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Ingrida Kelpšienė
Published: 15 September 2021
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 91, pp 100-119; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.91.54

Abstract:
The field researching cultural heritage communication on social networking sites, is still developing its theoretical foundations, while participatory heritage, as one of the newest concepts born in this field, is still lacking its grounded conceptualization, especially emerging from practice-based research studies. This theoretical study suggests to integrate different theoretical considerations that derives from cultural heritage studies, social networking sites research and theory of participation, and proposes to refine the concept of participatory heritage believing that the primary understanding of the context as “participatory” lies not in the environment itself, but in the activity that takes place in it. Therefore, I offer that participatory heritage could be understood as a new shift in cultural heritage practice that emerge through collaboration and communication of people on social networking sites.
Virginija Šidlauskienė, Rasa Pocevičienė
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 92, pp 90-117; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.92.53

Abstract:
The sociocultural contexts of higher education institutions form the background for gender-based violence in professional structures and environment of academia. The article presents the comparative analysis of sexual violence and the reasons for its (non-)disclosure at the universities in Lithuania and Cyprus. The findings of focus group interviews conducted within the framework of the Ending Sexual Harassment and Violence in Third Level Education (ESHTE) project, co-funded by the European Union, have been summarized in the present research. The focus group participants from each partner university involved university teachers, administrative staff, counselors and university students. The research was conducted during a 3-month period between 2017 and 2018. The main aim was to investigate university staffs’ and students’ experiences in the disclosures of the cases of sexual violence and harassment (SVH) in university environment and campus, as well as their awareness of existing procedures and policies in handling the cases of SVH. Their personal experiences, attitudes and beliefs of SVH, as well as any suggestions they have towards the improvement of disclosures of SVH are discussed in the article.
Daiva Siudikienė, Lijana Stundžė
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 92, pp 65-89; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.92.52

Abstract:
For a long time, the patriarchal tradition of portraying a woman as stereotypical has been established, confining her to traditional roles in the family and society. Media publications often become the main source of constructing attitudes and beliefs in society. The peculiarities of portraying women in the media are an important means of constructing women's self-awareness. The purpose of this article – to introduce the research conducted to investigate the peculiarities of representation of the women‘s roles in the women's magazines and their transformation. For implementation this research it has been chosen the largest monthly magazine for the Lithuanian women „Woman“ and the issues have been chosen published in 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2018 to fulfill the qualitative and quantitative content analysis. The transition from the Soviet system to the capitalist society is characterized by transformation of values, the search for national identity, the establishmen the new models of relations in the society, the establishmen to the lifestyle characteristic to the capitalist society, etc. The images presented in the media draw the attention of individuals and shape the public's perception of what a woman should be and what responsibilities are assigned to her.
, , Emilija Černevičiūtė
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 91, pp 83-99; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.91.53

Abstract:
This study seeks to reveal the attitudes of the Lithuanian adult population on using digital books and illegally distributed books and seeks to provide possible solutions to Lithuanian publishers and other institutions combating this phenomenon. A quantitative survey of 322 respondents was conducted. The analysis of the results was based on the Technology Acceptance Model, the theory of self-efficacy and the theory of planned behaviour. The results show that the ability to use digital technologies encourages the use of digital books. The perception of digital books as having value reduces the tendency to download them from illegal distribution channels. Legislative regulation does not have a significant impact on the intention not to use digital books from illegal distribution channels. It is likely that a negative assessment of the phenomenon in the immediate environment will have a greater impact on refusing to use illegally distributed books. In order to compete with illegal distribution channels, the channels for legally distributed books need to be more convenient and provide more content.
Eglė Gabrėnaitė, Monika Triaušytė
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 92, pp 46-64; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.92.51

Abstract:
The great spread of the phenomenon of MeToo, a global movement promoting the publicity of the facts of sexual harassment, has also received a response in Lithuania: anonymous stories in blogs have grown into a provocative discourse that has attracted a great deal of attention. The aim of the research presented in this article is to characterise the discourse of MeToo in terms of rhetorical expression that has not been discussed yet: to identify and elicit the dominant elements of rhetorical argumentation. The empirical research was conducted using the method of rhetorical analysis that allows distinguishing and defining in rhetorical categories the models characteristic to rhetoric appeals. The method of rhetorical analysis combined with directed content analysis, as well as with critical discourse analysis. Following the methodology of provocative narrative research, it was analysed the material published at the time of maximum intensity and involvement in the discourse, such as testimonies, publications, interviews, and comments of women who have been subjected to sexual harassment. The results of rhetorical discourse analysis allow us to discuss the culture of accusation in which the normalization of victim condemnation is prevalent, and logical reasoning gives way to prejudice-based emotional appeals.
Published: 14 April 2021
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 92, pp 8-27; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.92.47

Abstract:
Various research on sexual harassment and gender harassment confirms the adverse effects on a person's physical and emotional health (Shrier, 1990), but so far, little is known about the impact of sexual harassment and gender harassment on one's body objectification and links to disordered eating behavior. Sexual harassment and gender harassment are not only based on gender stereotypes but also play an essential role in supporting gender norms in society by regulating what is seen as acceptable and unacceptable behavior, and appearance for gender. According to the theory of body objectification (Fredrickson, Roberts, 1997), both forms of gender discrimination can induce attention to one's body and appearance, which ultimately can lead to reduced satisfaction of one's body (Szymanski et al. 2011). Since body dissatisfaction is one of the leading causes of eating disorders (Brechan, Kvalem, 2015; Cruz-Sáez et al. 2018), it is important to have a better understanding of sexual harassment and gender harassment relationship with body objectification and disordered eating behavior. The study aims to assess the relationships between sexual harassment and gender harassment experiences, body-objectification, and disordered eating behavior tendencies. 181 (23 males, 158 females) aged 18-38 (M=24.12) participated in this research. Sexual Harassment Experience Questionnaire (Fitzgerald et al. 1998) was used to measure both Unwanted Sexual Attention (Cronbach α – 0,893) and Quid Pro Quo sexual harassment (Cronbach α – 0,876), and Gender Harassment experience (Cronbach α – 0,868). Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (McKinley et al. 1996) was used to measure body objectification: Body Shame (Cronbach α – 0,825) and Body Surveillance (Cronbach α – 0,804). The Eating Attitudes Test (Garner et al. 1979) was used to evaluate disordered eating behavior tendencies: Dieting (Cronbach α – 0,924), Bulimia and Food Preoccupation (Cronbach α – 0,725) and Oral Control (Cronbach α – 0,714). The results revealed significant sexual harassment and gender harassment experience differences between genders showing that women report significantly higher results of all forms of sexual harassment and gender harassment than men. Data analysis also revealed a statistically significant relationship between higher results of sexual harassment, gender harassment experience, and more pronounced disordered eating tendencies and higher body objectification. Data analysis has shown that gender harassment experience is a significant prognostic factor for higher body surveillance and body shame results, more frequent dieting.
Žygintas Pečiulis
Published: 14 April 2021
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 91, pp 26-40; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.91.49

