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Vuyani R. Muleya, Linda Fourie, Sandra Schlebusch
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1324

Abstract:
Orientation: Assessment Centres (ACs) are used globally for the selection and development of candidates. Limited empirical evidence exists of the ethical challenges encountered in the use of ACs, especially in South Africa (SA).Research purpose: Firstly, to explore possible ethical challenges related to ACs in SA from the vantage point of the practitioner and, secondly, to search for possible solutions to these.Motivation for the study: Decisions based on AC outcomes have profound implications for participants and organisations, and it is essential to understand potential ethical challenges to minimise these, specifically in the SA context, given its socio-political history, multiculturalism, diversity and pertinent legal considerations.Research design, approach and method: A qualitative, interpretative research design was chosen. Data were collected by means of a semi-structured survey that was completed by 96 AC practitioners who attended an AC conference. Content analysis and thematic interpretation were used to make sense of the data. The preliminary findings were assessed by a focus group of purposively selected subject-matter experts (n = 16) who provided informed insights, which were incorporated into the final findings. The focus group suggested ways in which specific ethical challenges may be addressed.Main findings: The findings revealed many ethical challenges that can be better understood within a broad framework encompassing 10 themes: Universal ethical values; multicultural global contexts; the regulatory-legal framework for ACs in SA; characteristics of the assessor; psychometric properties of the AC; characteristics of the participant; bias and prejudice; governance of the AC process; ethical culture of the employer organisation and the evasive nature of ethics as a concept.Practical and managerial implications: Considerable risk exists for the unethical use of ACs. An awareness of possible areas of risk may assist AC stakeholders in their search for ethical AC use.Contribution or value-add: The study may contribute to an evidence-based understanding of the ethical aspects of ACs. The recommendations may also benefit all AC stakeholders who wish to use ACs ethically.
Mirjam Radstaak, Ayla Hennes
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1458

Abstract:
Orientation: The right balance between job demands and job resources are essential for employees to bring energy and enthusiasm to work. Employees who experience high-quality relationships with their supervisors may actively craft their job demands and job resources and feel more engaged.Research purpose: The current study examined the associations between leader–member exchange (LMX), job crafting and work engagement. Motivation: This study attempts to gain more insight in the associations between LMX, job crafting and work engagement. It was hypothesised that high-quality relationships with supervisors fosters work engagement because it stimulates employees to craft their jobs by increasing social and structural job resources and challenging job demands and by decreasing hindering job demands.Research approach, design and methodology: Participants (N = 402) working for a leading mail and parcels company in the Netherlands completed questionnaires measuring LMX, work engagement and job crafting. Structural equation modelling was used to examine the hypotheses.Main findings: Increasing social job resources (β = 0.01, SE = 0.00, p < 0.001) and increasing challenging job demands (β = 0.08, SE = 0.04, p < 0.05) were significant mediators in the association between LMX and work engagement. Increasing structural job resources (β = 0.00, SE = 0.00, p = 0.92) and decreasing hindering job demands (β = -0.00, SE 0.00, p = 0.09) were not significant mediators.Practical and managerial implications: Supervisors who are capable of building high-quality relationships with their employees based on trust, respect and loyalty will foster a positive, fulfilling work-related state of mind among employees because they are more willing to proactively craft a challenging and resourceful work environment.Contribution or value-add: The findings of this study showed the importance of high-quality relationships with supervisors and were unique in examining the association between LMX and job crafting.
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1433

Abstract:
Orientation: Positive coping strengths are important personal resources in helping employees deal constructively with the complex interaction between the individual and the environment. Research purpose: The present study examined the usefulness and validity of the factor structure of the positive coping behavioural inventory (PCBI) with the view to further refine the scale and increase its usefulness and application value in the South African workplace.Motivation for the study: Valid and reliable multidimensional measures of positive psychological constructs are considered important in understanding the array of personal resources that help employees cope constructively with work–life stressors in today’s fastpaced and more turbulent work environment.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was utilised to collect primary data from a sample of (N = 525) male and female employees from white and black ethnicity origin in the services industry. The participants’ self-evaluations of their positive coping behaviour were measured by means of the PCBI. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to examine the construct validity of the PCBI.Main findings: The convergent validity and internal consistency reliability of the PCBI as a measure of three higher-order dimensions of positive coping behaviour (inventive, engaging and intentional coping behaviours) were demonstrated in this study.Practical and managerial implications: Researchers may confidently use the three-factor solution of the PCBI to measure employees’ self-evaluations of their capacity to demonstrate positive coping behaviour in the workplace.Contribution and value-add: This study contributed to the emerging body of knowledge on the assessment of positive psychology constructs that contribute to employees’ well-being and flourishing in the South African workplace. The results provide preliminary evidence of the usefulness of the PCBI as a valid and reliable multidimensional measure that integrates a wide array of positive psychology attributes in a single measure.
Juliet I. Puchert, Nicole Dodd, Kim L. Viljoen
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1416

Abstract:
Orientation: Details of applicants’ secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be a useful screening tool when processing large applicant pools. Here, the relationships between secondary education (incorporating subject choice) and the reasoning and visual perceptual speed components of the Differential Aptitude Test are explored. Research purpose: The objective of the study was to determine whether type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be used as a substitute for reasoning (verbal and non-verbal) and/or visual perceptual speed aptitudes in the selection of operators for an automotive plant in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as the selection needs of the automotive industry. Research design, approach and method: This research adopted a quantitative approach. It involved a non-probability convenience quota sample of 2463 work-seeking applicants for an automotive operator position in South Africa. Participants completed a biographical questionnaire and three subtests from the Differential Aptitude Test battery. The Chi-square test was used to determine the relationship between type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) and selected cognitive aptitudes. Main findings: The study’s findings revealed statistically and practically significant relationships between type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice), verbal reasoning, non-verbal reasoning and visual perceptual speed. Broad performance levels in the three aptitude subtests employed in this study were significantly associated with the type of matriculation certificate held by applicants. The findings specifically indicated that the secondary education types that included the subjects mathematics or both mathematics and science were associated with higher levels of performance in the three aptitudes. This had consequences for these applicants’ success in the screening process which could lead to enhanced chances of employability. Practical and managerial implications: Applicants’ type of secondary education (incorporating subject choice) could be regarded as a key criterion in human resource selection and be instructive in the screening process. This could reduce the candidate pool prior to more costly psychometric assessments. Contribution or value-add: The findings are specifically relevant to the South African automotive industry in terms of their human resource selection practices. The insights gained from the findings may also be used as a guide to human resource practitioners in the selection of similar level employees in other working contexts. The study makes a case for a multiple-hurdle approach to selection.
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1396

