NaOH- treated wheat (TWD) based diets during heat stress in two experiments. In experiment 1, 22 wethers were fed either CD or WD (n = 11 per diet) during three different stages in climate controlled rooms: stage 1 (TNFR), 7 days of thermoneutral conditions 18–21 °C and 40–50% relative humidity) and 1.3 times maintenance feed intake; stage 2 (HSFR), 7 days of heat stress (28–38 °C and 30–50% relative humidity) and feed intake as TNFR; and stage 3 (HSFU), 7 days of heat stress as in HSFR stage and 1.5 times maintenance feed intake. In experiment 2, 31 wethers were fed either CD (n = 10), WD (n = 10) or TWD (n = 11) during three different stages with the same temperature and relative humidity regimes as experiment 1, however during TNFR and HSFR stages wethers received 1.7 times maintenance feed intake while in HSFU stage wethers received 2 times maintenance feed intake. After 24 h of incubation, untreated wheat had the fastest rate of starch and DM disappearance followed by 3% NaOH-treated wheat and corn grain (P< 0.001). Wethers fed CD had lower apparent starch (P < 0.001) and higher DM (P < 0.001) and OM (P < 0.001) digestibility than those fed WD, which was associated with lower faecal pH (P < 0.001) and higher faecal starch content (P < 0.001) than wheat diets. 3% NaOH treatment of wheat did not affect the whole tract starch digestibility of wheat being faecal pH and starch content of TWD like WD. At low feed intakes (1.3 times maintenance) there was no effect of heat stress on digestibility whereas at higher feed intakes heat stress reduced starch, OM, and DM digestibility. However, starch digestibility of TWD was similar to WD and metabolizable energy intake, DM and OM digestibility were higher. It is concluded that 3% NaOH treatment of wheat could reduce the rumen starch disappearance (in vitro condition) without reducing the whole tract starch digestibility (tested in vivo) of wheat in heat-stressed wethers. The study demonstrated the treated wheat with NaOH can be a strategy to increase OM digestibility and energy retention of wethers under heat stress.
Zakirul Islam, Elias Uddin, , ,
Published: 15 September 2021
Abstract:
The objective of this study was to isolate and characterize Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from raw goat milk, and to evaluate their probiotic and technological properties. A total of 50 LAB strains were isolated and identified from 18 goat milk samples based on their morphological, physiological, biochemical, and genotypic characteristics. We found the existence of 6 genera where Lactobacillus was found as dominant (50%). The in-vitro experiment showed that more than 80% of the representative LAB strains inhibited the growth of tested pathogenic microorganisms. Out of 11 tested LAB strains, most of them exhibited moderate to high survivability (80 – 100%) under intestinal juice, pancreatic juice and bile salt, and which was 70 – 80% at low pH conditions. All tested LAB strains produced diacetyl, and 73% of the tested strains showed proteolytic activity whereas only 27% strains exhibited weak lipolytic activity. In case of antibiotic susceptibility, most of the LAB strains exhibited resistance against the tested antibiotics. All LAB strains produced exopolysaccharide to a variable extent ranging from 20 to 93 mg/L where the Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus being the greatest producer. The in-vitro experiments regarding safety profile showed that the entire isolated LAB was found as non-virulence. Furthermore, our lab-scale fermentation study demonstrated that most isolated LAB strains possess the starter culture properties for producing firm milk curd. In conclusion, this study revealed that the isolated LAB strains from raw goat milk retain the potential to be used in fermented foods because of their safety aspects, probiotic attributes, and technological characteristics.
, , O.H. Matloup, O.A. Olafadehan, S.M. Sallam
Published: 8 September 2021
Abstract:
The use of safe feed additives in diets of lactating animals has gained increasing interest. The effects of feeding lactating goats on diet supplemented with crude coriander oil at different levels were evaluated. Thirty multiparous lactating Damascus × Baladi goats (27.2 ± 1.0 kg BW) were used in 3 × 3 Latin square design (3 treatments, 3 periods, and 10 does per treatment). Each experimental period lasted 30 d (comprising 20 d of treatments adaptation and 10 d of sampling). The treatments consisted of the control basal diet with no crude coriander oil, the control basal diet supplemented daily with 0.95 g crude coriander oil/kg DM feed, or the control basal diet supplemented with 1.9 g crude coriander oil/kg DM feed. Crude coriander oil supplementation linearly increased (P<0.05) daily milk production, yields of total solids, fat and lactose, and concentration of milk fat (P=0.022) as well as feed conversion ratio (P=0.021). Crude coriander oil supplementation linearly enhanced (P<0.05) the apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, non-structural carbohydrates, and fibers, while the high crude coriander oil supplementation level increased crude protein apparent digestibility. Crude coriander oil supplementation linearly decreased ruminal pH and ciliate protozoal counts, and increased the concentrations (P<0.05) of total volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate and valerate. Crude coriander oil supplementation linearly increased (P<0.05) the concentration of blood glucose and linearly decreased (P<0.05) the serum levels of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, while the high coriander oil treatment decreased the concentrations of total lipids (P=0.038) and cholesterol (P=0.021). In conclusion, crude coriander oil supplementation at 0.95 or 1.9 g crude coriander oil/kg DM feed improved nutrient utilization, milk production, and milk nutritive value. The high level of supplementation is recommended.
Sadarman, Dewi Febrina, Yendraliza, Miftahush Shirothul Haq, Rizki Amalia Nurfitriani, Nisa Nurmilati Barkah, Muhammad Miftakhus Sholikin, Yunilas, Novia Qomariyah, Anuraga Jayanegara, et al.
Published: 7 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106521

Abstract:
A growing number of publications are identified toward the use of black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L) on small ruminant animals since many beneficial evidences have been reported in humans and animals. This study used a meta-analysis approach to quantify the effect of black cumin seeds (BCS) supplementation on the productive performance, nutrients utilization, and blood metabolites profile of small ruminant animals. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocols, a total of 23 studies were aggregated in a database and were analyzed using mixed model methodology classifying the studies as random effects and levels of BCS as fixed effects in the models. Results found that interaction between BCS levels and animal species tended to be significant whereas increasing dietary BCS levels linearly increased average daily gain (ADG) (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.538) and dry matter intake in lambs (p < 0.01, R2 = 0.958) but had no effect on sheep. Nitrogen (N) intake, and N digested were found to be significantly increased (p < 0.01) as inclusion rates of BCS increased while organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) intakes tended to increased (p < 0.10). In addition to other immune responses, strong positive relationships were found on the increase of concentration of IgA (R2 = 0.922) and IgG (R2 = 0.939) (p < 0.05) in response to increasing BCS supplementation. To conclude, black cumin seeds can be used as a safe and beneficial feed supplement to promote the growth of small ruminant animals such as lambs, sheep, and goats.
M.A. Tajaddini, , A. Khezri, R. Tahmasbi, M.M. Sharifi-Hoseini
Published: 6 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106519