Abstract:
The emergence of TV in the first half of the 20th century became one of the media for mass audiovisual communication, technologically extending the tradition of electric telegraph and radio. Initially, TV was considered a media for transmitting current processes. With the introduction of video technology in the 1960s, TV began to capture live content and re-display videos. TV content production technologies have been radically changed by video editing, which has brought TV closer to the cinema. Technological changes in the analog era have had a greater impact on content production processes, and the digital era sparked a revolution in content consumption. Technological changes in the pre-digital and digital era can be seen as progress, but at the same time raises the question of media perception, even survival, as the technologies of production and distribution of TV content and audience behavior change from time to time.
Maryja Šupa
Published: 14 April 2021
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 91, pp 41-58; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.91.51

Abstract:
This paper analyses key differences between two paradigms dominant in social research on online crime: the more prevalent neopositivist paradigm and the more recent critical–cultural paradigm. Based on an extensive analysis of up-to-date literature, the key paradigmatic oppositions in online crime research encompass: 1) in neopositivism, the conceptual separation of technological and social practices, the reliance on rational choice approaches in theory, especially routine activity theory, and the tendency towards quantitative research methods; 2) in the critical–cultural paradigm, a complex and context-dependent approach to the technosocial as a continuum, theoretical roots in critical theory, cultural criminology, actor-network theory, and feminist theory, and the emphasis on qualitative methods. The field of online crime research in Lithuania is dominated by legal studies, while social research is rare and fragmented. The existing social research of online crime in Lithuania lacks a solid theoretical basis in either paradigm. Methodologically, there are examples of both quantitative (surveys, analysis of registered crime statistics) and qualitative studies (interviews, discussion groups, content analysis). However, most of the studies are small-scale and their scarcity makes it nearly impossible to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, and complimentary potential of each approach in the specific national and regional context.
Andrius Marcinkevičius,
Published: 14 April 2021
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 91, pp 59-82; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.91.52

Abstract:
The causes of the emigration of the members of the Russian ethnic minority from Lithuania in the last two decades are analyzed in the article. There is a lack of official statistics about the scale (numbers) and reasons for the emigration of ethnic minority groups from Lithuania. Therefore, the qualitative data analysis of Lithuanian press in the Russian language and interviews with informants of Russian nationality is presented in the article. The qualitative data analysis allows to look at the aspects on emigration from the Russian ethnic minority group perspective. The topics of articles about emigration and emigration aspects reflected in informants’ interviews are analyzed. It is considered how emigration of Russians from Lithuania is related to socio-economic, socio-psychological and other factors important to the country’s development.
Lijana Stundžė
Published: 14 April 2021
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 92, pp 28-45; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.92.50

Abstract:
The definition of sexual harassment is mostly based on its legal regulation and is stated to be one of the forms of discrimination based on sex. However, such designation does not reveal social, psychological, economic, etc. sides of this phenomenon. Therefore, this article pays a lot of attention to the analysis of the phenomenon of sexual harassment, based on the insights of Lithuanian and foreign scientists, examines its forms, causes, consequences, and provides statistical information. As there are no scientific insights into the representation of sexual harassment in the media in Lithuania, research insights from foreign researchers are presented. This article presents an exploratory study of the representation of sexual harassment on the news portal delfi.lt, conducted during the analysis of 2017- 2018 publications. The aim of the article is to analyze the peculiarities of the representation of sexual harassment on the delfi.lt news portal. The research found that the topic of sexual harassment appears on the news portal only in the context of certain events, in this case the #metoo movement; there is a lack of analytical publications that would cover a broader context than the statement of facts; the experience of potential victims is presented as an individual problem.
Inga Žilinskienė, Justinas Norkus
Published: 14 April 2021
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 91, pp 8-25; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2021.91.48

Abstract:
Organisations that provide information technology services mostly set goals for improving the quality and management of services. The ability to remain competitive is one of the most critical factors in any modern organisation's success. For business processes to be successful, it is necessary to rely on rational and well-thought-out solutions. In many cases, data-based solutions create conditions to avoid or reduce significant risks. The article examines the possibilities of applying IT processes to improve customer service and presents its improvement outcomes. Customer satisfaction with the services provided is directly correlated with the quality of services. The research investigates and empirically evaluates the existing IT incident management processes of the selected company and provides opportunities for their improvement. After analysing incident management processes in the selected company, an improvement of the incident management processes was presented to eliminate the identified deficiencies. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the improvements. The results obtained show that the improved process had a statistically significant positive impact on improving the customer service quality. Therefore, it can be stated that the implemented changes are effective and useful in the context of the company's operations.
Alfonsas Misevičius, Dovilė Kuznecovaitė (Verenė)
Published: 28 December 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 90, pp 96-115; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.90.52

Abstract:
In this paper, a 2-level iterated tabu search (ITS) algorithm for the solution of the quadratic assignment problem (QAP) is considered. The novelty of the proposed ITS algorithm is that the solution mutation procedures are incorporated within the algorithm, which enable to diversify the search process and eliminate the search stagnation, thus increasing the algorithm’s efficiency. In the computational experiments, the algorithm is examined with various implemented variants of the mutation procedures using the QAP test (sample) instances from the library of the QAP instances – QAPLIB. The results of these experiments demonstrate how the different mutation procedures affect and possibly improve the overall performance of the ITS algorithm.
Rimvydas Skyrius, Justina Valentukevičė
Published: 28 December 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 90, pp 8-25; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.90.47