Abstract:
Orientation: Employers expect young graduates to have a well-rounded sense of self, to display a range of graduate employability capacities and to adapt to constant changes they are faced with in order to obtain and maintain employment.Research purpose: The goals of this study are (1) to investigate whether a significant relationship exists between graduate employability capacities, self-esteem and career adaptability, (2) to ascertain if a set of graduate employability capacities, when combined with self-esteem, has a significant relationship with a set of career adaptability capacities and (3) to identify the major variables that contribute to this relationship.Motivation for the study: The potential for career adaptability, graduate employability capacities and self-esteem of young adults promotes employability among graduates, thereby addressing and possibly reducing youth unemployment in South Africa.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional research design approach was utilised in which descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations and canonical correlation analysis were employed to accomplish the objectives of this study. Respondents (N = 332) were enrolled at further education and training (FET) colleges and were predominantly black (98.5%) and female (62%) students between the ages of 18 and 29.Main findings: The results displayed positive multivariate relationships between the variables and furthermore showed that graduate employability capacities contributed the most in terms of clarifying the respondents’ career adaptability as compared to their self-esteem.Practical and managerial implications: This study proposes that young adults’ career adaptability can be enhanced through the development of their self-esteem and particularly their graduate employability capacities, thus making them more employable.Contributions: Theoretically, this study proves useful because of the significant interactions found between graduate employability capacities, self-esteem and career adaptability. Empirical evidence is provided that confirms the need to enhance graduate employability and self-esteem capacities in order to improve the career adaptability of young adults. This will then assist them in dealing with the instability of the 21st-century world of work. Practically, the findings imply that young adults differ with regard to their career adaptability and that graduate employability capacities and self-esteem influence their career adaptability. Therefore, in focusing on the enhancement of young adults’ graduate employability capacities and self-esteem, an industrial psychologist and career counsellor can enhance young adults’ career adaptability, thus making them employable and adaptable to the changes in the 21st-century world of work.
Sharon A. Munyaka, Adré B. Boshoff, Jacques Pietersen, Robin Snelgar
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1430

Abstract:
Orientation: The relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment in a manufacturing organisation could have a significant impact on employee intention to quit.Research purpose: To determine the relationship between five positive organisational behaviour variables (authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment) and their ultimate influence on an individual’s intention to quit. Thus, it is preceded by the determination of the structural invariance of the measurement instruments when applied to a South African sample.Justification for the study: The study sought to fill the gap in the literature in relation to understanding the effect of the relationship between psychological capital, authentic leadership, psychological climate and team commitment on the behaviour of employees in a manufacturing organisation and how this influences their decision to quit. Such a study has not previously been conducted in the South African manufacturing sector.Research design, approach and method: Utilising a non-experimental correlational approach, a self-administered composite questionnaire consisting of five psychological scales was distributed to 204 employees in the junior to senior management level at a global tyre manufacturing organisation in South Africa. Multivariate data analysis included the structural equation modelling.Main findings: There is a significantly strong positive relationship between authentic leadership, psychological capital, psychological climate and team commitment. Authentic leadership has a significant influence on psychological capital and psychological climate. This results in a positive impact on organisational commitment, leading to employees’ intention to quit.Practical/managerial implications: Manufacturing organisations need to develop and implement collaborative leadership intervention strategies aimed at improving psychological capital and psychological climate.Contribution/value-add: The findings inform researchers and management from manufacturing organisations to understand the correlation between organisational behaviour variables. This relationship informs the development and implementation of strategies aimed at furnishing psychological capital and psychological climate.
Melinde Coetzee
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1475

Abstract:
Contemporary and futuristic perspectives on leadership practice in emerging countries contexts
Benjamin H. Olivier
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1453

Abstract:
Orientation: The majority of local governments in South Africa are underperforming; a first step to improve their performance is to accurately diagnose their current functioning. The utilisation of a mixed-methods approach for this diagnosis based on a valid model of organisational performance will form a better and holistic understanding of how a local government is performing.Research purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of mixed-methods research as a diagnostic approach for determining the organisational performance of a local government in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The use of either quantitative or qualitative data gathering in isolation as part of an organisational diagnosis can lead to biased information and not identifying the root causes of problems. The use of mixed-methods research in which both quantitative and qualitative data gathering methods are utilised has been shown to produce numerous benefits, such as confirmation of gathered data, providing richer detail and initiating new lines of thinking. Such multiple methodologies are recognised as an essential component of any organisational diagnosis and can be an effective means of eliminating biases in singular data gathering methods.Research design, approach and method: A concurrent transformative mixed-methods strategy based on the Burke–Litwin model of organisational performance with triangulation of results and findings to determine convergence validity was used. A convenience sample of 116 (N = 203) permanent officials in a rural district municipality in South Africa completed a survey questionnaire and were also individually interviewed.Main findings: Results indicate that mixed-methods research is a valid technique for establishing the integrity of survey data and for providing a better and holistic understanding of the functioning of an organisation. The results also indicate that the Burke–Litwin model is a useful and valid diagnostic framework for identifying the strengths and development areas of an organisation’s performance. Finally, the results established the reliability and validity of the survey instrument used for gathering data.Practical and managerial implications: A mixed-methods research approach is a useful method to diagnose organisations’ performance to ensure data integrity and to obtain a comprehensive picture of an organisation’s performance. A further practical implication is that managers and practitioners can use the Burke–Litwin model as a basis for diagnosing the performance of an organisation with confidence, as it identifies the most important aspects of an organisation’s functioning.Contribution and value add: Organisational diagnoses are usually conducted by either quantitative or qualitative means, while the use of mixed-methods research is a relatively underutilised approach. This study aims to contribute to the availability of research approaches for diagnosing the performance of organisations.
Anthony Solomon,
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1436

Abstract:
Orientation: Within both the South African context and abroad, leaders are increasingly being required to engage with staff members whose cultures differ from their own. As the attractiveness of different leadership styles varies in line with staff member cultural preferences, the challenge leaders face is that their behaviours may no longer be apposite. To this end, it is mostly unknown whether those leaders who are deemed culturally intelligent behave in a specific manner, that is, display the empowering and directive leadership styles. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive styles of leadership, as perceived by subordinates. Motivation for the study: To operate successfully, leaders need to adopt and display those leadership styles that best match the cultural expectations of their staff members. Cultural intelligence may assist in this respect. Most of the studies on leader cultural intelligence and leadership styles have concentrated on the transformational leadership style. There is, thus, a requirement to examine how leader cultural intelligence relates to other leadership styles. Research design, approach and method: The study was quantitative in nature and made use of a cross-sectional survey design. Data were collected from 1140 staff members spread across 19 diverse organisations carrying on business activities in South Africa. Correlation and regression techniques were performed to identify relationships. Main findings: Leader cultural intelligence was found to have a stronger relationship with empowering leadership than it had with directive leadership. With empowering leadership, leader metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence acted as important antecedents, whilst for directive leadership, leader’s motivational, cognitive and metacognitive cultural intelligence played a predictive part that carried a medium effect. Practical/managerial implications: The findings can be used by organisations to guide the selection of leaders and to focus initiatives for their development. Contribution and value-add: The study adds to the cultural intelligence and leadership literature by offering empirical evidence of the relationship between leader cultural intelligence and the empowering and directive leadership styles.
Waweru I. Kahari, Kyakuha Mildred, Nsereko Micheal
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1368

Abstract:
Orientation: This study explored the mechanisms that drive pro-social rule breaking among teachers in Ugandan private secondary schools.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the contribution of work characteristics and risk propensity in promoting pro-social rule breaking among teachers in one of the Ugandan districts that has a high number of private schools.Motivation for the study: As there is a scarcity of research on pro-social rule breaking in Uganda, this study sought to explore the concept and shed light on the mechanisms that influence this.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative research process formed the basis for this study. Two hundred and forty-two teachers from 15 private secondary schools in Wakiso District formed the targeted sample size. A response rate of 87% was registered. A hierarchical regression analysis was conducted in order to assess the influence of each of the variables on the dependent variable, by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences.Main findings: The regression results showed that work characteristics were a statistically significant predictor of pro-social rule breaking, but risk propensity was not. The results finally showed that there was no moderation effect of risk propensity on the relationship between work characteristics and pro-social rule breaking.Practical implications: The schools should expect more pro-social rule-breaking tendencies when the tasks given to the teachers are complex and when the teachers operate with autonomy. The environment in which the private secondary school teachers in Uganda work, motivates them to sometimes break rules in a bid to perform better or minimise the complexity associated with work.Contribution: This study expands on current theoretical knowledge on pro-social rule breaking and provides insights into the key drivers of the same among private secondary school teachers in the Ugandan context.
Ishreen Rawoot, Adelai Van Heerden, Laaiqah Parker
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1440

