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Results in Journal International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research: 46

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Ferhat Yıldırım, Polifarma Pharmaceuticals, Umur Kumrulu, Elif Kumrulu, Esma Yazar, Meryem Kuşcu, Gizem Antika, Tuğba Tümer, Marmara University, Kings College, et al.
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 1-13; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.338.1

Abstract:
Human medicinal products for infusion should be tested for sterility at various stages of manufacturing including the final step before marketing. Conventional sterility methods recommended in pharmacopeia need a 14 days incubation period in order to get reliable analytical results. However, rapid alternative methods based on automated detection of microbial growth have the advantage of taking only 5 days for sterility testing of medicinal products which can be very important especially during pandemics and emergency conditions. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the microbial detection potential and capacity of the BACTEC FX system for the rapid sterility testing of Paracerol, a 10 mg/mL paracetamol containing pediatric medicine for infusion, and to specify time required for the detection of a variety of microorganisms. Accordingly, the results showed that there were no significant differences between the BACTEC and conventional membrane filtration methods for detecting contamination. All positive/negative controls and all samples intentionally contaminated with microorganisms were determined correctly by using both methods. BACTEC FX system detected all microorganisms including slow growers significantly faster than the membrane filtration method (p<0.05). This system can be considered as a rapid alternative over conventional sterility methods for the release of human medicinal products for infusion to the markets especially under emergency conditions. However, for each particular products, validation steps should be executed according to European Pharmacopoeia by using a broad range of microorganisms.
Seyhun Yurdugül, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Seyhun Yurdugül & Hawnaz Othman Najmalddin, University of Sulaimani
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 5, pp 14-28; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2021.338.2

Abstract:
Vegetable and fruit wastes (VFW) comprise a large portion of wastes that contribute to pollution in different ways. This is because there is a large demand for such perishable products by all countries. The Turkish economy was mostly depending on agriculture before 40 years ago but due to globalization this has been changed into industrialization. Even though the industrialization dominates, the consumption of fruits and vegetables has been in an increasing trend in Turkey and its environs. The usage of such resources can be regulated by governments and organizations to avoid overusing them. Also, there are many ways for treating such inevitable wastes. To mention a few, extracting pigment, antioxidants, pesticides, producing single-celled proteins, enzymes, biofertilizers, green energy, and many others from the wastes can be done.
Mehtap Kılıç Eren
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 191-204; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.7

Abstract:
Healthy cells maintain genome integrity by activating a conserved DNA damage response (DDR) pathway that halts the progression of the cell cycle and activates DNA repair. Molecular disorders preventing DDR functioning properly often predispose to cancer. Therefore DDR acts as a tumor suppressor barrier. DDR often leads to not only cell cycle arrest and DNA repair, but also induces cellular senescence and apoptosis. Ultimately, “autophagy” as a self-degradation and recycling program of cellular components can be induced by DDR. In healthy cells and the initial stage of cancer, autophagy appears to have a tumor suppressor function by eliminating damaged organelles, and protein aggregates to promote genomic instability. However, in advanced tumors, autophagy s activated, particularly as a result of hypoxia and metabolic stress, to promote tumor survival under these conditions. Autophagy can also be induced by DNA damaging chemotherapy agents in tumor cells, which mostly results in resistance to conventional cancer therapies. In addition, activation of certain oncogenes in advanced tumors may promote autophagy activation and guarantee the persistence of tumors. Thus, currently development of inhibitors targeting autophagy with potential clinical use is increasing rapidly. In this review, the DDR and autophagy signaling mechanisms, as well as the interconnecting pathways of both are highlighted. Moreover, the biological consequences of the companion of these two important cellular responses in cancer are discussed.
Büşra Baran, Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University, Büşra Baran & Seyhun Yurdugül
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 130-140; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.4

Abstract:
Bread, which is an intensively consumed food product should be optimized to minimize the bread staling and therefore waste. Xylanases, a group of enzymes are able to get rid of bread staling and it can be widely isolated from a group of fungi, bacteria or yeast. This review focuses on the main characteristics, producers and the recent textural assistance of xylanases in bakery industry.
Katia Djenadı, Bejaia University, Hassan Khechfoud, Monia Azouaou, Mustapha Bachır Bey, Djamel Edine Katı, Chu Bejaia Hopital Frantz Fanon
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 141-152; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.5

