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Junona S. Almonaitienė, Veronika Girininkaitė
Published: 7 July 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 137-152; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.32

Abstract:
The beginning of the 20th century is well known as a time of formation of psychology as an independent scientific discipline. One of the students interested in it was Vytautas Civinskis (1887–1910), who attended Wilhelm Wundt’s Psychology lectures during his agriculture (Landwirtschaft) studies at Leipzig University, in 1904–1906, and led a Diary at that time. This article presents analysis of fragments of Civinskis’ Diary related to psychology. Several artefacts found in it, preliminarily interpreted as the diarist’s introspection data related to emotional phenomena, are being discussed. The analysis verified the initial assumption and helped to understand the essence of the diarist’s research design. It was also deduced that Civinskis proceeded with the introspection at least two years after Wundt’s Psychology lectures, trying to elaborate the method. It was found that some other researchers, e. g. Flügel (1925), Viliūnas, Pacevičius and Stončius (1997) applied similar methods much later. The Civinskis’ research on his own emotional states was amateurish but performed consistently and diligently. It can be considered as one of the earliest cases of empirical research in the history of Lithuanian psychology and adds to our still incomplete knowledge of the latter.
Neringa Grigutytė, Saulė Raižienė, Vilmantė Pakalniškienė
Published: 7 July 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 153-164; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.33

Abstract:
This paper presents the concept of risks and opportunities of children’s and adolescents’ Internet use. The research is a part of the project “Children’s and adolescents’ Internet use in Lithuania: possibilities and risks tendencies in EU context”, which was funded by a grant (No. S-MIP-17-1/LSS-250000-1087) from the Research Council of Lithuania. The main results are presented in comparison with Lithuanian and European studies. Conclusions and recommendations on how to ensure safe children’s Internet use on their own and to avoid potential risks, as well as how to open up the opportunities offered by the Internet are provided.
Jonas Eimontas, Albinas Bagdonas, Antanas Kairys, Olga Zamalijeva, Vilmantė Pakalniškienė, Raimonda Sadauskaitė
Published: 28 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 118-136; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.31

Abstract:
The life course perspective raised many discussions about continuity, types of threads linking different developmental stages, and ways to identify these links. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of childhood family circumstances and family repression / discrimination experiences in predicting psychological well-being in later life. The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) wave 7 data was used; 1985 respondents aged 50+ (M = 66.23, SD = 10.52) living in Lithuania (63.8 % – female) provided retrospective information on their early life circumstances, including home environment, relationships with family / friends, family persecution. Psychological well-being was assessed with a 12-item Control, Autonomy, Self-Realization, and Pleasure (CASP) scale. Results of the hierarchical regression analysis showed that the inclusion of family persecution and other childhood factors increases the prognostic value of the model by 8 percent. Relationships with mother and friends, self-rated health, perceived abilities, number of books at home, and physical harm by others significantly predicted psychological well-being among older adults, even after controlling pivotal sociodemographic variables. These results suggest that creating a caring, safe, and cognitively stimulating childhood environment can promote better development in early stages and contribute to greater psychological well-being in later life.
, Vilmantė Pakalniškienė
Published: 13 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 101-117; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.30

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between environmental attitudes and recycling behaviour in primary school age, and to evaluate the role that school and parents play in the prediction of children’s attitudes and behaviour. Primary school pupils aged 8–11 years (n = 116), their parents and their class teachers participated in the study. During the structured face-to-face interviews, children answered questions about their recycling behaviour and environmental attitudes (i.e. eco-affinity and eco-awareness). Parents provided answers on their recycling behaviour, verbal modelling of the behaviour, incentives used when a child recycles waste, and environmental attitudes, while class teachers provided information about the recycling in children’s school. Structural equation models were tested with a purpose to evaluate the role of different independent variables, i.e. only school, only parental factors, or both, when predicting child recycling behaviour. Results of the study showed that children’s environmental attitudes had no significant links to their recycling behaviour. The only factor that appeared to be significant in the prediction of child behaviour was parental recycling behaviour. Furthermore, recycling in schools predicted pupils’ eco-awareness. Based on the study findings, it would be worthwhile to promote more practical training of pro-environmental behaviour, and to strengthen children’s eco-affinity.
, Krisztina Ábel
Published: 13 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 86-100; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.29

Abstract:
General psychosocial measures are assumed to be stable over time. However, such measures may be affected by the situation preceding assessment. In this study 28 participants completed the WHO-5 Well-Being Index, the Subjective Happiness Scale, and the Life Orientation Test which are general measures, and the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule and the Feeling Scale which are state measures. Subsequently, the first part of ‘Mega Disasters Nagasaki The Forgotten Bomb’ documentary was presented to the participants. Following the intervention, they completed the same measures again. State measures of negative affect increased, feeling state decreased as expected, but retrospectively measured well-being as well as the index of optimism also decreased. There were large individual differences. The findings indicate that general measures, assumed to be stable over time, are influenced by the situation. Therefore, there is a need for reporting, as well as controlling, the events preceding their measurement. The implication of these findings is that hundreds of empirical results based on general or trait measures may be invalid if any event preceding their assessment had an emotional impact.
Ernesta Smilingytė,
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 40-55; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.25

Abstract:
Even though the increasing amount of waste is one of the biggest environmental challenges we currently face, surprisingly little is known about the psychological factors of waste prevention behaviour. The purpose of the study is to examine whether students‘ waste prevention behaviour can be predicted by the Value-Belief-Norm theory. In this paper, we report results from a questionnaire study of 221 students aged from 18 to 26 years. It was found that the Value-Belief-Norm theory could indeed explain students‘ waste prevention behaviour. As expected, findings indicate that high endorsement of biospheric values is associated with a strong ecological worldview, which was related to an increased awareness of environmental consequences. Those beliefs led to stronger personal norms, which were associated with more frequent waste prevention behaviour. Understanding students‘ waste prevention behaviour and the factors predicting it is a key step that could help to reduce the amount of waste that is generated. It is particularly relevant among students because higher education environment could be an effective place to increase students‘ pro-environmental behaviour and connect this behaviour with their values, beliefs and norms.
Justė Norvaišaitė, Vita Mikuličiūtė
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 72-85; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.27

Abstract:
Gender stereotypes have determined that the concepts of management and leadership are more associated with men than women. There are more men working in management positions than women in various countries, including Lithuania. The most widely discussed cause for that is discrimination against women in the labor market. The aim of the study was to examine evaluation differences between personnel specialists and comparison group, depending on their own and candidate‘s gender. Study was based on quasi-experimental strategy which included a hiring simulation. Participants had to evaluate potential candidates, a man and a woman, seeking for a job in management position. Data was collected from 128 people (age range - 19 to 56 years): 48 personnel specialists (M=29,38; SD=7,48), 49 women, who represented other specialties (M=26,29; SD=7,36) and 31 men, who represented other specialties (M=25,39; SD=5,05). Both personnel specialists and comparison group evaluated man and woman-candidate as similar. There were no significant differences between the two candidates on their hireability, reliability, competence, potential salary and promotability. However, results also indicate that personnel specialists and women, representing other specialties, suggested that man was more capable to work in teams than woman. The study gives an insight about the possibility of gender stereotype change.
Jovita Janavičiūtė, Inesa Lelytė, Algirdas Žukevičius, Rimantas Vilcinis, Aistė Pranckevičienė
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 8-23; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.23

Abstract:
People seeking higher privileges or disability benefits are prone to simulate cognitive difficulties (van Oorsouw, Merckelbach, 2010). The most common is the simulation of memory impairment, but there is no adapted test in Lithuania that could identify it. The purpose of this study is to determine Rey Fifteen-Item Test (FIT; Rey, 1964; Lezak, Howieson, Bigler, Tranel, 2012) sensitivity and specificity by comparing three groups of subjects: healthy responders, who perform tests, as usual, healthy responders, who were instructed to simulate memory impairments and patients with traumatic brain injuries. The study included 91 subjects aged 18 to 86 years (M=42.04 SD=13.5). The study used the “Short Term Memory Test” (STMT; Vasserman, Dorofeeva, Meyerson, 1997), the FIT, socio-demographic questions. The results of the study revealed that the malingerers and nonmalingerers did not differ in the STMA scores. Whereas in patients with traumatic brain injuries STMA scores were significantly lower. Nonmalingerers and patients with traumatic brain injuries performed better on FIT than malingerers. The probability that the malingerers score lower than people with memory difficulties is 62 up to 78 percent; FIT sensitivity ranges between 73 and 90 percent, specificity between 41 and 72 percent, depending on the RPOT cut-off score.
Algimantas Švegžda, Rytis Stanikūnas, Kristina Augustinaitė, , Henrikas Vaitkevičius
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 24-39; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.24