Abstract:
The effectiveness of formaldehyde treated canola meal (FTCM) in two levels of dietary crude protein (CP) were evaluated in an experiment. Eight multiparous lactating Raini goats (early lactation, 32 ± 2 kg BW) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four treatments. Experimental diets were: (1) diet with 14.5 % CP containing untreated canola meal (UCM) (CON), (2) diet with 14.5 % CP containing FTCM (0.8 g/100 g CP) (FT1), (3) diet with 14.5 % CP containing FTCM (1.2 g/100 g CP) (FT2), and (4) diet with 12.5 % CP containing FTCM (1.2 g/100 g CP) (LPFT2). Dry matter intake (DMI) of the goats was significantly increased by substitution of FTCM in the diet (P< 0.001). Feeding FT2 and LPFT2 diets significantly increased production of milk, fat-corrected milk (FCM), energy-corrected milk (ECM), total-solids-corrected milk (TSCM) (P< 0.001), and yields of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and non-fat solids (P< 0.01). However, dietary treatments did not affect milk composition of the goats. Production efficiency for milk and FCM were highest (P< 0.001) in goats fed the LPFT2 diet. Moreover, the FT1 diet decreased C4:0, C6:0, C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, C15:0, C17:0, t-C18:3, and total short-chain and long-chain fatty acids (FA) of the milk (P ≤ 0.01), but C16:0 and total medium-chain FA were increased (P ≤ 0.01) as compared to CON and FT2. Although formaldehyde treating did not affect ruminal pH, the concentrations of ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N), and blood urea-N (BUN) decreased by feeding FT2 and LPFT2 diets (P< 0.001). Also, LPFT2 diet increased concentration of total ruminal VFA (TVFA) and showed lower acetate/propionate ratio when fed to the goats (P< 0.05). In general, substitution of 1.2 % FTCM had improved feed intake and productive performance of lactating goats; it is therefore concluded that formaldehyde treating of canola meal can be used as an economical choice for increasing dietary bypass protein, by which the level of diet crude protein can be reduced.
B.J. Campbell, J.S. McCutcheon, A.E. Marsh, F.L. Fluharty,
Published: 6 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106517

Abstract:
The Midwestern United States is characterized by summers with limited precipitation and as such pastures mature and feed quality decreases from mid to late summer. The poor forage quality impedes sheep production at weaning. Alternative forages such as chicory have been shown to maintain forage quality for a greater time compared to grass pastures and may increase body weight growth of weaned lambs. To improve system efficiency producers may consider delaying lamb weaning age to improve the growth and health of pasture-reared lambs if forage quality can be maintained. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of delayed weaning on the growth and health of lambs grazing chicory (Cichorium intybus). We hypothesized that delaying lamb weaning age would increase lamb body weight and improve parasite resilience. A total of 18 cross-bred ewes and 36 cross-bred lambs (25.2 ± 0.5 kg) were stratified by weight, sex, and randomly assigned to one of two weaning treatments: 1.) lambs weaned at 60 days of age (control) and 2.) lambs, 60 days of age, remained with their dam and weaned at 116 days of age (delayed weaned). Delayed weaning resulted in greater weight gains as delayed weaned lambs were heavier on days 42 and 56 of the grazing period when compared with control lambs. In addition, delayed weaned lambs had a greater average daily gain (ADG) on days 14 and 42 of the grazing period and overall ADG when compared with control lambs. In monitoring lamb health, there were no differences in lamb FAMACHA© eye score, packed cell volume, fecal egg count, and total plasma protein concentration. Delayed weaning has shown to be beneficial in improving lamb growth; however, within the context of the current study delayed weaning did not improve lamb parasite resilience.
, Juan Capote, María Fresno, Alejandra Eguiza, Emilio Barba, José Manuel Molina, Antonio Ruiz
Published: 4 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106518

Abstract:
Rearing strategies are key factors in the overall success of goat enterprises. In order to investigate the cost-benefit ratio of alternative methods for rearing and the impact on the course of Eimeria infections, 36 Canarian goat kids were subjected to three different regimes under field conditions. Two groups of animals were naturally reared with their mothers, feeding goat milk until weaning at 6 (Early weaning, EW) and 9 weeks of age (Traditional weaning, TW). In the remaining group, goat kids were artificially reared with a milk replacer until 9 weeks of age (Artificial feeding, AF). Coprological analysis were performed weekly to determine Eimeria oocyst shedding and, with the same frequency, changes in body weights and faecal consistency were recorded. Goat kids from group TW showed the best growth rate, while growth performance of groups EW and AF were statistical similar. Besides, compared to group TW, EW and AF management practices resulted in an overall increase of about 40 % and more than 100 % of the total number of oocysts excreted until the end of the experiment (week 15), respectively. Although the three experimental groups were infected with the same Eimeria species, differences in their oocysts excretion kinetics, including those of most pathogenic species, were observed throughout the experiment, indicating that the type of rearing may affect the outcome of underlying coccidiosis in the farm. Finally, the economic analysis determined that, mainly conditioned by the market price of goat milk, total operating costs per goat kid from groups EW (56.37 €) and AF (48.63 €) systems were considerably lower than those obtained in group TW (96.32 €). The selection of the former two rearing systems should be conditioned though to the use of management strategies preventing coccidiosis outbreaks.
Published: 4 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106516

Abstract:
Sheep production is a common activity in family farms that develop mixed farming in developing countries in South America. In the area known as the Patagonia, it is possible to find this type of farm in isolated areas with a temperate climate, where sheep production takes place in small and medium-sized flocks managed with family labor. In these systems, obtaining animal protein for family consumption and the sale of surpluses is the main objective of farmers. The Chilean Patagonia is an area that stands out for its tourist attractions. This feature has been used at the government level to develop production and commercial linkage and improvement programs. However, the proper application of these programs needs to characterize sheep production systems, define groups, determine similarities and differences among them, and identify individual or joint adaptation strategies. Thus, the objective of this research was to characterize sheep farming in an extreme mountain area in the Chilean Patagonia and provide a typology of sheep production systems, focusing on the socio-productive aspects of family farms. Within the province of Palena, the study area corresponded to the communities of Palena and Futaleufú, where a survey was given to a sample of 172 sheep farmers. Through multivariate analysis methodologies, four groups of sheep production systems were identified. The main differences between systems were farm surface, surface destined for sheep, type, duration, and supplementation strategy and presence of purebred sheep. Sheep production in extreme areas contributes to rural families' livelihood by being part of an integrated system of activities that naturally uses circular economy strategies and sustainable practices. Geographical isolation limits the marketing channels, generating that the surpluses produced are sold locally. Given the government strategies to support the study area and the strong tourist component of governmental assistance, the sheep farmers need to modify their management strategies.
, Samira Obeid, Dorit Kababya, , Orna Baron-Epel
Published: 3 September 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106520

Abstract:
Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease endemic in the Middle East and in Israel, with hundreds of cases each year, mostly in the Arab population.
, Serginara David Rodrigues, , Ana Valéria Mello De Souza Marques
Published: 31 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106513

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of livestock rearing system, sheepfold vs. integrated crop-livestock system, on heat tolerance and physiological traits of crossbred sheep (Santa Ines x Dorper) in the semiarid region of Brazilian Northeastern. Forty crossbred hair ewes (Santa Ines x Dorper), 15–48 months old, were assigned to two treatments: 20 in treatment I (SF – Sheepfold) and 20 in treatment II (ICL - integrated crop-livestock system with tall coconut palm trees). Physiological and environmental evaluations were conducted on 21 consecutive days. Respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and heart rate (HR) were recorded at 06:00 am and 05:00 pm, while air temperature and relative humidity were recorded from 06:00 am to 05:00 pm. Temperature and Humidity Index (THI) in the SF and ILC indicated severe stress for sheep regardless of the period of the day, and although THI in integrated crop-livestock system was 1% lower than in the sheepfold, there was no statistical differences between the treatments. Ewes from integrated crop-livestock system had lower RR and HR than sheepfold ewes at 06:00 am and 05:00 pm. The afternoon period led the animals to more dangerous situation of thermal stress condition in both treatments, however we suggest that the presence of trees in the ICL system promoted an amelioration of heat stress on grazing ewes.
, Karima Mahmoud, Bassiouni A. Heleil, Ismail I. El-Kon, , Adel A. Ramoun, Sally Ibrahim
Published: 31 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106514