Abstract:
Gut microbiota mainly dominated by bacteria attribute to the divisions Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, plays an important role in host physiology and influences several relevant functions. Bacteria diversity in gut microbiota driven by dietary factors and influences metabolic and immune functions of the host’s physiology. Imbalance in the gut microbiota, named dysbiosis, can lead to the development of various diseases, such as cancer and even psychological dysfunction. Therefore, Gut microbiota is an appropriate target for nutritional interventions to improve health. These facts motivate us to highlight on the influence of phytochemicals on gut microbiota and look for an alternative treatment of inflammatory diseases by using nutritional supplements. Among dietaries phytochemicals elements we found several chemical compounds such as polyphenols and their derivatives, carotenoids, and thiosulfates. Polyphenols as the largest group can gather four main groups: flavonoids, phenolic acids, stilbenoids, and lignans. These compounds, which constitute a natural reservoir, have proved their efficiency as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules. From this point, we may classify these compounds as an alternative molecule to treat or prevent the development of cancer or even psychological dysfunction.
Jalil Idi James, Gombe State University, Abubakar Aisami, Auwal Shuaibu Mohammed, Linda Saidu, Patricia Samuel, Lama Malum Peter
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 84-99; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.1

Abstract:
Exposure of certain amino acids in some plant peptides makes them biologically active and can be used as remedy for various diseases including diabetes. This investigation has examined the invitro α-amylase inhibitory properties and the antioxidant activities of Psidium guajava (guava) seed protein hydrolysate. Proteins from guava seed were isolated by precipitation using acid and then broken down by pepsin and trypsin. The degree of hydrolysis by trypsin (42.32±0.44%) was significantly higher than pepsin hydrolysis (31.85±0.32%). Tryptic hydrolysate showed the highest α-amylase inhibition (64.06±0.19%) than peptic hydrolysate inhibition (58.19±0.01%) but lower than acarbose used as standard (72.53±0.04%). All the hydrolysates show inhibitory activity as their concentration increases. The antioxidant study revealed that the hydrolysates have DPPH and H2O2 prowling activities with ferric reducing antioxidant property and none of the hydrolysates have higher antioxidant activity than the standard (Ascorbic acid). The outcomes therefore indicate the bioactivities of guava seed protein hydrolysates may make it a beneficial anti-diabetic agents.
Hülya Yaman, Bolu İzzet Baysal University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 100-111; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.2

Abstract:
Peynirin tadını ve aromasına etki eden faktörler sütün kalitesi, üretim süreci, laktik asit bakterileri ve olgunlaşma sırasındaki karmaşık biyokimyasal reaksiyonlar oluşturmaktadır. Olgunlaşma dönemindeki önemli biyokimyasal yollar arasında yer alan laktoz metabolizması ile organik asitlerin oluşması, lipoliz yoluyla yağ asitlerin parçalanması peynirin tadını ve aromasının etkilenmektedir. Kromatografik analizlerle belirlenen bu özellikler doğru ancak zahmetli, pahalı ve zaman alıcıdır. Bu nedenle çalışmadaki amacımız, beyaz peynirin olgunlaşması sırasında meydana gelen bu değişiklikleri belirlemek için kızılötesi (FTIR) spektroskopisine dayalı hızlı ve basit bir enstrümantal yöntem geliştirmek ve olgunlaşmasırasında üretilen ana organic asitlerin eş zamanlı olarak belirlenmesi için bir tahmin algoritması geliştirmektir. Beyaz peynir numuneleri 40 gün olgunlaştırılmış ve numuneler 1, 20 ve 40 günlük depolamadan sonra analize dilmiştir. Farklı örnekleme yöntemiyle hazırlanan örnekler FTIR bölgesinde (4000 ila 700 cm-1) taşınabilir bir FTIR kullanılarak taranmıştır. Aynı zamanda HPLC ve GC ile organic ve yağ aside profili belirlenerek, toplanan spekrumların olgunlaşma süre ve organik asit içerikleri ile ilişkilendirilmiştir. Tahmin modelleri geliştirmek için sınıf analojisinin (SIMCA) yumuşak bağımsız modellemesi ve kısmi en küçük kareler regresyonu (PLSR) ile analiz edilmiştir. SIMCA peynir örneklerinin olgunlaşma süresine göre kümelemesine izin verdi. İlginç bir şekilde, numunelerin gruplanmasını yönlendiren sinyal, peynir aromasına katkıda bulunan organik ve yağ asitlerin oluşumu ve konsantrasyonu ile ilişkili bulunmuştur. Örnekleme yöntemleri arasında peynir ekstraklarının diğer yöntemlere göre daha iyi SIMCA model oluşturduğu gözlenmiştir. Ayrıca aynı sinyal, organik ve yağ asit seviyeleri regresyon algoritmaları (PLSR) geliştirmek için kullanılmış ve PLSR modelleri mükemmel uyum göstermiştir (r-değeri> 91). Organik asit profili 10 dakikadan daha kısa sürede doğru bir şekilde belirlenebilmiştir. Sonuç olarak Portatif kızılötesi üniteler, olgunlaşma sırasında meydana gelen karmaşık biyokimyasal değişiklikleri izlemek ve beyaz peynirde dengeli bir tat gelişimi için önemli olan kalite parametrelerini tahmin etmek için hızlı, basit bir araç ve yerinde Teknik olarak kullanılabilir.
Emmanuel Korode, Emmanuel Korode & Jalil Idi James, Gombe State University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 112-129; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.3