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to record facial electromiograms (EMG) while subjects were viewing facial expressions of different pain levels (no-pain, medium pain and very painful) and to find objective criteria for measuring pain expressed in human’s face. The study involved 18 students with age 21 years. The magnitude of the EMG response of m. corrugator supercilii depended on voluntary performed facial pain expression in the subjects. EMG responses of voluntary performed facial pain expressions to mirrored pain reactions were detected at two time span intervals: 200–300 ms after stimulation in m. zygomaticus major, and 400–500 ms after stimulation in m. corrugator supercilii. These differences disappear after 1300 ms. In the second time interval, differences in EMG responses of both muscle groups occur 1600 ms after stimulus presentation, but disappear differently: 3100 ms after stimulation in m. zygomaticus major and 4000 ms in m. corrugator supercilii. Constant responding with “medium pain” expression when recognizing faces of different pain expressions have an effect on the voluntary EMG responses of individual subjects. Images with emotional expression “no pain” reduce m. corrugator supercilii activity and increase m. zygomaticus major activity for those observers.
Karina Kravčenko,
Published: 11 May 2021
Psichologija, Volume 63, pp 56-71; doi:10.15388/psichol.2021.26

Abstract:
Background. Social norms theory-based interventions have been widely used to reduce alcohol consumption among college and university students. Lately, it has been argued that such interventions may actually increase alcohol use among light drinkers. However, little studies have been focused on testing this possible negative effect. Objectives. The aim of this study was to examine possible negative impact of descriptive normative feedback (DNF) on drinking intentions among students whose baseline drinking scores were below the average of a reference group. We also studied the preventive effect of injunctive normative feedback (INF). Methods. Actual descriptive and injunctive norms were collected from 234 university students. From those who reported drinking below the norm, 26 were randomly assigned to a control or intervention condition that received normative feedback via PowerPoint presentations over two meetings. Results. DNF increased students’ intentions of spirits drinking frequency and quantity. Meanwhile intentions to drink beer, cider, wine and cocktails remained the same. Increased intentions to drink spirits were not reduced by INF. Conclusions. Findings suggest that DNF-based interventions might negatively affect the use of spirits among those students who consume less than their peer norm by increasing their intentions to drink spirits more often and in larger quantities. Ways other than the INF to prevent this negative effect need to be further explored.
Zuzana Vasiliauskaitė, Robert Geffner
Published: 30 December 2020
Psichologija pp 56-68; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.21

Abstract:
Many researchers are still relying on older and more rigid instruments focusing mostly on the physical aspect of intimate partner violence (IPV). This way multidimensionality of IPV and complex experiences of IPV survivors’ are overlooked by many researchers, practitioners and decision-makers. Therefore, our study aimed to adopt to Lithuanian two multidimensional scales: the Composite Abuse Scale (CAS) and the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA). As well as confirm its validity and reliability for the use for determining the experiences of Lithuanian women in intimate partner relationships. Through various channels 311 women, survivors of IPV were recruited. The structure of both measurements was validated using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and internal consistency using McDonald’s omega coefficient. Relying on the newest research we confirmed a five-factor structure for the CAS with the five factors being: Severe Combined Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Emotional Abuse, Physical Abuse, and Harassment. We also confirmed the three-factor structure for the SEA, resulting in Economic Control, Economic Exploitation, and Employment Sabotage. The instruments demonstrated high internal consistency. The validated instruments that measure multidimensionality of IPV will allow a more comprehensive data and knowledge collection of women’s experiences in abusive relationships.
Published: 30 December 2020
Psichologija pp 25-37; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.18

Abstract:
The present study investigates and provides support for the Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis regarding pro-environmental values. Study 1 showed that the highest attained education level is a significant predictor of pro-environmental concern, while Study 2 showed that the trait of openness to experience plays a unique role in predicting biospheric values, but not other values, lending support for the Savanna-IQ interaction hypothesis. Acting to preserve the natural environment is an evolutionarily novel challenge, and therefore, is more actively addressed by individuals who more readily adopt novel ideas and seek out new ways of behaving.
Published: 30 December 2020
Psichologija pp 69-86; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.22

Abstract:
Background. Children’s sleep problems are associated with temperament. One of the dimensions of temperament – higher emotional reactivity – is defined as a risk factor for children’s emotional, behavioral, and sleep problems. Screen-based media use is a very common phenomenon among children that relates to sleep problems. Still there is a gap of research explaining the interactions between children’s sleep problems, temperament, and parental discipline (sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use). The aim of this study is to evaluate the relations between preschool children’s sleep problems and parents’ discipline (sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use), and the role of children’s emotional reactivity. Methods. This research is a part of the longitudinal study “Electronic Media Use and Young Children’s Health” conducted in the year 2017–2018 and funded by the Research Council of Lithuanian (agreement no. GER-006/2017). Participants are 876 children aged 2 to 5 years old and their parents. Children’s sleep problems and emotional reactivity were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/1½-5). Information about rules for screen-based media use and sleep regime was obtained using the parent-report questionnaire. Results. Sleep problems are related to emotional reactivity, sleep regime, and rules for screen media use. Children without regular sleep regime and without constant rules for screen-based media use have higher sleep problems and emotional reactivity. The results of the regression analysis show that emotional reactivity, together with sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use, significantly explain one-fifth to one-third of children’s sleep problems at different ages of the preschool period. However, the prognostic value of emotional reactivity and parental discipline varies according to a child’s age, as they are significant predictors of sleep problems among two, three and four-year-olds, but no longer explain sleep problems of five-year-olds. The path analysis confirmed that emotional reactivity, directly and through mediating variables, e.g., parental reported child’s sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use, is significantly associated with children’s sleep problems. Conclusions. Emotional reactivity should be considered as a significant risk factor in the relation between children’s sleep problems, sleep regime and parental applied rules for screen-based media use. These results are important while identifying children at higher risk for sleep problems. The results also support that parental discipline, such as sleep regime and rules for screen-based media use, are significant for preventing sleep problems in children with higher emotional reactivity.
, , Leif A. Strömwall
Published: 30 December 2020
Psichologija pp 44-55; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.20

Abstract:
This study was an examination into whether the use of memory-enhancing techniques (mnemonics) in interviews can be helpful to distinguish truth tellers from liars. In the previous study (Izotovas et al., 2018), it was found that when mnemonic techniques were used in the interview immediately after the event, truth-tellers reported more details than liars in those immediate interviews and again after a delay. Moreover, truth-tellers, but not liars, showed patterns of reporting indicative of genuine memory decay. In the current experiment, participants (n = 92) were asked to read the repeated statements reported by participants in the Izotovas et al.’s (2018) study and decide whether the statements they read were truthful or deceptive. One group of participants (informed condition) received information about the findings of the previous study before reading the statement. The other group received no information before reading the statement (uninformed condition). After participants made veracity judgements, they were asked an open-ended question asking what factors influenced their credibility decision. Although truthful statements were judged more accurately in the informed condition (65.2%) than in the uninformed condition (47.8%), this difference was not significant. In both conditions deceptive statements were detected at chance level (52.2%). Participants who relied on the self-reported diagnostic verbal cues to deceit were not more accurate than participants who self-reported unreliable cues. This could happen because only the minority of participants (27.4%) in both conditions based their decisions on diagnostic cues to truth/deceit.
Ina Dimitrova
Published: 28 December 2020
Psichologija pp 38-43; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.19