Abstract:
A total of 138 pairs of slaughterhouse ovaries were collected from pregnant (n = 46) and non-pregnant (n = 92) she-camels. Oocytes (n = 150) and related granulosa cells (GCs) were retrieved from the growing follicles (3– 8 mm) to study the effect of pregnancy status on the expression pattern of genes regulating follicles population and follicular fluid (FF) levels of estrogen (E2) and progesterone (P4). The mRNA fold changes of STAR, PTEN, and BCL2 genes were greater (p < 0.001) in the GCs of pregnant vs. non-pregnant she-camels and in the oocytes of non-pregnant vs. pregnant she-camels. The mRNA fold change of IGF1 was higher in the GCs of pregnant vs. non-pregnant (p < 0.05) and in the oocytes of non-pregnant vs. pregnant (p < 0.01) she-camels. Although the mRNA fold changes of both BMP15 and STAT1 in the GCs did not differ between pregnant and non-pregnant, they were greater (p < 0.001) in the oocytes of non-pregnant vs. pregnant she-camels. The mRNA fold change of FOS was greater (p < 0.001) in both oocytes and GCs of pregnant vs. non-pregnant she-camels. The follicles population was smaller (p < 0.05), and the FF level of P4 was higher (p < 0.0001) in the pregnant vs. non-pregnant she-camels. The higher expression level of FOS (activator protein transcription factor) in both GCs and oocytes and lower expression level of STAT1 (activated signal transducer and activator of transcription) in the pregnant relative to non-pregnant she-camels could regulate the expression levels of other studied genes, thereby regulating the growing follicles population and their follicular fluid P4 concentration. Further studies are needed to investigate the interaction between the expression levels of both FOS and/or STAT1 (signaling pathways) and other candidate genes.
Akshatha G. Desai, , T.V. Aravindakshan, V.N.A. Muhasin, L. Bindu, Elizabeth Kurian, VasudhaR Bhat, G.H. Akhil
Published: 31 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106515

Abstract:
Membrane-associated RING CH-type finger 1(MARCH1) gene belongs to a family member of RING-v type E3 ubiquitin ligases, which consists of 11 known members, some of which targets important aspects of immune response. MARCH1 gene has a regulatory role in immunity and placental health; hence it affects foetal growth and survivability. To understand the role of MARCH1 gene in caprine reproduction, differential gene expression profile was studied in reproductive tissues of goats. Relative abundance of MARCH1 mRNA was significantly (≤0.01) higher in placenta than ovaries, uterus and fallopian tubes. Further, the differential placental gene expression profile was studied in two groups of goats with normal kidding and kid mortality at birth. MARCH1 gene was significantly upregulated in the placenta of goats with early kid mortality than normal kidding. An indel mutation (a 7 bp insertion) located in the promoter region of MARCH1 gene was screened in 282 goats belonging to Malabari and Attappady Black breeds by agarose gel electrophoresis and revealed three genotypes (DD, ID and II). A novel High resolution melt curve analysis protocol was designed for the rapid screening of this indel. Genotype II had higher litter size and average birth weight of kids than ID and DD genotypes. These results suggest the influence of the detected indel in placental health and foetal growth, together the role of MARCH1 in reproduction as well as the potential use of indel in MARCH1 as a molecular marker in future goat breeding programmes.
, M. Younan, T. Larsen, J.M. Morrell, E. Chenais, A.K. Nyman
Published: 28 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106512

Abstract:
Clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM), mostly related to intramammary infection (IMI), is prevalent in pastoralist camel herds. An IMI has implications for public and animal health as well as for household economy. As bacterial culturing is expensive, time- consuming and impractical in a pastoralist setting, other early detection methods for SCM in camels need to be investigated. Somatic cell count (SCC) is the benchmark for detecting SCM in cattle. The udder health indicators of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity are useful as diagnostic markers in cow, sheep and goat milk; they could be of potential use in camel milk production. The aim of this study was to improve the understanding of SCM in camels, and specifically to assess SCC, and NAGase- and LDH activity in camel milk. In addition, potential associations between SCM (defined by a California Mastitis Test (CMT) score ≥3 and no signs of clinical mastitis) and SCC, NAGase- and LDH activity were investigated.
E.L. Hawkins, S. McDonnell,
Published: 27 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106511

Abstract:
Dystocia in sheep is usually managed by foetal delivery vaginally (VD) or caesarean section (CS). The aim of this study was to develop clinical prognostic models using the presenting features of ewes.
, Rami T. Kridli, Mysaa Ata, Kamel Z. Mahmoud,
Published: 26 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106510

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding growing Awassi lambs on sweet lupin (LUP; Lupinus angustifolius) on nutrient intake, in vivo digestibility, growth performance and carcass quality. Twenty-seven lambs (average body weight (BW) 16.5 ± 0.88 kg) were assigned randomly to 3-diet groups, namely:1) no LUP (CON), 2) 125 g/kg LUP (LUP125) or 250 g/kg (LUP250) dry matter (DM) in replacement of portion of barley grain and soybean meal. The study lasted for 84 days (first 7 days were used as adaptation period followed by 77 days to collect the data). Nutrient intake was measured daily. Lambs’ BW was measured at the commencement of the study and every two weeks during the whole study. On day 60, 15 lambs (5 from each group) were chosen at random and moved to metabolism cages to determine nutrient in vivo digestibility and N balance parameters. Lambs fed LUP250 showed greater (P ≤ 0.05) intakes of DM, crude protein and ether extract than the CON and LUP125 fed groups; however, their NDF data tended (P = 0.07) to surpass other groups. Intake of metabolizable energy was greater (P = 0.02) in lupin-containing diets than the CON diet. Lambs’ fed LUP250 diet had greater (P < 0.05) total gain and average daily gain than the CON diet. In vivo digestibilities, N retention, carcass characteristics of longissimus muscle linear dimensions and cooking loss was not affected by treatment. The CON-fed lambs had the highest (P < 0.001) water holding capacity followed by the LUP250 and LUP125 groups. The whiteness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were lower (P ≤ 0.05) for the LUP125 diet than the CON and LUP250 diets. From the study, it can be concluded that the inclusion of sweet lupin at 250 g/kg DM improved the growing performance without affecting carcass characteristics of lambs.
Sameni Deepika, Devika Gautam, Sunita Meena, Murtaza Ali, Amar Singh Meena, Ashutosh Vats, Mahima Verma, Pramod Kumar Rout,
Published: 18 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106501

Abstract:
There is growing interest in goat milk and its derivatives, whose quality is essential in light of contemporary dietary trends favouring healthy eating. Goat milk is used in nutraceutical and infant food products for various reasons, including its hypoallergenic properties. Casein gene variation influences milk content and the chemical, physical, and technical aspects of goat milk. In Capra hircus, there are twelve variants of αs2 casein protein reported to date. The present study aimed to identify the polymorphism of alpha s2 casein and their transcript variants in six Indian goat breeds. Along with three reported alleles (A, B, and C), seven new alleles (L, M, N, O, P, Q, and R) were found in the six native Indian breeds. Transcript variants due to the exon skipping phenomenon were found. The novel alleles: N, P, Q, and R also represented the deletion of exon 3, 13, 6 and 6, respectively. The largest exon (exon 16) of the CSN1S2 gene was screened in 140 goats, and only one new allele, ‘S’, was found. Altogether, eight novel alleles were found in Indian goats along with two types of transcript variants.
U. Dickhoefer, M.R. Ramadhan, S. Apenburg, ,
Published: 16 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 204; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106500

