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Results in Journal Proceedings: 5,161

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Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 50; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020050141

Abstract:
Many viruses transmitted by blood-sucking arthropods have emerged worldwide and cause serious human and animal diseases. Arthropod-borne (arbo-)viruses possess a peculiar capacity to replicate in very different hosts, such as mosquitoes and mammals (e.g., dengue and chikungunya). However, the molecular mechanisms that enable arboviruses to enter and replicate in very different hosts—such as arthropods, mammals, and birds—remain highly enigmatic. Insect-restricted viruses provide a reference point regarding this issue, since they lack the strategies of infecting vertebrate hosts and are viewed as evolutionary precursors of arboviruses. Negev viruses comprise a recently discovered insect-restricted taxon exhibiting worldwide distribution among blood sucking arthropods. Negev viruses are enveloped, positive sense, nonsegmented RNA viruses. The virus genome is ca. 10 kb long and contains three ORFs, with the longest ORF1 (7 kb) encoding putative replicative enzymes. ORF2 (1.2 kb) and ORF3 (0.7 kb) do not have any clear homologs and are predicted to encode membrane proteins. We explored the functional and structural aspects of Negev viruses and the role of their membrane glycoproteins during Negev virus entry into the mosquito cells. We employ biochemistry, structural biology, and microscopy to reveal mechanisms of Negev virion organization, and its entry into host cells followed by fusion with the host membranes to allow subsequent genome delivery and replication.
Published: 10 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 45; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020045014

Abstract:
Background: Studies have shown that Guinea is a natural reservoir for many serious infectious diseases: cholera, Lassa, Ebola, measles. The analysis that underlies the emergence and spread of infectious diseases are dominated by a certain ecosystem, favorable customs, the fragility of the health system resilience: warning, surveillance, adequate response or lack of research and biosafety. The objective is to analyze the links between disease and community commitment for action. Methodology qualitative, participatory and focused on the triangulation of the literature review, in-depth interviews with target and comments. Results: In Guinea, a strategy “Active Monitoring belt around Heal Ebola” (SA-Ceint) was implemented to ensure enhanced oversight and assurance á their medical and psychosocial needs. Monitoring is implemented by “National Safety Agency” in collaboration with various partners. Community-based monitoring is required to prevent new outbreaks of Ebola in the country and bring them to life and health events. The Ebola outbreak (2013–2016) reveals that in a context of vulnerability, mistrust and rumors, the management deserves a preparation. Thus, the incentive mechanisms at the community commitment of the response including surveillance have enabled side. Lessons learned have pushed the country to engage in a process of implementation of ERARE, separates, the platform “One Health” and institutionalization of community health strategies preservation of human health, animal health and protection of the environment. Conclusion: Without communication that improves knowledge and helps in solving health and biosecurity issues, it is illusory to imagine that the prevention and response programs against infectious diseases will be successful long term. Community involvement is critical to the prevention, detection, monitoring, response.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 51; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020051025

Abstract:
This article presents three technical variants of a power supply system of a tethered multirotor drone. The proposed solutions can be applied as power sources for multirotor flying constructions used, among others, for surveillance systems or air quality measurements. The paper describes the topologies of the drones’ supply systems as well as their functional analysis.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 53; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020053005

Abstract:
Celiac disease is affecting around 1% of the world population and an effective treatment needs to exclude gluten. Quinoa is a high-quality gluten-free protein, and starch-rich endosperm, like the cereals. Protein contents and theoretical Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) were evaluated in quinoas from Northwest and Centre of Argentina. A batter-type gluten-free quinoa bread was developed, showing good volume, taste, nutritional quality and a good long-lasting texture. Malted quinoa seeds’ quality indicators rose until 48 h of germination; after that, an unpleasant taste was developed. Muffins made with that flour showed acceptable taste.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 53; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020053006