Abstract:
Orientation: A career within the South African Operational Forces is physically, mentally and emotionally challenging. It is a diverse working environment with its own organisational culture and unique challenges.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to explore the perceptions of Operational Forces soldiers regarding the unique requirements that facilitated their career success.Motivation for the study: A low percentage of candidates successfully complete the Operational Forces training. The financial implications of training candidates make it important to be able to identify candidates who have the potential to be successful, early on in the process.Research design, approach and method: Data were collected through a self-administered qualitative survey (n = 98). All participants were permanent Operational Forces soldiers with varying ranks and years of experience. The data were thematically analysed in order to identify themes and specific attributes and skills associated with a successful career in the Operational Forces.Main findings: A number of themes emerged from the data, each of which contributed to our understanding of the research question. The themes included self-concept, personality, interests, cognitive and physical factors.Practical and managerial implications: The research findings may help to inform decisions about approaches, practices and methodologies of the South African Operational Forces recruitment and selection process. Results also provide military organisations with the key characteristics to consider when identifying candidates with the highest potential for successful careers.Contribution and value-add: The study extends previous career success research by contributing an additional base of information regarding career success and factors that are perceived to influence it.
, Francesco De Paola, , , , Annamaria Di Fabio
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1413

Abstract:
Orientation: Organisations need energetic and dedicated employees to enhance the quality of their services and products continuously. According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, it is possible to increase work engagement of employees by improving their personal resources.Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the extent to which an improvement in psychological capital, as a personal resource, might enhance work engagement of employees in the public sector.Motivation for the study: This study was developed to investigate how and to what extent interventions aiming at fostering higher work engagement through the enhancement of psychological capital were certainly effective.Research design, approach and method: To improve psychological capital, a new resource-based intervention programme (FAMILY intervention) was developed and applied, in which six dimensions – namely framing, attitudes, meaningfulness, identity, leading self and yoked together – were improved. A semi-experimental research design (pre-test and post-test) was used to conduct this study. Participants were 54 employees working in an Italian public health administration. In the pre-test and post-test stages, data were collected by using the psychological capital and work engagement scales.Main findings: Results showed that there is a positive relationship between psychological capital and work engagement in the pre-test and post-test stages, considered separately. In addition, comparing pre-test and post-test results revealed that the intervention programme significantly improved both psychological capital and work engagement. This shows that an improvement in psychological capital is consistent with an increase in work engagement.Conclusion: Together, these findings prove that psychological capital can be considered as a set of personal resources which lead to increased work engagement.Contribution/value-add: This study bridged the gap found in the literature between the role of psychological capital in fostering higher work engagement and the extent to which interventions are effective among employees working in public administration.
Janet Oosthuizen,
Published: 26 March 2010
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i1.877

Abstract:
Orientation: In order to facilitate positive interaction between work and home, it is necessary to understand the reasons for and strategies used by managerial employees to manage this interaction.Research purpose: The objectives of this study were to determine, (1) reasons why employees experience high or low positive work–home interaction and (2) strategies that employees with high and low positive interaction use.Motivation for the study: Positive interaction between work and home, particularly in managerial employees, is becoming increasingly more important with a view to ensuring a stable and healthy work–home life.Research design, approach and method: A random clustered sample (n = 275) was taken from managerial employees in a multinational organisation and the Survey Work–Home Interaction-Nijmegen (SWING) was administered to identify participants with high and low positive interaction between work and home respectively. Thereafter, exploratory qualitative interviews were conducted with selected participants (n = 32) to deduce themes for the above-mentioned objectives. Content analysis was used to analyse, quantify and interpret the research data.Main findings: Reasons for high or low positive interaction were identified in conjunction with previous research. Ten successful strategies for positive interaction between work and home were identified and reported.Managerial/practical implications: Organisational recommendations made include changing the organisational culture to being more supportive, developing employees for future positions and creating social networks. In addition, individual strategies and recommendations for future research are identified.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to the limited research on strategies for positive interaction between work and home among managerial employees.
Burgert Kirsten,
Published: 26 March 2010
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i1.862

Abstract:
Orientation: Changes in business environments have resulted in a need for the development of innovative teams. Improvisational theatre as a technique could contribute to the understanding of how individuals can work together and be innovative.Research purpose and motivation: This study evaluates the influence of a team development intervention utilising improvisational theatre exercises on innovative work group climate.Research design, approach and method: A quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design was employed with an experimental group and a control group from a healthcare managerial division.Main findings: Repeated-measures ANOVA results indicated that for innovative work group climate as a whole, as well as for three of its factors, namely participative safety, vision, and task orientation, the experimental group’s scores improved significantly (p < 0.05). Support for innovation did not show significant differences.Practical/Managerial implications: This research has shown that improvisational theatre is a team development tool that can be used to assist work teams in creating a climate for innovation.Contribution/value-add: This study extends the body of knowledge in the field of team building and highlights the contribution that improvisational theatre can make toward the development of work teams.
Marié Philipina Wissing, Sammy M. Thekiso, Ronel Stapelberg, Leanda Van Quickelberge, Pinky Choabi, Christine Moroeng, Alida Nienaber, Q. Michael Temane, Hester H. Vorster
Published: 2 December 2010
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i2.860

Abstract:
Orientation: From the perspective of positive psychology, it is important to evaluate people’s strengths. There is, however, a lack of validated measures for these purposes in many of the South African official languages. As language is a medium for cultural meanings, measures of mental health should be validated in the mother tongue of the people involved.Research purpose: The aim of this study was therefore to explore the psychometric properties of Setswana versions of three measures of psychological wellbeing, namely the Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC) (the 29-item version) (Antonovsky, 1987), Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) (Diener, Emmons, Larson & Griffen, 1985) and Affectometer 2 (AFM) (Kammann & Flett, 1983).Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was implemented for this study. Questionnaires were translated, back-translated and evaluated in a research-committee approach. A stratified sample of 738 Setswana-speaking participants completed the questionnaires in randomly selected sites of the North West province of South Africa as part of the multi-disciplinary Transition and Health during Urbanisation of South Africans project. Reliability indices, means, standard deviations, ranges of scores, patterns of correlations and factor structures were established for all the scales.Main findings: The present Setswana SWLS and AFM are reliable and valid for use in this group, as is, to some extent, the SOC. The factor structures of the three scales were also consistent with the latent factor structures of the original scales.Practical implications: These validated measures are instruments for use in the clinical, community and work contexts of Setswana-speaking people.
Editorial Office
Published: 5 February 2015
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v41i1.1427

Editorial Office
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1429

Editorial Office
Published: 25 January 2012
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 38; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v38i1.1091

Abstract:
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology Volume 38, Issue 1
Editorial Office
Published: 25 January 2013
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 39; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v39i1.1197

G.P. De Bruin, Freddie Crous
Published: 2 December 2010
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v36i2.945

Abstract:
Dedicated to Professor Deo Strümpfer
Editorial Office
Published: 9 April 2009
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v35i1.882

Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1422

Abstract:
Orientation: Retaining staff is vital to ensure that universities accomplish their missions. To optimise the potential of staff members and retain staff, it is necessary to study their flourishing and fit in their jobs and organisations.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between person-environment fit, flourishing at work and intention to leave.Motivation for the study: Research is needed to validate a measure of flourishing at work. Outcome variables such as intention to leave have not been studied in relation to flourishing at work. Moreover, it is necessary to study antecedents of flourishing at work, such as person-environment fit.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 339 academic employees from three universities of technology in South Africa. Three perceived fit scales, the Flourishing-at-Work Scale (FAWS) and the Turnover Intention Scale were administered.Main findings: Findings supported a three-factor model of flourishing at work, consisting of emotional, psychological and social well-being. The highest mean frequencies on flourishing dimensions were obtained for competence and emotional engagement. The lowest mean frequencies were obtained for relatedness and social well-being. Person-environment fit predicted intention to leave, both directly and indirectly, via flourishing. The findings support the internal consistency and validity of the FAWS.Practical/managerial implications: Managers and human resource practitioners should consider the use of a multidimensional measure to assess flourishing at work. Considering certain dimensions of well-being at work (e.g. work engagement and competence of employees) without considering other dimensions (e.g. job satisfaction, affect balance and meaning at work) will not be sufficient to assess and promote the subjective well-being of employees.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the reliability and validity of a measure of flourishing at work. It confirms that person-environment fit has a strong positive effect on flourishing of employees and a strong negative effect on their intentions to leave.
Corinne Meier, Dirk J. Geldenhuys
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1400

Abstract:
Orientation: Appreciative Inquiry (AI) has become increasingly popular as a tool for change management in the world of business and is spilling over into a range of contexts, linking a diversity of disciplines. However, instances where management has used AI in consultation with education for collaborative purposes could not be traced as yet.Research purpose: The aim of this study was for two AI practitioners, one in the field of Industrial and Organisational Psychology and one in Education, to partake in a collaborative study proceeding from reflection on the said researchers’ experiences with facilitating AI in different contexts.Motivation for the study: With social constructionism as a core principle underlying AI, it is argued that sharing experiences across disciplines could enrich the literature and the application of AI in different contexts.Research design, approach and method: The research is based on a qualitative, empirical, duo-ethnography using self-reflective narratives of the experiences of facilitating AI in cross-disciplinary contexts.Main findings: Reflecting on experiences in various disciplines lead to the co-construction of new knowledge. Not only were similar experiences supported, validated and extended, thus affirming the strength-based principle of AI, but it also provided the opportunity for disciplinary cross-fertilisation by combining different perspectives regarding the formality of the AI process and the extent of the facilitator’s and participants readiness to work with AI methodology.Practical/managerial implications: The formality of the AI process and hence the extent of the facilitator’s involvement (signalling his or her readiness to participate actively and take the lead in co-creating a new reality) must be tempered by due allowance for the participant’s readiness to work with AI methodology. Furthermore, participants should be accommodated within the psychological space where they find themselves at the moment when the intended intervention is initiated.Contribution/value-add: Duo-ethnography provided the researchers with the opportunity to challenge the ‘other’ to reflect on their own discipline-related AI experiences, in a deeper, more relational and authentic way. The voices and ideas identified and presented counter narratives, also blended in unique ways to augment the definition of AI as a multidisciplinary force to co-create a better society. More specifically, the ‘readiness’ of the facilitator for an AI encounter was conceptualised and applied to the psychological and behavioural readiness of not only the participants, but also the facilitators of AI workshops.
Elmari Fouché, , Corne Van Der Vyver
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1398

Abstract:
Orientation: Quality education is dependent on the well-being, engagement, performance and retention of teachers. Meaningful work might affect these employee and organisational outcomes.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work among school teachers.Motivation for the study: Meaningful work underpins people’s motivation and affects their well-being and job satisfaction. Furthermore, it is a significant pathway to healthy and authentic organisations. However, a research gap exists regarding the effects of different antecedents and outcomes of meaningful work.Research approach, design and method: A cross-sectional survey was used with a convenience sample of 513 teachers. The Work-Life Questionnaire, Revised Job Diagnostic Survey, Co-worker Relations Scale, Work and Meaning Inventory, Personal Resources Scale, Work Engagement Scale, Turnover Intention Scale and a measure of self-rated performance were administered.Main findings: A calling orientation, job design and co-worker relations were associated with meaningful work. A low calling orientation and poor co-worker relationships predicted burnout. A calling orientation, a well-designed job, good co-worker relationships and meaningful work predicted work engagement. Job design was moderately associated with self-ratings of performance. The absence of a calling orientation predicted teachers’ intention to leave the organisation.Practical/managerial implications: Educational managers should consider implementing interventions to affect teachers’ calling orientation (through job crafting), perceptions of the nature of their jobs (by allowing autonomy) and co-worker relations (through teambuilding) to promote perceptions of meaningful work. Promoting perceptions of meaningful work might contribute to lower burnout, higher work engagement, better self-ratings of performance and retention of teachers.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to scientific knowledge regarding the effects of three antecedents, namely a calling orientation, job design and co-worker relationships on meaningful work. It also contributed to knowledge about the effects of meaningful work on employee and organisational outcomes.
, Rian Viviers, Louise Tonelli
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1385

Abstract:
Orientation: Shame has been internationally researched in various cultural and societal contexts as well as across cultures in the workplace, schools and institutions of higher education. It is an emotional signal that refers to experienced incongruence of identity goals and the judgement of others.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to focus on experiences of shame in the South African (SA) workplace, to provide emic, in-depth insights into the experiences of shame of employees.Motivation for the study: Shame in the workplace often occurs and might impact negatively on mental health and well-being, capability, freedom and human rights. This article aims at gaining some in-depth understanding of shame experiences in SA workplaces. Building on this understanding the aim is to develop awareness in Industrial and Organisational Psychologists (IOPs), employees and organisations to cope with shame constructively in addition to add to the apparent void in the body of knowledge on shame in SA workplaces.Research design, approach and method: An interpretative hermeneutical research paradigm, based on Dilthey’s modern hermeneutics was applied. Data were collected through semistructured interviews of 11 employees narrating their experiences from various workplaces, including the military, consulting organisations and higher education institutions. Content analysis was used for data analysis and interpretation.Main findings: The major themes around which shameful experiences evolved included loss of face, mistreatment by others, low work quality, exclusion, lifestyle and internalised shame on failure in the workplace. Shame is experienced as a disturbing emotion that impacts negatively on the self within the work context. It is also experienced as reducing mental health and well-being at work.Practical/managerial implications: SA organisations need to be more aware of shame in the workplace, to address the potential negative effects of shame on employees, particularly if they are not prepared to reframe shame into a constructively and positively used emotion. Safe spaces should be made available to talk about shame. Strategies should be applied to deal with shame constructively.Contribution/value-add: This article expands an in-depth understanding of shame from emic and culture-specific perspectives within SA workplaces. The findings are beneficial to IOPs and organisations to understand what shame is from the perspective of SA employees across cultural groups. The article thereby adds value to theory and practice, offering IOPs a deeper understanding of shame in the work context.
, Rudolf M. Oosthuizen, Sabie Surtee
Published: 23 January 2017
Sa Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1405

Abstract:
Orientation: This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of emotional intelligence (EI) in women leaders in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in South Africa from an inside perspective.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore EI in South African women leaders working in HEIs to identify women leader’s strengths, foci and their possible areas of development. The aim is to get deeper insights in EI in women leaders because EI is associated with effective leadership qualities, creativity and innovation, as well as empathetic communication which is needed in the challenging HEI workplaces.Motivation for the study: Emotional intelligence is an important source for women leaders to increase leadership qualities. This study is motivated by a deep interest to explore aspects of EI in women leaders in this specific professional context.Research design, approach and method: The study uses a qualitative research design and an approach based on Dilthey’s modern hermeneutics of ‘Verstehen’ (understanding). Twenty-three women leaders of the Higher Education Research Service (HERS-SA) network were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. One researcher observed behaviour in one HEI to support the interpretation of the data. Data were analysed through content analysis.Main findings: Findings show that women leaders mainly refer to intrapersonal emotional quotient (EQ), followed by interpersonal EQ, adaptability, stress management and, finally, general mood. The most highly rated components of EQ are self-regard, followed by interpersonal relationships, problem solving, empathy, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, impulse control and social responsibility. Findings also provide ideas on what EQ components can be further developed.Practical/managerial implications: New insights are provided on what components of EI should be developed in women leaders to increase overall EI, on cognitive and behavioural levels.Contribution/value-add: This research provides new and original context-specific insights on EI in HEIs in South Africa, which can be used as a basis for future research on women leaders while providing a knowledge base for contemporary training of EI in HEIs.
, Rudolf M. Oosthuizen, Sabie Surtee
Published: 24 February 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43.1405

