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Ade Wulandari, Nani Nurhaeni, Martiningsih Martiningsih, Ahmad Ahmad
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 36-47; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.36-47

Abstract:
Background: Drug abuse in the Bima region increases from year to year, and it is dominated by students. In 2017 there were 44 cases handled, increased to 79 cases in 2018, and 71 cases in 2019. Bima region as a port city that connects Sumbawa island with a number of large islands in Indonesia has become a risk factor for illicit drug trafficking. Socialization on the dangers of drug abuse that has been carried out in the school environment has a number of limitations, especially in terms of time, methods, and media as well as the number of target audiences that are covered by the activity. It is necessary to develop a method and media approach that is appropriate to the developmental characteristics of adolescents. Objectives: This study aims to obtain an overview of the need for methods and media for the promotion of drug abuse prevention from the point of view of students and parents in Bima. Methods: This research was conducted through a survey method. It was carried out in six Junior High Schools (SMP) in Bima from May to October 2021. Research variables consisted of demographic characteristics; the history of drug and substance use by students; and the need for prevention of drug abuse based on methods, media, locations, frequency, and information providers in Bima. Research data were collected using a questionnaire instrument. Population of this research was students and their parents. The sample size was determined based on the Slovin formula. Data were obtained from 275 students and 70 students' parents. Research data analysis was done with univariate statistics. Results: Students and parents need drug abuse prevention promotion activities that are implemented by health workers either directly or through audiovisual media and social media, such as film screenings on television and gadgets. The promotion is conducted on a scheduled 2-3 times a year. Most of the respondents chose the school and house for the promotion activities. Conclusion: Students and parents had the same interests and opinions about the need for methods and media to promote drug abuse prevention. The results of this research are expected to be a recommendation for the development of a promotion program for the prevention of adolescent drug abuse in Bima. 
Shalikul Hadi, Hario Megatsari
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.1-7

Abstract:
Background: Open defecation (OD) is a sanitation problem that can have a negative impact on health. Open defecation can have a bad impact on sanitation this poor sanitation can then trigger various diseases. Objective: This study aims to find out the factors related to the behavior of open defecation (OD) in Regency/City communities of East Java Province in 2018. Methods: Ecological approach based on secondary data published by the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia, East Java Provincial Health Office, and the Central Statistics Agency of East Java Province of 38 districts/cities in East Java Province were included in this study. This study examined the percentage of healthy latrine users with 4 other independent variables, namely the percentage of facilities that met the available requirements, the percentage of villages that applied Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS), the prevalence of diarrhea cases, and the percentage of illiteracy rates. Data were analyzed using cross tabulation with SPSS.  Results: There were still several districts/cities in East Java Province that had not used latrines when defecating, most of them were in districts/cities with inadequate facilities, low percentage of villages willing to implement CLTS, low percentage of illiteracy, and moderate diarrhea prevalence. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be concluded that the factors of the availability of facilities, education, compliance with CLTS implementation, and the prevalence of diarrhea have a relationship with the percentage of latrine users in districts/cities in East Java Province. The results of this study can be used by local stakeholders to make health-based policies as an effort to reduce open defecation.
Amelia Savitri, Rafiah Maharani Pulungan, Fathinah Ranggauni Hardy, Terry Y.R. Pristya
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 8-15; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.8-15

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19 is considered to be responsible for the emergence of a new dangerous outbreak. Therefore, it is expected that the interest in receiving vaccines will be very high. However, the lowest vaccination uptake rate comes from the elderly population. Objective: To investigate determinants of COVID-19 vaccination uptake among the elderly. Methods: Cross-sectional design study. This research was conducted in Jagakarsa Sub-district from March to July 2021 with an online interview. The sample size was 393 from the total population study of 21,903. The sampling method was purposive sampling with independent variables namely gender, education level, knowledge, attitudes, government policy, health worker’s recommendations, family support, access to COVID-19 vaccination service facilities, perceptions of COVID-19, and perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines. The dependent variable was COVID-19 vaccine uptake. Sample inclusion criteria included the elderly aged ≥ 60 years old and who lived in the Jagakarsa Sub-district. The exclusion criteria were those who were not willing to be respondents. This study conducted a univariate analysis to determine the frequency distribution of variables. Bivariate data analysis that was used were Chi-Square and multivariate data analysis with multiple logistic regression (α=0.05). Results: The results of the bivariate analysis showed that education, knowledge, perceptions of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccines, attitudes, government policies, access to COVID-19 vaccination service facilities, health worker’s recommendations, and family support had a significant relationship with COVID-19 vaccine uptake. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the most associated factor was the perception of COVID-19 vaccine with AOR= 9,928 (95% CI: 5,386-18,302). Conclusion: Respondents had a high acceptance of COVID-19 vaccines, whereas most of the respondents were worried about the side effects at the same time. As our findings suggest, informing the elderly about forthcoming vaccines would help to build their trust in the COVID-19 vaccines.
Dinar Saurmauli Lubis, I.A. Kharisma Dyah Intan Maharani
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 48-57; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.48-57

Abstract:
Communities is an area unit at the village level with criteria in which there is an integration of the Family Planning Population and Family Development program and related sectors to improve the quality of family and community life. The formulation of the research problem is how the village community is engaged in the family planning communities program in Pemogan Village Denpasar. Objective: The objective of this research is to find out the involvement of the village community in the family planning communities program. Methods: This study used a qualitative descriptive research design and was conducted from April to May 2021. This research applied the World Health Organization (2012) framework on community engagement by identifying the level in involvement of inform, consult, involve, collaborate, and shared leadership. There were 9 informants which consisted of the head of Pemogan Village Denpasar, educators of family planning, cadres of family planning communities, and community groups with inclusion criteria. Data collection methods used focus group discussion, in-depth interviews, and document analysis. Data were analyzed with thematic data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. Data validation used triangulation of sources and methods, peer debriefing, and member checking. Results: This study found that the community has been a part of the family planning communities program. Community engagement level in the family planning communities program is at the involve level and less in informing the program and leadership. Conclusion: Community engagement in the family planning communities program in Pemogan Village includes the level of inform, consult, involve, collaborate, and shared leadership. This research suggests the village government increase space for the community to be engaged as a partner in implementing activities and shared leadership through cadre empowerment and socialization.
Roni Gunawan, Dian Maya Sari Siregar, Arifah Devi Fitriani, Muchti Yuda Pratama
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 65-72; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.65-72

Abstract:
Background: Food and beverage sanitation hygiene really needs to be guaranteed of its safety, including the sanitation hygiene of home-made snacks produced by food entrepreneurs. Poor food sanitation hygiene can cause food poisoning, which is bad for buyers. Especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, food sanitation hygiene in small and medium businesses must be considered to avoid transmission while maintaining an entrepreneurial image in the midst of the pandemic. Objective: This study aims to analyze behavior changes including knowledge, attitudes, and entrepreneurial actions in food and beverages processing through mentoring using WhatsApp messenger media. Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental approach. The population of this study was small and medium entrepreneurs specializing in food and beverage processing accompanied by an incubator in North Sumatra with as many as 35 entrepreneurs. The samples of this study amounted to 29 food entrepreneurs who were selected using the purposive sampling technique. The time of the study was in July and August 2020. Data were obtained by giving questionnaires before mentoring, two weeks after mentoring, and four weeks after mentoring. The variables consisted of knowledge, attitudes, and actions, as well as assistance to use WhatsApp messenger media. The collected data were then analyzed using the Wilcoxon and Friedman test. Results: The results showed that the mentoring using WhatsApp messenger media could increase knowledge (P value = 0.000), attitudes (P value = 0.000) respondents' actions (P value = 0.015). Conclusion: The role of health workers was very necessary for the use of WhatsApp messenger based social media, including as assistants who present health promotion content, annul negative content, and make positive efforts to reconcile if there be bad communication in the WhatsApp messenger social media group.
Dwi Sri Handayani, , Widyandana Widyandana
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 58-64; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.58-64

Abstract:
Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a collection of physical, psychological and behavioral changes that can be experienced by women of reproductive age. School adolescents who experience PMS symptoms can have an impact on school activities and daily life. One of the efforts to overcome it is through health education about PMS. Health education innovation in adolescents can be done with the use of social media. Social media that can be used as a means of sharing information is Facebook. Objective: This study aims to know the relationship between perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness of Facebook for health education about PMS. Method: Analytic study research design with a cross section approach. The research variable was the perception of ease of use and usefulness of Facebook as a medium of health education about PMS. The population was 320 school teenagers and the samples were taken by purposive sampling as many as 77 school teenagers who experienced PMS symptoms and had received PMS health education on Facebook. The research data were taken using a questionnaire of perceived ease of use (PEOU) and perceived usefulness (PU) and analyzed using a descriptive and contingency coefficient. Results: Facebook was considered easy (63.6%) to be used for health education about PMS and Facebook was considered useful (57.1%) as a medium for health education about PMS. There was a significant relationship between perceived ease of use and usefulness of Facebook as a medium for health education about PMS (pvalue=0,017 ) with a correlation coefficient value of 0.263 indicating that the correlation is weak. Conclusion: Perceived ease of use was related to the perceived usefulness of Facebook. Facebook was easy to use and useful for health education about PMS. Facebook was effective and useful for learning about PMS. Social media can be a medium for health education and help improve the health of school adolescents who experience PMS.
Sinta Fitriani Fitriani, Amalia Siti Zahra, Ade Rahmat
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.24-29