Abstract:
Colocasia esculenta represents an alternative non-gluten ingredient due to its healthy properties. The objective of this study was to explore the breadmaking potential of Colocasia spp. cormel flour combined with hydrocolloids (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, xanthan gum, guar gum). A total of three formulations were tested. Breads were characterized by assessing their technological qualities: moisture, specific volume, volume, hardness and weight loss. The quality parameters were similar to other gluten-free breads. Overall, Colocasia spp. flour can be used to produce gluten-free breads with similar technological quality parameters than those previously reported with common gluten-free flours.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 51; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020051023

Abstract:
Leachates are one of the main factors polluting the ground and water environment in the vicinity of landfills. This is connected with the need to systematically control the elements of the environment that are exposed to the negative impact of landfill emissions. In Poland, the scope of landfill leachate quality monitoring includes 10 obligatory parameters (pollution indicators). The paper presents an example of the application of selected statistical methods (basic statistics, statistical tests, principal component analysis) to assess the impact of individual pollution indicators on the quality of landfill leachates. Four landfills from the area of Lower Silesia were selected for analyzes, for which in the years 2018–2019 tests of leachate properties were conducted in an extended scope (in relation to the scope applicable during monitoring). Analyses of the obtained results showed significant differences between landfills, depending mainly on their age and method of operation. Specific factors for assessing differences between landfills were as follows: electrolytic conductivity, chemical oxygen demand (COD(Cr)), organic nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen, chlorides and calcium. The values of some of the parameters included in the monitoring studies did not show variability, remaining below the limit of quantification. The conducted analyses permit the determination of the level of leachate contamination from selected landfills and the proposal of indicators that could complement the monitoring range of landfills for many years.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 51; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020051024

Abstract:
In this paper, experimental studies were performed for a solar ground source heat pump system (SGSHPS) with a vertical ground heat exchanger (VGHE). The experiment was operated during the summer in 2018. The heat from the solar collector was monitored by measuring the inlet and outlet temperatures and flow rate of the heat transfer fluids. An energy equilibrium balance carried out indicates heat extraction from the solar collector to the ground heat exchanger. It has been established that clear impact is achieved within a radius of 5 m. The average temperature of the actively regenerated borehole was higher than that of the undisturbed profile, which has a direct impact on the significant benefits of the coefficient of performance (COP) of the ground source heat pump system (GSHPS) and effectively helps soil regeneration. The average efficiency ratio of the heat transferred from solar radiation to soil in the SGSHPS was 42.3%.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 53; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020053008

Abstract:
Moringa oleifera plants have an extensive range of bioactive compounds (carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids and fatty acids, proteins and functional peptides). These molecules may be included in several food matrices, such as bakery products, to improve their nutritional values. For that, the aim of this study was to replace the part of wheat flour with 1%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% of moringa leaf powder in cupcakes, assessing their antioxidant capacity, protein content and sensorial acceptability. The results showed that proteins and antioxidant capacity directly increased with moringa content. However, according to the tasters, these moringa-rich cupcakes were too dark.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 53; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020053007

Abstract:
The chemical and techno-functional properties of nine maize races from the Andean zone of Jujuy, Argentina, in the process of reintroduction, were determined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to establish the differences between them. The breeds studied showed high variability in their chemical and techno-functional properties, which would indicate that their applications in the food industry will also be differentiated. The PCA analysis allowed us to group them into four groups, and the Capia Marron and Culli races showed unique properties, mainly in the formation of gels.
Published: 5 August 2020
by MDPI
Proceedings, Volume 51; doi:10.3390/proceedings2020051026

Abstract:
The presence of greenery in the space of historic markets was conditioned depending on the historical era: function, aesthetics or ecological needs of the city. The purpose of the work is to show the contemporary functions of greenery in the space of historic markets in the context of conditions for sustainable development (ecological, social, economic and ethical) and their relationship to the latest conservation doctrines (document from Nara—1994, Cracow Card—2000, orthodox creation). The paper analyzed 52 cases of town and city markets in the Podlaskie Voivodeship (Poland), which allowed conclusions to be drawn regarding the treatment of greenery in public spaces of markets. The results of the work may be helpful in the process of designing and modernizing the markets in the Podlaskie Voivodeship and in Poland, and more widely used for further research on the use of greenery in public space and assessing the effects of its presence.
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