Abstract:
Performance in all sports requires good spatial attention. This study investigates the impact of long-term sports training on lateralization of visual spatial attention and also explores if the type of sport (foot orienteering (FootO) vs. judo) could be related to differentiated effects on the pattern of lateralization. Thirty practitioners of FootO (aged 16-58 years, Mean age = 24.96±10.98; 16 males), 30 judo wrestlers (aged 16-60 years, Mean age = 25.96±10.61; 19 males), and 30 subjects who have never practiced any sport (aged 15-53 years, Mean age = 33.2±11.56; 13 males), were studied with a line-bisection task. All participants were right-handed and the athletes had at least 5 years of active sport practicing. Although the mean transection in the three groups was to the left of the true center regardless of the hand used suggesting right pseudoneglect, the accuracy of both hands was highest in the group of practitioners of FootO and lowest in the non-athletes group. Also, there were no between-hands differences in the accuracy among practitioners of FootO (t(30) = 0.062, p = 0.951), slightly better right hand accuracy in judo wrestlers (t(30) = 0.608, p = 0.548), and significantly better right hand accuracy in non-athletes (t(30) = -2.297, p = 0.029). In general, the results suggest that the active long-term training of any sport may affects functional brain organization of visual spatial attention towards its more balanced hemispheric presentation, but the type of sport is of great importance for the magnitude of the induced changes.
Justina Davolytė, Saulė Raižienė,
Published: 28 December 2020
Psichologija pp 8-24; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.17

Abstract:
It has been suggested that the quality of pre-primary education influences children's learning abilities in a variety of ways. Teachers’ behaviors are among the major factors relating to the quality of the classrooms, and one aspect of them – teachers’ self-efficacy – has been put forward to predict successful development of childrens’ learning and abilities to learn. Given this, it is surprising that relatively few studies have taken pre-primary techers' self-efficasy into account, and no research on the topic has been conducted in Lithuania. Futhermore, a few studies have analyzed how teachers' self-efficacy relates to childrens' learning abilities, such as, tasks persistence and self-regulation. Consequently, the present study analyzed relations between teachers' self-efficacy, childrens' task persistence and self-regulation. This study is based on the theory of teachers’ self-efficacy by Tschannen-Moran and Woolfolk Hoy (2001). The aim of the current study is to determine whether the self-efficacy of Lithuanian pre-primary teachers' is related to the learning outcomes, in particular, childrens' tasks persistence and ability to regulate their behavior. Childrens' tasks persistence was measured using the Behavioral strategy rating scale (teachers' form) (Aunola et al., 2000; Zhang et al., 2011); the Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task (McCellandet al., 2007; Ponitz et al., 2008; Ponitz at al., 2009) was used to measure childrens' self-regulation. Participants were 18 pre-primary education teachers from six Lithuanian schools and their 229 pre-primary class students (116 [50.7%] girls and 113 [49.3%] boys). Teachers answered questionnaires concerning their self-efficacy towards the whole class and towards each child’s task persistence; school psychologists tested each child on their self-regulation. The statistical analyses of this study comprised of correlation analyses and hierarchical regression analyses. The results supported our expectations about the positive significant relations between teachers' self-efficacy, childrens' tasks persistence and self-regulation. That is, the greater teachers' self-efficacy was, better childrens' tasks persistence and self-regulation were. The results stayed significant even after controlling for, child gender, parental education, and teachers’ experience. MoreoverIn particular, gilrs and children of higher educated parents were more likely to have better task persistence and self-regulation. Moreover, surprisingly, it was found that teachers' work experience predicted childrens' self-regulation. Taken together, the results have verified that techers' self-efficacy plays a meaningful role in promoting childrens’ tasks persistence and self-regulation in Lithuanian preschool. Thus, from the practical point of view, in order to facilitate children’s learning in preschool and primary school, one should also pay attention to the ways of strengthening teachers’ self-efficacy.
Published: 5 October 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 51-67; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.15

Abstract:
Children’s electronic media use in the form of Internet has increased over the past decades. The activities that children engage using the Internet can lead to experiencing positive as well as negative outcomes. Recent studies have found that excessive time devoted to the Internet use and behavioral narrowing can lead to Internet addiction (Enagandula et al., 2018) or compulsive Internet use (Meerkerk et al., 2009). This phenomenon can be described as a greater risk of developing excessive online habits, which may result in impairments of individual’s activities of daily living as well as relationships with others. Specific characteristics of these associations, however, have been examined only minimally in young children. The goal of this study was to examine the peculiarities of elementary school-aged children’s Internet use in relation to sociodemographic and relationships with others, as well as possible behavioral and emotional difficulties. The sample consisted of 304 parent-child dyads. All children in the study were second or third grade students (mean age 8.47 years, SD = 0.56), 50.3% were boys. Children and parents completed the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS; Meerkerk et al., 2009) and provided information about time spent on the Internet. Parents provided sociodemographic information and completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; Goodman, 1997), and children answered questions about their relationships with their parents and peers. The results of the study revealed significant gender differences in compulsivity of the Internet use, i.e. the estimates of boys CIUS – both provided by children and their parents – were significantly higher than girls. In overall, there was good agreement between parental and children’s reports on child’s CIUS, however parents reported higher CIUS scores and longer Internet use than children themselves. Regression analysis revealed that children’s CIUS is predicted (a) from the child’s perspective – by longer Internet time together with lower scores of child prosocial behavior, male gender, less advantaged financial situation in the family, and poorer parent-child relationships; (b) from the parent’s perspective – by longer Internet time, male gender, lower scores of child prosocial behavior, higher scores of behavioral and emotional difficulties together with less advantaged financial family status. The findings of the study are discussed in light of evidence-based practice and research.
Aleksandras Izotovas, , Leif A. Strömwall, Samantha Mann
Published: 2 October 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 68-89; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.16

Abstract:
Memory enhancing techniques, or mnemonics, are typically recommended in evidence-based investigative interviewing guidelines. In the current study, the use of a sketch mnemonic and its effect on the responses of truth tellers and liars was examined. Participants (n = 49) watched a mock intelligence operation video. They were instructed to tell the truth or lie about this operation in an interview immediately afterwards, and again after a two-week delay. In both interviews participants were requested to make a sketch of the place of the mock operation, and then to verbally describe the drawing. Results revealed that truth tellers reported more visual, spatial, temporal, and action details than liars in the immediate interview. Truth tellers also reported more spatial, temporal and action details than liars in the delayed interview. Truth tellers experienced a decline in reporting action details after the delay, whereas liars did not show a decline in reporting any details over time. Thus, truth-tellers showed patterns of reporting indicative of genuine memory decay, whereas liars produced patterns reflecting a ‘stability bias’. Between-statement consistency was not different across veracity conditions.
Rytis Stanikūnas, Laimonas Puišys, Aldona Radzevičienė, Henrikas Vaitkevičius
Published: 7 July 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 8-20; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.12

Abstract:
What determines which colour combinations will be attractive to a person and which will not? Is colour attractiveness only a subjective human experience, or can we predict it based on physical colour parameters? One of the pioneers of the attraction of colour theories was Michel Eugène Chevreul (1786–1889). He distinguished two types of colour harmony – analog colour and contrast – and tried to describe what harmonics are based on physical colour parameters. This was later done by other scientists. Later, semantic evaluation of colours was introduced and factor analysis attempted to identify emotions caused by colours or combinations of colours. The aim of this research is to test whether there is a consistent pattern of judgments of colour combinations under controlled conditions and, if so, to what extent they are influenced by the objective physical characteristics of those combinations. Subjects. The study involved 40 students (20 men, 20 women). All subjects had normal colour vision and were not related to fine art. Research tools. The study used 8 colours: 4 opponent (green, red, yellow and blue) and 4 additional (orange, lettuce, blue and purple). The 28 colour combinations (made up of two different colours) were composed of those 8 colours and printed onto cardboard card where each colour had area of 80 mm x 80 mm. Questionnaire of 40 adjectives consisting of 20 pairs of antonyms were used for semantic colour assessment. Procedure. The investigation was conducted in a dark room. Initially, all 28 cards with colour combinations were placed randomly on a desk lit by a 40 cm high fluorescent lamp (4000K correlated colour temperature). The subject was asked to select one of the cards with the most preferable colour combination, to write its code on the questionnaire and to mark all the epithets in the questionnaire which suits this colour combination. The same procedure was applied to the all other cards. One experiment lasted 35–50 minutes. Results and conclusions. Independent component analysis distinguished 4 dimensions describing colours: pleasure, energy, purple color and strength. Logistic regression analysis was run on colour factor loadings to discriminate colour combinations into two groups: liked and disliked colour combinations. It shows that that colour combination could be predicted as being liked or disliked with 85% probability. Adding physical colour parameters to the regression increases prognostic probability to 92 %. Also a relationship between subjective factors and physical characteristics of colour combinations was found. Pleasure correlates with hue contrast and strength with saturation contrast. It can be argued that the reliability of colour combinations is determined by both subjective and physical factors.
Aldona Radzevičienė, Jurgita Jankūnaitė
Published: 29 June 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 21-32; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.13