Abstract:
Background: Stunting is a condition where toddlers have a length or height that is less than their age. Various efforts have been made to overcome nutritional problems in the community through optimizing the role of posyandu. Cadres are front liners in the early detection of nutritional problems within the community, so they are required to have good knowledge and skills. Objective: Thepurpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of the training and use of the Si Centing Application. Methods: This study used a pre-experimental design with a one group pretest-posttest design. The population in this study was all posyandu cadres with a total sample of 64 people. Data collection techniques were carried out by measuring the knowledge and skills of cadres before and after receiving training and using the centing application. The data analysis technique used the T-test. Results: The P-Value of the statistical knowledge test was 0.000 and the p-value for attitude was 0.000. These results indicate that H0 was rejected, so it can be concluded that there are differences in the average value of the knowledge and skills of volunteers before and after the training and use of the Centing application. Conclusion: There was a difference in the average value of knowledge and skills of cadres before and after the training and use of the Centing application in Singaparna District 2020. We suggest Puskesmas and Health to develop an agenda for capacity building activities for Posyandu cadres which are held regularly by using tools or promotional media of health according to the needs of the community.
Rizqiyani Khoiriyah, Sarah Handayani, Rustika Herman
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 73-84; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.73-84

Abstract:
Background: Muhammadiyah members are the information communication and education (ICE) strategy segments from Muhammadiyah COVID-19 Command Center (MCCC). MCCC aims to deliver education and campaign programs to control COVID-19 specialized for the Muhammadiyah members. Objective: This research aims to determine social marketing strategies through the effectiveness of the MCCC website in changing Muhammadiyah members' behavior in Jakarta Province. Methods: This research was quasi-experimental with a non-randomized control group design. The sampling technique was accidental sampling, with 50 people in the intervention group and 50 in the control group. For one week, the intervention was to provide COVID-19 prevention material in PDFs, videos, and links sourced from the MCCC website. Results: The results show a significant difference in scores of behavior before and after website media intervention (p-value = 0.015). There was no significant difference before and after (p-value = 0.331). Conclusion: The intervention of media sourced from the MCCC website was able to impact the adaptation of Muhammadiyah members DKI Jakarta.
Titik - Haryanti, Akhmad - Azmiardi, Ardyasih - -
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 30-35; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.30-35

Abstract:
Background: Currently, almost all countries in the world are experiencing cases of the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 disease has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) after almost most of the countries in the world were infected with COVID-19. One of the ways to prevent COVID-19 is determined by perception of threat to COVID-19 that occurs in the community. Objectives: This study aims to determine the relationship between threat perception and COVID-19 prevention behavior in Sukoharjo Regency. Methods: The type of research used was analytical observational with a cross-sectional approach. The population was all residents aged 15-65 years in Sukoharjo Regency of 618,992 in 2018 with a total sample of 246 people from simple random sampling technique. The research was conducted in October-December 2020. The research instrument used was questionnaires which were filled out directly by the respondents through google form. The research variables were threat perception and COVID-19 prevention behavior. Bivariate statistical test using chi square test. Results: The results showed that respondent's perception of the threat of COVID-19, the perception was high (67.1%) with high COVID-19 prevention behavior as well (58.8%). Threat perception influenced mask wearing behavior (OR= 2.68; P value<0.031), hand washing behavior (OR= 3.39; P value<0.001), and social distancing behavior (OR= 3.39; P value<0.001). There was a relationship between threat perception and COVID-19 prevention behavior in Sukoharjo Regency (P value<0.000). Conclusion: The study concluded that threat perception was related to COVID-19 prevention behavior, both the behavior of using masks, washing hands and social distancing. There is a need for regional government policies to maintain the behavior of preventing COVID-19 in order to reduce the number of COVID-19 cases in Indonesia
Aditya Kusumawati, Ratih Indraswari, Novia Handayani
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.16-23

Abstract:
Background: The majority of Indonesians are Muslim (87%) scattered in each province. They celebrated Eid al-Fitr at the end of May 2020 along with the COVID-19 pandemic that has not ended yet. The tradition of celebrating Eid day is contradictive to the COVID-19 transmission prevention efforts that prohibit people from the crowd, prohibit having activities outside of their houses, and limit human mobilization. Even the president has imposed a ban on mudik Lebaran (coming back to hometown) due to the prediction of massive human migration. The handling of the COVID-19 pandemic requires participation of all parties, including the central government, regional governments, local leaders, the private sector, and the whole community. Objective: This study aims to describe the Indonesian Muslim tradition related to the prevention of the transmission of COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was quantitative research with a cross-sectional design. Data were collected a day before Eid day. There were 246 Muslims in Central Java province as respondents. Variables in this study were respondent characteristics (age, sex, educational level, occupation, and economic level) and Muslim Eid Al-Fitr tradition such as mudik tradition, Eid shopping needs, silaturahmi tradition, and Eid praying. This study also identified the respondents’ practice in preventing COVID-19 transmission. All variables were analyzed descriptively to explain how Muslims conducted their tradition during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: COVID-19 pandemic caused most Muslims not to celebrate Eid as usual. They had to be far away from their families. On the other hand, the tradition to visit the tombs of the ancestors was also maintained by Javanese people and had become a habitual culture. Carelessness and disobedience against health protocols during a pandemic might bring fatal consequences to themselves and others. Conclusion: Most Muslims were discouraged from mudik, silaturahmi, and performing Eid prayer in a congregation in the mosque. They encountered difficulties to keep physical distancing due to people around did not exercise physical distancing for themselves.
Saza Fitria, Ede Surya Darmawan, Amelia Rizki Alfriantin
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 93-102; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.93-102

Abstract:
Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) serve as front liners in the battle against COVID-19. They are often expected to be in constant contact with infected patients, posing higher risk of transmission. To date, literature on risk factors of COVID-19 transmission in HCWs are still limited. Purpose: We conducted this systematic review to identify the risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 virus transmission among HCWs. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses protocol. Four internet databases were searched using predefined search terms. The keywords used were {“COVID-19” OR “SARS-CoV-2”}, {“transmission” OR “transmission risk”}, and (“healthcare professionals” OR “healthcare workers” OR “healthcare staff”). All English articles which were published from January 2020 to June 2021 involving HCWs in hospitals treating COVID-19 were included into the study. Results: Out of initial 636 studies found using the predefined search terms, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. We found that risk factors for COVID-19 could be divided into 5 categories: use of personal protective equipment (PPE), infection control procedures, unsafe workplace practices, provision of institutional support, and presence of individual risk factors in healthcare workers. Good hospital governance is necessary to establish policies regarding control of COVID-19 infection which will protect the patients and HCWs. Conclusion: Proper use of PPE, compliance to proper infection control procedures, establishment of safe workplace practices, provision of institutional support for prevention measures, and lack of individual risk factors may reduce the transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 virus among healthcare workers. Further studies are warranted to identify methods for reducing incidence and mortality rate due to COVID-19 at HCWs.
Reza Indra Wiguna, Haris Suhamdani
Published: 15 March 2022
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 10, pp 85-92; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v10.i1.2022.85-92

Abstract:
Background: Indonesia is facing COVID-19 waves in almost all provinces. Based on data from the COVID-19 Response Acceleration Task Force, there were 57 districts with a compliance level of wearing a mask by less than 60%, while 51 districts had a compliance level of keeping distance and avoiding crowds by less than 60%. Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the Health Promotion Model (HPM) in increasing people’s compliance level on the implementation of COVID-19 health protocols. Methods: Quasi-experiment with a single-group interrupted time-series design was conducted in June-September 2021in West Lombok district and Central Lombok district, West Nusa Tenggara Province. The samples were 326 respondents from purposive sampling with criteria: adult group or elderly of the healthy category and not being positively confirmed of COVID-19. Results: There was a significant effect of HPM in increasing people’s compliance level on the implementation of the health protocols (5M) measured by the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (p-value <0,05). The health protocols (5M) included wearing a mask (p=0,000), keeping distance (p=0,000), cleaning hands (p=0,000), avoiding crowds (p=0,000), and reducing mobility (p=0,000). Conclusion: The Health Promotion Model (HPM) is a strategy to conduct health promotion activities that can influence the attitudes and behaviors of community groups marked by increasing knowledge and awareness of people in the Lombok area for the implementation of the 5M COVID-19 health protocols.
Giszka Putri, Hamzah Hasyim, Nur Alam Fajar
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 168-176; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.168-176

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19 in Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients are at higher risk for severe complications than people without DM. Preventive behaviour is the best way to avoid COVID-19 infection for DM patients due to its bad impact, such as severe symptoms requiring intensive care, leading to death. Objective: This study aims to analyse the COVID-19 preventive behaviour among DM comorbidity patients in Palembang. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2021 to May 2021 using a questionnaire to diabetic patients at six community health centres in Palembang. The questionnaire has four sections: patient characteristics, knowledge, attitude, and COVID-19 prevention behaviour. A proportional random sampling technique was used to determine the number of samples according to the data on diabetic patients in each health centre. The total sample was 183 respondents from 1.266 total population diabetic patients in six community health centres. Respondents were diabetic patients aged ³ 18 years old and willing to fill out the questionnaire. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were used to analyse the data. Results: More respondents have good knowledge (50.3%), negative attitude (57.3%), and poor COVID-19 preventive behaviour (53.0%). The findings revealed a statistical significance between knowledge (P-value = 0.0001), attitude (P-value = 0.0001), and educational status (P-value = 0.0001) with COVID-19 preventive behaviour. Furthermore, knowledge is the most determinant factor of COVID-19 preventive behaviour (PR= 7.597, 95% CI: 3.701 – 15.597). Conclusion: According to this study, diabetic patients with poor knowledge are at greater risk of having poor COVID-19 prevention behaviours. COVID-19 prevention programs, especially health education programs at the community health centre, need to be improved to ensure that diabetic patients adopt reasonable and appropriate COVID-19 prevention practices.
Nissa Kusariana, Tutut Okta Hardiyanti, Moh. Arie Wurjanto
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 151-158; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.151-158