Abstract:
Cyanide contamination of Soil and aquatic environment has become a great concern in Nigeria because of increase in the number of cassava processing milling plants. The sample collection and the conduct of this experiment took place between September and October when the country is experiencing late rainfall. The levels of physicochemical parameters in soil and plant samples were obtained using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Soil and plant samples of Amaranthus spinosus were obtained from cassava processing site (site X) and other samples 100m to the cassava mills (site Y) as control. The concentration of metals in soil samples in mg/kg at site ‘X’ recorded were Cr(39.0mg/kg), Mn(3.5mg/kg), Cu(33.0mg/kg), Fe(4.3mg/kg), Pb(2.5mg/kg), and Zn(52.5mg/kg) while that of site ‘Y’ were Cr(16.5mg/kg), Mn(1.3mg/kg), Cu(13.0mg/kg), Fe(1.9mg/kg), Pb(0.3mg/kg), and Zn(17.0mg/kg). The concentration values for AS, Cd and Nickel in the environment were below detection limit for all soil and plant samples. The concentrations of metals in A. spinosus root and shoot in mg/kg from sites ‘X’ were Cr(6.00mg/kg - 8.50mg/kg), Fe(0.55mg/kg - 0.80mg/kg), Cu(4.00mg/kg - 5.50mg/kg), Pb(0.05mg/kg - 0.08mg/kg), Zn(6.00mg/kg - 8.00mg/kg), Mn(0.35mg/kg - 0.5mg/kg) while that of site ‘Y’ were Cr(5.50mg/kg - 8.00mg/kg), Fe(0.545mg/kg - 1.00mg/kg), Cu(4.00mg/kg - 6.50mg/kg), Pb(0.03mg/kg - 0.08mg/kg), Zn(7.50mg/kg - 9.50mg/kg), Mn(0.30mg/kg - 0.60mg/kg). The values of some metals analyzed were above the recommended values by WHO and FEPA. The analysis of effluents and surface water samples resulted in higher figures for most of the parameters and acidic pH in cassava effluent than the surface water sample. The mode of phytoremediation was also investigated. Data obtained suggested the plants could be used for phyto-extraction of these metals. Rhodanese, enzyme that detoxify cyanide was extracted and characterized from the liver of Clarias gariepinus of cassava effluents contaminated Odo-Oba River. The results show specific activities of 0.0526RUmg-1. The optimal temperature and pH of 30˚C and 7.0 were recorded for the enzyme respectively. The Vmax of 9.62RU/Ml and 6.33RU/Ml were obtained for the KCN and Na2S2O3 substrates while for the Km, higher figures of 49.4mM and 28.5mM were recorded respectively. However, the Km values of the fish liver Rhodanese of Clarias gariepinus indicated higher affinity for thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) than for potassium cyanide (KCN) as a substrate, although maximum activity was observed for KCN substrate. Inhibition studies on the enzyme with a number of chloride salts showed that the activity of the enzyme was not affected by Mg2+,, Mn2+,Ca2+ while Ba2+,Hg2+ and Cu2+ inhibited the enzyme considerably.
Cıhan Tastan, Uskudar University, Sulhattin Yasar, Muhammed Bahattin Tanyolac, Kenan Turgut, Ufuk Tansel Şireli, Cimen Atak, Kamil Haliloglu, Kemal Benlioglu, Kemal Melih Taşkın, et al.
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 153-190; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.312.6