Abstract:
The goal of this study was to investigate in which cases boundary extension occurs when repainting visual images with different content from your memory. The method that was used in this study is based on a meta-analysis conducted by Hubbard et al. (2010). The method consists of 12 stimuli (dimensions 10x15 cm), which show a photographic image or sketch of a painting. Presented stimuli contain images with different content – finished object, object with its corners removed, emotionally neutral, positive and negative object, moving object; 120 respondents participated in the study, their age ranged from 14 to 45 years old (average age – 25,6). The first hypothesis, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of objects with removed corners than those of finished objects repainted from memory, was confirmed. The second hypothesis, stating that boundary extension is more frequent with images of emotionally neutral objects than those of emotionally positive or intense objects repainted from memory, was confirmed. The third hypothesis, stating that boundary extension while repainting images that contain containing moving objects, form memory, unfolds from the expected direction of object movement – the left side, was not confirmed. It was found that boundary extension unfolded at the top of a painting (bird) and at the bottom of a painting (vehicle). The fourth hypothesis was partly confirmed – that boundary extension while repainting images from memory with different content stimuli is more likely to happen among teenagers (years 14–19). The central tendency is more likely among younger adults (20–30), and boundary restriction – among older adults (31–45). The fifth hypothesis was confirmed. As expected, boundary extension when repainting images of different content from memory more often occurrs with women than men. The sixth hypothesis, stating that boundary extensions are more often when repainting images from memory that were painted and are not photographical images, was not confirmed.
Cornelia Rada
Published: 29 June 2020
Psichologija, Volume 61, pp 33-50; doi:10.15388/psichol.2020.14

Abstract:
The objectives of this study were the determination of the prevalence of self-reported depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale and the influences of variable income, physical activity, socialization and sexual activity. A total of 601 patients aged 55–93 years with a mean age of 67.32 years and a median age of 67 years participated in this study between 2016 and 2017. Non-cooperative people and individuals with strong auditory or visual sensory deficits, severe cognitive deficits, or disorders accompanied by psychotic elements with serious somatic pathology were excluded from the interviews. Employing the SPSS GENLIN procedure, an ordinal logistic model was used. Over ½ of the respondents are within the categories of moderate and severe depression, almost half of the respondents feel that their family incomes are not enough or make it hard to meet their needs, approximately 10% think they are sedentary, over ½ participate in no sexual activity, and over ¼ do not frequently respond with pleasure to partner-initiated sexual relationships. Those who were in the higher depression category perceived their income to be extremely low (p = .001), perceived themselves as sedentary (p < .001), infrequently met with friends or neighbours in their leisure time (p = .002), and had lower sexual interest (p < .001). Middle-aged adults and older adults should learn about the health benefits of physical activity, socialization and sexual activity. Social policies must take into account this low-income segment. Poverty itself can be a contributor to depressive states, and additionally, due to their low incomes, elderly people are at risk of benefiting less from pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy.
Published: 3 February 2020
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 86-105; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.11

Abstract:
In this paper we report a study on how different types of normatively relevant transgressions are evaluated by Chinese participants. We hypothesized that, given the continuing influences of Confucian worldview on contemporary Chinese societies, the Chinese will not make a distinction between moral (daode) and conventional norms of cultured behavior (wenming). Our results indicate that Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction not only towards harmful and unfair actions, usually subsumed under the moral domain in Western literature, but also towards violations of what would be widely accepted as conventional (or cultural) norms. Similarly, Chinese participants expressed a strong normative conviction towards violations of the traditional Chinese value of family reverence (xiao), thus further supporting our general thesis. Moreover, results indicate that, overall, explicit consi­derations of wenming (unculturedness) emerged as the best predictor of a normative conviction response among the Chinese. Though considerations of harm and fairness also emerged as significant predictors of normative conviction response. The results are discussed in the light of recent debates about the moral/conventional distinction and the scope of morality.
Viktorija Mikalauskienė, Alfredas Laurinavičius
Published: 30 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 46-57; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.8

Abstract:
Adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje – tai įkalinto asmens psichologinis ir elgesinis atsakas į pataisos įstaigos aplinką ir įkalinimo situaciją (Fedock, 2017). Sėkmingai adaptavęsi nuteistieji geba patenkinti savo pagrindinius poreikius, nekonfliktuoja nei su pataisos įstaigos administracija, nei su kitais nuteistaisiais, nepatiria stiprių neigiamų emocijų ir t.t. Manoma, kad nesėkminga adaptacija pataisos įstaigoje siejasi su mažesne motyvacija keisti savo nusikalstamą elgesį ir recidyvu (Loper, 2002; Zamble & Porporino, 1988). Nors nuteistųjų adaptacija pataisos įstaigose ir ją prognozuojančiais veiksniais užsienio mokslininkai domisi jau kelis dešimtmečius, Lietuvoje tokių tyrimų ypač trūksta. Šio tyrimo tikslas – nustatyti laisvės atėmimo bausmę atliekančių nuteistųjų adaptaciją Lietuvos pataisos įstaigose prognozuojančius veiksnius. Tyrime dalyvavo nuteistieji vyrai (N = 331) iš 5 Lietuvos pataisos įstaigų, jų amžius svyravo nuo nuo 18 iki 68 metų (M = 35,17, SD = 10,75). Adaptacijai įvertinti buvo naudojama Kalėjimo problemų skalė (Zamble & Porporino, 1988), Beck depresijos klausimyno antroji leidimo versija (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996) ir Beck nerimo klausimynas (Beck, Epstein, Brown, & Steer, 1988). Adaptacijos veiksniai buvo įvertinti demografinių duomenų anketa bei Kriminalinių nuostatų modifikuota skale (Simourd, 1997). Nustatyta, jog adaptaciją geriausiai prognozuoja kriminalinės nuostatos ir bendravimas su draugais arba partnere. Tirti veiksniai paaiškino iki 16 % adaptaciją vertinančių kintamųjų sklaidos.
Algis Norvilas
Published: 30 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 8-26; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.6

Abstract:
In a series of four experiments, the cued-recall task was used to explore bilingual word representation in episodic memory. When target words were encoded singly, their recall to same-language and to crossed-language extralist cues was found not to be different. These results appear to support a language independent view of bilingual word representation in which words of different languages are mutually accessible. When target words were encoded in a cue-target relational fashion, recall of target words was much higher to original-language than to translated-language intralist cues, thus supporting a language dependent view. In this case information seems to be bound by the language in which it was originally encountered. This difference in results of cross-language cuing of singly and relationally encoded words was assumed to result from shifts in meaning brought about by contrasting word experiences. More broadly, the findings were interpreted within the context of Don Dulany’s (1997) mentalistic theory of evocative versus deliberative processing of words.
Dalia Bagdžiūnienė, Jurgita Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė, Ieva Urbanavičiūtė
Published: 30 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 27-45; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.7