Abstract:
The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of mild drinking water restriction (WR) on feed intake, diet digestibility, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen (N) balance in a desert-adapted goat breed of Oman. Two feeding trials were conducted during the dry summer months (August-October) in 2013 and 2014. In each trial, nine adult male Batinah goats were exposed to two levels of mild WR (WR: 85 % (WR15) and 70 % (WR30) of individual ad libitum consumption; 100 % (WR0)) in a 3 × 3 Latin Square design. Drinking water intake, feed offered and refused, and excretion of urine and faeces were quantified and samples analysed for crude nutrient and fibre fractions. Moreover, rumen microbial protein synthesis was estimated from urinary purine derivatives excretion. In trial 2, rumen fermentation characteristics were additionally studied in three rumen-fistulated goats. Linear and quadratic effects of WR in each trial were assessed by mixed model analysis, whereas correlations between drinking water intake and response variables were determined across both trials. For WR30, drinking water intake was 79 % and 90 %, respectively, of the water intake of WR0 goats in trial 1 and WR15 goats in trial 2. Water restriction had no effect on feed intake, rumen microbial protein synthesis, and N balance in both trials. However, apparent total tract digestibilities of neutral and acid detergent fibre tended to decrease linearly (p ≤ 0.081) with increasing WR level in trial 1, whereas those of dry matter and organic matter were lower (p ≤ 0.028) for WR15 than for WR0 and WR30 in trial 2. Proportions of butyrate (p ≤ 0.046) and isovalerate (p = 0.087) in rumen fluid were greater and those of propionate (p = 0.079) and valerate (p = 0.062) lower for WR30 as compared to one or both of the other WR levels. Duodenal microbial N flow and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis did not differ between WR levels. Yet, across both trials, both variables correlated positively with drinking water intake. Similarly, declining drinking water intake increased the ratio between faecal and urine N excretion (r=−0.55) and the N concentration in faeces (r=−0.42), but reduced the fibre concentration (r=0.38) and the proportion of undigested feed N in faeces (r=0.49). Mild restriction of drinking water intake to ≥ 79 % of the ad libitum consumption, which is expected to occur more frequently with advancing climate change in the semi-arid tropics and subtropics, may impair feed nutrient use and thus performance of regionally adapted small ruminants, while improving the quality of their manure.
, Débora Andréa Evangelista Façanha, Juan Vicente Delgado Bermejo, Magda Maria Guilhermino, Luis Alberto Bermejo
Published: 12 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106497

Abstract:
Breeding small ruminants is an important economic activity in arid and semi-arid regions. This activity has gained more prominence in the present climatic scenario. With increasing global warming, many researchers are analysing how locally adaptive animals maintain homeostasis in regions characterized by high air temperatures. However, there has been no standardization regarding which characteristics should be assessed to determine the adaptive capacity of these animals or included in breeding programmes to improve thermal resistance. Thus, the objectives of this review are: (1) to present an overview of characteristics involved in heat adaptation of highly adapted small ruminants and (2) highlight the characteristics that could be included in breeding programmes to increase the adaptability of herds. Much research has evaluated the immediate response of animals to thermal stress conditions, such as increases in rectal temperature, respiratory rate, and sweating. However, considering that homeostasis represents a condition of balance in a biological system and that animals adapted to the environment are in homeostasis, this review proposes to address the adaptive characteristics acquired over years of exposure to stressful conditions in arid and semiarid regions. These include morphological changes such as coat characteristics, alterations in blood constituents, acid-base balance, such as hormones, haematological and biochemical profiles, as well as advances in genetic assessments.
, Nemat Hedayat-Evrigh, Benjamin W.B. Holman, Eric N. Ponnampalam
Published: 12 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106498

Abstract:
The effects of dietary supplementation with Azolla pinnata (a macro algae) on lamb performance, blood parameters, carcass traits and meat quality were investigated. Thirty fat-tail uncastrated male Moghani lambs with an initial average body weight (BW) of 28 ± 1.4 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments (10 lambs/treatment) by stratified randomisation based on BW. Lambs were fed ad libitum for 90 d with a standard finishing diet containing sun-dried Azolla at 0, 10 and 20 % (DM basis) levels. Results showed that the feed intake tended to be lower (P = 0.074) in Azolla supplemented lambs, the values were 1.73 and 1.69 and 1.48 kg DM/d, for 0, 10 and 20 % Azolla, respectively. Plasma urea and creatinine concentrations were lower in Azolla supplemented lambs than control group (P < 0.05). BW was not affected by dietary supplementation of Azolla (P> 0.05) but inclusion of Azolla in the feedlot ration improved (P = 0.004) feed conversion ratio. Hot and cold carcass weights were greater (P = 0.009) for lambs fed with 10 % Azolla (24.9 and 24.4 kg), than for the control group (22.5 and 22.1 kg, respectively). Other carcass traits and longissimus muscle chemical composition were not impacted by Azolla supplementation (P > 0.05). Lambs that were supplemented with 20 % Azolla in the feedlot ration had greater odor intensity scores (P = 0.01) compared with the control group. The sensory properties of meat were not altered by 10 % Azolla diet. Azolla supplementation at 10 % and 20 % had no effect on meat quality attributes (P > 0.05). From these results, the supplementation of Azolla pinnata at 10 % level is recommended as a feed source to improve feed conversion ratio and carcass weights for Moghani lambs, without compromising meat quality and sensory properties.
, T.M. Abdel Khalek, Mona Osman, A.R. Elbeltagy, E.S. Abdel-Aal, F.F. Abou-Ammo, M.H. El-Shafie
Published: 12 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106499

Abstract:
The study was carried out to investigate physiological and genetic adaptation of desert Barki sheep and goats to heat stress at the hot dry areas of Egypt. Two hundreds and ninety one mature ewes, and 166 mature does were involved in the study, over the period from 2008−2012. The animals were exposed to: zero stress (at Rest), summer heat stress (SHS); and physical exercise under heat stress (EHS, simulating summer grazing on poor pasture). Physiological parameters (thermal, respiratory and metabolic) were measured on the animals at Rest, and post exposure to heat stress. The animals utilized basically respiratory mechanism to maintain their homoeothermic, and tolerate heat stress. Accelerating panting, seems to be the main mechanism of desert sheep to tolerate SHS; however, with the extra energy required for physical exercise (EHS), they turn to deep breathing. Shallow rapid panting and decreased metabolic rate, were the main mechanisms of desert goats to tolerate heat stressors. Desert goats showed generally, better tolerance to heat stressors than desert sheep. Both Barki sheep and goats showed detectable individual variations in their response to heat stress. No single physiological parameter was reliable enough to identify high or low tolerant animals to heat stress. Animal heat tolerant index was developed, based on changes in RT, RR, GV and MR; the index was successful in identifying HT animals, and to a reasonable extend LT ones. Relative quantitative analysis of 6 gene, involved in multiple pathways for wide variety of biochemical process include thermo-tolerance melanogenesis; showed variations in the level of gene expression between low tolerant (LT) and high tolerant (HT) animals. High tolerant animals showed, generally, higher gene expression than LT ones. Gene expression of number of genes, can be utilized for early identification of HT sheep and goats for breeding purposes.
, Soufiane Hamzaoui, Elena Albanell, , Gerardo Caja
Published: 9 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106496

