Results in Journal Journal of Food and Drug Analysis: 1,844
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Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 21, pp 242-246; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2012.11.001
While conducting an inspection project on counterfeit drugs in 2011, the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (FDA) discovered a probiotic product that was contaminated with the plasticizer di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). After a thorough investigation, it was confirmed that the plasticizer had been deliberately added to the clouding agent as a substitute for an emulsifier. The illegal use of DEHP contaminated a broad range of foods and nutraceutical products. Subsequent investigation revealed that another plasticizer, di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), was also used. Some contaminated food and beverages had already been exported abroad. This caused panic in the public in Taiwan and drew international attention. The government thus initiated emergency response actions for this food safety incident. Actions were undertaken to perform food source control, to strengthen monitoring and surveillance of the production and marketing chain, to adopt a proactive approach in communicating with the public, and to trade in a highly transparent manner. The Act Governing Food Sanitation was also revised to impose harsher penalties on unscrupulous companies and thereby ensure food safety with more consolidated and stricter regulation. The effort has regained the consumer confidence in Taiwanese products
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 21; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2013.07.014
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 21, pp 286-291; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2013.07.006
Children are more susceptible to medication errors because of differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics compared to adults. Weight changes are common with growth in children and computer systems frequently are not updated with current information, which result in inaccurate weight-based dosing and thus harm children. This study evaluated the impact of a Computerized Physician Order Entry system with standardized pediatric dosing decision support (PDDS) function on reducing pediatric dosing errors. Outpatient prescriptions were analyzed from January to March during 2010 and 2011. The total number of pediatric prescriptions was 72,431 and 80,532 prior to and after system implementation, respectively. Out of 72,431 prescriptions, 1617 (2.23%) dosing errors were retrospectively detected by the system, whereas 15 dosing errors (0.02%) were detected by pharmacists prior to system implementation. Incorporating the system into practice resulted in a total of 210 successfully blocked dosing near misses, including 14 potentially fatal and 11 serious near misses. The final dosing error rate was significantly reduced from 2.23% to 0.66% (p < 0.001). A 10-fold increase of the near miss correction rate (0.02% vs. 0.26%, p < 0.001) was observed. The Computerized Physician Order Entry system with standardized pediatric dosing decision support system provided real-time warning and significantly decreased the dose error rate among pediatric patients.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 25, pp 931-938; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2016.12.008
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Gelidium amansii (GA) hot-water extracts (GHE) on lipid metabolism in hamsters. Six-week-old male Syrian hamsters were used as the experimental animals. Hamsters were divided into four groups: (1) control diet group (CON); (2) high-fat diet group (HF); (3) HF with GHE diet group (HF + GHE); (4) HF with probucol diet group (HF + PO). All groups were fed the experimental diets and drinking water ad libitum for 6 weeks. The results showed that GHE significantly decreased body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue (perirenal and paraepididymal) weight. The HF diet induced an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, GHE supplementation reversed the increase of plasma lipids caused by the HF diet. In addition, GHE increased fecal cholesterol, TG and bile acid excretion. Lower hepatic TC and TG levels were found with GHE treatment. GHE reduced hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP) including SREBP 1 and SREBP 2 protein expressions. The phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) protein expression in hamsters was decreased by the HF diet; however, GHE supplementation increased the phosphorylation of AMPK protein expression. Our results suggest that GHE may ameliorate lipid metabolism in hamsters fed a HF diet.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 25, pp 37-42; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2016.09.006
This review discusses the history and evolution of the state of dietary fiber (DF) with account of refinements in extraction methods and legal definitions subsequent to the launch of DF hypothesis. For a long time, defining and regulating DFs relied heavily on their chemical compositions and analytical methods. Although chemical compositions and analytical methods still play an important role in the definition of DF, physiological activity has also been taken into consideration. The precise definition of DF is still evolving, particularly whether oligosaccharides degrees of polymerization (DP) 3–9 should be considered as DF or not. Decades of scientific research have initiated the expansion of the term DF to include indigestible oligosaccharides with their DP between 3 and 9; hence responding to the positive health benefits of DF as well as fulfilling the needs in food labeling regulations
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 22, pp 3-17; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.001
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA according to the American Cancer Society. In the past 5 years, “theranostic nanomedicine”, for both therapeutics and imaging, has shown to be “the right drug for the right patient at the right moment” to manage deadly cancers. This review article presents an overview of recent developments, mainly from the authors' laboratories, along with potential medical applications for theranostic nanomedicine including basic concepts and critical properties. Finally, we outline the future research direction and possible challenges for theranostic nanomedicine research.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 27; doi:10.1016/s1021-9498(18)30201-1
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 21, pp 363-368; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2013.08.003
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 23, pp 225-233; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2014.07.003
The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of Lavandula latifolia waste obtained after essential oil distillation. Samples of 12 wild populations of the Lavandula genus collected between 2009 and 2010 were hydrodistilled and their by-products were analyzed using the Folin–Ciocalteu, free radical scavenging activity (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. Rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and luteolin contents were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection. The mean of total phenolic content ranged from 1.89 ± 0.09 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight to 3.54 ± 0.22 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight. The average value of the half maximal effective concentration (EC50) for scavenging activity ranged from 5.09 ± 0.17 mg/mL to 14.30 ± 1.90 mg/mL and the variability of the EC50 in FRAP ranged from 3.72 ± 0.12 mg/mL to 18.55 ± 0.77 mg/mL. Annual variation was found among this samples and the environmental conditions of 2009 were found to be more favorable. The plants collected from Sedano showed the highest antioxidant power. Our results show that rosmarinic acid and apigenin in L. latifolia contributed to the antioxidant properties of the waste. In conclusion, the by-product of the distillation industry could be valorizing as a source of natural antioxidants
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Volume 22, pp 210-219; doi:10.1016/j.jfda.2014.01.015
This study isolated polysaccharides from strawberry (SP) and mulberry (MP) fruit juice to compare their cytokine secretion regulatory and antiapoptotic activities using murine primary splenocytes. SP and MP in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were administered to splenocytes for 48 hours. The culture supernatant was used for cytokine secretion assay using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The cell pellet was used for the determination of anti-/proapoptotic protein (B cell lymphoma 2/Bak) levels in the cells using the Western blotting method. The results showed that SP and MP treatment at appropriate concentrations significantly increased the proliferation of splenocytes (p < 0.05). SP and MP treatments in the absence of LPS, and SP treatments in the presence of LPS significantly decreased T helper type 1/T helper type 2 (p < 0.05), and SP in the presence of LPS slightly decreased tumor necrosis factor-α/interleukin-10 (pro-/anti-inflammatory) cytokine secretion ratios by splenocytes, suggesting that SP has strong and MP has mild anti-inflammation potential via modulating cytokine secretion profiles. However, MP treatment at an appropriate concentration in the absence of LPS exhibited an antiapoptotic activity via modulating pro- (Bak) and antiapoptotic (B cell lymphoma 2) protein expression ratios, suggesting that MP may protect primary immune cells from apoptotic cell death. Overall, our findings suggest that SP has better anti-inflammation potential, whereas MP has better cell proliferation and antiapoptotic potential in vitro