Abstract:
Organizational citizenship behaviour is defined as “individual behaviour that is discretionary and not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system and in the aggregate promotes the efficient and effective functioning of the organization” (Organ, Podsakoff, & MacKenzie, 2006). Nowadays it is one of the most widely studied phenomena in the field of organizational science (Podsakoff, Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Maynes, & Spoelma, 2014). Employee citizenship behaviour generates additional value for the organization by creating a positive social environment, improving the use of resources, coordinating activities within and between working groups, enhancingthe organization’s ability to attract and retain the best employees, maintaining organizational stability and adaptabilityto environmental changes. Meanwhile, citizenship behaviour is not widely studied in Lithuania and one ofthe reasons may be a lack of reliable and valid instruments that would correspond to the country’s cultural context.The first version of the Lithuanian twenty-nine items Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) questionnaireincluded dimensions of altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and was developed in 2013 (Bagdžiūnienė,Lazauskaitė-Zabielskė ir Urbanavičiūtė, 2013). Later, in 2014–2016, two studies were carried out with the aim torevise and confirm the structure of the OCB questionnaire and to re-evaluate its psychometric properties.In the first study, a total of 1985 employees from one Lithuanian public sector organization were surveyed online. Ninety-two percent of the respondents were female, the average age of respondents was 45.13 (SD = 10.3) years, with an average of 12.34 (SD = 7.74) years of working experience in the organization. Thirteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) confirmed the five factor structure of the questionnaire; however, nine items with the lowest loadings were removed. The shortened version of the OCB questionnaire consists of five dimensions with four items in each scale. Cronbach’s alphas confirmed the reliability of each scale, the discriminant validity was confirmed by positive correlations between OCB dimensions and inrole behaviour, affective organizational commitment, job satisfaction and negative correlations with the intention to quit. In the second study, 647 employees from different organizations were surveyed online. Seventy-four percent of them were female, the average age of respondents was 30.64 (SD = 10.08) years, with an average of 4.45 (SD = 6.19) years of working experience in the organization. Sixteen percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Thirty-two percent of the respondents were from public and sixty-eight percent from private sector organizations. The five-factor structure was additionally approved by applying CFA in this sample, the invariance of the structure regarding gender, age, and status was also confirmed. Conclusion: The revised OCB questionnaire is a reliable and valid twenty-items multidimensional instrument and is congruent with the classical concept of OCB. It includes five dimensions of employee citizenship behaviour, namely altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, conscientiousness, and initiative. Limitations and practical applications are discussed.
Published: 20 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 58-71; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.9

Abstract:
Sexual harassment is still a widespread problem in today’s modern society. Therefore, it is important to identify extralegal factors that shape society’s attitudes towards sexual harassment cases and why, sometimes, the victim of sexual harassment is being blamed for the situation. Most of the previous studies do not explore the causal relationship between the characteristics of the accused and the attitudes towards the cases. Moreover, the results of many existing studies are contradictory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the impact of sex, physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status (SES) of the perpetrator on the attitudes towards sexual harassment situations. A hundred seventy-nine respondents participated in the study. During the research, a fictional news report and situation assessment scale were used. It was found that only a perpetrator’s physical attractiveness and socioeconomic status had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of the perpetrator and victim’s behavior in the situation. The physical attractiveness of the perpetrator resulted in a statistically significant positive appraisal of his behavior and a more negative appraisal of the victim’s behavior. SES only had a statistically significant impact on the appraisal of perpetrator’s behavior: when the perpetrator was of high SES, his behavior in a sexual harassment situation was perceived more negatively than that of low SES. Results of this research not only emphasize the importance of extralegal factors on the attitudes toward the sexual harassment victims and perpetrators among younger adults, but also indicates possible societal changes – diminished gender and opposite SES effects on the attitudes toward the aforementioned situations.
Saulė Raižienė, Vilmantė Pakalniškienė
Published: 20 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 72-85; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.10

Abstract:
Technological changes are making the Internet more accessible and interactive. The opportunities offered by the Internet, Internet use (time, frequency, accessibility, social networks, activities, etc.), and threats are changing as well. Cyberbullying is identified as one of the main threats on the Internet that has the most serious consequences. Research has found that cyberbullying is the most frustrating Internet threat for children (Haddon & Livingstone, 2012). Considering that children do not live without the Internet, and that the opportunities and threats of the Internet change all the time, the impact on emotional and behavioural problems of children has not been fully explored. This study is part of the Lithuanian Science Council funded project “Children’s and adolescents’ Internet use in Lithuania: possibilities and risks tendencies in EU context” (No. S-MIP-17-1/LSS-250000-1087). It aims to compare emotional and behavioural problems of children who have been victims of different forms of bullying and/or bullied themselves. During the data collection in 2018, 1012 children aged 9 to 17 years were interviewed; 161 (15.9%) children reported being bullied over the last year (61.5% of them in cyber space), and 65 (6.4%) children bullied others over the last year (52.3% of them in cyber space). The results show that cyberbullying is more often related to traditional and other forms of bullying than it takes place separately. However, there is an overlap in bullying environments: children who have experienced traditional bullying, bully others in a traditional way; and children who have experienced cyberbullying, bully others in the cyber space. The results confirm that the experience of bullying is related to poor psychological functioning, but the most emotional and behavioural problems are experienced by those kids who participated in or experienced traditional bullying. According to the results of this study, the harm caused by a traditional bullying is greater than cyberbullying.
Volodymyr Viktorovych Hnatiuk
Published: 20 December 2019
Psichologija, Volume 60, pp 92-139; doi:10.15388/polit.2019.96.4

Abstract:
Subnational topic has come a long way from its inception fifty years ago to formation of an independent research direction. This period consists of three phases. In the first phase (early 1970’s – mid 90’s) scholars start discussing a topic that was still unexplored at the time and examine it as a fragmentary part of whole studies. The second phase (mid 1990’s – first half of 2010’s) sees changes in methodology: studies become more complex, focused solely on subnational phenomena and are carried out using a special tool – the subnational comparative method. A methodological dichotomy is outlined as a model for the analysis of subnational regimes and their types, as well. Finally, the third (current) phase (mid 2010’s – present) is where the key changes take place: formation of independent research direction, overcoming theoretical constructs (whole-national bias and federal monism) and increase of complexity and depth of political studies. These features are entrenched in the form of methodological synthesis as a modern model for the analysis of subnational regimes and their types. The article focuses on the coverage of the classical and the modern foundations of the subnational comparative method. The author notes that modern methodology juxtaposes with ontology in the context of subnational discourse. However, in the process of studying such issues there is an urgent need to clarify, update and supplement some methodological foundations of the method.
Ramunė Grambaitė, Linas Bieliauskas, Evelina Grušauskienė, Albinas Bagdonas
Published: 17 July 2019
Psichologija, Volume 59, pp 68-88; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.5

Abstract:
We present an overview of the development of clinical neuropsychology, the current status of the specialty of clinical neuropsychology in Western countries, and the possibilities of developing this specialty in Lithuania. The main duties of a clinical neuropsychologist are to perform neuropsychological assessments and clinical interventions. Clinical neuropsychologists working within health care are professionals who offer services to patients across the lifespan with cognitive and behavioral/emotional symptoms related to neurological, developmental, and psychiatric disorders. Specialists of clinical neuropsychology are needed in neurology and psychiatry clinics, in centers of mental health and rehabilitation, and institutions of psychological assessment and education of children. The specialization models of clinical neuropsychology in Europe and North America are similar in their content and requirements for courses and practice. Nevertheless, specialist education in most of European countries is related to clinical training and not an academic degree, as it is in the USA and Canada. The duration of specialist education in clinical neuropsychology in Europe varies, but this education can only be started after acquiring a Master’s degree in most of the European countries. The regulation of the specialty of clinical neuropsychology in Europe also varies. In some countries, this specialty is fully legally regulated, and in some countries not regulated at all. For specialization in clinical neuropsychology, the license of a psychologist, enabling an individual to work in the health care system of the country, is required in most Western countries. Taking into consideration the Scandinavian experience, it can be expected that the planning of specialization studies in Lithuania would be easier if the licensing of psychologists would be regulated. Today, traditional specializations of psychology in Lithuania may be obtained through Master’s degree studies, i.e., a specialized Master’s diploma compensates a license and any need of further specialization. This Lithuanian tradition is not in accord with the EuroPsy politics of obtaining a diploma: a Master’s diploma is acquired within 6 years of studies, and, after these studies, specialization is continued for a few more years (participation in specialized courses, performance of supervised practice). The model of specialization in clinical neuropsychology in Lithuania should be developed in accordance with international standards of neuropsychology, which are in constant development. In Western countries, the knowledge and skills of clinical and health psychology are considered to be an important part of the specialist education in clinical neuropsychology. Therefore, two years of Master’s studies in clinical neuropsychology would not be sufficient when preparing competent clinical neuropsychologists, unless it is combined with a supervised neuropsychological practice of a defined duration. A doctoral degree is required for neuropsychological practice in the USA, but it is usually not required in Europe. In Lithuania, such a tradition for other specializations of psychology does not exist either, which suggests that a doctoral degree should not be necessary for the specialty of clinical neuropsychology as well. Nevertheless, like in Western countries, supervised clinical neuropsychological practice should be a necessary part of the specialists’ education in clinical neuropsychology.
Aurelija Stelmokienė, Tadas Vadvilavičius
Published: 17 July 2019
Psichologija, Volume 59, pp 23-36; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.2