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a non-communicable disease that can be prevented by controlling the risk factors. Diabetes mellitus prevention practice is important so that prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus can be carried out effectively. There are several factors that cause a person to practice prevention against diabetes mellitus. Objective: This study aims to analyze factors related to the practice of type 2 diabetes mellitus prevention among Diponegoro University students in Semarang. Methods: This is a quantitative study with an observational analytic approach and a cross-sectional study design. The time of research was May-August 2020. The instrument in this study was a google form questionnaire. The population in this study were active undergraduate students of Diponegoro University in 2020, amounting to 36,425 students. The sample size in this study was 407 respondents. The variables of the study were family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, knowledge level, attitude, family support, and preventive practices of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study used univariate analysis and bivariate analysis. The relationship test was performed using the chi-square test on a computer application. Results: This study showed there was a significant relationship between family history type 2 diabetes mellitus (0,017), knowledge level (0,00), attitude (0,00), and family support (0,00) for the preventive practices of type 2 diabetes mellitus in students. Conclusion: Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus, knowledge level, attitude, and family support are factors related to the preventive practices of type 2 diabetes mellitus among students of Diponegoro University in Semarang. There is a need for education and provision of information related to knowledge on diabetes mellitus prevention for students at Diponegoro University, Semarang.
Ratih Kumala Dewi
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 142-150; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.142-150

Abstract:
Background: According to aging Index data in 2035, it is projected that there will be 73 elderly people per 100 population increasing every year. The implication of increasing the number of elderly is an increase in cognitive function degradation that affects the old age ratio dependency in carrying out normal daily activities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the elderly cognitive functions at the Islamic Village Nursing Home. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional study design with the sampling technique using a total population of 48 elderly woman respondents. The location of the research was carried out at the Islamic Village Nursing Home, Tangerang. Data collection was carried out in March to April 2020. Data was collected using a standard questionnaire for cognitive function measured using the standard Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) questionnaire and the level of independence measured using the standard Barthel Index checklist. Other respondent characteristic data were collected through interviews and observations. Results: Cognitive function has a significant relationship with the level of independence of elderly women with values (OR = 5.402; p = 0.013; CI = 95% 1.430 - 20.426). Elderly women with impaired cognitive function (MMSE score> 23) are at risk of experiencing a dependency level of 4.5 times in fulfilling daily activities compared to elderly women whose cognitive function is normal. Conclusion: The decline in cognitive function in the elderly is the biggest cause of the inability to carry out normal daily activities and also the most common reason for being dependent on others to take care of themselves. It is hoped that services at the nursing home, especially caregivers, can improve the quality of services for the elderly by increasing overall attention both by providing a holistic, comprehensive diagnostic effort, by paying attention to the role of the elderly so that the quality of life of the elderly can be improved.
Danik Iga Prasiska, Sangchul Yoon
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 115-124; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.115-124

Abstract:
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic is ineluctable, transmission that originated from a foreign country became the local transmission in Indonesia. As several regional authorities implemented a large-scale social restriction policy to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, the Nganjuk Regency government chose to implement a different strategy with the implementation of Regent Regulation number 28 of 2020 about novel practice in the COVID-19 pandemic situation. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the impact of the implementation of the regulation on COVID-19 transmissibility and mortality at the Nganjuk Regency. Methods: Data were collected from the daily confirmed cases and death of COVID-19 made accessible for the public by the Nganjuk Regency Task Force for COVID-19 and Nganjuk Regency Health Office starting from March 30th to September 20th. Interrupted time series analysis was performed to estimate the impact of the implementation of regent regulation on COVID-19 transmission and mortality parameters. Result: The trend of new confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 in the Nganjuk Regency continued to fluctuate before and even after the implementation of regent regulation. It was found that there were reductions in case of fatality rates by -0.002 ± 0.003 (ρ 0.002) on CFR and -0.008 ± 0.008 (ρ 0.007) on eCFR after the regent regulation was implemented but there was no significant reduction on COVID-19 transmissibility parameter. Conclusion: Implementation of regent regulation in Nganjuk Regency significantly affected the reduction of case fatality rate but failed to slow down the COVID-19 transmissibility. Intensive community engagement to comply with the health preventive measures should be considered as an effective preventive strategy to reduce the transmission of COVID-19.
Shelvi Indah Ayu Puspita, Fatma Nur Ardiati, Retno Adriyani, Neil Harris
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 91-100; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.91-100

Abstract:
Background: Scabies is a contagious skin disease caused by mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The global incidence of scabies in 2014 was 0.3%-46%, while the incidence of scabies in Indonesia, especially in Banyuwangi Regency was 1871 cases in 2016 and 1730 cases in 2017. Objective: The study objective was to determine the relationship between personal hygiene and symptoms of scabies among students. Methods: This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design located at the Salafiyah Syafi’iyah Nurul Amin Islamic Boarding School, Kalipuro, Banyuwangi. The number of students living in Islamic boarding schools was 191 students, the sample size was 63 students by simple random sampling. Data regarding personal hygiene habits were collected in April-May 2020, it used Google Forms sent via WhatsApp application to the students and in-depth interviews with the student caregivers. Data analysis using chi-square test, presented in tables and narrative. Results: The results showed that 42.9% of students had symptoms of scabies and there was a significant relationship between personal hygiene and symptoms of scabies, especially in habit of scratching (P value = 0.000) and the habit of using clothes, towels, as well as prayer tools together (P value = 0.012). Conclusion: The habit of scratching body parts with nails and using clothes, towels and, prayer tools alternately could be risk factors for the transmission of scabies to students. Students should have good personal hygiene and not share their personal equipment such as clothes, towels, and, prayer tools. The boarding school managers were advised to complete sanitation facilities, to organize a clean and tidy bedroom competition between the students.
Rahel Violin Kamisorei, Mochammad Bagus Qomaruddin, Shrimarti Rukmini Devy, Amer Siddiq Amer Nordin
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 101-114; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.101-114

Abstract:
Background: Basic Health Research (RISKESDAS) in 2018 found as many as 15 provinces out of 35 provinces had a prevalence of alcohol consumption above the national prevalence, and Papua was reportedly in the top 15 of the prevalence of high alcohol consumption (alcohol) as much as 4.6%. Objective: To describe the obstacles to the implementation of local government policies in curbing the circulation of alcohol in Jayapura City. Method: This is a descriptive study using a qualitative single instrumental case study design in Jayapura City from May to September 2020. Purposive sampling technique was employed to determine participants who consisted of an integrated team of alcohol control and supervision (n =6). Data collection was using in-depth interviews and non-participant observation. Result: Communication between the integrated team was not optimal. National Food and Drug Agency (BPOM) had not routinely conducted sample tests as the majority of traditional alcoholic beverages sold in shops such as local liquors were illegal. The division of duties and responsibilities by the integrated team was good, but the execution in the field was not as agreed upon. There were alcohol traders who have not applied for licenses to sell alcohol because the process to get license permits was too complicated. The content of Perda No.8 of 2014 weakened the police because they could not give punishment like Satpol PP, however, Satpol PP did not have an investigating team. Conclusion: The lack of commitment from the control and supervision team of alcohol circulation in carrying out their duties. The resources involved were lacking. Coordination among the integrated teams was not going well thus the division of tasks and authorities with implementation actions in the field did not work according to the policy enforce in Jayapura City. Evaluation of work programs by policy implementers could be carried out to increase the success of implementation.
Ratih Indraswari, Antono Suryoputro, Bagoes Widjanarko, Zahroh Shaluhiyah
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 159-167; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.159-167

Abstract:
Background: As well as other countries, Basic Health Research 2018 (Riskesdas) reported that adolescent pregnancies (aged under 20 years) occurred in almost all provinces in Indonesia. More than 60,000 Indonesian females experienced pregnancy at a young age. Objective: This study aims to analyze the characteristics of Indonesian women who had been pregnant under the age of 20 years. Methods: This study used a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design, the data processed was from Indonesian Basic Health Research 2018. The subjects were 67,392 women who experienced their first pregnancy under the age of 20 years. The independent variables of the study included the respondent's domicile, age, education level, and occupation. The dependent variable was the age at first pregnancy. All variables were analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. Results: Almost all (95.4%) Indonesian women who had experienced adolescent pregnancy were in the age range of 14-19 years when they were first pregnant. Most of the respondents lived in rural areas (68.1%), were in late adulthood (32.9%) when the survey was conducted, had completed primary school education (38.7%), and were not working (47.9%). Domicile, age, education, and occupation were related significantly to the age at which they were first pregnant (P-Value = 0.0001). Education affected the age at first pregnancy in women with a history of adolescent pregnancy (OR = 2.215). Conclusion: Adolescent with low education level is 2.2 riskier to have early pregnancy than an adolescent with high-level education. The government needs to make it a priority and seriously provide provision of reproductive health education among children before they get into their adolescence phase.
Yuli Puspita Devi, Sabarinah Prasetyo, Muthmainnah Muthmainnah
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 177-185; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.177-185