Abstract:
Almost all cells of any living organism contain DNA, a hereditary molecule that passes from generation to generation during reproduction. The term "genome" generally refers to the total DNA sequences in an organism. The genome consists of DNA sequences called “gene”, which plays a role in the basic biological processes involved in many phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, such as performing cellular functions, controlling numbers and species, regulating energy production, metabolism, and combating diseases. Gene editing is the process of pre-designing and modifying a particular DNA sequence in a targeted gene. The most widely used technique is CRISPR-Cas technology. For this purpose, the DNA helix is ​​cut at a certain point, to form a double-strand break (DSB), and naturally existing cellular repair mechanisms repair the DSB. Modes of the repair mechanisms may affect the gene function. When DSB is formed, gene editing techniques can be applied to remove, insert, or replace a newly modified sequence using a synthetic donor template DNA. In developed and developing countries, CRISPR-Cas studies in addition to research and development studies are rapidly increasing. In addition to increasing population, changing weather conditions, declining farmland, increasing biotic and abiotic stresses are other important barriers to agricultural production, food, and feed supply. In this report, CRISPR-Cas applications are introduced in detail from the studies that carried out gene modifications in the fields of health, animals, plants, microorganisms, and food supply. Besides, these technologies and applications have been examined in terms of world biosafety legislation and the scientific risk assessment of the products developed using the CRISPR-Cas technique.
Neslihan Demir & Mustafa Yıldız Büşra Dalgıç, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Neslihan Demir, Mustafa Yıldız
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 52-65; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.273.1

Abstract:
In this study, a new Schiff base containing ferrocene and benzothiazol was synthesized from the reaction of ferrocene-2-carboxialdehyde and 6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazole-2-amine. The structure of the synthesized original imine compound 2-((6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-ylimino)methyl) ferrocene was illuminated by UV-VIS, FTIR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the compound was determined by the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) method against various bacterial and yeast cultures, and the antioxidant activity was determined by the free radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrilhydrazyl (DPPH). DNA cleavage activity of Schiff base was investigated hydrolytically and oxidatively by agarose gel electrophoresis method, and binding to DNA was investigated by UV-Visible field spectroscopy method. It was found that the studied ferrocene and benzothiazole imine compound had more effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) bacteria. The compound was found to exhibit good antioxidant activity compared to the standardized butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT). Agarose gel electrophoresis studies showed that the compound cleaved DNA without any external agent, and UV-Vis spectroscopy studies showed that it interacted electrostatically with CT-DNA.
Nural Öztürk, Aydın Adnan Menderes University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 66-83; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.273.2

Abstract:
In breast cancer, electron energies are preferred over photon energies because they provide minimal lung exposure when conditions allow for thin chest wall irradiation after mastectomy. In patients with irregular chest wall, it is difficult to perform a homogeneous irradiation with fixed electron beam therapy due to reasons such as thickness differences, irregular contour and lack of tissue, long scar and area joint problems. Electron arc therapy is propose as an alternative method in such patients. The study was carried out with electron energies of 6, 9, 12, 13.5 and 16 MeV. First, in order to be able to use it in electron arc planning in the planning system, after determining the dose characteristics of all available electron energies of the electron arc technique, the accuracy of these dose distributions was verified with film and TLD dosimetry. After the suitability was determined, electron arc plans were made on the CT simulation image of 20 patients selected due to the difficulty of homogeneous irradiation with the classical method. While the chosen reference dose of 85% covered the PTV homogeneously, it was found that the dose was decreased by an average of 50% compared to photon and classical electron therapy in the examination performed in terms of radiation dose to which the lung volume was exposed. During the planning, a homogeneous dose and bolus of different thicknesses were required depending on the energy in most patients to regulate the reduction in surface dose depending on the arc angle. Bolus prevents the lung and heart from overdosing while ensuring that the dose in the deeper parts of the target volume is more uniform. The use of tertiary block in electron-arc dose distributions prevented unwanted dose reduction in the field edges and provided a more homogeneous dose distribution at 85% reference isodose. If the structure of the patient's contour is very irregular, the dose distribution is not smooth due to the depth difference. In this context, it has been determined that during optimization, the isocenter depth should be chosen for the homogeneity of the dose distribution and to be as equal as possible from the surface at all beam angles. In addition, in the study, it was determined that more appropriate dose distributions were obtaine when the isocenter depth is greater than the maximum reach of electrons. Even if multiple electron fields of different energies are used, more homogeneous dose distributions have been achieve by eliminating field combination problems with the use of electron arc therapy.
Mustafa Özgür Keskin, Çukurova University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 35-51; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.259.2