Abstract:
In assuring organizational agility, informing activities play a key role by sensing the environment for important changes. A special part has to be assigned to business intelligence (BI) activities, since their exact task is to monitor the environment and detect important issues to provide ground for well-informed responses. In turbulent business environment, BI function has to adjust dynamically to maintain the quality of produced insights. A survey on published research has shown that many sources stress the importance of agile BI on organizational agility in general. However, the importance of managerial and especially cultural factors for the role of informing in building up agility competencies is under-researched. The technology factors of agile informing that create preconditions for organizational agility are much better researched and evaluated than their human and managerial counterparts. There appears to be a need for consistent research approach in favor of the less researched human and managerial factors. The goal of this paper is to define research framework by addressing agility issues at three levels: organizational, information and BI agility. This framework is going to serve as a foundation for planned research on the factors of BI agility.
Dalė Dzemydienė, Mindaugas Kurmis, Vilija Baikštienė
Published: 28 December 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 90, pp 80-95; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.90.51

Abstract:
Research on the provision of heterogeneous services in the field of intelligent transport is of great interest in the rapidly changing infrastructure of road transport. In particular, the availability of such services has increased through the use of wireless technologies and communication tools. The current development of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) and the integration of intelligent transport platforms and service systems make it possible to significantly improve road safety and reduce the likelihood of road accidents. However, the delivery of mobile-smart services requires the development of a rather sophisticated infrastructure to support multicast services. The purpose of this scientific article is to analyze the data transmission capabilities for heterogeneous services while ensuring road safety. The paper deals with the tasks of evaluating the possibilities of integrating such mobile services into the infrastructure of motor vehicles. Measuring bandwidth by enabling multicast services on the base of Ad-hoc wireless networks becomes an important task. The demonstrated results illustrate the capabilities of wireless networks by simulating these services in a transport service generating environment. The paper demonstrates that high-quality heterogeneous services require new wireless network interaction protocols, such as a session initiation protocol (SIP), GPRS functionality, routing protocols, and channel access to provide a large number of supportive service components.
Viktor Denisenko
Published: 28 December 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 90, pp 42-52; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.90.49

Abstract:
In 2014, some significant geopolitical changes in the region of Central and Eastern Europe took place. After the so-called Euromaidan events in Ukraine, Moscow took advantage of the situation and annexed the Crimean peninsula. The global agenda was dominated by the discussions about “hybrid war”, “information warfare,” etc. It was obvious that the Kremlin used propaganda in its operation in Crimea in order to manipulate the public opinion and to include ethnic minorities (Russian-speaking inhabitants of Crimea) into its games.In the above context of Kremlin’s practice of involving compatriots from near abroad (including Lithuania) into geopolitical processes, as well as facing the challenge of propaganda, it is important to look how the events in Ukraine were covered in the Russian-language newspapers in Lithuania. The materials of research become publications in the weeklies “Litovskij kurjer”, “Obzor”, and “Ekspress-nedelia”. The question of the research was: did these newspapers use narratives of the Kremlin propaganda, and if so, how strong was the representation of these narratives?
Ričardas Toliušis, Olga Kurasova, Jolita Bernatavičienė
Published: 28 December 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 90, pp 116-128; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.90.53

Abstract:
The article reviews the problems of eye bottom fundus analysis and semantic segmentation algorithms used to distinguish eye vessels, optical disk. Various diseases, such as glaucoma, hypertension, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, etc., can be diagnosed by changes and anomalies of vesssels and optical disk. For semantic segmentation convolutional neural networks, especially U-Net architecture, are well suited. Recently a number of U-Net modifications have been developed that deliver excellent performance results.
Nurul Hidayatul Ummah,
Published: 28 December 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 90, pp 26-41; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.90.48

Abstract:
This study examined communication strategies used by Indonesian national movements to teach media information literacy as an endeavour to fight hoaxes. The in-depth online interview and content analysis had been employed to investigate approaches of the movement to campaign media information literacy competence to society. The findings reveal that the offline communication has been massively applied by the movement to establish direct engagement to give a comprehensive understanding. Moreover, in the case of online communication, the content of Instagram shows that the movements predominantly use Instagram for marketing tools which post much information related to offline activities, instead of educated contents that contain media information literacy understanding. This study suggests that educating media information literacy through online communication should be prioritised, as 140 million Indonesians are active social media users, dominated by the youth aged 18-24 who are prone to be attacked by fake news.
Published: 28 December 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 90, pp 53-79; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.90.50

Abstract:
This text is about one of the longest processes of political communication, which, decades on, influences politicians of various generations of the Central, Eastern and Western Europe, contents of media and self-awareness of the audience. The process isn’t over yet, this is obvious not only from the document adopted by the EP but also from an international political rhetoric. Analysis of consequences of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact signed on 1939 in media (D’39Pact) and related national and international decisions is the axis of information conflict between the East and the West concerning thousands of fates. Those thousands of people had and still have different historical narratives – some people justified the Pact and implemented it, others were fighting for the elimination of its consequences, yet others fell victims to it, with a death toll estimated in the millions. But not everybody’s narratives are based on true arguments.Let’s look at the way the system of propaganda collapsed and the public opinion was transformed in countries of Central and Eastern Europe in 1988-1989. Moving from a lie to (hopefully) the historical truth. Review of consequences of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was the main axis of such transformation (protection of environmental and cultural valuables, choice of one’s viewpoint, legislative requirements and other rights were contextual aspects of this axis). During this period in the previously mentioned region the control of public space was on the decline.This view will be based on a single thematic discourse: the provision of consequences of the 1939 Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and criticism in communist model media of Lithuania and neighbouring countries. It may be called D’39Pact.D‘39Pact in general has several narratives (it may also be seen from the EP Resolution), but taking into consideration the interpretation of Jurgen Habermas’s Communicative Action, the analysis of transformation of 1988-1989 two of them would suffice, one of which is that of the authorities of the USSR and the other one – that of its opponents. Let’s call opponents USSR dissidents, protestors, underground press (samizdat) and press of public movements which was published legally.Narrative of the USSR authorities: the treaty was the inevitable and no annexes (secret protocols) exist.Narrative of the opponents: based on secret protocols of the treaty, the USSR and Nazi Germany divided the countries and destroyed their political, military, cultural elite and finally – their population of various social layers.Medias, as the main participant of the public space, most clearly disclose the collision of such narratives and transformation in D‘39Pact. The purpose of the article is to discuss the circumstances of transformation of MMPT from the historical perspective and of the public space and come across the factors, which influenced the strongest role of MMPT interpretative accomplishments. Considering the way out of the “labyrinth” regarding the D’39 Pact, we see some similarities with the situation that now exists in Russia.
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 55-72; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.40