Abstract:
Orientation: This study contributes to an in-depth understanding of emotional intelligence (EI) in women leaders in Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in South Africa from an inside perspective. Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore EI in South African women leaders working in HEIs to identify women leader’s strengths, foci and their possible areas of development. The aim is to get deeper insights in EI in women leaders because EI is associated with effective leadership qualities, creativity and innovation, as well as empathetic communication which is needed in the challenging HEI workplaces. Motivation for the study: Emotional intelligence is an important source for women leaders to increase leadership qualities. This study is motivated by a deep interest to explore aspects of EI in women leaders in this specific professional context. Research design, approach and method: The study uses a qualitative research design and an approach based on Dilthey’s modern hermeneutics of ‘Verstehen’ (understanding). Twenty-three women leaders of the Higher Education Research Service (HERS-SA) network were interviewed through semi-structured interviews. One researcher observed behaviour in one HEI to support the interpretation of the data. Data were analysed through content analysis. Main findings: Findings show that women leaders mainly refer to intrapersonal emotional quotient (EQ), followed by interpersonal EQ, adaptability, stress management and, finally, general mood. The most highly rated components of EQ are self-regard, followed by interpersonal relationships, problem solving, empathy, emotional self-awareness, assertiveness, impulse control and social responsibility. Findings also provide ideas on what EQ components can be further developed. Practical/managerial implications: New insights are provided on what components of EI should be developed in women leaders to increase overall EI, on cognitive and behavioural levels. Contribution/value-add: This research provides new and original context-specific insights on EI in HEIs in South Africa, which can be used as a basis for future research on women leaders while providing a knowledge base for contemporary training of EI in HEIs.
Petronella Jonck, Freda Van Der Walt, Ntomzodwa C. Sobayeni
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43.1393

Abstract:
Orientation: In order to ensure harmonious relationships in the workplace, work values of different generational cohorts need to be investigated and understood. Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the work values of a South African sample from a generational perspective, in order to foster an understanding of the similarities and differences of different generational cohorts in terms of work values. Motivation of the study: Understanding the work values of different generational cohorts could assist organisations to manage and retain human capital in an increasingly competitive environment. Furthermore, it could assist organisations to develop an advanced understanding of employee behaviour, which should inform conflict-resolution strategies to deal with reported conflict between different generational cohorts. Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted within the positivist paradigm and was quantitative in nature. Data were gathered from 301 employees representing three different generational cohorts, namely the Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data were collected once off by means of the Values Scale. The psychometric properties of the Values Scale have a reliability coefficient of 0.95, and the scale has been applied successfully in various iterations. Main findings: The findings indicate statistically significant differences and similarities between the various generational cohorts in terms of work values. More specifically, similarities and differences between the various generational cohorts were observed with regard to the values of authority, creativity, risk and social interaction in the work context. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations can use the findings of the study to strengthen employee interaction within the work environment. In addition, the findings can be used to inform retention and management strategies, in order to ensure harmonious relationships in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the literature on South African generational cohorts and work values.
, Bianca Theron,
Published: 27 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43.1395

Abstract:
Orientation: It is well known that the first year at university can be very challenging and stressful for students. While some students mainly depend on the university to assist them through this time, other students want to proactively manage this stressful period themselves by focusing on their strengths and developing in their areas of weakness. Two new scales measuring proactive strengths use and deficit correction behaviour have recently been developed for employees. However, the psychometric properties of these new scales have not yet been tested on first-year students in the South African context.Research purpose: To examine the validity, measurement invariance and reliability of the proactive strengths use and deficit correction scales for South African first-year university students. Motivation for the study: In order to cope in the demanding university environment, first-year university students need to develop and apply proactive strategies, including using their strengths and developing in their areas of weaknesses. Several studies have indicated that proactive behaviour, specifically strengths use and deficit correction behaviour, lead to favourable outcomes such as higher engagement, lower burnout and more life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to validate scales that measure these constructs for first-year students. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was used. A sample of South African first-year university students aged between 18 and 23 years (N = 776) was collected. The two scales were tested for their factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and convergent and criterion validity. Main findings: A two-factor structure was found for the strengths use and deficit correction behaviour scales. Measurement invariance testing showed that the two scales were interpreted similarly by participants from different campuses and language groups. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α ≥ 0.70) indicated that both scales were reliable. In addition, the scales demonstrated convergent validity (comparing them with a general strengths use and proactive behaviour scale). Strengths use and deficit correction behaviour both predicted student burnout, student engagement and life satisfaction, with varying strengths of the relationships for strengths use and deficit correction behaviour. Practical implications: Strengths use and deficit correction behaviour could enable students to manage study demands and enhance well-being. Students will experience favourable outcomes from proactively using strengths and developing their weaknesses, including reduced burnout and enhanced engagement and life satisfaction. Universities and lecturers can be informed, which allows them to develop support structures and provide students with opportunities to apply their strengths and develop thier deficits. Contribution/value-add: The present study adds to the limited research available on initiating proactive behaviour to use strengths and improve deficits for university students by validating two new scales. This could help in facilitating positive outcomes for first-year university students within the South African context.
, Bianca Theron, Leon T. De Beer
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i0.1395

Abstract:
Orientation: It is well known that the first year at university can be very challenging and stressful for students. While some students mainly depend on the university to assist them through this time, other students want to proactively manage this stressful period themselves by focusing on their strengths and developing in their areas of weakness. Two new scales measuring proactive strengths use and deficit correction behaviour have recently been developed for employees. However, the psychometric properties of these new scales have not yet been tested on first-year students in the South African context.Research purpose: To examine the validity, measurement invariance and reliability of the proactive strengths use and deficit correction scales for South African first-year university students.Motivation for the study: In order to cope in the demanding university environment, first-year university students need to develop and apply proactive strategies, including using their strengths and developing in their areas of weaknesses. Several studies have indicated that proactive behaviour, specifically strengths use and deficit correction behaviour, lead to favourable outcomes such as higher engagement, lower burnout and more life satisfaction. Therefore, it is important to validate scales that measure these constructs for first-year students.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was used. A sample of South African first-year university students aged between 18 and 23 years (N = 776) was collected. The two scales were tested for their factor structure, measurement invariance, reliability, and convergent and criterion validity.Main findings: A two-factor structure was found for the strengths use and deficit correction behaviour scales. Measurement invariance testing showed that the two scales were interpreted similarly by participants from different campuses and language groups. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients (α ≥ 0.70) indicated that both scales were reliable. In addition, the scales demonstrated convergent validity (comparing them with a general strengths use and proactive behaviour scale). Strengths use and deficit correction behaviour both predicted student burnout, student engagement and life satisfaction, with varying strengths of the relationships for strengths use and deficit correction behaviour.Practical implications: Strengths use and deficit correction behaviour could enable students to manage study demands and enhance well-being. Students will experience favourable outcomes from proactively using strengths and developing their weaknesses, including reduced burnout and enhanced engagement and life satisfaction. Universities and lecturers can be informed, which allows them to develop support structures and provide students with opportunities to apply their strengths and develop thier deficits.Contribution/value-add: The present study adds to the limited research available on initiating proactive behaviour to use strengths and improve deficits for university students by validating two new scales. This could help in facilitating positive outcomes for first-year university students within the South African context.
Petronella Jonck, Freda Van Der Walt, Ntomzodwa C. Sobayeni
Published: 23 January 2017
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 43; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v43i1.1393