Abstract:
Heat stress (HS) negatively affects animal performance, but little is known about energetic metabolism and behavior changes in dairy goats under HS conditions. Eight multiparous Murciano-Granadina dairy goats (43.3 ± 1.6 kg BW; 2 ± 0.04 L milk/d; 81 ± 3 days of lactation) were kept in metabolism cages and randomly assigned to two treatments varying in the temperature humidity index (THI). The design was crossover (two 28-d periods), and treatments were: 1) thermal neutral (TN; 15–20C, 40–45% humidity, THI = 59–65), and 2) heat stress (HS, 12 h/d at 37°C and 40%, and 12 h/d at 30°C and 40%, THI = 86 and 77, respectively). Jugular silicon catheters were fitted, and glucose tolerance test (0.25 g/kg BW), insulin tolerance test (4.6 μg/kg BW) and epinephrine challenge (2 μg/kg BW) were conducted. Before and after each metabolite administration, blood samples were collected for the analysis of insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Also, behavior variables (position changes, duration of remaining standing, as well as eating and drinking bouts and duration) were observed at day 3 of each period by video cameras. Heat stress reduced (P < 0.01) feed intake (−29%), milk yield (−10%), milk fat (–12%), milk protein (–14%), and milk casein (–13%). Goats in both groups had similar blood NEFA after insulin administration, but NEFA values were greater (P < 0.05) in TN than HS goats after epinephrine infusion. The HS goats secreted lower (P < 0.05) amounts of insulin than TN goats in response to the glucose tolerance test. Additionally, TN and HS goats had similar number of eating bouts, but the duration of each bout was shorter in HS than in TN. Also, HS had greater number of drinking bouts with no differences in drinking bout durations between groups. In conclusion, body lipid tissue of HS goats became more resistant to lipolysis, making them unable to mobilize body fat reserves despite the negative energy balance. In addition, the reduction in feed intake by HS was because of the shorter time of eating bouts, whereas the greater water consumption was related to the increase in drinking bouts.
Julia Morgana Vieira Dada, Matheus Luquirini Penteado dos Santos, Pricilla Carvalho Muniz, Maria Luisa Appendino Nunes-Zotti, ,
Published: 9 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106495

Abstract:
In an extensive system, sheep are exposed to direct solar radiation and thermal variations throughout the day, resulting in behavioural changes and varied physiological responses. The silvopastoral system has the premise to reduce the radiant thermal load for animals under shading. However, little is known regarding the behavioural responses of ewes and lambs under shaded areas. Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether different production systems may influence the behaviour of lambs and ewes during the postpartum period. Twenty-four hair coat ewes (Dorper x Santa Inês) in the postpartum period and their lambs (n = 24) were randomly assigned to a silvopasture system or open pasture exposure, from December 2018 to February 2019. The following microclimate variables: air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were recorded and used to calculate the temperature and humidity index (THI). Behavioural data were obtained by 0/1 focal sampling with 10 min of observation being recorded every 30 min over 12 h. The following behavioural variables were assessed: standing at rest, lying down, standing ruminating, lying ruminating, panting and water intake. The data were analyzed using the Bayesian inference method, using the R software and the brms package. Regarding the THI values, the silvopastoral system provided a more comfortable thermal environment (75 ± 0.4) compared to an open pasture (77 ± 0.8). However, these conditions were still outside the normal range for sheep. Animals in the open pasture system were more likely to pant (probability between 0.6−0.8), while the chance of lying and standing ruminating (above 0.5) was higher in animals in the silvopastoral system. Moreover, animals in the silvopastoral group are less likely to pant (below 0.4), allowing them more time to rest and ruminate in the milder temperatures of the day. Our results highlight the potential of the silvopastoral system for the thermal comfort of sheep and lambs in the postpartum period.
Published: 6 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106492

Abstract:
DNAJB3 acts as a cochaperon and stimulates ATPase activity of HSP family genes through its J domain. An in vivo and in silico study was conducted to get comprehensive idea on the role of DNAJB3 gene in goat. The coding sequence of DNAJB3 gene was amplified and searched for polymorphism in three indigenous goat (i.e. Black Bengal, Ganjam and Raighar) populations. One nucleotide substitution at 419th (C > A) position (wild and mutant) with resultant change in amino acid (Ala > Glu) at 140th position was identified. The comparative nucleotide sequence analysis showed 68 variable sites that included 53 parismony informative sites and 15 singleton sites. In silico structural analysis revealed minor difference (7%) in three dimensional protein structure between mutant and wild type DNAJB3 proteins. The protein-protein interactions of DNAJB3 with HSP72, JNK stress kinase, and IKKβ stress kinase were also predicted. The mutant (Raighar) type DNAJB3 protein predicted to interact only with A chain of the JNK stress kinase. Both the wild and mutant type variants of DNAJB3 proteins predicted to interact with A and B chain of hexamer IKKβ stress kinase. This study will be helpful to use DNAJB3 as a molecular marker for thermal tolerance in future.
Published: 5 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106494

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproductive, growth traits, milk quantity, quality and somatic cell count (SCC) traits of Hair goat flocks, raised in supplementary feeding in different physiological stage in natural pasture-based system. Data were collected from 1982 Hair goats, which were mated with Hair, Alpine or Saanen bucks during 2009 and 2013. Except for kidding time (P < 0.01) the reproductive performance rates of Hair goats mated with Hair, Alpine or Saanen bucks were not significant found (P> 0.05). However, Alpine × Hair F1 (AHF1) kids exhibited superior birth weight than Hair kids, while Hair kids had significantly higher weaning weight than Saanen × Hair F1 (SHF1) kids (P < 0.01). Average, lactation milk yield (LMY), daily milk yield (DMY) and lactation length (LL) of Hair goats were 212 days, 103.2 kg and 488 g respectively. Average contents of the milk were 5.24 % fat, 3.78 % protein, 5.39 % lactose, 10.01 % non-fat solids and 15.25 % total solids. However, excluding the effect of age on density and freezing point; age, flock and year had significant effects on milk production (P < 0.01) and physical and chemical compositions of the milk (P < 0.05). SCC value increased as stage of lactation and age progressed (P < 0.01). It is concluded that the high variation in milk yields among Hair goats could be the result of genetic variation. Therefore, the milk yield characteristics of Hair goats could be increased by selection or cross-breeding improved by better modelling of environmental variations that are suitable for agricultural-ecological diversity.
C. Karaiskou, E. Kasapidou, G. Michailidis, X. Markantonatos,
Published: 5 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106493