Abstract:
Culture is playing an increasingly important role in achieving sustainable development goals in countries. The value created by culture is important and an integral part of each country’s economy. The article is designed to establish the relationship between the value created by culture and the implementation of countries’ sustainable development goals through a detailed conceptualization of culture as an integral part of sustainable development. Conceptualization seeks to integrate culture into the concept of sustainable development by giving it three distinct roles in the process of evaluating sustainable development. The paper examines in detail the goals of sustainable development and their links with culture, highlighting the indicators that have been further used in the research. To assess the contribution of culture to the national economy, the number of cultural enterprises, value added in the cultural sector and turnover were estimated in order to compare employment in the cultural sector in different EU28 countries, and Min / Max indices were calculated. The study identified the relationship between the goals of sustainable development and the value created by culture, using a measure of connection strength. Statistical analysis of the data undoubtedly confirms that cultural contribution to the achievement of the SDGs is significant as there is a very strong positive relationship between the cultural value index and the SDGs achieved in all three case studies.
Aurelija Kuizinaitė, Martynas Radzevičius
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 83-97; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.42

Abstract:
A feature of the modern society is the city which tries to express itself by means of social and physical environment. One of the means of expression are events whose activities engage local residents, visitors, guests, tourists, and, of course, distant spectators by means of smart global technologies. Cultural activities manifest by implementing cultural projects of various areas, starting from one-time local events, and ending with large-scale international projects. Cultural tourism is a great opportunity of urban and regional tourism development. Implementation of cultural events in cities can have impact on cultural tourism development and its planning, and can be one of the very important economic as well as sociocultural impact of tourism that manifests by created infrastructure, increasing supply of services and entertainment, and lively cultural life in cities. The work is relevant because it reveals for the first time how mega cultural events in cities are or can be an effect for cultural tourism development in cities.
, Gnat Zhelikhovskyi
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.36

Abstract:
In this article the author examines the main problems of the prospects of development and some questions of operation of publishing and printing industry within the frameworks of global digitalization and growth of digital publications. The author pays special attention to the priority of the objects of activity of the publishing and printing complex of Ukraine. The purpose of this work is to determine the possible ways of development of the publishing and printing industry of Ukraine on the basis of state regulation of their activities. The results of this work may be used by public institutions in predicting the effective development of the economy and national legislation to support publishing and printing industry.
Svitlana Gutkevych, Myroslava Haba
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 116-133; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.44

Abstract:
The article determines that in the current conditions of development of the economy of Ukraine the structure of the tourism industry is changing due to the development of perspective types of tourism, including rural green tourism. The purpose of the article is to identify the features, trends and prospects of rural green tourism development. Results. One of the newest forms of tourism is rural green tourism - a priority area in the tourism industry, which opens opportunities for solving a number of problems of rural development. Rural green tourism is a specific form of recreation in the countryside, which has ample opportunity to use the natural, material and cultural potential of certain regions. In the structure of the tourist complex of Ukraine of recent years rural green tourism has become one of the leading and most attractive types of tourism specialization, which requires increase its effective development and management. The analysis of the activity of rural green tourism objects will make it possible to increase the attractiveness of rural green tourism. The development of rural green tourism in the regions of Ukraine every year becomes more powerful and one of the perspective ways of solving social issues regarding employment in all regions and their socio - economic development. The directions of rural green tourism development affect its development prospects. Value/originality. Rural green tourism is viewed from two sides: first, as a promising and attractive destination in the tourism industry, and second, as an object that will increase the potential and potential of rural areas. In the course of the study, the motivational content of rural green tourism was identified as an opportunity to extend the tourist appeal of specialized tourism. For the developing of green tourism in Ukraine promotes the study of international experience of tourism.
Kristina Kulikauskienė, Laima Liukinevičienė
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 120-141; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.35

Abstract:
The article analyzes the provisions of the most important international and national documents obliging public libraries to contribute to the reduction of social exclusion by meeting the informational, cultural and social needs of people with disabilities. The analysis of scientific literature reveals that the process of social inclusion requires changes in library activities and is associated with innovation. This process demands appropriate management, while the implemented changes should include activities associated with the key elements of an inclusive library – organizational management, accessibility of library services and environment, improved staff competences, collaboration with organizations representing disabled people and promotion of services. The article presents the results of the analysis of activity documents (2014-2019 annual activity plans and reports) of Šiauliai region libraries. This analysis enables to assess the readiness of libraries to become inclusive organizations for people with disabilities and to evaluate the current situation of initiation, implementation and consolidation of activities related to library services for people with disabilities from the perspective of change management.
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 142-166; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.36

Abstract:
In a contemporary organization, knowledge management is rarely assumed to be a supportive activity. Knowledge management processes are rather assessed as being inseparable from other main organizational processes. Considering the up-to-date research, there are no doubts about the benefits of knowledge management. However, because of its wide internal and external dissemination, it is challenging to identify and assess its value both in its entirety and in its value created by its individual processes. In the interdisciplinary context of literature analysis of information and communication and management research, in this article, the authors present the integrative evaluation model of the relationship between knowledge management processes and business processes. The model is characterised by its wide organizational applicability and allows measuring the value created by knowledge management processes in a real business environment. The model integrates the processes of product development, manufacturing and sales, including their constitutional dimensions, metrics and indexes, respectively. All this enables determining the impact of knowledge management processes on the main business processes and the resulting organizational added value.
Andriy Gaidutskiy
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 34-42; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.38

Abstract:
The article analyses the influence of international labor migration on the development of the host and home economies. The purpose of the article is to show that thanks to migration the host countries could improve their development and their home countries could receive enough remittance flows to stabilize economic situation and continue reforms. And in the home countries migrants’ remittances use both for consumer and investment purposes. Based on an integrated approach to the study of these problems, the paradigm of migranomics has been formulated for the first time. At the same time, migranomics should be understood as a special part of the world economy, which is developed due to the effective use of labor of migrants in their countries of employment and the means of remittances of migrants for consumer and investment purposes in their homeland. The experience of the development of migration in the US, Canada, Poland and other EU countries is revealed through the use of immigrant labor. The conclusion shows that the achievements and perspectives of the development of migranomics in developing countries, including in Ukraine, and it is based on economic implications of migration remittances.
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 134-146; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.45