Abstract:
Background: Complete basic immunization for infants in Indonesia is an obligation in an effort to protect infant health. It is one of the important indicators in determining the quality of health services in a certain area. However, the coverage of complete basic immunization in Indonesia in 2017 and 2018 has not been achieved nationally with National Strategic Planning and it has not been achieved the targets of 80% of districts/cities in 2019. Objective: This study aims to analyze the factors correlated to the complete basic immunization coverage of infants in Indonesia in 2017-2019. Methods: Ecological analysis was carried out using secondary data from the report of the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia in 2017-2019. Univariate analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics and one sample Kolmogorov Smirnov. Bivariate analysis was conducted by correlation test (Pearson and Spearman) and scatter plot. Results: Complete basic immunization for infants had a significant correlation with the adequacy of midwives at the primary health care in 2017 (r = -0.337). There was significant correlation between poverty and complete basic immunization in 2017 and 2018 (r = -0.362 and r = -0.535). In 2019, active Integrated Service Post (Posyandu) was correlated to the complete basic immunization (r = 0.444). The first neonatal visit was correlated to the complete basic immunization of infants for three consecutive years (2017-2019). Conclusion: Efforts that can be made to increase the coverage of complete basic immunization in Indonesia are increasing the distribution of midwives in Indonesia, increasing the coverage of the first neonatal visit by paying attention to Posyandu cadres, especially in provinces with high poverty rates.
Kharisma Nurul Fazrianti Rusman, Evi Martha
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 195-207; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.195-207

Abstract:
Background: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) or the coronavirus disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has become a concern around the world, especially in Indonesia. As of January 31, 2021, the total cases of COVID-19 infection in the world reached 103 million with 2.22 million cases. The COVID-19 pandemic threatened to have an impact on health progress and particularly on children's development due to the obstruction of immunization services as a national program. Objective: This study aims to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on child immunization services. Methods: The method used was a narrative literature review conducted by synthesizing and analyzing 4 search engines including ProQuest, ScienceDirect, Pubmed, and SpringerLink. The search for this manuscript found 22 texts that matched the specified topic, namely the impact of the presence of COVID-19 on immunization services in children, searched for the keywords immunization, COVID-19, immunization service, and child. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic has an impact on changes in immunization services for children who have become obstructed, reduced service coverage, perceptions of parents reflecting the high demand for immunization, and an impact on health status, namely by carrying out routine immunizations resulting in trained immunity and generating immunity. Conclusion: COVID-19 has a special impact on child immunization services. Immunization services must continue to run and carry out according to applicable standards following local government policies by taking into account the principles and guidelines given. Collaboration between the government, the community, non-governmental organizations, and health professionals are needed to prevent a double burden during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Giovanda Wahyu Andika, Farida Wahyu Ningtyias, Sulistiyani Sulistiyani
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 134-141; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.134-141

Abstract:
Background: The world's population is currently in an era of aging with the number of elderly people exceeding 7% of the population. This condition will certainly bring positive and negative impacts. It’s needed to pay attention to the elderly, especially on their quality of life. Objective: To determine the differences in the quality of life of the elderly who live with their families in the working area of the Puskesmas Sukorejo and at Jember Tresna Werdha Social Service Unit. Methods: The type of this research was observational analytic using a cross-sectional research design. The study was conducted from January to March 2020. The population in this study amounted to 3472 elderly, consisting of elderly who live in the Tresna Werdha Jember Social Service Unit and live at home with their families in the working area of Sukorejo Community Health Center, Jember. The sample in this study amounted to 100 respondents, consisting of 50 respondents at each research location. The variable studied was the quality of life of the elderly from each place of residence. The data collection instruments included the MMSE questionnaire to assess cognitive impairment in the elderly and the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire to measure the quality of life in the elderly. The sampling technique used was proportional random sampling. Results: The results showed that the majority of the elderly were aged 60-74 years, most of the elderly were female and never attended school. The majority of the elderly who live at home still have a partner, while those who live in the Social Service have no partner. Chi-square test results showed that there was no difference in the quality of life of the elderly in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains, but there were differences in the quality of life in the social domain. Conclusion: There were no differences in the quality of life in the physical, psychological, and environmental domains, but there were differences in the social domain, among respondents. The elderly who lived at home with their family had a better quality of life in the social domain. Suggestion for the elderly who live at home in the working area of the Sukorejo Community Health Center is to increase positive activities that can entertain themselves and participate in social activities, for the elderly who live at the Tresna Werdha Jember Social Services Unit, it is hoped that they can increase the intensity of good social relations between fellow elderly in homestead and do not close themselves off to the people around them, while for supervisors and caregivers in Tresna Werdha Jember Social Service Unit, it is expected to further improve assistance to the elderly to determine the quality of life of the elderly in each homestead.
Muhammad Sultan
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 125-133; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.125-133

Abstract:
Introduction: The numbers of COVID-19 sufferers in various countries are continuing to increase, including in Indonesia. COVID-19 has a wide impact, including on the online transportation service sector. Since 2015 in Samarinda City, there has been an online transportation service, namely Gojek Indonesia, which provides services to customers in the form of shuttle passengers, food delivery, and other necessities, including goods delivery services. The online transportation driver group is one of the groups at high risk of transmitting COVID-19. Objective: This study aimed to obtain information about COVID-19 prevention behavior including driver's knowledge of COVID-19, perceptions, and customer service on online transportation drivers in Samarinda. Methods: This study used a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. The informants in this study were selected as many as 5 people. The Gojek at Cendana Street was chosen because it is the main entrance and exit route of tourists in Samarinda. The data technique was an interview and used qualitative data analysis. Results: COVID-19 is a respiratory disease. Drivers considered that COVID-19 is a dangerous disease, frightening, and causes excessive panic in the community because of its rapid spread and risks to all groups of people, including online transportation drivers. Serving customers remains a priority even though they understand the risk of contracting COVID-19. Efforts to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 carried out by Gojek drivers including using masks, washing hands with flowing water and soap, or hand sanitizer, also cleaning helmets or replacing them with spare helmets. Conclusion: The transmission of COVID-19 can be prevented by behaving cleanly and healthy also prioritize the prevention of transmission of COVID-19, such as wearing masks while doing activities, keeping passenger helmets clean, and washing hands after serving customers.
Farhah Kamilah, Elyse Maria Rosa
Published: 23 September 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 186-194; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i2.2021.186-194

Abstract:
Background: Child marriage is a marriage that is conducted formally or informally by spouses or with one of the spouses aged 18. Child marriage is a phenomenon that involves socio-cultural elements thus many factors influence it. Girls are 3 times more likely to experience child marriage than boys. Various conditions that occur in child marriage have generated interest in seeing a broader view of how married girls view their married life. Objective: This review was conducted to explore research findings related to the experiences of girls who were married under 18 years of age so that it could be used as an illustration to see the condition of girls in child marriage life. Methods: This review used three databases PubMed, ProQuest, and EbscoHost. The search for articles used main keywords, namely "child marriage", "women experience", and "marriage life" combined with helper keywords. The articles were full-text, in English, not limited by year and country, and discussed child marriage from a woman's perspective. Results: This review was done on 10 articles that were screened and analyzed out of 2259 articles. All articles used a qualitative method and were originated from Malaysia (2 articles), Pakistan (2 articles), Iran (2 articles), United States, Morocco, Jordan, and Israel. The total participants were 187 people from all articles. The causes of marriage in girls were poverty, prevention of premarital sex, adolescent pregnancy solutions, and personal desires of the girls. The state of marriage was seen from self-actualization and pressures on the role of girls in married life. Conclusion: This review summarized the reasons for marriage before the age of 18 were due to poverty factors, the avoidance of premarital sex, teenage pregnancy solutions and the willingness of girls themselves to marry. This review also summarized the situation of girls in child marriages who were unable to be self-reliant and were under pressure to perform their position in the household. Child marriage also caused new issues in the lives of girls, hence it was necessary to consider getting married at the age of under 18 years.
Odilia Firsti Wida Mukti, Nuzulul Kusuma Putri
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 36-43; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.36-43

Abstract:
Background: Social media marketing has become one of the most widely used forms of digital marketing in social marketing. Organizations that drive change in young people, such as the Center for Indonesia's Strategic Development Initiatives (CISDI), rely heavily on social media marketing in communicating various health issues to the public. However, only a few studies have used social media related data to understand the effectiveness of this media in the delivery of health issues. Objective: This study aims to analyze the utilization of social media marketing conducted by CISDI for delivering health messages and its impact to young adult in Indonesia using social media analytics. Methods: Real-time data were obtained through Keyhole as a social media analytics tool and audience insight of online and offline classes used for social analytic in this study. This research monitored the use of CISDI’s social media by using audience metrics and individual post metrics collected from April 2019 to April 2020. Online and offline class audience data were obtained from the CISDI engagement database which was used as a complement to audience metrics information. Analysis of metrics was used to describe the audience that had been reached by the Center for Indonesia's Strategic Development Initiatives, how health messages could engage with the groups of audience, and how social media marketing can move the audience. Results: The result of this study shows that social media utilization for delivering health messages brought impact on audience participation. Currently trending issues, such as sex education (average engagement rate = 14,43%). By promoting through social media, CISDI has engaged 10266 audience to participate in their classes. Conclusion: Social media utilization benefit CISDI in engaging audience and move them to participate in their cause.
Evicenna Naftuchah Riani, Ratih Indraswari
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 44-49; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.44-49