Abstract:
Supplementation of ruminant diets with oils derived from plants has proved to be a good strategy for enhancing desirable milk fatty acids (FA) profile and improving yield. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inclusion of milk thistle oil in dairy ewes’ rations, on animal performance and milk fatty acid composition. A total of 20 Greek mountain ewes, in second lactation, were allocated into two treatments. Treatments were 1) concentrate diet (control – CON) and 2) concentrate diet supplemented with 3 % (w/w) milk thistle oil (MTSO). Individual monthly milk samples were collected throughout the lactation period of the animals to determine the milk chemical composition and fatty acid profile. Supplementation with MTSO resulted in significantly higher milk yield (576.8 g vs 439.0 g for the CON group) (P < 0.05) and did not affect fat content. Regarding milk fatty acid composition, ewes on the MTSO treatment produced milk with significantly increased concentration of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FA, improving the nutritional value of milk. Major changes were observed in milk FA profile due to oil supplementation. Milk thistle oil significantly decreased concentration of saturated FA (SFA). Milk in ewes receiving the MTSO supplement showed an increase in milk conjugated linoleic acid (C18:2 cis-9,trans-11) concentration. In conclusion, both milk quantity and quality were favourably affected by MTSO, suggesting that dietary MTSO could serve as a practical means to modify milk composition while improving its nutritional value.
Jocelyn Cyan López-Puga, Daniela Saraí Rico-Costilla, Gustavo Sobrevilla-Hernández, Gustavo Moreno-Degollado, ,
Published: 3 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106491

Abstract:
The objective of the current study was to evaluate high levels of dietary copper (Cu) on goat carcass traits and meat quality. Thirty-six French Alpine goats (18.43 ± 2.35 kg) were randomly assigned to 6 treatments (basal diet with Cu levels at 0, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 ppm) with 6 replications each. The experiment was carried out for 102 d. Plasma Cu and enzymes, and slaughter variables were not different (P > 0.05) between Cu levels. Cu in the goat diets was significant (P < 0.05) for meat lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*); L* values were higher (P < 0.05) at 20 ppm and lower (P < 0.05) at 10 and 80 ppm; b* was highest (P < 0.05) for the 160 ppm level and lowest (P < 0.05) for 40 ppm. Meat adhesiveness presented differences (P < 0.05) between Cu levels; the 10 ppm group showed the highest value (P < 0.05) and 0 ppm the lowest value (P < 0.05). Meat juiciness for 10 ppm was higher (P < 0.05) than meat for the 80 ppm group. Linear regression demonstrated that b* and springiness were dependent (β1 ≠ 0; P ≤ 0.05) on Cu levels in the diet. In conclusion, high Cu levels are recommended in the goat diet to enhance meat quality without affecting slaughter variables.
Archana Abhijith, , Wilfred Ruban, G. Krishnan, M. Bagath, Prathap Pragna, G.B. Manjunathareddy, R. Bhatta
Published: 3 August 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106490

Abstract:
The study was conducted to assess the effect of heat stress on the meat production and quality variables in indigenous Malabari breed goats. The study was conducted during 45 days using twelve 10 months to one year old Malabari goats. The goats were randomly allocated into two groups: MC (n = 6; Malabari control) and MHS (n = 6; Malabari Heat stress). The MC group animals were housed inside the shed without exposure to outside environment while the MHS group animals were exposed to summer heat stress by keeping them outside the shed from 10:00 h to 16:00 h. At the end of the study, animals were slaughtered and their meat characteristics were assessed. The findings from the study revealed that heat stress caused significant reduction in live weight (P < 0.05), pre-slaughter weight (P < 0.01), hot carcass weight (P < 0.05), loin eye area (LEA) (P < 0.01), and fat score (P < 0.01). Fore saddle is the only primal cut which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in weight in MHS as compared to MC group. Further, meat quality variables such as ultimate meat pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force significantly (P < 0.01) increased during heat stress. Among the sensory characteristics, appearance (P < 0.01) and flavour (P < 0.05) reduced significantly in MHS group. However, plasma leptin level was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in MHS group. In addition, the skeletal muscle myostatin gene expression pattern was significantly (P < 0.05) lower while HSP70 gene expression was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in MHS as compared to MC group. Thus, it may be concluded from the study that indigenous Malabari goats possessed the inherent ability to maintain meat production by overcoming the adverse effects of heat stress. However, the severity of heat stress was reflected on the meat quality variables in this breed.
, Hulya Turutoglu
Published: 31 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106486

Abstract:
Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP), responsible for paratuberculosis, causes serious economic losses in the livestock industry worldwide. To develop accurate control strategies against MAP, it is necessary to understand the pathological basis of the disease and identify new diagnostic markers for the detection of infection. In this study, commonly used diagnostic tests for the detection of MAP infection were compared and the agreement between these tests was evaluated. The measurement of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and neopterin levels in the serum were also assessed for their potential to be used in the detection of MAP infection in sheep. The diagnostic tests revealed that 73 (48.66%) of 150 sheep were MAP-positive. The highest proportion of positive sheep were determined by Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining (27.33%) and direct fecal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (26.66%), followed by interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (22%), antibody ELISA (10.67%) and fecal culture (3.33%) methods. A significant, almost perfect, agreement was found between ZN staining and direct fecal PCR test (κ: 0.882, P < 0.0001). All isolated MAP strains were sheep-type MAP. Due to the significant difference in circulating serum IL-10 between the MAP-positive and MAP-negative sheep (P < 0.01) and its similar levels among the MAP-positive sheep, it was considered that IL-10 might be an important diagnostic marker to be used with other diagnostic tests in sheep. Due to the negative moderate correlation between serum neopterin and MAP-specific antibody levels, future studies should further investigate this to understand the role of neopterin.
, Seyyed Hassan Hafezian, Morteza Mokhtari, Ghodratollah Rahimi Mianji, Rostam Abdollahi-Arpanahi
Published: 31 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106489

Abstract:
This study aimed to infer the causal effects of birth weight on growth curve traits as well as, assessment of causal relationships among the growth curve traits in Lori-Bakhtiari sheep using structural equation modeling. The body weight-age records were collected from birth to 390 days of age from 1995 to 2012 in Shooli Breeding Station of Lori-Bakhtiari sheep, Shahr-e Kord, Iran. Initially, five non-linear models including Brody, Logistic, Negative exponential, Gompertz and von Bertalanffy were fitted on 22,546 body weight-age records for determining the best model describing the growth curve. Among the tested non-linear growth models, Brody model showed the best goodness of fit. Then, data on growth curve traits of 3,168 lambs from 217 rams and 1,211 ewes were considered for genetic evaluation of growth curve traits including asymptotic weight (A), integration constant related to initial animal weight (b), and maturation rate (k).The causal effect of birth weight (BW) on growth curve traits under two models including standard multivariate model (SMM) and fully recursive model (FRM) were fitted via a Bayesian approach. The posterior means of heritability for the growth curve traits were similar under both SMM and FRM, while the posterior means of genetic correlations among the traits were statistically different under both SMM and FRM. Structural coefficients related to causal effects of BW on b, k and A, were statistically significant with values -0.19, 0.01and 12.58, respectively. Therefore, considering the causal effects of BW on growth curve traits is essential for accurate genetic analysis of growth curve traits of Lori-Bakhtiari sheep.
, L.B.S. Costa, M.T.C. Almeida, J.M.B. Ezequiel
Published: 31 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106487

Abstract:
A meta-analysis was conducted to develop and evaluate new empirical predictive models for drinking water intake (DWI) of growing lambs. A large dataset containing 213 experimental diets from 47 experiments published in 44 peer-reviewed papers was built. Selected explanatory variables were grouped into animal (bodyweight initial (BWi); body weight final (BWf); average daily gain (ADG); feed conversion ratio (FCR); nitrogen intake (Nint), diet composition (dry matter; ash; crude protein (CP); neutral detergent fiber; forage), dry matter intake (DMI) and total digestible nutrient (TDN) and/or total digestible nutrient intake (TDNI) inputs. To develop predictive models, the dataset (peer-reviewed papers) was randomly divided into two subsets for statistical analyses. The first data subset was used to develop equations to predict DWI (27 peer-review papers; 28 experiments; 139 experimental diets), and the second data subset was used to assess the adequacy of the predictive models (17 peer-review papers; 19 experiments; 74 experimental diets). Ash was the main diet input affecting DWI in growing lambs, while FCR affected DWI more than ADG and Nint among the animal inputs. For growing lambs, the use of predictor variables associated with energy requirements improved the accuracy of the models when compared to those which used DMI. Among the developed models, the complete ones, which include diet and animal input, present better predictive quality. The use of the Diet + Animal Ib Model is recommended for the prediction of DWI in growing lambs.
Published: 30 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106488