Abstract:
The 21st century theatre is open to new ideas, new findings and presentation of own works to the consumer on not only the national, but also international level. This stands for communication and cooperation with the consumer and organisations. Theatre tours abroad are one of the forms of intercultural cooperation among organisations and consumers. The article analyses the peculiarities of organising theatre tours, its benefit and levels of cooperation. The study includes an analysis of organising national and commercial theatre tours on an international level which allows concluding that intercultural cooperation can occur on the following three levels: interpersonal (micro), interinstitutional (macro) and international (mezzo). The study reveals another new – mixed – level; however, a new mediating element can be seen in cooperation on micro or macro levels. Both types of theatre (state and non-state) see evident benefit of international tours for the theatre, the troupe and the country. A country can use this as a means of soft power in its foreign policies.
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 98-115; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.43

Abstract:
In order to survive or adapt to new tendencies, cultural organisations must enhance audience engagement. This article proposes a new look at the concept of audience engagement from an integral point of view evaluating and analysing it by means of the conception of a map. The prototype of mapping audience engagement tools created in this article can help cultural organisations to effectively measure and evaluate actions in order to coordinate and select effective audience engagement tools. The empirical part of the article introduces a study of 18 Kaunas City (Lithuania) cultural organisations which reveals that organisations mostly focus on online activities, especially in the categories of accessibility and cognition, and there is a lack of collective development and more active audience engagement in programme development as well as promotion of discussions and original additional context.
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 17-33; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.37

Abstract:
The article discusses the motivational factors of visual art institution consumers. Analysis includes Falk’s identity-related theory of motivation for visiting art institutions that discusses how visitors’ experience begins before visiting a museum and is focused on the consumer’s attitude (identity) validation. Consumers’ motivation to visit an art institution depends on not only the proposals provided by the institution and their value to the consumer, but also on accessibility, the environment, and the personnel’s communication. The article introduces the motivations, expectations of consumers of the services provided by Kaunas Picture Gallery as well as evaluation of the services and infrastructure provided by the organisation obtained during study Visitors’ Expectations in Visual Art Institutions.
Stepan Dychkovskyy, Sergii Ivanov
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 73-82; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.41

Abstract:
The article examines that cultural tourism, by developing festival tours, is able to generate significant tourist flows not only by itself, but also it is a necessary complement to any other tourist product. The purpose. The aim is to analyze the scientific literature on intercultural research and the development of international tourist festivals. Results. The identification and discussion of the three main discourses of festival research made it possible to determine the role and impact of festivals in society and culture, the features of festival tourism and festival management. Classical discourse, emerging mainly from cultural anthropology and sociology, concerns the roles, meanings and influences of festivals in society and culture. Festivals are means for tourism, economic development and local marketing. At this discourse dominated. It is based on consumer behavior approaches and ignores the fundamental needs of celebration and many social and cultural reasons for searching a holiday. It should also be emphasized that festivals are increasingly being used to achieve social and cultural objects, which places them as implements for social marketers.
Ieva Vitkauskaitė
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 89, pp 43-54; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.89.39

Abstract:
Types of film production business models are not a widely studied area in the scientific literature, and more attention is paid to the production of individual films, specifics. In this article, ten types of business models of film production companies were analysed and systematized, and the relationships between them were established. The analysis of the models identified two main, major business models: the studio model and the Business model 2.0, which becomes part of all other business models. The studio model directly includes the vertical integration model. It also consists of a “Market-oriented” model, “Horizontal integration”, “Product-oriented” model. Business model 2.0 can consist of: “Long Tail”, “Free” model and “360 - degree” models.
Published: 29 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 29-45; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.30

Abstract:
The article analyses the media portrayal of publicly named “refugee or migration crisis”, after a Syrian migration through the Mediterranean Sea to European countries seeking asylum due to a military conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic. The article presents research data on refugee discourse of the most popular Lithuanian Internet news portals in the period of March 2015–February 2017. The article aims to discuss the parallels between Lithuanian and Western European media depiction of refugees and the “refugee crisis”. The article analyzes main topics and their changes in time, as well as identifies the threats constructed in the media, which are related to asylum of refugees and their integration in host countries. In addition, the article discusses the possible influence of such depiction on public attitudes.
Published: 29 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 83-104; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.33

Abstract:
Although research has shown that women not only have the necessary education and professional qualifications, but also want and can hold positions in the highest decision-making bodies, gender disproportion in the boards of Lithuanian listed companies is obvious, since women have less favorable conditions than men since the beginning of their careers to pursue top management positions. One of the reasons for gender inequality in company boards is the prevalence of gender-based discriminatory attitudes in the professional environment both in Lithuania and in all EU countries, so women need to overcome many obstacles related to corporate behavior and business culture in order to realize their full professional potential. In order to find out the gender balance in Lithuanian listed companies, the opinion of companies‘ board members (women and men) about the situation and opportunities to become members of the board, the possibilities of increasing the participation of women in the boards, etc., an empirical study was carried out. Analysis of the results showed that, although in theory most respondents claim that there is no external barrier for competent women to be proposed and elected to the board of directors, publicly available, let there be covert, discriminatory clauses that create limiting factors for women’s participation in company boards, the overcoming of which is highly dependent on the activity of women themselves and the change in attitudes and attitudes available. We’ve summarized the challenges to achieving gender equity on boards and suggestions to address each of the challenges into four broad categories: boards themselves, women themselves, culture, and laws. One more challenge relates to the argument whether this idea of gender equity on Boards of Directors is even worth pursuing.
Published: 29 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 105-119; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.34

Abstract:
This article presents the development of organizational culture in terms of a rapidly changing environment in a modern labor market. Old definitions had to bring new persuasion into the field in order to compete among modern organizations. We can witness those changes firstly by analyzing how the meaning of an organizational culture has been changed over the previous decades from a very narrow function to a wide and meaningful definition including soft skills and psychological aspects. The most common reason why it happened is economic and technological growth and changes in demand which come along with it. Organizations must adapt to those changes; otherwise, consequences can be crucial. Organizational culture nowadays includes more supporting disciplines, and one of them is Human Resources Management (HRM). Organizational culture and Human Resources Management have been merged as supporting disciplines approximately in the late nineties. The meaning of that phenomena got even stronger when American psychologists admitted its relevance and supported the idea that organizational culture consists not only of an external context. HRM’s components, such as employee’s engagement, the management of cultural differences among parties, creative leadership, the identification of a specific and individual needs, etc., became relevant in shaping organizational culture in a modern organization. The article presents components which belong to the side of organizational culture as well as to the side of HRM and the most important relations between two disciplines and common components which glued those disciplines together.
Published: 29 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 66-82; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.32