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia has not ended yet. Since the New Habit Adaptation, previously known as the New Normal, employees have started return to work in offices. At the end of July 2020, the addition of new cases received a large number of contributions from employees working in the office, raising a new cluster known as the office cluster. Objective: This study aimed to analyze the association between characteristics and practice of preventing the transmission of COVID-19 among employees in Purwokerto, Central Java. Methods: This is a quantitative study with a cross-sectional design. Online data collection was conducted in early August 2020. The variables were the respondents’ characteristics (gender, age, occupation, and income) and the practice of COVID-19 prevention among employees in the office (wearing a mask, maintaining physical distance, handwashing, opening doors and windows for air circulation). Fifty-seven employees started working in offices in Purwokerto who were involved in this research. Results: Most respondents were adults (82.5%), women (70.2%), working as private employees (77.2%) with an income above the minimum wage (73.7%). Almost all respondents have widely adopted the practice of washing hands (86%) and using masks (98.2%) since the pandemic’s emergence. However, many employees were unable to perform physical distancing (26.3%), stayed away from the crowd (29.8%), opened workspace doors/windows (56.1%), and tried to work outdoor (86%). There is no association between characteristics and prevention practice. Private companies need to tighten their health protocols and monitoring. They should provide rewards and punishments for employees who did not obey the regulation. Also, local governments need to supervise all companies in their area to enforce health protocols seriously.
Ainun Azizah Ramdhani, Nur Annisha Karunia Latief, Fariani Syahrul, Dwiono Mudjianto
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 18-27; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.18-27

Abstract:
Background: Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common infections in the hospital. In order to prevent and control CAUTI incidence, nurses are required to implement bundles of prevention. However, the lack of nurses’ compliance behavior in implementing the CAUTI bundle prevention was found. Objective: This study analyzes the nurse’s compliance behavior in implementing CAUTI prevention using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) approach. Methods: This study was an analytical descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. Nurses who work in ICU, ICCU, HCU, and in-patient unit of the hospital were set as study population and taken as samples using simple random sampling. Background factors (age, education, knowledge, employment duration, career levels), attitudes, subjective norms, Perceived Behavior Control (PBC), and intention were determined as independent variables. In contrast, nurses’ compliance behavior in CAUTI prevention bundle implementation was determined as the dependent variable. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using logistic regression with a significance level of α < 0.05. Results: Among 111 nurses, most of them are in the age of 26-45 years (80.1%), has worked as a nurse for 8-13 years (29.7%), reach career level at Clinical Nurse 3 (51.4%), and have good knowledge about CAUTI prevention bundle (83.8%). The employment duration and career levels are background factors that correlate the most to the TPB factors. The nurses’ compliance behavior is influenced by attitude, subjective norm, PBC, and intention (P Value= 0.000). Multivariate analysis shows that intention is associated with nurses’ compliance behavior and increases nurses’ commitment to implement CAUTI prevention bundle (P Value= 0.033, OR= 6.46). Conclusion: The intention simultaneously influences the nurses’ compliance behavior.
Dian Tami Wahyuningtyas, Rima Diana Nurilla
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.1-10

Abstract:
Background: Narcotics are substances or drugs that are natural, synthetic, or semi-synthetic that cause unconsciousness, hallucinations, and excitability. Drugs abuse survey results in 2017 in 34 provinces in Indonesia show that there are 3,376,115 people who use drugs. Purpose: The purpose of writing this article was finding out the source of cadres’ self-efficacy in preventing drugs abuse in Surabaya’s high schools. Method: This research method was a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The informants of this study were high school students who were still active as anti-drugs cadres. The criteria for informant inclusion in this study were all high school students who were peer educators or anti-drug ambassadors in high schools in the North Surabaya area. When the study was conducted in October 2018 to June 2019. The method of data collection was in-depth interviews. Results: The results of this study were the source of self-efficacy of anti-drugs abuse cadres based on experience, observations of other individuals, verbal persuasion, and emotional and psychological conditions. The experience of the cadres included being a peer counsellor in drugs prevention, having participated in anti-drug communities, and experiencing following anti-drugs socialization. Component of experience through observation of other people, cadres did not make observations on people who had the same ability, but observations were made to people around cadres who had been involved in drug abuse. Components of verbal persuasion in this study concluded that there are others who always support all decisions and situations experienced by cadres, namely social support from teachers, parents, and peers. The Emotional/Physiological States component, namely the cadres in carrying out their duties felt happy because they have many positive changes and did not experience anxiety or pressure, which made them have positive self-efficacy. Conclusion: Sources of self-efficacy of anti-drugs abuse cadres are based on past experiences, observations of other individuals, verbal persuasion, and emotional and physiological conditions.
Erinka Pricornia Mudaharimbi
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 28-35; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.28-35

Abstract:
Background: Self Efficacy of breastfeeding greatly affects the achievement of exclusive breastfeeding so that makes the success rate of exclusive breastfeeding in nursing mothers is high. For first-time mothers to give birth and breastfeed their babies (Primigravida) and are at work, identification of the level of self-efficacy of breastfeeding becomes an influential thing. Time constraints, work fatigue, and psychological factors are some of the factors that influence one's level of confidence in doing something. Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the Self Efficacy of Primigravida working mothers in the success of breastfeeding. Method: This study used a qualitative design with a phenomenological approach. Data collection was carried out by using in-depth interviews and interview guidance instruments. In-depth interviews were conducted with six informants, namely Primigravida mothers who were still actively working and had children aged 0-6 months. Results: The study showed that the Self Efficacy in the informants was classified as insufficient. This is proven by the fact that of the six informants, none succeeded in giving breast milk for up to six months, they only succeeded in giving breast milk for less than one month. Working mothers experience several problems such as work fatigue and stress that affect the of breast milk, and there is a perception that inadequate milk can affect the success of breastfeeding. Psychological factors of mothers who are less supportive to give exclusive breastfeeding are one of the factors that influence one's level of confidence in doing something. Conclusion: The failure of breastfeeding for up to six months is influenced by several factors namely inadequate Self Efficacy, working mothers who experience fatigue and stress, poor milk production, limited information obtained and fear of fussy babies.
Kristina Dwi Novitasari Arnani
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 50-58; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.50-58

Abstract:
Background: Emerging Internet technologies are now creeping into the game arena. Increased incidence of gaming addiction is felt in the world, and no doubt in Indonesia could have an impact as well, especially in an adolescent. In Makassar, found the incidence of internet games disorders by 30% in high school children. Therefore, internet games eventually became an important issue in the world of health to the WHO (World Health Organization) and making it the responsibility of the world. The state has a duty and responsibility in preventing health problems caused by the development of internet gaming in Indonesia. Internet Gaming Disorder is a mental problem that should be considered in adolescents, and even no single governing restrictions on the use of internet gaming and prevention programs for adolescents in Indonesia. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the problem of Internet Gaming disorder by describing programs that have been implemented by countries outside Indonesia in terms of health promotion for adolescents. Methods: This study was a literature review of several journals, thesis, as well as patient data reports Internet Gaming disorder in Indonesia and the world. Result: The result is a necessary regulation involving adolescents, parents, schools, governments, and public health officials to regulate Internet gaming restrictions to prevent Internet Gaming Disorder as has been done in China, Hong Kong, Iran, and Switzerland which can be adopted in Indonesia. Conclusion: The problem of Internet gaming disorder being ordered must be a concern of government and cross-sectoral to prevent the development of this problem in Indonesia as a protective way for adolescents.
, Sri Widati, Ira Nurmala
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 11-17; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.11-17

Abstract:
Background: Hypertension is a hidden threat since it often occurs without symptoms. Hypertension disease is the main cause of stroke and heart disease, which affects most of the world’s population. The prevalence of hypertension in developed countries is quite high by 37% while in developing countries by 29.9%. Purpose: To know the hypertension patients’ profile at Puskesmas Waru, Pamekasan on January to December 2018. Method: This research method used an observational descriptive-qualitative study with a case study research design. The sample was taken with total sampling method from 220 people. Results: Among 220 people, who was diagnosed by hypertension was mostly at 45-65 years old by 57.3% and female by 62.3%. For educational factors they mostly had junior high school education by 34.5%. Whereas for the occupational factor more often occured in housewives by 36.8%. Most of their main problems were headache by 41.8%. The most of hypertension diagnosed type is primary hypertension by 42% and Stage 2 hypertension by 55.4% then also followed by family comorbidity by 60%. Conclusion: The aging process in women creates the hormonal factors that trigger the occurrence of hypertension. This is because at the age of 45, blood vessels will start to narrow and become stiff. The lack of education causes the receiving process of information become not maximum so that it will impact on health status and one of the causes is due to the stress that is experienced by many housewives. Stress causes the headaches. Therefore, mostly hypertension patients have the headache. Most hypertension cases occur without any definite cause and with Stage 2 and the presence of family comorbidity due to genetic factors that influence it.
Meita Tyas Nugrahaeni, Oedojo Soedirham
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 79-90; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.79-90