Abstract:
The higher bioavailability, lower toxicity, and lower potential environmental risks of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) compared to traditional sources of zinc (Zn) encouraged researchers to use it in animal diets. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary low ZnO NPs levels supplementation on the meat yield of Shami goats using ultrasound examination. A total of thirty healthy female Shami goats with an average body weight of 38.43 ± 1.94 kg at 2–3 years old were randomly distributed into three equal groups (10 goats/group). The first group was fed a basal diet (control), while the second and third groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 11.25 mg/kg (T1) and 22.50 mg/kg (T2) dry matter (DM) of ZnO NPs, respectively, for 12 weeks. Longissimus dorsi muscle ultrasound evaluation at both the thoracic and lumbar regions revealed denser transverse process-related acoustic shadowing (TS), rib-related acoustic shadowing (RS), and muscular shadowing (MS) in goats supplemented with ZnO NPs, T1 and T2, compared to goats fed a control diet. Furthermore, ultrasound measurements of the thoracic and lumbar longissimus dorsi regions of goats supplemented with ZnO NPs at both levels revealed greater fat thickness, depth, perimeter, and area compared to animals fed a control diet (p < 0.05). This improved trend was dose-dependent, with T2 values being higher than T1 values (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the ultrasound assessment results showed that supplementing Shami goats with ZnO NPs at these two low levels enhanced meat yield.
, , , Ankit Magotra
Published: 30 July 2021
Abstract:
The present study was undertaken to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters of important growth and wool traits in Harnali sheep using data records of 1862 lambs born to 144 sires and 591 dams for the period from 1998 to 2018. Six univariate animal models including or ignoring maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects were fitted to birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), 6 months weight (6WT), 12 months weight (YWT), first clip greasy fleece weight (FGFW) and annual greasy fleece weight (AGFW) and further compared using likelihood ratio test. It was observed that the model including direct additive genetic and maternal additive genetic effect without taking covariance between them into account was the most suitable for BWT and WWT. For remaining traits, only direct additive genetic effect model was found to be most appropriate. The estimates of heritability under the best model for BWT, WWT, 6WT, YWT, FGFW and AGFW were 0.23, 0.10, 0.18, 0.11, 0.08 and 0.31, respectively. The maternal influence accounted for 8% of variation for BWT and WWT which indicated importance of maternal effect during preweaning period. The genetic and phenotypic correlations of 6WT with other traits were positive and ranged medium to moderate. Therefore, it was concluded that medium genetic variability of 6WT and its potential ability for improving other traits should be exploited to achieve genetic improvement in Harnali sheep.
Published: 28 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106484

Abstract:
With this study, we aimed to evaluate the association of new and known polymorphisms in the APOB, SLC27A6, AGPAT6, and PRLR genes with goat’s estimated breeding values (EBVs) for milk production and composition traits: lactation length, somatic cell score, total milk yield (kg), and for production (kg) and content of fat, protein, lactose, and solids non-fat. For that, we estimated animal`s EBVs from milk yield and composition data of multiparous Saanen and Alpine goats using a single-trait model. The number of animals used for EBVs estimations varied from 1070 to 1700, depending on the studied trait. For the association analysis, among the animals with EBVs, we genotyped 106 for the APOB/HaeIII polymorphism, 104 for the APOB/SmaI polymorphism, 118 for the Slc27A6/TspRI polymorphism, 245 for the AGPAT6/NcoI polymorphism, 253 for the PLPR/SmaI, and 252 for the PLPR/SfcI polymorphism. We observed that the APOB/HaeIII polymorphism is associated with lactose content, lactation length, and somatic cell score. The APOB/SmaI polymorphism is associated with lactation length, lactose percentage, and total yield of solids non-fat, lactose, protein, fat, and milk. The SLC27A6/TspRI polymorphism is associated with milk lactose content, and the AGPAT6/NcoI polymorphism is associated with lactose yield and milk content of fat, protein, and lactose. In this study, we present new data about the genetic diversity of Brazilian Saanen and Alpine goats and new potential molecular markers for goat milk production and quality traits.
, Francesco Foti, Pasquale Caparra, Massimiliano Lanza, Antonio Natalello, Caterina Cilione, Rosa Rao, Giovanni D’Agu, Luigi Chies
Published: 27 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 203; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106483

Abstract:
The objective of the study was to assess the effect of fresh bergamot pulp in lactating goat diets to determine its effects on milk and suckling kid fatty acid composition. Eighteen pregnant does were randomly assigned to two groups of two different diets: alfalfa hay (1 kg/head/day), supplemented with commercial concentrate (1 kg/head/day–Control diet) or the same concetrate (700 g/head/day) supplemented with fresh bergamot pulp (2 kg/head/day–FBP diet). Kids were reared in individual pens and fed on their mother’s milk. At 45 days of age, kids were slaughtered. Rumenic acid was higher in milk and in meat from animals from FBP group than Control one (P < 0.001). Total n-3 PUFA were higher (P < 0.01) in FBP kids as a result of the higher level (P < 0.01) of α-linolenic acid compared to Control kids. Linoleic and arachidonic acids were higher (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively) in Control kids compared to FBP ones. It was concluded that dietary supplementation with fresh bergamot pulp to goats improved nutritional quality of kid meat.
Silvia Pianezze, Federica Camin, , Mirco Corazzin, Edi Piasentier
Published: 24 July 2021
Abstract:
The analysis of stable isotopes applied to the lamb meat matrix is recognized as a technique of choice not only for geographical traceability but also for verifying the correspondence between the diet provided and the prescribed one. Indeed, a large amount of information is stored in animal tissues in terms of stable isotopes relative abundances of different elements. The purpose of this review is to critically analyze all the studies carried out on lambs, focusing in particular on the isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, hydrogen and oxygen of different matrices, trying to define the different ranges of variability based on the origin and diet of the lambs. Carbon is certainly the most useful for identifying the animal diet while oxygen and hydrogen confirm their ability to geographically discriminate lambs. Overall, the results of statistical models validating isotope traceability systems can reach and exceed 90% of accuracy.
Jazmín De la Luz-Armendáriz, , Humberto Ramírez-Mendoza, Luis Gómez-Núñez, Catalina Tufiño-Loza, Eduardo Martín Cabrera-Domínguez, Efrén Díaz-Aparicio,
Published: 19 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 202; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106474