Abstract:
Orientation: In order to ensure harmonious relationships in the workplace, work values of different generational cohorts need to be investigated and understood.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the work values of a South African sample from a generational perspective, in order to foster an understanding of the similarities and differences of different generational cohorts in terms of work values.Motivation of the study: Understanding the work values of different generational cohorts could assist organisations to manage and retain human capital in an increasingly competitive environment. Furthermore, it could assist organisations to develop an advanced understanding of employee behaviour, which should inform conflict-resolution strategies to deal with reported conflict between different generational cohorts.Research design, approach and method: The study was conducted within the positivist paradigm and was quantitative in nature. Data were gathered from 301 employees representing three different generational cohorts, namely the Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. A cross-sectional study was conducted, and data were collected once off by means of the Values Scale. The psychometric properties of the Values Scale have a reliability coefficient of 0.95, and the scale has been applied successfully in various iterations.Main findings: The findings indicate statistically significant differences and similarities between the various generational cohorts in terms of work values. More specifically, similarities and differences between the various generational cohorts were observed with regard to the values of authority, creativity, risk and social interaction in the work context.Practical/managerial implications: Organisations can use the findings of the study to strengthen employee interaction within the work environment. In addition, the findings can be used to inform retention and management strategies, in order to ensure harmonious relationships in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the literature on South African generational cohorts and work values.
Published: 5 February 2015
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v41i1.1183

Abstract:
Orientation: South African call centres were found to rank amongst those with the highest degree of performance monitoring and feedback. This revelation comes at a time when many scholars concur that research has not entirely succeeded in helping organisations overcome the negative aspects of work and enhance the positive aspects of work, such as job involvement. Research purpose: This study sought to examine the relationship between job stress, job involvement and the display of uncivil behaviour amongst call centre employees, whilst also studying the role of psychological capital (PsyCap) in this relationship. Motivation for the study: The study was prompted by the scarcity of research in the area of PsyCap and job involvement, none of which has examined relationships between job stress and the outcomes of incivility and job involvement and the moderating role of PsyCap in this relationship, focusing on call centre employees. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative design employed a cross-sectional survey to collect data from 104 South African call centre employees using a biographical data sheet, the PsyCap Questionnaire, Job Stress Scale, Uncivil Workplace Behaviour Scale and the Job Involvement Scale. Main findings: PsyCap and uncivil workplace behaviour were negatively related, whilst PsyCap and job involvement were positively related. Job stress held predictive value for incivility and the hostility subscale. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that PsyCap did not moderate the relationship between job stress and incivility and neither did it moderate the relationship between job stress and job involvement.Practical implications: Organisations should work on minimising stressors within the workplace in order to enhance the PsyCap of employees, which not only lowers the risk of incivility displayed by employees but also ensures greater employee involvement. Contribution/value-add: Although previous studies have examined the relationship between stress, incivility and job involvement, no studies have been conducted examining the role of PsyCap in this relationship, especially, more importantly, sampling call centre employees.
Editorial Office
Published: 7 February 2014
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 40; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v40i1.1296

Edward O. Akoto
Published: 6 June 2014
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 40; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v40i2.1207

Abstract:
Orientation: An emerging stream of research employs a configural or profile approach to the study of organisational commitment, by focusing on and placing individuals at the centre of data analysis. This approach signals the importance of taking a holistic view of individuals’commitment mind-set, unlike the variable-centred approach.Research purpose: To test the theory on profiles of commitment in an African context (Ghana).Motivation for the study: Although the three-component model of organisational commitment has been extended to several regions of Africa, there is a paucity of research on profiles of commitment on the continent.Research approach, design and method: Cross-sectional data from two studies, with samples of 187 and 218, were analysed using k-means clusters. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was then used to test the differences amongst profiles in their association with contextual variables, such as pay satisfaction, job security, strike propensity and two demographic factors.Main findings: In the k-means cluster analysis, a six-cluster solution emerged in both studies;the profiles include the highly committed and the uncommitted groups, as well as the profiles based on normative commitment and continuance commitment. Overall, the MANOVA post hoc outcome shows that the highly committed group reports higher mean scores on the positive outcome variables (e.g. job security) than the uncommitted group. Conversely, the uncommitted group scored relatively higher on the negative organisational outcome (propensity to strike). Other mean differences were found in the respective studies on pay satisfaction, collectivism and the demographic factors.Practical/managerial implications: Employing the configural approach to the study of commitment in this region should increase our understanding of the patterns of attachment and their influence on behaviour. Different patterns of attachment exist within the organisation that may be beneficial or detrimental to behaviour on the job. It is, therefore, important for managers to identify these patterns and target organisational policy and resources appropriately.Contribution/value-add: This study applies the concept of commitment profiles to an untested region: an African context. It, therefore, adds to the literature on the generalisability of the typology of commitment profiles.
Carly Steyn, J.J. De Klerk
Published: 5 February 2015
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v41i1.1279

Abstract:
Orientation: Whilst the limited investigations into the relationship between identity and burnout have made an important contribution to our understanding of the development of burnout, further research is required to gain a deeper understanding of how the processes associated with the construction and enactment of a specific identity could contribute to burnout amongst client service employees. Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to explore whether levels of burnout amongst client service employees are associated with the manner in which they define and enact the client service role identity.Motivation for the study: The negative effects of burnout amongst client service employees can be particularly devastating for client service organisations. A deeper understanding of the causes of burnout amongst client service employees is therefore essential if we wish to reduce the significant costs associated with burnout in this environment.Research approach, design and method: The research strategy comprised a qualitative design consisting of semi-structured interviews. Main findings: The results of the study indicate that the role identities of higher burnout client service employees differ from the role identities of lower burnout client service employees. Lower burnout employees view the client relationship as a partnership and experience a high level of self-verification when dealing with their clients. Higher burnout employees, on the other hand, describe themselves as subordinate to the client and exhibit strong feelings of defeat and failure when interacting with their clients. Practical implications/managerial implications: The study shows that if client service organisations wish to reduce the detrimental effects of burnout in the workplace, they need to pay careful attention to the way in which their client service employees perceive themselves in relation to the client. Since client service employees construct role identities in response to the dominant discourse of the organisation, client service organisations should exercise caution in how they define and refer to the client-employee interaction through this discourse.Contribution/value-add: The article makes a number of practical recommendations, which, if implemented by client service organisations, should result in lower levels of burnout, increased productivity and improved client relations. One such recommendation requires client service organisations to reframe their client discourses in such a way that client service employees are referred to as knowledge experts that are valued by their organisations.
Masefako A. Gumani
Published: 6 June 2014
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 40; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v40i2.1209