Abstract:
Web technologies are the key for the implementing and ensuring the full range of user needs in the digital age. On the other hand, the issue of unified representation of digital content from diverse memory institutions in order to ensure semantic integrity still remains a matter of urgency. Semantic interoperability of information and data is essential in an integrated system. In this paper, we analyze and describe an ontology-based metadata interoperability approach and how this approach could be applied for memory institution data from diverse sources which do not support ontologies. In particular, we describe the use of the CIDOC CRM ontology as a mediating schema within Lithuania’s Information System of the Virtual Electronic Heritage (hereinafter ”VEPIS”) The paper introduces the role of the CIDOC CRM based Thesaurus of Personal Names, Geographical Names and Historical Chronology (hereinafter “BAVIC”), which operates as a core ontology within VEPIS by allowing to understand things and relationships between things as well as identify the time and space of things. The paper also focuses on trust of the cultural information on the Web. Users make trust judgments based on provenance that may or may not be explicitly offered to them. In particular, we describe how provenance is managed within digital preservation and access processes within VEPIS and define whether this management meets the W3C Provenance Incubator Group’s Requirements for Provenance on the Web. The paper is based on the results of the research initiated in 2018–2019 at the Faculty of Communication and the Faculty of Mathematics and Informatics of Vilnius University by authors of this paper.
Published: 29 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 8-28; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.29

Abstract:
The impact of cultural processes on personal and social changes is one of the important research issues not only in contemporary social sciences but also for simulation of future development scenarios and evidence-based policy decision making. In the context of the theoretical concept of cultural values, based on the system theory and theory of social capital, the impact of cultural events could be analyzed and simulated by focussing on the construction/deconstruction of social capital, which takes place throughout the actor’s cultural participation. The main goal of this research is the development of measuring metrics, and agent-based simulation model aimed at investigation of the social impact of cultural processes. This paper provides new insights of modeling the social capital changes in a society and its groups, depending on cultural participation. The proposed measurement metrics provide the measurement facility of three key components: actors, cultural events and events flow and social capital. It provides the initial proof of concept simulation results, - simplified agent-based simulation model showcase. The NetLogo MAS platform is used as a simulation environment.
Published: 29 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 88, pp 46-65; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.88.31

Abstract:
The use of second-generation web technology (WEB2) in education is emphasising the role of social media as educational sources. Researchers that are analysing personal learning environments (Schaffert, Kalz, 2009; Dabbagh, Kitsantas, 2012), personal learning networks (Couros, 2010) suggest the importance of social media, although this emphasis is attributed to the collaborative interaction of learners. To comprehensively assess the potential of podcasts as social media in the creation of personal learning environments, personal learning networks, the research described in this article does not restrict the definition of podcasts as the potential of collaboration provided by social media. In this article, attention is directed towards the potential of podcasts in the creation of personal learning environment and personal learning networks. By using integrated information behaviour module analysis to determine if the students of Lithuanian higher education institutions value the potential of informal learning provided by podcasts. To determine if these technologies are used for the formation of personal learning environments, personal learning networks, a discussion group research was conducted. During the research the analysis of participant podcast usage showed there is interaction between media content used for recreation and media content used for formal and informal learning. This means that the participants of the research use podcasts to create personal learning environments. On the other hand, this interaction is minimal, created only by the learners and reasoned by the search of educational podcasts. The analysis of the experiences of the discussion participants revealed that the collaborative interaction between learners involved in the research in searching, sharing and using podcasts in the process of learning is not intensive, it is typically fragmented. This allows to point out that the communities that use podcasts for informal learning are not forming. This shows that the potential of podcasts in creating a learning network is not fulfilled, and that podcasts don’t inspire participatory learning.
Published: 23 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 87, pp 13-35; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.87.24

Abstract:
The main focus of the research is the representation of migration in Latvian media. In total, 860 publications were analysed covering both Latvian and Russian speaking media content, and the following two methodological approaches were applied: the framing analysis of textual and visual content, and historical discourse analysis in order to reveal the arguments and strategies behind the justification of intolerance. The research data reveals that the framing of migration in Latvian media is left in the hands of politicians and officials. Economic strains and threat argumentation topoi dominate media discussions. The influence of migration is explained and approached from an economic perspective, and most frequently, the intolerance against migrants is interpreted as a failure attributed to the political elite – their inability to solve problems. Intolerance justification strategies were detected in 79% of the publications. This figure confirms that the authors are aware of intolerance not being a virtue nowadays, and the causes of it must be backed up and supported. Visual messages depict migrants exclusively as unidentifiable, dangerous, as a part of an anonymous crowd.
Aija Kažoka
Published: 23 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 87, pp 36-51; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.87.25

Abstract:
One of the most powerful political concepts in Europe, including Latvia, is the welfare state. Whether or not the Latvian language environment reveals hopes and expectations regarding the notion may be determined through a close study of the parliamentary discourse of the past five years, as well as the language user opinions regarding state. The goal of the research is to analyse the topical usage of the notion state and its connotations. As data collection tools, the study used language corpora which display the most frequent collocations and the related semantic fields of a given word. The data analysis was carried out via critical discourse analysis focusing on the dominant characteristics in the language use. The analysis found contradictory usage of the word state. Within the speeches of the members of the parliament, deviations from the definition of the state and new connotations attached to the notion were observed, implying a collective responsibility of the state instead of individual. Both language users and members of the parliament await a strict governmental management and wish to view it as an authority. The desire of a wealth-providing, generous state could signify a hope for a welfare state, albeit peculiarly interpreted.
Published: 23 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 87, pp 52-71; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.87.26