Abstract:
Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) are one of the main viral agents affecting goats worldwide. They cause a systemic, chronic, incurable, degenerative disease. In Mexico, the B1 genotype of SRLV has been detected as endemic in goats and sheep; however, its pathological characteristics have not yet been evaluated. In this study, sampling was performed to identify the percentage of SRLV positivity in different farms in Mexico. Prevalence rates of 19.6 % and 11.6 % were detected through PCR and serology, respectively. Through a real-time PCR differential test, the prevalence of genotype B was identified. From a chosen case, an SRLV strain was isolated (which was called SRLV/B1/Goat/Mx/INIFAP-1/2013). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain SRLV/B1/Goat/Mx/INIFAP-1/2013 shares a great homology with an American and Asiatic strains of the B1 genotype. Virulence of the isolated strain was analyzed during an experimental infection in kids. The kids did not present clinical disease after the experimental infection. The high viral load values persisted throughout the entire experiment (90 days), and no seroconversion was detected. At necropsy, macroscopic alterations were not observed, except in the lungs. The microscopic lesions in the respiratory tract consisted of moderate interstitial pneumonia, peribronchial lymphoid hyperplasia, and bronchial exudate. In the central nervous system, moderate gliosis, meningeal congestion, lymphocyte infiltration, satellitosis, and demyelination were observed. The virus was systemically distributed among organs; the cerebellum and carpal synovial fluid samples were those with the highest viral load, 5.73 copies of virus per ng of total DNA (log10) and 5.07 log10, respectively. In this study, we identified a strain with high homology to Asiatic strains that manifested low virulence in kids during short infection. Understanding the strains that circulate in the goat population will allow implementing better diagnostic methodologies to propose disease control alternatives for this emerging animal production system in Mexico.
, T.K. Dutta, Anupam Chatterjee, M. Karunakaran, M.K. Ghosh, Asif Mohammad
Published: 19 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 202; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106473

Abstract:
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the mitigation strategy of the arsenic toxicity induced in Black Bengal kids through dietary supplementation of vitamin E or yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or combination of both. Thirty number of Black Bengal kids (6.15 ± 0.32 kg, 142.87 ± 9.28 days) were divided into equal five groups. Kids under control group (T0) and other treatment groups (T1, T2, T3 and T4) were fed with similar type of basal diet containing concentrate mixture and sorghum sudan grass. Kids under T1, T2, T3 and T4 were fed with 50 ppm arsenic (As)/kg DM of feed in the form of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2). Kids under T2, T3 and T4 were supplemented with Vitamin E (250 IU/kg DM of feed), yeast culture (S. cerevisiae) (4 × 109 CFU/kid/d) and combination of vitamin E and S. cerevisiae with same doses, respectively. The feeding experiment was continued for 20 weeks. Challenge feeding of arsenic (As) significantly (P < 0.001) reduced body weight gain in kids under T1 (only As fed) than control T0 (without As); however, weight gain in T2, T3 and T4 was replenished due to supplementation of vitamin E or yeast culture (S. cerevisiae) or combination of both vitamin E and yeast culture. Similarly, ADG (g/d) was decreased (P < 0.01) in kids under T1 than other treatments (T0, T2, T3 and T4). Induction of arsenic toxicity decreased (P < 0.001) intakes of DM (g/d/kg W0.75) and CP (g/d/kg W0.75) in kids. Feed conversion efficiency (growth as percentage of DMI) was lowest (P < 0.01) in arsenic fed kids (T1). The values ranged from 8.38 (T1) to 9.31 (T0). However, comparable FCE was observed among T0, T2, T3 and T4. Supplementation of vitamin E or S. cerevisiae or combination of both have compensated the DMI, CPI, weight gain and ADG; consequently increased feed conversion efficiency in kids as compared to As fed kids (T1). Arsenic load was significantly (P < 0.01) greater in faeces, hair and urine of As fed group (T1); which was reduced (P < 0.01) by supplementation of vitamin E alone (T2) or combination of vitamin E and S. cerevisiae (T4). Supplementation of S. cerevisiae alone was not much effective in reducing the arsenic load in faeces or urine or hair in arsenic intoxicated animals. Challenge feeding of As for 140 days exhibited some clinical signs; like "raindrops on the dusty road” like symptom on skin, mouth lesions, rough skin, alopecia, visible pathological changes in some internal organs (like liver, lungs etc.) and diarrhoea. However, such symptoms were less pronounced in the kids supplemented with vitamin E or combination of vitamin E and yeast culture. Therefore, supplementation of vitamin E (@ 250 IU/kg DM of feed) either alone or along with S. cerevisiae (@ 4 × 109 CFU/kid/d) was partially effective in ameliorating the voluntary feed intake, growth and arsenic load in faeces, urine and hair of Black Bengal kids induced with toxic dose of arsenic @ 50 mg/kg DM of feed as sodium arsenite.
, Mohammad Rokouei, Hadi Faraji-Arough
Published: 16 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 202; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106472

Abstract:
Considering the dominance and epistasis effects in the analysis can increase the accuracy of estimating breeding values. The objective of this study was to fit the best model for each average daily gain trait (average daily gain from birth to weaning (adgbwww), from birth to 3 months (adgbww3), from birth to 6 months (adgbww6), from weaning to 3 months (adgwww3), from 3 to 6 months (adgw3w6), from 6 to 9 months (adgw6w9), and from 9 to 12 months (adgw9w12)) and the estimation of the genetic parameters and variance components, especially non-additive genetic effects, in Adani goats. Analyses were carried out using the Bayesian method via the Gibbs sampler animal model by fitting 18 different models. With the best model, direct heritability estimates were 0.093, 0.250, 0.256, 0.084, 0.036, 0.048, and 0.151 for adgbwww, adgbww3, adgbww6, adgwww3, adgw3w6, adgw6w9 and adgw9w12 traits, respectively. Maternal genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects were significant only for adgbwww trait. Dominance and epistasis effects were significant almost for all traits and as a proportion of phenotypic variance was the range from 0.068 to 0.221 and 0.106 to 0.237, respectively. Adding dominance and epistasis effects to models reduced the error variance and the accuracy of estimating breeding values was increased. The accuracy of breeding values of these traits with the best models ranged from 0.456 to 0.674, 0.493 to 0.656, and 0.424 to 0.674 for all animals, 10 % of best males and 50 % of the best females, respectively. The result of the present study suggests that dominance and epistasis effect was important for average daily gain traits of Adani goats and should be included in evaluation models.
Diego Rodrigues de Sousa, Ana Maria Bezerra Oliveira Lôbo,
Published: 16 July 2021
Small Ruminant Research, Volume 202; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smallrumres.2021.106471

Abstract:
The knowledge about linkage disequilibrium (LD) and effective population size (Ne) is essential to determine the optimal marker density required for performing genomic studies. In this study, the aim was to estimate the LD and Ne of a Saanen goat population using a panel of 62,557 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), Axiom_OviCap (Caprine), customized by Affimetrix. Twenty-four males and 916 females were genotyped from herds from the Dairy Goats Breeding Program (from Portuguese Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Caprinos Leiteiros - Capragene®). The decay of the LD was analysed using quadratic correlation coefficient (r2) for all pairs of markers on each chromosome. To estimate Ne the values of r2 combined with the distance between the markers was used, based on the physical map used for the LD analysis. The mean value of r2 between adjacent markers (∼52 kb) was 0.04 ± 0.06. Among chromosomes, the range of values varied from 0.03 ± 0.06 to 0.05 ± 0.08. The LD fell rapidly from the first to the second distance range. In later intervals, the average of r2 decreased more gradually. Moderate levels of r2 (> 0.20), on a scale of 0–1, were observed only in the genetic distance classes up to 20 kb. The estimate of Ne decreased over time, ranging from 42 animals, 19 past generations, to 15 animals in the current generation. The observed results have practical applications for performing genomic studies, and indicate the need to use a denser marker panel (∼ 300k), since the LD level was relatively small even at short distances, and it is essential to expand the size of the reference population.
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