Abstract:
Orientation: The extensive role that social support plays in the lives of South African Police Service (SAPS) members outside of the expected work networks of professionals and colleagues should be further studied to reflect on the benefits received when handling the stressful and traumatic effects of operational work.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to describe the concepts of multifaceted social support network systems as perceived by SAPS members in the context of the Vhembe District (South Africa) in assisting them to deal with the effects of their operational work.Motivation for the study: There is still a call in social research to focus on the influence of different functions and sources of social support.Research design, approach and method: A descriptive phenomenological research design was used, and 20 SAPS participants were selected through purposive sampling. Unstructured,face-to-face interviews, field notes, telephone follow-ups and diaries were used to collect data which was subsequently analysed through phenomenological explication.Main findings: The results show that social support is not a linear process but is multifaceted,depending on specific operational settings. Furthermore, the social support network system identified is informed by the values of communal living in the Vhembe District as well as in the operational context in which the SAPS members work.Practical/managerial implications: The SAPS should help initiate and involve, during the debriefing of operational members, types and functions of social support that are dependent on organisational and community contexts.Contribution/value-add: This study makes a meaningful contribution to understanding that social support in the SAPS operational context is different from other contexts.
, Amos S. Engelbrecht, , Linda R. Kandekande
Published: 5 February 2015
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v41i1.1289

Abstract:
Orientation: Organisational citizenship behaviour, or extra-role behaviours, are essential outcomes for the health functioning of organisations.Research purpose: The primary goal of the study was to validate the Organisational Citizenship Behaviour Scale (OCBS) developed by Podsakoff, Mackenzie, Moorman and Fetter (1990) on a South African sample. Motivation for the study: Organisational citizenship behaviour is one of the important workplace outcomes. A psychometrically sound instrument is therefore required. Research design, approach and method: The sample consisted of 503 employees from the educational sector in the Eastern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa. The OCBS was used to measure organisational citizenship behaviour. Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for the OCBS sub-scales. The first and second-order measurement models of the OCBS showed good fit. A competing one-factor model did not show good model fit. In terms of discriminant validity four of the five subdimensions correlated highly. Practical/managerial implications: Although the OCBS demonstrated some sound reliability coefficients and reasonable construct validity, the discriminant validity of four of the subscales raise some questions which future studies should confirm. The use of the instrument should help to continue to measure the much-needed extra-role behaviours that mirror an employee’s interest in the success of the organisation. Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the requirements of the Employment Equity Act (No. 55 of 1998) and the Amended Employment Equity Act of South Africa (Republic of South Africa, 1998; 2014). This promotes the use of reliable and valid instruments in South Africa by confirming the psychometric properties of the OCBS.
, Sebastian Kolsch, Azaria Beukes, Freddie Crous, Johann Scheepers
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1303

Abstract:
Orientation: Extant research has shown that the relationship between spatial location and affect may have pervasive effects on evaluation. In particular, experimental findings on embodied cognition indicate that a person is spatially orientated to position what is positive at the top and what is negative at the bottom (vertical spatial orientation), and to a lesser extent, to position what is positive on the left and what is negative on the right (horizontal spatial orientation). It is therefore hypothesised, that when there is congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect) and the spatial positioning (layout) of a questionnaire, the reliability will be higher than in the case of incongruence.Research purpose: The principal objective of the two studies reported here was to ascertain the extent to which congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect) and the layout of the questionnaire (spatial positioning of questionnaire items) may impact on the reliability of a questionnaire measuring affect.Motivation for the study: The spatial position of items on a questionnaire measuring affect may indirectly impact on the reliability of the questionnaire.Research approach, design and method: In both studies, a controlled experimental research design was conducted using a sample of university students (n = 1825).Major findings: In both experiments, evidence was found to support the hypothesis that greater congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect) and the spatial positioning (layout) of a questionnaire leads to higher reliability on a questionnaire measuring affect.Practical implications: These findings may serve to create awareness of the influence of the spatial positioning of items as a confounding variable in questionnaire design.Contribution/value-add: Overall, this research complements previous studies by confirming the metaphorical representation of affect and enhances our understanding of embodiment-related conceptual processing and its subsequent influence on self-evaluations versus external evaluations on an unconscious level, specifically in relation to measuring affect.
Rene Van Wyk
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1337

Abstract:
Orientation: The positive organisational behaviour movement emphasises the advantages of psychological strengths in business. The psychological virtues of positive emotional experiences can potentially promote human strengths to the advantages of business functioning and the management of work conditions. This is supported by Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory that emphasises the broadening of reactive thought patterns through experiences of positive emotions.Research purpose: A preliminary psychometric evaluation of a positive measurement of dimensions of emotional experiences in the workplace, by rephrasing the Kiefer and Barclay Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Motivation for the study: This quantitative Exploratory Factor Analysis investigates the factorial structure and reliability of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale, a positive rephrased version of the Toxic Emotional Experiences Scale.Research approach, design and method: This Exploratory Factor Analysis indicates an acceptable three-factor model for the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale. These three factors are: (1) psychological recurrent positive state, (2) social connectedness and (3) physical refreshed energy, with strong Cronbach’s alphas of 0.91, 0.91 and 0.94, respectively.Main findings: The three-factor model of the Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a valid measure in support of Fredrickson’s theory of social, physical and psychological endured personal resources that build positive emotions.Practical/Managerial implications: Knowledge gained on positive versus negative emotional experiences could be applied by management to promote endured personal resources that strengthen positive emotional experiences.Contribution/value-add: The contribution of this rephrased Positive Emotional Experiences Scale provides a reliable measure of assessment of the social, physical and endured psychological and personal resources identified in Fredrickson’s broaden-and-build theory. Application of this Positive Emotional Experiences Scale as a diagnostic tool may allow businesses to work towards more positive emotional experiences in the workplace.
Tersia Nel, Marius W. Stander, Juraida Latif
Published: 5 February 2015
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v41i1.1243

Abstract:
Orientation: The predominant theme of this research attends to the role of perceived positive leadership behaviour in relation to employee outcomes (psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life).Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate whether perceived positive leadership behaviour could predict psychological empowerment, work engagement, and satisfaction with life of employees in a chemical organisation in South Africa and whether positive leadership behaviour has an indirect effect on employees work engagement and satisfaction with life by means of psychological empowerment. Motivation for the study: The motivation for this study arose from the evident gap in academic literature as well as in terms of practical implications for the chemical industry regarding positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample (n = 322). Structural equation modelling (SEM) was used to examine the structural relationships between the constructs. Main findings: Statistically significant relationships were found between positive leadership behaviour, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life of employees. Positive leadership has an indirect effect on work engagement and satisfaction with life via psychological empowerment.Practical/managerial implications: This study adds to the lack of literature in terms of positive leadership, psychological empowerment, work engagement and satisfaction with life within a chemical industry. It can also assist managers and personnel within the chemical industry to understand and perhaps further investigate relationships that exist between the above mentioned concepts.Contribution/value-add: It is recommended that leadership discussions, short training programs and individual coaching about positive leadership and particularly psychological empowerment take place.
Melinde Coetzee
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1414

Abstract:
South African Journal of Industrial Psychology : Annual editorial review 2016
Lisa Kinnear, Karen Ortlepp
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1359

Abstract:
Orientation: This paper represents a broader study which explores how South African women business leaders construct power in their life and leadership narratives. The research was approached with a feminist paradigm in its review of constructions of power and their potential for transformation of patriarchal power dynamics.Research purpose: The purpose was to critically analyse emerging models of power among South African women business leaders to include their perspectives in the process of theory building. Motivation for the study: Women in senior leadership positions are not necessarily enabling the transformation of organisations to include greater representation of women at senior levels. A critical understanding of women’s models of power may highlight unconscious processes contributing to this as well as emerging models that can facilitate change. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative research was conducted within a feminist social constructionist framework, using the method of discourse analysis of narrative texts to identify emerging models of power. The 10 women in the study included executives within corporations across a range of industry sectors in South Africa. Practical/managerial implications: The findings may guide approaches to gender transformation efforts in organisations and raise women leaders’ awareness of their conscious and unconscious impact on gender empowerment. Contribution/value-add: A novel contribution of this study is the emerging transformative model of power and the tensions women experience in asserting this power.
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1379