Abstract:
This article analyses the communication content by the Latvian populistic party KPV LV (LETA; Re: Baltica) and the audience’s reaction, with a focus on the daily updates and live videos that were posted on Facebook (FB) prior to the 13th elections of the Saeima (Parliament of Latvia). The aim of the research is to determine the type of populism that KPV LV employed (de Wreese, 2018). The research data was collected during the pre-election period in August – September 2018, when the popularity and social media activity of the party increased. The methods employed were qualitative and quantitative content analysis. In order to identify the structure of emotions expressed in audience-created content, the online data analysis tool “Emotion Recognition Model” was used. Given that populist ideology manifests itself in specific discursive patterns (Kriesi, Papas, 2015), the data interpretation was based on theoretical findings about populism as a political communication style (Jagers, Walgrave, 2007). In order to analyze the interrelations between populist communication and its audience, this study employed theoretical literature on social media use in populist communication and on expressions of emotions in social networking sites.
Published: 23 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 87, pp 86-99; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.87.28

Abstract:
To encourage women to participate in breast and cervical state-paid screening programs, an experiment was conducted, during which easy access was provided to the screening and each woman who had not used the state-paid screening opportunity was addressed through direct communication. Screening coverage after the experiment improved up to 288%, demonstrating the importance of a behavioural economics nudge approach and tailored communication in the overall health communication process provided within the socio-ecological model.
Published: 23 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 87, pp 8-12; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.87.23

Abstract:
In a short novel by contemporary Russian writer Vladimir Sorokin “White square” (2018), the moderator of the show with the same title gets killed during the show in which four guests express their visions of present society. Everyone can follow the killing on-line, having voted shortly before for the most entertaining guest. After having received an injection of a new chemical formula which is supposed to entertain the audience, the four participants get wild and destroy the whole show enjoyed by the audience. A new moderator is being engaged to let the show go on... This rather gothic plot shows another part of the reality – the memories of the director of the show about someone, a person unknown to the reader, who has been killed to start the bloody entertainment. The ring, made of the skin of this unknown person gets lost and lands in a realm beyond the on-line entertainment culture: poor workers, their uneducated wives and alcoholics, who still inhabit the off-line everyday life of low wages, heavy physical jobs and simple joys ignored by blood thirsty audience, voting and selling advertisement time for higher prices. Both groups, digital media users and poor underpaid blue collars are in contemporary Europe and the USA targets for populist messages in media.
Published: 23 April 2020
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 87, pp 72-85; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2020.87.27

Abstract:
The utilization of the street as an alternative and independent medium for transmission of radical political ideas is a form of civil disobedience manifested thus to a certain extent in a work of propaganda and is an example of creative idealism. In this case graffiti can be regarded as a non-violent protest that was theoretically described by Henry David Thoreau in the treatise on “The Duty of Civil disobedience”, a work that has become an essential part of anthologies of political and social philosophy. To a certain degree, in its visual format, graffiti is a continuation of the “samizdat” tradition dating back to the Soviet era, both in the sense of a socially critical message and in the use of an alternative medium. Proposing a new, tactical usage of technology critically directed against technocracy of contemporary society youth of the city is trying to occupy it’s public space by specific type of aesthetization and, in the same time, is delivering clear message. The goal of this paper is the reading and interpretation of messages of the images and texts in stencil – graffiti in Riga in the context of interplay between counter cultures, different minor social groups and their ideologies. The method used is social semiotic analysis. The results show that the criticism of technocratic capitalism, consumerism and the oppression of life and the nature are most important issues taken up by the authors of stencils.
, Muhamet Mavraj
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 23-40; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.24

Abstract:
Considering the traditional role of Russia in excluding the Kosovo territories from the Albanian state, as well as the recent role of Russia in anti-Kosovo independence diplomatic lobbying, this study aims to identify the dominant narratives in Kosovo media about Russia by comparing three media outlets: the public service broadcaster RTK, the daily newspaper Koha Ditore and the online newspaper Gazeta Express. Different types of framing, such as titles, sources and attitudes are analysed; Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) is used to highlight participants and the kind of actions they undertake in the journalistic discourse, raising questions about narrative choices and their ideological influence in the Kosovar audience. The results of the analysis show that the private outlets and in particular the online medium, which is popular amongst young audiences, tend to construct the affirmative image of the Russian leadership, especially regarding the portrayal of Vladimir Putin. While the affirmative reading for the Kosovar audience is privileged, other kinds of readings are suppressed, thus creating the ground for broader intended strategic objectives of political discourse.
Zenona Ona Atkočiūnienė, Daiva Siudikienė, Ingrida Girnienė
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 68-97; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.27

Abstract:
The ability to create innovations is one of the most important sources of a competitive advantage forevery modern organization, region, and state. In today’s context as a particularly significant problem arises the issue of the role of leaders in organizing effective knowledge management and innovation processes. Although the topic of leadership was analyzed quite extensively in the second half of the 20th century, in the 21st century, it is recognized that organizations of this age need a new quality of leadership, as the organizations themselves and their environments are undergoing profound changes. This paper analyzes the changing approaches to leadership and its role in a modern organization, focusing on the concept of innovative leadership and its peculiarities in order to identify the components of this phenomenon and their links to knowledge management and innovation processes. After analyzing significant aspects of this topic, identified were the relationships between innovative leadership, knowledge management, and innovation performance, as well as an integral theoretical model of innovative leadership, knowledge management, and innovation performance for driving continuous innovation performance has been developed.
, Ramiz Aliguliyev, Farhad Yusifov
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 8-22; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.23

Abstract:
The aim of the study is the application of multi-criteria evaluation methods for ranking of candidates in e-voting. Due to the potential to enhance the electoral efficiency in e-voting multiple criteria, such as personality traits, activity and reputation in social media, opinion followers on election area and so on for the selection of qualified personnel can be considered. In this case, the number of criteria excesses in the decision-making stage directed us to the use of a multi-criteria decision making model (MCDM). This paper proposes MCDM for weighted ranking of candidates in e-voting. Criteria for the candidates’ ranking and selection are determined and each voter uses the linguistic scales for the ranking of each candidate. Candidates’ ranking is evaluated according to all criteria. In a numerical study, it is provided the candidates’ evaluation on the base of selected criteria and ranked according to the importance of criteria. To assess the importance of the criteria and to evaluate the suitability of the candidates for each of the criteria, the voters use linguistic variables. In practice, the proposed model can use different evaluation scales for the selection of candidates in e-voting. The proposed model allows selecting a candidate with the competencies based on the criteria set out in the e-voting process and making more effective decisions.
Ugnė Pavlovaitė, Ingrida Griesienė
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 98-115; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.28