Abstract:
Background: Health promotion is an effort to improve the society's ability in order to make people empower themselves. Exclusive breastfeeding/ASI eksklusif is the practice of giving breast milk to infants for the first six months of life (without any additional food or water) a preventive intervention that addresses the single greatest potential impact on child mortality. Objective: To analyze the impact of the availability and unavailability of program policy that support exclusive breastfeeding in improving the implementation of exclusive breastfeeding policy. Method: The method used in this research was a systematic review technique. The process of searching for articles through Sagepub, Google, and Google Scholar. The keywords used were breastfeeding policy, breastfeeding policy and health promotion, breastfeeding health promotion, workplace breastfeeding policy, and maternity leaves starting from February 20, 2020, to April 15, 2020, and found 153 articles which were then sorted into 35 articles. The articles discussed the implementation of the exclusive breastfeeding program (10), the exclusive breastfeeding policy (12), and the impacts arising from the exclusive breastfeeding policy (13) with articles in Indonesian (10) and English (25). Results: The found policy that have not been implemented by the Indonesian government are policies that adopt the latest version of The International Code of Marketing of Breas Milk Substitutes. Weak implementation of follow-up on sanctions and fines if it violates applicable policy. Conclusion: The exclusive breastfeeding program carried out by Indonesia is still in the scope of classes for pregnant women, companion groups, exclusive breastfeeding socialization, and breastfeeding motivator training. Social, economic, and cultural factors are other supporting factors related to exclusive breastfeeding success.
Windya Kartika Paramita
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 69-78; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.69-78

Abstract:
Background: The Elderly is an age group that has decreased organ function which is susceptible to various diseases. The elderly also experience physical decline which can affect personal hygiene and health care behavior. Objective: To determine the factors that affect the personal hygiene and health care of the elderly. Method: Personal hygiene referred to in this study was hygiene to care for the whole body including skin, feet, teeth, nails, and hair. This study was a systematic review of studies with primary data related to factors affecting personal hygiene and health care for the elderly. The study was conducted on 35 international journals. Results: Personal hygiene of the elderly are feet. Factors that influence their hygiene on demographic factors include residence, education, source of income, gender, age, and knowledge. Factors affecting elderly hygiene on personal characteristic factors include need assistance, perceived benefits, disease, frequency of cleansing, self-efficacy, physical change, degree of independence, mobility, and self-motivation. Factors affecting them on facilities and infrastructure factors supporters include equipment, care services facilities, equipment, distance to care service facilities, social support, and practical conditions. Factors affecting on healthy program factors include training, education caregiver, motivation caregiver, health promotion, health information seeking, satisfaction, informal care, behavioral programs, utilization, and functional health literacy. Conclusion: Factors affecting personal hygiene and health care for the elderly include demographics, characteristics of the elderly, supporting facilities, and infrastructure and health programs. Dominant factor affecting personal hygiene and health care for elderly are educational, residence, and income source.
, Mohammad Zainal Fatah, Ira Nurmala
Published: 30 March 2021
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 9, pp 59-68; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v9.i1.2021.59-68

Abstract:
Background: The National Narcotics Board or Badan Narkotika Nasional (BNN) survey results found the prevalence of drug abuse in 2015 amount 42,900 people, and an increase of 20.84% in 2016, which amounted to 51,840 people. As a result of drug abuse, drug abusers often experience health problems both physically and mentally due to the influence of drugs or the environment that makes drug abusers depressed. One of the health treatments for drug abusers that can be done to motivate drug abusers is to provide family support. The family is a source of social support because, in family relationships, mutual trust is created. Objective: This research was conducted to determine how the family’s role based on Kroenke helped to recover the health of drug abusers from deciding to stop drug abuse. The government can later consider this research’s benefits in creating a family-based drug abuse prevention and recovery program. Methods: This study uses a review of international articles. The articles used are twenty articles published in the last ten years. Result: Research shows that the family’s role in helping recovering drug users’ health drug users’ health is different but still has the same goal. Support provided is based on the cause of individuals to commit drug abuse. Support could be provided in the form of assessment support, instrumental, informational, and social. A good family role’s functioning makes the recovery process more effective because an addict will feel motivated by their support. Conclusion: The research conducted that the family’s role is essential for the recovery of the health of drug addicts, providing a stimulus for change to stop drug abuse. The family’s ability and function in explaining the addict’s self-control varies according to how the response and the intensity of family support provided to the addict.
Ghaisani Ikramina Aiffah, Wandera Ahmad Religia
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 238-252; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.238-252

Abstract:
Background: Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) was a global problem widespread in many countries. Komisi Perlindungan Anak Indonesia or Indonesian Children Protection Commission (KPAI) recorded as many as 1.880 children become victims of sexual abuse such as rape, fornication, sodomy and paedophilia. The Government of Indonesia become made become efforts both national and international scale, but there is no effective and applicable program that has been implemented. Objective: The purpose of this article was to analyse the programs had been implemented to prevent sexual violence against children. Method: This article was a literature study by examining 38 articles related to the program against child abuse. The researcher was looking for reference sources from the Science Direct, Sage pub and Google Scholar online become. The keywords used were Child Sex Abuse Prevention Program, Parenting Program, Parent Training, Parent Intervention, Maltreatment, Violence, and Violence Prevention. Result: In children, programs that had been implemented include C-SAPE; IGEL; Train the trainer; BST; A program for minorities in Australia; Cool and Safe. For parents, the programs that had been applied include ACT-RSK; Triple-P; RETHINK; The Incredible Years Parents, Teachers, and Children Training Series; PACE; The Making Choices and Strong Families; The African Migrant Parenting; Strengthening Families; 123 Magic; PDEP and FAST. Conclusion: The sexual violence prevention program for children that can be implemented by the Indonesian government was using teaching methods based on school curricula that can be delivered by teachers. For parent, the program that could be implemented by the Indonesian government was using positive parenting methods that focus on preventing sexual violence against children and delivered by expert facilitators. To reach children and families with different cultural backgrounds, the Indonesian government could adapt sexual violence prevention programs for the Australian minorities and The African Migrant Parenting.
Farida Wahyu Ningtyias, Diana Febriyanti Quraini, Ninna Rohmawati
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 154-162; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.154-162

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Anemia merupakan masalah gizi pada remaja putri yang perlu dicegah dan ditanggulangi karena akan berdampak pada periode 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan (HPK). Pemerintah memprioritaskan program suplementasi Tablet Tambah Darah (TTD) remaja putri dan Wanita Usia Subur (WUS) untuk menurunkan prevalensi anemia pada kelompok tersebut. Salah satu indicator keberhasilan program tersebut yakni kepatuhan remaja putri dalam mengonsumsi TTD. Perilaku seorang individu dapat diprediksi dari niat individu tersebut yang dirumuskan dalam Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Tujuan: Menganalisis hubungan kontrol perilaku dengan niat patuh dalam mengonsumsi TTD secara teratur. Metode: Jenis penelitian ini adalah analitik observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Sampel berjumlah 328 remaja putri yang diambil dengan metode stratified proporsional random sampling. Variabel penelitian adalah persepsi kontrol perilaku dan niat patuh minum TTD yang dianalisis dengan uji statistik Chi-Square. Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan 51,2% responden berumur ≤ 13 tahun, 85,7% responden mengalami pubertas yang normal, dan 85,4% responden mengalami gejala anemia yang rendah serta mayoritas 81,4% responden memiliki status gizi normal. Terdapat hubungan antara kontrol perilaku (P Value= 0,000; OR= 3,906; 95 % Cl= 1,906-6,640) dengan niat patuh konsumsi TTD teratur. Kesimpulan: Remaja yang memiliki kontrol perilaku yang kuat akan memiliki niat patuh konsumsi TTD teratur 3,906 kali dibandingkan remaja putri dengan kontrol perilaku lemah terhadap konsumsi TTD.
Maulana Satria Aji, Gita Putra Heru Yudianto
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 206-218; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.206-218

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Kampung Keluarga Berencana (KB) merupakan kegiatan pemberdayaan masyarakat berbasis keluarga dan komunitas. Kampung Keluarga Berencana merupakan program yang didasarkan pada Nawacita. kajian tentang program Kampung KB banyak dianalisis dari berbagai perspektif. Namun tidak banyak yang menganalisis dari perspektif Ottawa Charter, hal ini yang membedakan dengan penelitian lainnya . Tujuan: Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengeskplorasi implementasi pemberdayaan masyarakat Program Kampung KB dari perspektif ottawa charter. Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif, dengan menggunakan metode studi kasus yang didukung dengan pengambilan data berupa wawancara mendalam dan Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Informan dalam pelaksanaan in-depth interview sebanyak 15 orang. Lokasi penelitian di Surabaya di RW 12 Sidotopo Kecamatan Semampir Surabaya. Hasil: Hasil analisis berdasarkan poin Ottawa charter, menunjukkan Kampung KB RW 12 belum optimal, seperti belum adanya kebijakan kesehatan tertulis. Komunikasi antara Puskesmas dan DP5A masih lemah sehingga terjadi penumpukan tugas, kurangya anggaran operasional, serta anggaran dana dari pemerintah yang belum tuntas. Uniknya, pengurus mampu menggalang dana swadaya untuk operasional Kampung KB. Pihak luar pun turut membantu masyarakat dalam hal bantuan pendidikan hingga pelatihan UMKM. Kampung KB membawa banyak perubahan di masyarakat, seperti gerakan bimbingan belajar pada remajanya hingga proyek bank sampah. Kesimpulan: Implementasi pemberdayaan masyarakat pada program kampung ditinjau dari perspektif ottawa charter belum memenuhi semua aspek dengan sempurna, terutama dalam hal kebijakan dan reorientasi health services.
Ilhami Ilhami, Malik Afif
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 198-205; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.198-205