Abstract:
For quite a long period of time, transformational leadership was related only to positive antecedents and outcomes (van Knippenberg & Sitkin, 2013). However, nowadays researchers are more invited to study the “dark side” of transformational leadership (Eisenbeiß & Boerner, 2013; Vreja, Balan, & Bosca, 2016). The model of dark triad traits (Paulhus & Williams, 2002) could be an interesting topic in this contemporary discussion. Therefore, a quasi experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the impact of a hypothetical leader’s dark triad traits in assessing transformational leadership. A total of 157 respondents (31 male and 126 females) participated in the quasi experiment. The average age of respondents was 24.87 (SD = 5.4) years, with the average of 4.5 (SD = 5.03) years of working experience. Most of the respondents (62.4%) had higher education. Respondents were asked to fill in the questionnaire about their dark triad traits (SD3, Jones & Paulhus, 2014), to read one of four scenarios (2 x 2 experiment design: male or female leader; a high or low expression of a leader’s dark triad traits) and to evaluate the transformational leadership of a hypothetical leader in the scenario (GTL scale, Carless, Wearing, & Mann, 2000). The analysis revealed that the index of transformational leadership was higher when hypothetical leaders with a low expression of dark triad traits were assessed in comparison with hypothetical leaders who possessed a high expression of dark triad traits. So, the main hypothesis was confirmed. However, an additional analysis of the factors that could be also important in predicting the assessment of transformational leadership did not support the significant role of the assessor’s or the assessee’s gender or the assessing individual’s dark triad traits. Nevertheless, contextual factors in the assessment of transformational leadership deserve further attention from researchers and practitioners. In general, the impact of a hypothetical leader’s dark triad traits in the assessment of transformational leadership is significant: the higher expression of dark triad traits, the less transformational leadership. With reference to scientific literature (Hoch, Bommer, Dulebohn, & Wu, 2018; Brymer & Gray, 2006; Jung, Chow, & Wu, 2003), transformational leadership is set as a criteria of effective leadership. Therefore, if practitioners wish to have an effective leader whom subordinates are ready to follow in their organizations, they should pay attention to how these subordinates evaluate their leaders’ dark triad traits. However, these results need confirmation in a field survey.
Marija Miselytė, Dalia Bagdžiūnienė, Violeta Jakutė
Published: 17 July 2019
Psichologija, Volume 59, pp 8-22; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.1

Abstract:
Proactive employees are an important part of social capital in modern organizations that operate in a competitive and ever-changing business environment. Proactive behavior (PB) is defined as self-directed and future-oriented actions that are aimed to change the situation, work environment, or oneself (Bindl & Parker, 2010). Proactive workers initiate individual and organizational changes, and they not only respond to work requirements or adapt to environmental conditions (Fritz & Sonnentag, 2009). Therefore, it is important to analyze the work and personal characteristics that may be significant in order to enhance the employees’ PB. The paper presents an empirical study that integrates the theoretical approaches of Proactive Behavior (Parker & Collins, 2010) and Job Demands – Resources (Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). It is aimed, first, to examine the links between job demands (pace and amount of work, emotional and mental workload), resources (autonomy and feedback), and work engagement and stress with employee strategic proactive behaviors as well as work and person-environment fit proactive behaviors. Second, to determine the role that work engagement and stress have in the relationships between job characteristics and PB types. A total of 386 employees from various Lithuanian organizations were surveyed online. Sixty one percent of the respondents were female; the average age of the respondents was 34.8 (SD = 11.32) years, with an average of 7.3 (SD = 8.22) years of working experience in their organizations. Twenty one percent of the respondents were first-level managers. Most of the respondents (93.6%) had acquired higher education. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that strategic PB, through engagement as a mediator, was predicted by autonomy, mental workload, and feedback; proactive work behavior was predicted by emotional workload, while mental workload, autonomy, and feedback were related to proactive work behavior through work engagement as a mediator; proactive person-environment fit behavior was predicted only by feedback via work engagement as a mediator. The study has shown that employee PB can be reinforced not only with job resources (autonomy and feedback) but job demands as well (the mental and emotional workload) via the mediative effect of work engagement. Work stress was not related with PB. The practical applications of research findings are discussed.
Irena Žukauskaitė, Dalia Bagdžiūnienė, Rita Rekašiūtė Balsienė
Published: 17 July 2019
Psichologija, Volume 59, pp 37-52; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.3

Abstract:
Nowadays the competitive advantage of any organization mainly relies not only on technologies or material resources but also on competitive, energetic, engaged employees, who are willing to share their knowledge, skills, and experience. Organizations must not only recruit talents but also inspire them and create the conditions in which they reveal themselves and have the prospect for professional growth. According to Bandura (1982), the personal belief of how well one can execute courses of action required to deal with prospective situations may become crucial for work success. The present study integrates Bandura’s (1982; 1989) Social Cognitive, Kanter’s (1977; 1979) Structural Empowerment, and Schaufeli and Bakker’s(2004) Work Engagement theories and is aimed (1) to analyze the relationships between employee occupational self-efficacy, structural empowerment, and work engagement and (2) to determine the role of occupational self-efficacy in the relationships between the elements of structural empowerment and work engagement. A total of 1636 specialist level employees from one Lithuanian public sector organization were surveyed online. Ninety four percent of the respondents were female, six percent were male. The average age of the respondents was 45.71 (SD = 10.34) years, with the average of 8.29 (SD = 7.23) years of working experience. All respondents had higher education. Occupational self-efficacy was measured using the Schyns & von Collani (2002) OCCSEEF scale (short version), structural empowerment elements (access to opportunity, information, support, and resources, informal power and formal power) were measured using the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire – II (CWEQ – II) (Laschinger, Finegan, Shamian, & Wilk, 2001), and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9) (Schaufeli, Bakker, & Salanova, 2006) was used to measure work engagement. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to determine the mediating role of occupational self-efficacy in the relationships between elements of structural empowerment and work engagement. The analysis revealed that all dimensions of structural empowerment positively predicted occupational self-efficacy, and that occupational self-efficacy positively predicted work engagement. Formal power directly positively predicted work engagement, occupational self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between informal power and work engagement and partially mediated the relationships between certain predictors (access to opportinity, information, and resources) and work engagement. Despite some limitations (e.g., this being a cross-sectional study, and that specialist level employees were surveyed from one organization), the results of the study highlighted, first, that employee occupational self-efficacy and work engagement might be strengthened by empowering organizational structures, and, second, that occupational self-efficacy is an important personal characteristic explaining the relationships between empowering organizational structures and employee work engagement. Perspectives for future research and practical implications are discussed.
Arūnas Žiedelis
Published: 17 July 2019
Psichologija, Volume 59, pp 53-67; doi:10.15388/psichol.2019.4

Abstract:
The psychosocial work environment (i.e., job demands and resources) is a significant determinant of nurses’ health and motivation; yet, despite the close associations between specific work environment factors, various frameworks suggest different aspects as the most important among the rest. Having in mind the assumption that a more abstract level of analysis might be equally relevant for understanding the work environment and predicting significant outcomes, the aim of this study was to discern the latent factors of nursing work environment and to evaluate their significance in predicting nurses’ work engagement and exhaustion. Two hundred eleven nurses participated in a two-wave time-lagged survey (ΔT = 8 months). In this survey, 1 Expanded Nursing Stress Scale and several subscales of the Work Design Questionnaire were used to measure main job demands and resources in nursing. At that time, 2 participants were asked to fill out an Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and hierarchical regression analysis were used for analyzing the data. The EFA results revealed that two factors can be discerned, each related to main job demands and resources accordingly. Based on these results, the aggregated indexes of job demands and resources were calculated. A linear regression analysis showed that these indexes predicted nurses’ work engagement and exhaustion no worse than specific factors, despite the loss of variance due to aggregation. Practical implications of such conclusions are also discussed in the article.
Sigita Girdzijauskienė, Dalia Nasvytienė, Dovilė Butkienė, Gražina Gintilienė, Kęstutis Dragūnevičius
Published: 11 January 2019
Psichologija, Volume 58, pp 38-56; doi:10.15388/psichol.2018.2