Abstract:
The article conceptualizes the audience of art organization, introduces the main art organization audience’s groups and analyzes the concept of relationship marketing in the context of art organizations. Relationship marketing tools are identified as an important instrumentality in order to develop and maintain networks between interested parties (various audience groups). The art industry is perceived as a medium for the implementation of relationship marketing. The theoretical platform model that is developed by art industry organizations is revealed as a universal and widely applicable tool among the biennials of contemporary art. The analysis of academic discourse presents the key groups of relationship marketing as well as dimensions which allows to evaluate the success of maintained networks. Following the features of public sector institutions a noticeable aspect in building relationships is the pursuit of economical benefit. Despite the economical benefits, interested audience groups of art organization are seeking of social benefits. At this point, the main relationship marketing dimensions – trust, commitment, satisfaction – are considered as a valuable measurement of the created platform network that reveals quality. It is concluded that arts organizations use appropriate relationship marketing tools to identify, establish, and maintain long-term relationships with their audience, for which the arts organizations provide additional organizational resources related to communication. The article presents an empirical study of the marketing relations of the biennial from research conducted in 2019 about the development of the biennial of contemporary art as an art platform where relationship marketing, as well as the main art organization audience groups, were presented. Case studies of the biennials of the contemporary art biennales Kaunas Biennial and EVA International were carried out. A qualitative study was chosen in order to empirically test the functioning of the theoretical model of the biennial as an art platform in terms of relationship marketing. Research data were collected using a qualitative (structured-standardized interview) research method. Following the analysis of the scientific literature and the empirical research data, guidelines for the development of an art organizations in terms of audience development were created.
Beata Grebliauskienė
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 56-67; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.26

Abstract:
Recently, education has become a global industry driven by students who have decided to study abroad. Trends show that more and more students choose to study at universities abroad for one reason or another. The growing number of international students also means a growing number of different cultures in a classroom. Cultural diversity is a highly complex phenomenon that influences the process of learning and teaching with its elements and has both positive and negative effects.The challenges faced by students with different cultural backgrounds, their impact on learning processes and academic achievements are of interest to researchers. But it should be noted that this type of research is mostly carried out in universities, where both local and foreign students study in the same language and operate in the same linguistic and cultural environment. However, an increasing number of universities operating in a local cultural and linguistic environment offer study programs abroad (mostly in English). And these organizations, as far as foreign students, face unique problems.The results of the qualitative research show that foreign students studying in such programs face both similar andunique challenges compared to studies in universities in English-speaking countries.
Daiva Tamulevičienė, Jonas Mackevičius
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 157-173; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.31

Abstract:
Understanding the essence and significance of costs, as well as the possibilities of how to decrease them, is one of the most important conditions for enterprises to succeed. The article analyzes the nature, importance, and description of costs. The volume, dynamics, and structure of Lithuanian enterprises’ costs for the period of 2013–2017 is provided. Features of costs classification, based on which one can determine on what purposes the information on costs may be used, are systematized. The methodology of the usage of information on costs classification for specific purposes is provided. It is comprised of three stages: 1) the foresight of opportunities for the usage of the information fund of costs classification; 2) the setting of goals for the usage of information on costs classification; 3) the evaluation of the effectiveness of the usage of the information fund of costs classification. The second stage should be considered the most important one in this process, because when the information fund of costs classification is being shaped and used, the set goals determine the need and purpose of such information. Taking this aspect into account, it is suggested to distinguish the three main goals of the information on costs classification: the administration and improvement of the accounting system, the improvement of the enterprise’s management system, as well as the establishment and improvement of the enterprise’s activity results.
Lina Šumskaitė,
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 133-156; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.30

Abstract:
Foreign scholars highlight that despite the modernization of social life, cultural attitudes towards thefamily are changing slowly, and women remain closely tied to the role of motherhood (McKennon Brody, Frey,2017). The media has the power to reflect on and change the attittudes prevailing in society, thereby reducing the stigmatizing ones. Researchers discover the domination of pronatal discourse by analyzing images of childlessness, which supports parenthood in many ways, and individuals, especially women, who do not raise children and are underestimated and often stigmatized (Gibb, 2019; Grill, 2019). In order to understand the current cultural attitudes towards childless women and to analyze changes in comparison to other countries, it is important to examine them from a historical perspective.The representation of childlessness in Lithuanian media during the last decades of the 20th century was not studied yet. The scholars (Marcinkevičienė, Praspaliauskienė, 1999; Maslauskaitė 2001; 2002) who had analyzed Lithuanian women’s magazines during the late Soviet period and after the Independence in 1990 focused mainly on the representations of familial and romantic relationships. This research, based on a qualitative content analysis of 224 articles from the most popular women’s magazines of 1991–1996, showed that sex education and abortion prevention were the prevailing topics covering the lack of public knowledge about reproductive and sexual health. The aim of the media was to consolidate motherhood as the main expression of femininity within the framewok of declining birth rates; therefore, infertility and voluntary childlessness were stigmatized.
Denys Lifintsev, , Wanja Wellbrock
Published: 30 December 2019
Informacijos mokslai, Volume 86, pp 41-55; https://doi.org/10.15388/im.2019.86.25

Abstract:
Background and Purpose: In a digitally globalized world cross-cultural interaction in social and business environment has become more widespread than ever before. The purpose of this paper is to explore the attitude of Generation Z representatives to different aspects of cross-cultural interaction.Design/Methodology/Approach: We used an online questionnaire to collect data for our study. A sample of 324 young adults from three countries: Germany (n=113/34.9%), Romania (n=107/33.0%) and Ukraine (n=104/32.1%) participated in the online survey. The sample consists of university students aged less than 23 years to match the criteria of being representatives of Generation Z. Different statistical tools were used to check the hypotheses.Results: The results of the study indicate that Generation Z representatives consider cross-cultural communication skills as highly important both in their private and business life. The main motivation factors to work in a multicultural business environment have been identified as well as major barriers for effective cross-cultural interaction.Conclusion: This paper illustrates that Gen Zers are willing to work in a multicultural business environment; moreover it can give them additional motivation. This trend along with ongoing processes of globalization and digitalization fosters further interconnection of countries and regions of the world, making cross-cultural communication and cross-cultural management techniques even more important.
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