Abstract:
Orientation: Lack in congruence amongst industrial and organisational psychologists (IOPs) as to the conceptualisation of its profession poses a significant risk as to the relevance, longevity and professional identity of the profession within the South African context. Research purpose: This study aimed to explore the professional identity of IOPs within the South African context. Specifically, the aim of this study was four-fold: (1) to develop a contemporary definition for IOP, (2) to investigate IOP roles, (3) to determine how the profession should be labelled and (4) to differentiate IOP from human resource management (HRM) from IOPs’ perspectives within South Africa. Motivation for the study: IOPs do not enjoy the same benefits in stature or status as other professions such as medicine, finances and engineering in the world of work. IOPs need to justify its relevance within organisational contexts as a globally shared understanding of ‘what it is’, ‘what it does’ and ‘what makes it different from other professions’, which is non-existent. In order to enhance its perceived relevance, clarity as to IOPs professional identity is needed. Research design, approach and method: A post-positivistic qualitative content analytic and descriptive research design was employed in this study. Data from practising industrial and organisational psychology (IOP) within South Africa (N = 151) were gathered through an electronic web-based survey and were analysed through thematic content analysis. Main findings: The results indicate that IOP in South Africa seeks to optimise the potential of individuals, groups, organisations and the community by implementing scientific processes to support both individual and organisational wellness and sustainability. ‘Work Psychology’ was considered a more fitting professional designation or label than industrial and/or organisational psychology. The industrial psychologist’s major roles related to the well-being and development of employees. A clear distinction between a more dynamic, pro-active approach of IOP compared to a more transactional approach of HRM was also evident. IOP within South Africa appears to have a community development function. Practical/managerial implications: The longevity, relevance and impact of IOP as a profession requires alignment amongst practitioners as to shared common professional identity. Contribution/value-add: This study provides a contemporary understanding of the roles, functions, labels and unique value proposition of industrial and organisational psychology within the South African context.
Fabrice Travaglianti, , Isabelle Hansez
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1308

Abstract:
Orientation: Knowing that it is imperative to better understand the antecedents and consequences of needs-supplies fit, the present research had two main objectives. Firstly we wanted to extend our knowledge about traditional psychological needs, for example highlighted through the Self-Determination Theory, by presenting more specific work-related needs. Secondly, following the new directions of organisational fit theories, we wanted to better understand how individuals make sense of fit.Research purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose more specific work-related needs in terms of employment quality and to test job crafting as an antecedent of needs-supplies fit (NS fit). We tested the double mediating role of NS fit (i.e. specific: based on more specific work-related needs, and general: based on global job perceptions) between job crafting and individual outcomes namely burnout and work engagement.Motivation for the study: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, this study aimed to add more specific information to better help predict well-being at work. Moreover, the present research responds to the need to better understand how individuals make sense of fit.Research design, approach, and method: Data were collected in a Belgian Public Federal Service (N = 1500). Our research model was tested using Structural Equation Modelling with Mplus.Main findings: Results show, (1) that specific NS fit perception was positively related to a global NS fit perception and (2) the partial mediating role (specific and general) of NS fit between job crafting and burnout and work engagement.Practical/managerial implications: Managers should encourage crafting behaviours and should know their team and that team’s specific needs.Contribution/added-value: By taking into account more specific work-related needs, our study suggests that needs-supplies may have more than one dimension. Moreover, it shows that job crafting is a way to increase NS fit.
Colleen Bernstein, Sara Volpe
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1311

Abstract:
Orientation: A large body of research evidence indicates that both sex role identity (SRI) and psychological capital (PsyCap) may have critical implications for individual and organisational well-being. As SRI is constituted of sex-based personality traits it is possible that SRI may have implications for individuals’ PsyCap.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between SRI and the positive psychological construct of PsyCap.Motivation for the study: Research on SRI and PsyCap has been explored independently of one another with a lack of research exploring the relationship between these two constructs. In addition, much of the previous research on SRI and organisational outcomes has only examined positive sex role identities, focusing almost exclusively on ‘positive’ or ‘socially desirable’ sex role identities. More recently, researchers have noted that this approach is theoretically and methodologically flawed, as it fails to account for negative traits or socially undesirable traits that may be contained within individuals’ SRI and which may have a number of deleterious implications for organisational outcome variables. Furthermore, there is a paucity of research within the South African context, which explores the adoption of positive and negative sexbased behavioural traits and their implications for PsyCap.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative study was conducted using a crosssectional design and a convenience sampling method to explore the relationship between SRI and PsyCap. Four hundred and seventy-eight respondents, all currently working in South African organisations, participated in this research. The composite questionnaire utilised for this research included a demographic questionnaire, The Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire-Revised (EPAQ-R), and the PCQ-24 which measures PsyCap in terms of self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism.Main findings: Statistically significant differences were found between the positive and negative SRIs for levels of PsyCap. In particular, positive androgyny and positive masculinity scored the highest levels of PsyCap, whereas negative androgyny and negative femininity consistently scored the lowest levels. Although positive femininity fared significantly better than the aforementioned negative identities in most instances, this identity scored significantly lower levels on the positive PsyCap outcomes of hope and resilience, than the other positive identities of positive androgyny and positive masculinity. Furthermore, and counterintuitively, within this South African study, negative masculinity fared unexpectedly better on all dimensions of PsyCap, as compared to the poorer outcomes for negative masculinity evidenced in other international research.Practical/managerial implications: Given the pervasive impact of SRIs and PsyCap on interpersonal and organisational functioning, this research has practical and managerial implications for organisations with regard to recruitment, selection, training and development, and workplace counselling interventions.Contribution/value-add: The findings of this research contribute to the paucity of literature investigating both positive and negative SRIs and contribute further by exploring the interrelationship between these identities and PsyCap. As this study utilised a sample of individuals working in South Africa, its findings have a direct bearing on South African organisations.
Sergio Peral, Madelyn Geldenhuys
Published: 22 April 2016
SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, Volume 42; https://doi.org/10.4102/sajip.v42i1.1378

Abstract:
Orientation: Job crafting can result in a number of positive outcomes for teachers, such as increased meaningfulness and engagement at work. Increased work engagement and psychological meaningfulness may yield positive benefits for the practice of teaching, thus highlighting the pivotal role of job crafting.Research purpose: The study’s aim was to investigate the relationship between job crafting and subjective well-being amongst South African high school teachers. Subjective well-being comprises psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The potential mediating effect that psychological meaningfulness had on this relationship was further explored.Motivation for the study: Being in a highly stressful occupation, teachers need to continuously find ways to craft their working practices in order to deal effectively with their job demands and to capitalise on their available job resources. Furthermore, South Africa’s current education system calls for serious proactive measures to be taken to improve and rectify the current status, such as job crafting.Research approach, design and method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey design was used and administered to a sample of South African high school teachers situated in Gauteng, South Africa (N = 251).Main findings: A positive relationship was found between job crafting (increasing structural resources and challenging job demands) and work engagement. Furthermore, psychological meaningfulness mediated the relationship between job crafting and work engagement amongst the sampled high school teachers.Practical/managerial implications: Teachers who craft their work to better suit their preferences and needs will obtain greater meaning in their work and experience increased levels of work engagement. Training programmes and/or group-based interventions targeted around job crafting techniques may be particularly useful in the South African teaching context.Contribution/value-add: This study highlights the importance of job crafting to the well-being of teachers. It further contributes to the literature pertaining to job crafting and teaching specifically, as well as to the limited job crafting research that has been conducted in the South African context.
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