Abstract:
Background: Primary immunizations is a series of vaccination given to babies before the age of one, and it can actively increase immunity to diseases such as Hepatitis B, Poliomyelitis, Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Pneumonia, and Meningitis caused by Hemophilus influenza type B, and measles. Family support is one of the essential factors for the completeness of immunization because it will encourage parents to immunize their children. The social support theory was used here since it assumes that the source of support from families such as parents, siblings, children, relatives, and partners provides examples for individuals to perform or suggest a positive behavior. Objective: This study aimed to determine the effect of family support on the provision of complete primary immunization at the Sidotopo Health Center in Surabaya. Methods: This research used a descriptive-analytic method with a simple random sampling of 54 respondents with a degree of significance (α=0.05). Sample inclusion criteria include mothers who have children aged 12-24 months, have a health card (KMS), and live around the area of Sidotopo Health Centre. The exclusion criteria are those who were not willing to be respondents. Results: The effect of family support on immunization has a significant value of 0.015 (P Value 0.05). Conclusion: Family support for complete primary immunizations includes emotional support, appreciation support, instrumental support, and informative support. Overall, emotional support has a direct influence on providing immunization. Therefore, appreciation support, instrumental support, and informative support did not significantly affect immunization.
Sindi Eka Putri, Sri Widati
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 163-171; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.163-171

Abstract:
Background: One of the efforts made by the government to reduce the rate of population growth was through the Family Planning program. Many contraceptive methods are used by Fertile Age Couples (FAC), including the Long-Term Contraception Method (MKJP) and the non-Long-Term Contraception Method (non-MKJP). Low interest in fertile-couples for long-term use of contraception cannot be separated from family support to use these contraceptives. There is a need for an understanding of MKJP for FAC. Family support was defined as the attitude, actions, and acceptance of the family of its members. Family members see that those who are supportive are always ready to provide help and assistance. With family support, FAC can easily decide which contraception will be used. Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of family social support to the interest of FAC in using the long-term contraception method in RW 5, Sidotopo Village. Methods: This research was an observational analytic study using a cross-sectional research design. The sample of this research consists of 48 participants, taken randomly using multistage random sampling. The research instrument was in the form of a questionnaire. Then, the data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results: The characteristics of family planning acceptors in RW 5 of the Sidotopo sub-district starting from the dominating age are 21-35 years old with high school as the highest level of education. The income level in the area is middle to the upper level from 2 million to 5 million rupiahs per month. Based on the results of statistical tests, there is a correlation between family instrumental social support with the interest of Fertile Age Couples to use MKJP. Conclusion: Based on the results of the bivariate test using Chi-Square, it was found that between the four support variables, only one of them has a relationship that is instrumental support. The results of this study can be used as a rationale for policymaking in order to increase the number of long-term family planning acceptors.
Rif'Atin Haibah, Muji Sulistyowati, Ismayani Ismayani
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 190-197; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.190-197

Abstract:
Background: Overweight and obesity are two of the main non-communicable disease risks, causing mortalities in developed and developing countries. Obesity is a condition of excessive body fat, which causes overnutrition and obesity in children increases each year. Child obesity raises physical health problems that have the impact on the quality of life and the child’s body development. Moreover, it potentially makes children suffer from diseases. Purpose: This study aims to identify the related factors of preventive behavior for obesity among elementary school students in Surabaya by using the Health Belief Model Theory. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study, which involved 104 elementary school students in fourth and fifth grade in SD Dr. Soetomo V, Surabaya as samples. These samples were taken with simple random sampling. The independent variables in this study were perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy and cues to action. While the dependent variable was preventive behavior for obesity. Data were analyzed by using double logistic regression after the candidates selectionwith p<0.25 was obtained from the analysis of dependent and independent variables. Results: The results show that perceived susceptibility (P Value= 0,262), perceived severity (P Value= 0,967), perceived barriers (P Value= 0,255), and cues to action (P Value= 0,565) does not have a correlation with preventive behavior for obesity among the students. Factors related to preventive behavior for obesity were perceived benefits (P Value= 0,037) and self-efficacy (P Value= 0,037). Conclusion: The factors which are related to preventive behavior for obesity among the students at Dr. Soetomo V Elementary School, Surabaya are perceived benefits and self-efficacy.
Nurshe Aliviolla Azmi, Malik Afif
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 182-189; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.182-189

Abstract:
Background: Below the Red Line is the main cause of death among children <5 years old. Indonesia is one of the countries that still have some nutritional problems such as malnutrition, short nutrition and over nutrition, leading to 54% of deaths among children under five years old. Toddlers aged 12-59 months in Surabaya are still suffering from malnutrition despite receiving health services from the puskesmas. That is caused by several factors influencing the mother's role in taking care of her children. Objective: This study aimed to determine the description of the Red Line incidence among children. Methods: The population in this study were 691 toddlers aged 12-24 months with 31 toddlers in Below the Red Line category in Puskesmas Wonokusumo, Surabaya. The sample was taken using a simple random sampling method. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive analysis with percentage and frequency distribution techniques. Results: The data showed that 69.8% of the mothers aged 21-30 years are classified in the healthy reproductive period. As many as 81.1% of them are unemployed, 49.1% graduated from elementary school, and 52.8% have adequate knowledge. Mothers’ age is one of the indirect factors. If they are classified in the young age, they are considered to be lacking knowledge about nutrition for their children. Therefore, children become vulnerable to experience malnutrition. Conclusion: Interventions towards factors that influence Below the Red Line incidence have been carried out to prevent and overcome the problem of nutritional status. This program is not optimal due to the lack of society understanding related to the importance of nutrition improvement programs and active participation in Pos Pelayanan Terpadu or Integrated Healthcare Centre (Posyandu), so the intervention has not gone well.
Siska Maytasari, Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 146-153; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.146-153

Abstract:
Background: Abnormalities of the heart and blood vessels marked by an increase in blood pressure are known as hypertension. Worldwide, high blood pressure is estimated to affect more than one in three adults aged 25 years and over, or about one billion people. Overall, high-income countries have a lower prevalence of hypertension (35% of adults) than low and middle-income groups (40% of adults). The prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia based on the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) data in 2018 was 34.1%. Objective: This study determines the relationship of family support, social support, and health worker support with compliance of hypertensive patients. Methods: This research was conducted at the Tegal Gundil Community Health Center, North Bogor District, Bogor City, Indonesia, which was conducted from May to December 2017. The design of this study was cross-sectional. Sampling was carried out with a purposive sampling method with inclusion and exclusion criteria. The former consisted of all hypertensive patients aged 25-65 years who routinely control during the last six months who are present and willing to be interviewed during the study. The later includes hypertensive patients who have memory disorders with the number of samples of 110 respondents. Results: The results showed the respondents were dominated by the age of under 59 (75.5%), female (86.4%), junior high school as the highest education (68.2%), have no job (81.8%), and the prevalence of their sufferers’ compliance was 47.3%. The results of the Chi-square test showed that family support, social environment, and health workers were associated with compliance in hypertensive patients (OR = 2.461; CI 95% 1.140 to 5.310; P Value = 0.034). Conclusion: In order to improve compliance of patients with hypertension, it is necessary to pursue a program of activities focused on health promotion activities not only for patients but also involving family and social members.
Dimas Abdullah Marha, Mohammad Zainal Fatah, Winarko Winarko
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 172-181; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.172-181

Abstract:
Background: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is still one of the major public health problems in Indonesia. With the increasing mobility and population density, the number of people and vast distribution area is increasing. Village of Tawanganom is one endemic region, for three consecutive years, there is an incidence of dengue. The incidence of dengue can be influenced by several aspects, including vectors, climate change, environment, mobility of people, and people's behavior. The participation of health workers and community leaders become important related behavior. These include the role of motivation, coordination, policy implementation, as well as healthy behaviors. Objective: This study aimed to determine the role of health workers and community leaders in response to the incidence of dengue in the Village Tawanganom. Methods: Using qualitative research with a phenomenological approach, as well as in-depth interviews carried out with supporting data, the number of informants were 13 informants. Consisting of health professionals that the holder of dengue program, Health Promotor, and village midwives, community leaders the Head of the village, RW, as well as health cadres. Results: The motivation of public figures came from the concern over them because of the many cases of DHF and personal experiences of informants and families. Health workers motivate people to do counseling, which was supported because of responsibility as health professionals. Coordination has been made with the relevant sectors. Reporting cases of executed massively and focused. Implementation of policies in the prevention of dengue fever has been carried out based dengue prevention program Magetan District Health Office. Healthy behavior is shown with dengue prevention measures such as 3M Plus, giving abate powder in the bathroom, as well as maintaining the cleanliness of the home environment. Conclusion: The motivation to do a public figure driven intrinsic motivation of the individuals themselves, while medical personnel with extrinsic motivation based on the responsibility as health workers to encourage people to do the prevention of dengue. Coordination has been carried out massively and regularly within the scope of cross-fertilization. Implementation of policies based on the program of the Health Service Magetan. Healthy behavior implemented preventive and promotive measures.
Retananda Ragiliawati, Mochammad Bagus Qomaruddin
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 219-227; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.219-227

Abstract:
Background: Garbage is one of the unsolved problems in Indonesia. Riskesdas data for 2018 show that 63.2% of the quality of household waste management in Indonesia is in a bad category. The landfill site in Magetan Regency is currently overloaded. The waste bank is an alternative solution for solving problems. Tawanganom Village, Magetan District, Magetan Regency, won the Regency Level Healthy Village Competition in 2017 with fifth community association (RW 5) as the competition representative because it fulfilled the criteria of the championship, namely the existence of a waste bank. It is inseparable from the active role and social support of community leaders who motivate the community to participate in waste bank management. Objectives: Describe the role of community leaders as motivators in supporting waste bank management, including emotional support, appreciation, instrumental, and information. Methods: The method used in this research is qualitative with a case study approach. In-depth interviews were conducted with informants consisting of housewives and community leaders involved in waste bank activities. The determination of informants was carried out purposively with in-depth interviews using an interview guide. Results: It shows that the role of community leaders as motivators significantly affects the sustainability of the waste bank in RW 5, Tawanganom Village, Magetan Regency. Community leaders show patience in guiding the community, providing appreciation and various rewards so that the community feels proud and appreciated, and enables the community to move independently in managing the waste bank. Conclusion: The role of community leaders as motivators impacts increasing community participation in waste bank management. The waste bank can run smoothly, supported by the attention and concern of the local government and community leaders who are aggressively providing information and suggestions related to waste bank management.
Maninggar Kayuningtyas, Ismayani Ismayani
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 228-237; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.228-237