Monika Meilutė - Ribokė, Vilmantė Pakalniškienė
Published: 15 October 2018
Psichologija, Volume 57, pp 23-33; doi:10.15388/psichol.2018.0.11901

Abstract:
[straipsnis lietuvių kalba; santrauka ir reikšminiai žodžiai anglų kalba] Straipsnyje pristatomi tyrimo, kuriuo siekta išsiaiškinti implicitinį ir eksplicitinį požiūrį į naudojimąsi „Facebooku“, rezultatai. Apklausta 210 vienos gimnazijos mokinių. Jų amžius buvo nuo 17 iki 19 metų, 41,4 % – vaikinai, 58,6 % – merginos. Implicitiniam požiūriui matuoti buvo pasitelktas vieno atributo implicitinių asociacijų testas (SA-IAT), o eksplicitiniam – 21 teiginio klausimynas apie požiūrį į naudojimąsi„Facebooku“ (Kokoç & Çiçek, 2011). Buvo atskleista, kad jaunuolių, besinaudojančių „Facebooku“, požiūris į jo naudojimą teigiamesnis nei tų, kurie neturi susikūrę savo paskyros šiame tinkle. Be to, eksplicitinis požiūris yra susijęs su prisijungimų dažniu ir laiku, praleistu prie šio socialinio tinklo, ir padeda prognozuoti „Facebooko“ paskyros turėjimą. Implicitinio požiūrio sąsajų su elgesiu bei skirtumų tarp turinčių paskyrą ir jos neturinčių jaunuolių rasti nepavyko. Taip pat šis požiūris nėra prognozuojantis veiksnys, tačiau, nagrinėjant reakcijos greičio skirtumus, pastebėta, kad turintys paskyrą jaunuoliai greičiau susieja „Facebooką“ su malonumu.
Elzė Sigutė Mikalonytė, Vilius Dranseika
Published: 15 October 2018
Psichologija, Volume 57, pp 54-73; doi:10.15388/psichol.2018.0.11903

Abstract:
[straipsnis lietuvių kalba; santrauka ir reikšminiai žodžiai anglų kalba] Siekiant geriau suprasti ryšius, siejančius muzikos garsų savybes su erdvės ir judėjimo metaforomis, kurios yra įprastai pasitelkiamos kalbant apie muziką, atlikti du tyrimai. Pirmo tyrimo metu aiškintasi, kaip muzikai priskiriamos sinestetinio pobūdžio konceptualiosios metaforos, antro tyrimo metu – kaip priskiriamos sąvokos, išvedamos iš įprasto klausos suvokimo. Rezultatai rodo, kad sąvokų priskyrimas muzikos fragmentams pasižymi tam tikru sistemiškumu, tačiau jis nėra tiek specifiškas, kad vienai garso savybei būtų taikoma tik viena sąvoka, o vienai sąvokai – tik viena garso savybė. Taip pat nebuvo aptikta esminių skirtumų tarp to, kaip sąvokas muzikai priskiria muzikinį išsilavinimą turintys ir jo neturintys tyrimo dalyviai.
Nichola Booth, Stephen Gallagher, Mickey Keenan
Published: 15 October 2018
Psichologija, Volume 57, pp 74-94; doi:10.15388/psichol.2018.0.11904

Abstract:
[full article, abstract in English; only abstract in Lithuanian] Worldwide, the prevalence rates of autism are increasing. This review looks at the additional stressors that parenting a child with autism can bring, including psychological distress and mental health difficulties. With the difficulties associated with the autism diagnosis and additional demands on the parents, research has shown that parent training, which helps teach parents new skills, may be advantageous. This review also looks at the most commonly used interventions that parents might avail of in order to acquire new skills, and it examines whether they are based in science, pseudoscience or anti-science. Utilizing best practice from evidence-based research, parents can be successfully trained to teach new skills across a variety of different domains. The advantages and disadvantages of one-on-one training sessions versus group training events, as well as the different components that contribute to each, are discussed. A number of training packages are discussed, including Behavioral Skills Training, video modelling and manualized training packages. We conclude that there is substantial evidence showing that packages with behavioral underpinnings are more effective for children with autism. Autism awareness and education is simply not enough – educate the parents using evidence-based practice to help effectively educate the children
Viktorija Ivleva, Vytautas Jurkuvėnas
Published: 15 October 2018
Psichologija, Volume 57, pp 7-22; doi:10.15388/psichol.2018.0.11900

Abstract:
[straipsnis lietuvių kalba; santrauka ir reikšminiai žodžiai anglų kalba]Galvos smegenų trauma ne tik sutrikdo žmogaus fizinę sveikatą, bet ir turi neigiamą įtaką pažintiniams gebėjimams. Esama įrodymų, kad tokios traumos padariniai neigiamai siejasi ir su asmens gyvenimo kokybe, tačiau tyrimų duomenys neretai yra nevienareikšmiai ir prieštaringi. Šio tyrimo tikslas buvo išanalizuoti patyrusių galvos smegenų traumą ir jos nepatyrusių asmenų pažintinių gebėjimų ryšį su gyvenimo kokybe. Tyrime dalyvavo 46 Respublikinėje Vilniaus universitetinėje ligoninėje ir Lietuvos sveikatos mokslų universiteto Kauno klinikose besigydantys asmenys, kuriems buvo diagnozuota lengvo sunkumo galvos smegenų trauma (pagal Glasgow komos skalę 13–15 balų). Kontrolinę tyrimo imtį sudarė 60 sveikų asmenų. Tyrimo dalyvių amžius – nuo 20 iki 81 metų (M = 44,60, SD = 15,49). Iš tyrimo dalyvių 51 buvo vyras (48,1 %) ir 55 moterys (51,9 %).Tyrimo metu buvo naudoti atminties (HVLT-R), sekos sudarymo (angl. Trail-making-test) testai, skirti tirti dėmesį, jo perkėlimo greitį ir vykdomąsias funkcijas, bei sutrumpintas gyvenimo kokybės klausimynas (WHOQOL BREF). Tyrimo metu buvo nustatyta, kad abiejų imčių pažintiniai gebėjimai nėra susiję su subjektyviai vertinama gyvenimo kokybe, tačiau galvos smegenų traumą patyrę asmenys prasčiau vertina savo fizinę sveikatą, palyginti su kontroline grupe. Nagrinėjant tyrimo dalyvių pažintinių gebėjimų skirtumus, nustatyta, kad galvos smegenų traumą patyrę asmenys pasižymi prastesniais pažintiniais gebėjimais nei sveiki. Taip pat nustatytas amžiaus ir išsilavinimo ryšys su rezultatais.
Giedrė Ambrulaitienė
Published: 15 October 2018
Psichologija, Volume 57, pp 34-53; doi:10.15388/psichol.2018.0.11902

Abstract:
[straipsnis lietuvių kalba; santrauka ir reikšminiai žodžiai anglų kalba] Straipsnyje pristatoma karininkų suvoktos simuliacinės karinės operacijos rizikos (toliau – KSR) skalė. Ši metodika parengta taikant empirinę skalių kūrimo strategiją. Karininkų suvokta rizika straipsnyje apima jaunesniųjų karininkų įsitikinimus dėl žūties ir turto sunaikinimo rizikos, vykdant simuliacines karines užduotis. Tokia skalė gali padėti išaiškinti suvoktos rizikos struktūrą karyboje ir atskleisti karininkų karinių operacijų metu daromų klaidų šaltinius. Nustatę karininkų dažniausiai daromų sprendimo priėmimo klaidų ir suvoktos rizikos sąsajas, galėtume nuodugniai ištirti klaidas, susijusias su suvokta simuliacinių karinių operacijų rizika, ir prisidėti prie šių klaidų mažinimo, kuriant specifines karinių mokymų programas. Mūsų tyrimo tikslas – sukurti karininkų suvoktos simuliacinės karinės operacijos rizikos skalę ir ištirti kai kurias jos psichometrines charakteristikas jaunesniųjų karininkų imtyje. Tyrime dalyvavo Lietuvos kariuomenės jaunesnieji karininkai, tarnaujantys įvairiose Lietuvos apskrityse. Tyrimas buvo sudarytas iš trijų etapų. Pirmame tyrimo etape (dalyvavo 26 karininkai), remiantis stebėjimo ir pusiau struktūruoto interviu rezultatais, taip pat teorinėmis prielaidomis, anksčiau atliktais empiriniais tyrimais karo, sveikatos ir organizacinės psichologijos srityse, sudaryta 22 rizikingų situacijų skalė (KSR skalė). Be to, šiame etape, remiantis ekspertiniu situacijų vertinimu, tikrintas sudarytos skalės turinio validumas. Antrame tyrimo etape (dalyvavo 94 karininkai), remiantis klasterine duomenų analize ir ekspertiniu vertinimu, buvo tikrinamas sudarytos KSR skalės konstrukto validumas. Trečiame tyrimo etape, kuriame dalyvavo 129 asmenys, taip pat tikrintas konstrukto validumas surinkus kitą dalyvių imtį. Remiantis trijų etapų tyrimo rezultatais, parengta KSR skalė. Gauti rezultatai leidžia išskirti tris karininkų suvoktos simuliacinės karinės operacijos rizikos skalės poskales: civilių žūties rizikos, karių ir vadų žūties rizikos bei išteklių ir turto praradimo rizikos. Nustatytos KSR skalės psichometrinės charakteristikos leidžia teigti, kad ši skalė yra tinkama naudoti tolesniuose tyrimuose, vertinant karininkų suvoktą simuliacinę karinių operacijų riziką. Ši skalė apima pagrindinius suvoktos rizikos vertinimo rodiklius karybos procese. Sudarytos skalės poskalės pasižymi geru vidiniu suderinamumu (Cronbacho alfa koeficientai: pirmos subskalės – 0,802; antros subskalės – 0,753; trečios subskalės – 0,883). Taip pat patvirtintas KSR skalės turinio validumas ir gauti daliniai konstrukto validumo įrodymai.
Eamonn Gillen, Mickey Keenan
Published: 30 January 2018
Psichologija, Volume 56, pp 72-78; doi:10.15388/psichol.2017.56.11532

Abstract:
Elgesio analizė yra svarbi, kalbant apie autizmo spektro sutrikimo intervencijas. Elgesio analize pagrįstos intervencijos turi didelį empirinį pagrindimą, tačiau apie daugelį kitų intervencijų rūšių to pasakyti negalima. Tai lėmė didelius politinių sprendimų ir rekomendacijų skirtumus skirtingose pasaulio dalyse, ypač tarp Europos ir Šiaurės Amerikos. Straipsnyje analizuojamos kai kurios šių skirtumų priežastys.
Marija Miselytė, Dalia Bagdžiūnienė
Published: 30 January 2018
Psichologija, Volume 56, pp 37-55; doi:10.15388/psichol.2017.56.11521

Abstract:
Organizacijoms, siekiančioms konkurencingumo dinamiško verslo sąlygomis, neabejotina darbuotojų proaktyvaus elgesio reikšmė. Proaktyvaus elgesio prielaidų tyrimuose vis dažniau atkreipiamas dėmesys į socialinės aplinkos svarbą. Šiame straipsnyje aprašomo tyrimo tikslas siejamas su iki šiol mažai tirtų potencialių proaktyvaus darbuotojų elgesio prielaidų analize: ieškoma sąsajų su vadovo, kolegų ir organizacijos parama bei vadovo proaktyviu elgesiu. Tyrime dalyvavo 206 darbuotojai (79 vyrai ir 127 moterys, amžiaus vidurkis 30 metų). Rezultatai: organizacijos, vadovo ir kolegų parama yra teigiamai susijusi su darbuotojų proaktyviu elgesiu, stipriausias prediktorius yra organizacijos parama. Vadovo proaktyvus elgesys tiesiogiai nėra susijęs su proaktyviu darbuotojų elgesiu, tačiau padeda numatyti bendrą proaktyvaus elgesio rodiklį, užduoties atlikimo, asmens ir aplinkos dermės bei strateginį tipus, kai išreikšta vadovo, kolegų ir organizacijos parama: vadovo proaktyvaus elgesio ir darbuotojų strateginio elgesio ryšį sustiprina kolegų ir organizacijos parama, o vadovo proaktyvaus elgesio ir darbuotojo asmens ir aplinkos dermės elgesio ryšį – vadovo parama.
Rasa Barkauskienė, Danguolė Čekuolienė, Asta Adler, Lina Gervinskaite-Paulaitiene
Published: 30 January 2018
Psichologija, Volume 56, pp 7-19; doi:10.15388/psichol.2017.56.11515

Abstract:
Paauglystė – tai laikotarpis, kai vyksta itin daug pokyčių, ypač svarbių socialiniam pažinimui. Tai nulemia vis geresnį paauglių savęs įsisąmoninimą (Harter, 2012). Todėl šiuo laikotarpiu labai svarbus tampa besivystantis mentalizacijos gebėjimas, užtikrinantis savo ir kitų elgesio supratimą psichikos būsenų kontekste (Fonagy, Gergely, Jurist, & Target, 2005). Nors neabejojama paauglystės laikotarpio svarba įtvirtinant mentalizacijos gebėjimą, vis dar stokojama nuoseklios mentalizacijos raidos paauglystėje analizės. Šiame straipsnyje* siekiama užpildyti esamą spragą ir, remiantis psichodinamine, raidos psichologijos, raidos psichopatologijos bei neuromokslo teorine ir empirine medžiaga, analizuoti mentalizacijos gebėjimo raidą paauglystėje, pagrindinį dėmesį skiriant paauglystėje svarbiausioms poliariškoms mentalizacijos konstrukto dimensijoms – emocinei ir kognityviai bei savęs ir kito mentalizacijai, taip pat mentalizacijos sutrikimo sąsajai su psichopatologija.
Irena Žukauskaitė
Published: 30 January 2018
Psichologija, Volume 56, pp 56-71; doi:10.15388/psichol.2017.56.11526

Abstract:
Lietuvos valstybės tarnyba išgyvena reformų etapą. 2013 m. pakeista atrankos į valstybės tarnybą sistema buvo didelis žingsnis modernizuojant žmogiškųjų išteklių valdymą. Atsižvelgiant į kitų šalių gerąją praktiką, atrankos metu pradėti vertinti kognityvieji gebėjimai ir kompetencijos leido pasiekti trumpalaikius tikslus – didesnį atrankos skaidrumą, objektyvumą, trumpesnį atrankos komisijų darbo laiką, kompetentingesnių asmenų dalyvavimą tolesniuose atrankos etapuose. Tačiau šio įvertinimo sąsajos su ilgalaikėmis pasekmėmis, tokiomis kaip karjera valstybės tarnyboje, iki šiol nebuvo tirtos.Tyrime analizuoti 17 281 asmens, išlaikiusio bendrųjų gebėjimų testą Valstybės tarnybos departamente, karjeros duomenys. Rezultatai atskleidė, kad bendrųjų gebėjimų įvertinimas gali būti taikomas ne tik kaip priemonė, apribojanti pakankamų gebėjimų neturinčių asmenų patekimą į valstybės tarnybą, bet ir kaip atskaitos taškas, vertinant įdarbinimo, karjeros ir darbuotojų išlaikymo organizacijoje sprendimus. Į valstybės tarnybą yra atrenkami ir karjerą daro aukštesniais balais bendrųjų gebėjimų testą išlaikę asmenys. Kita vertus, asmenys, kurių bendrųjų gebėjimų testo rezultatai geresni, yra labiau linkę palikti valstybės tarnybą savo noru. Todėl, siekiant, kad valstybės tarnyboje dirbtų savo srities profesionalai, daugiau dėmesio turi būti skirta kokybiškam žmogiškųjų išteklių valdymui.
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