Abstract:
Background: Complications of hypertension causes 9.4 million of death worldwide each year. The risk factors for hypertension include heredity and environmental factors such as obesity, salt intake, physical activity, and alcohol. One-third of teenagers spent their time on school activities, so schools contribute to preventing hypertension in adolescents through Health School Program activities. Objective: to compare the health-promoting school program in Indonesia and Western in the prevention of hypertension. Method: The method used in writing this article was a literature review from 11 specific articles that were collected through google scholar, ProQuest, and SAGE pub search engines, with article inclusion criteria published in 2013-2019. Result: the review found that health promotion program in schools which was implemented in Indonesia have not been effective in preventing the emergence of risk factors for the incidence of hypertension in adolescents, compared with implementation in western. Ineffectiveness that occurs due to nutritional control patterns in adolescents in schools in the absence of regulations governing the nutritional content of student food, the lack of the teacher’s role in implementing health education due to high academic demands, and the lack of parental involvement. Conclusion: There are differences in the implementation of the health promotion program in Indonesia and the Western. The government priority for increasing the quality of live students trough health-promoting schools.
Nilce Astin, Andi Alim, Zainuddin Zainuddin
Published: 24 September 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 132-145; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i2.2020.132-145

Abstract:
Latar Belakang: Malaria di Indonesia sampai saat ini masih merupakan masalah kesehatan masyarakat. Dinas Kesehatan Provinsi Papua Barat menyebutkan, hingga Agustus 2018, tercatat 4.182 kasus Malaria di Provinsi Papua Barat. Dari jumlah tersebut, 2.346 kasus Malaria terjadi di Kabupaten Manokwari atau hampir 50%. Di urutan kedua ditempati Kabupaten Manokwari Selatan dengan 692 kasus dan ketiga, Kabupaten Teluk Wondama dengan 286 kasus. Tujuan: Penelitian ini mempunyai tujuan untuk mengeksplorasi informasi tentang upaya pencegahan Malaria pada masyarakat di Kecamatan Manokwari Barat Kabupaten Manokwari. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Informan penelitian sebanyak 9 orang yang ditetapkan dengan teknik snowball, informan tersebut terdiri 8 orang warga yang berdomisili di Kecamatan Manokwari Barat dan 1 orang petugas kesehatan dari Puskesmas yang menangani program Malaria. Hasil: Penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa upaya pencegahan Malaria dengan cara membunuh jentik dan nyamuk Malaria dewasa melalui penyemprotan rumah, larvaciding dan biological control tidak pernah dilakukan oleh masyarakat karena anggapan hal ini merupakan tanggung jawab petugas kesehatan. Untuk mencegah gigitan nyamuk Malaria terhadap mereka yang memiliki kebiasaan berada di luar rumah pada malam hari dengan cara memakai pakaian baju kaos lengan panjang, jaket, dan sarung panjang. Penggunaan kelambu saat tidur malam tetap dilakukan akan tetapi tidak digunakan secara rutin, hanya sesekali dan bahkan ada yang tidak menggunakan kelambu sama sekali. Pemakaian obat anti nyamuk jenis obat nyamuk bakar, selain karena hemat juga harganya terjangkau. Pemakaian kawat kasa tidak dilakukan, sebab sebagian rumah masyarakat masih semi permanen yang jendelanya terbuat dari papan dan memakai plastik bening serta kain sebagai gorden sebagai penutup jendela. Kesimpulan: Upaya pencegahan Malaria oleh masyarakat tidak dilakukan secara konsisten dan menyeluruh karna adanya anggapan bahwa upaya pemberantasan nyamuk Malaria merupakan tanggung jawab petugas kesehatan.
, Ilham Akhsanu Ridlo
Published: 6 May 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 47-58; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i1.2020.47-58

Abstract:
Background: The Surabaya City Health Office report showed, the coverage of hygienic and healthy lifestyle in 2016 was 75.07%. In Rangkah Village, a total of 2,770 (11.84%) out of 23,390 families were monitored, and as many as 1,552 of them (56.03%) had applied hygienic and healthy lifestyle. Objective: This study identified the relationship between knowledge and attitude with the implementation of clean and healthy lifestyle in Rangkah Village. Method: This study deployed quantitative research with a cross-sectional design. As many as 249 people became the sample selected by using the cluster random sampling. The independent variables were knowledge of and attitudes towards hygienic and healthy lifestyle, while the dependent variable was hygiene and healthy lifestyle. The data were then processed with SPSS to identify whether there is a relationship among the variables observed. Results: Knowledge variable obtained P value of 0.014<α (0.05), meaning there is a relationship of knowledge with hygienic and healthy lifestyle. While attitude variable had P value of 0.082>α (0.05), suggesting that there is no relationship of attitudes with hygienic and healthy lifestyle. Conclusion: One of the factors which greatly influences hygienic and healthy lifestyle in the familiesis knowledge.
Published: 6 May 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 111-121; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i1.2020.111-121

Abstract:
Background: Traditional markets are a place to fulfill basic daily needs with trading practices accompanied by direct interaction between sellers and buyers. Health promotion in public places needs to be carried out by providing facilities that can support healthy behavior for visitors. One of the effort is through the indicators of Clean and Healthy Behavior. Objective: This research aims to explore and seek appropriate recommendations so that it can be a reference in improving clean and healthy living in the traditional market environment. Method: The instruments used in this study were the field observation form, assessment form, and in-depth interview guide. Taking informants using purposive sampling techniques with inclusion criteria is the market manager. The assessment was carried out on the components of a Healthy Clean Lifestyle in traditional markets, namely 8 indicators including clean water supply, hand washing behavior with soap, healthy latrines, behavior to dispose of rubbish in its place, not smoking in public places, closing food and drinks, prohibiting indiscriminate spitting, and efforts to eradicate mosquito larvae. Results: The results of this study indicate that the four markets studied were in the Poor category. The Main Market gained 447 points, the Pamenang Market 350 points, the Pare Lama Market 352 points, the Bendo Market 366 points. There are four indicators that have the results with the lowest achievement score, namely indiscriminate spitting, smoking bans in public places, washing hands with soap, and combating mosquito larvae. Conclusion: several Traditional Markets in Pare Sub-district have not implemented 8 Indicators of Clean and Healthy Behavior in public places (Traditional Markets) properly.
, Iswari Hariastuti
Published: 6 May 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i1.2020.12-20

Abstract:
Background: Child marriage is still common in Indonesia both in urban and rural areas. One of possible causes is socio-cultural background. In Madura, the community still stick to culture and customs. Child marriage, one of among others, has become Madurese culture and legalized custom that was inherited to this day as seen in Pagarbatu Village, Sumenep. Objective: The study analyzed the effect of socio-cultural factors on the occurrence of child marriage to girls. Method: This study used a descriptive research design with a qualitative approach. It took place in Pagarbatu Village, Saronggi Sub-District, Sumenep District. The research subjects were women under the age of 18 who engaged in child marriages. Data were collected from April to May 2018. Results: The results showed that socio-cultural factors affect misconduct practices that leads to child marriage, especially among girls. Misconduct practices in child marriage are arranged marriages, age manipulations, witchcraft practices. Child marriage becomes a reason to ease family’s financial burden and also to keep tracing lineage to early ancestors. Religious beliefs are still strong in Madurese community. When females were tranced, they would be married for such mystical experience to get out of trance. Besides, there were other factors of child marriage, such as the lack of community leaders’ roles (village officials), the lack of health workers’ roles, age, education, knowledge, and family economy. Conclusion: There is a relationship between social and cultural factors with child marriage.
Published: 6 May 2020
Jurnal PROMKES, Volume 8, pp 21-35; https://doi.org/10.20473/jpk.v8.i1.2020.21-35

Abstract:
Background: Since the beginning of HIV epidemic in the world, about 70 million people have been infected with the HIV, and 35 million have died for HIV. HIV-AIDS is a chronic disease that requires a comprehensive treatment on People Living With HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) who need family support in facing their problems. Family in a community have a different social class, one of which is socioeconomic status. Objective: This study analyzed the relationship between socioeconomic status (education level, job status, and income) and family support with the quality of life of PLWHA. Method: This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional analytic design. The population were PLWHA who were outpatients in the clinical stage 3 based on the medical records of IPIPI RSUD Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. The sample size was 93 respondents selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected through self-administered instrument with WHOQOL HIV BREF and analyzed with chi-square test. The study was conducted from April to May 2018 at IPIPI RSUD Dr. Soetomo Surabaya. Results: Results showed that there was no correlation between education level (P value = 0.141), job status (P value = 1.000), and income (P value = 0.678) with the quality of life of PLWHA, and there was significant correlation of family support (P value = 0.030) with the quality of life of PLWHA. Support that is significantly related to the quality of life is social network support (P value = 0.034). Conclusion: There is no correlation of education, employment status, and income with the quality of life of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). There is a significant correlation of social network support from families with the quality of life of PLHA.
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