Abstract:
Madencilikte, metalik cevherlerin zenginleştirilme işlemleri, farklı şekillerde gerçekleştirilebilmelerine rağmen, genelde prosesler; hazırlama işlemleri, boyut küçültme ve sınıflandırma gibi ön işlemleri kapsamaktadır. Bu işlemler, gürültü düzeyi oldukça yüksek seviyelere ulaşabilen büyük boyutlardaki makine ve yöntemlerle gerçekleştirilmektedir. Bu araştırmada, Adana ve Mersin bölgelerinde bulunan krom zenginleştirme tesisleri sallantılı masa ve değirmen katlarında, TS EN 61672-1 ve IEC 61672 standartlarına uygun Lutron SL-4010 dijital ölçüm cihazı ile gürültü şiddeti ölçümleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Her iki tesiste, masa katları ile değirmen katları içerisindeki gürültü şiddeti değerlerinin 85-95 dB arasında değiştiği ve “Çalışanların Gürültü ile İlgili Risklerden Korunmalarına Dair Yönetmeliğe” göre bu değerlerin; maruziyet eylem değerleri ve maruziyet sınır değerleri üzerinde olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Bununla birlikte, belirlenen gürültü şiddeti değerleri karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiş, çalışanlar üzerindeki etkileri mevzuat doğrultusunda değerlendirilmiş ve bu etkilerinin önlenebilmesi için yapılması gerekenler belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır.
Tolga Mehmet Ali Gündoğdu & Murat Şeker Tolga Sarıyer, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Mehmet Ali Gündoğdu, Murat Şeker
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 23-34; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.259.1

Abstract:
The number of new varieties bred in the world is increasing day by day. İncrease in yield, possibility of marketing in domestic and foreign trade, nutritional properties of agricultural products are closely interested with developing new varieties. The evaluation of the performance of these varieties in different ecological conditions is an important study subject. Oskar F1 is a black coloured pepper also called purple colured. Oskar F1 is a registered hybrid sweet pointed pepper variety and is subject to export. Oskar F1 pepper variety is stands out in terms of marketing with its black color in addition to having high ascorbic acid amount (222.33 mg / 100g) and hexanal was found as major aroma component which creates a sensory perception as a freshly cut grass to its aroma feature.
Jalil I.J, Gombe State University, Muhammad S.M, Dorcas A.B, Sandra G.Z, Abubakar Aisami
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 1-14; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.237.1

Zana Hamagharib Yarwais, Akre Technical College, Hawnaz Othman Najmalddin, Zhulia Jamal Omar, Shad Arif Mohammed, Azmar College for Gifted Students
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 4, pp 15-22; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2020.237.2

Hatice Duman, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Pınar Ulupınar, Gaye Pisiren, Zeynep Rumeysa Kaymaz, Sercan Karav
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 117-127; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.219.3

Abstract:
Recombinant protein production has become a growing sector all around the world such as in therapeutic applications, pharmaceutical, agriculture etc. Although, a number of systems for protein expression have been developed and there is an increasing requirement for efficient methods of large-scale production. Therefore recombinant proteins are produced by various ways to generate large quantities for commercial and research applications in a different host such as in bacteria, yeasts, insects, and mammalian culture. Among these, plant systems are mostly preferred since they have a developed eukaryotic system. The expression of recombinant proteins in plants and plant cells has been promoted as an alternative cost-effective production platform. In this review we described, challenges and advantages of plants as expression systems for proteins and discussed unique advantages of producing proteins recombinantly in different plants; tobacco, rice, and maize.
Sefa Polatöz, Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Lapseki Myo, Sefa Polatöz & Murat Şeker, Agriculture Faculty
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 98-105; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.219.1

Abstract:
Originating in southeast Asia, citrus currently have a large geographical distribution around the world. Sourced in tropical and semitropical regions, cultivation of citrus for the table is mainly focused in subtropical regions. The study aimed to fully determine the compatibility status for the Carrizo citrange with new mandarin varieties and the rootstock-scion relationships. As rootstock Carrizo citrange (Poncirus trifoliata x Citrus sinensis) was used with Dart, Mandalate, Mihowase, Tango and W. Murcott mandarin used as varieties. Grafting was completed on 10 April 2016 with T bud grafting and the graft band was opened 1 month after grafting with rootstock diameter (mm), scion diameter (mm) and shoot length (cm) measured one time per month and the differences between varieties in terms of these characteristics were revealed. The highest rootstock diameter measurement was in the Dart variety, with highest scion diameter value in the Mihowase variety. When seedling development is evaluated, sapling crown height of 60-65 cm was first reached by the Tango variety at the end of October, followed by W. Murcott, Mihowase, Mandalate and Dart varieties.
Sefa Polatöz, Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi Lapseki Myo, Sefa Polatöz & Turgut Yeşiloğlu, Çukurova University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 106-116; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.219.2

Abstract:
Turunçgiller dünyada yetiştiriciliği yapılan en önemli meyve gruplarından biridir. Subtropik iklim kuşağında yer alan ülkemizde, turunçgil yetiştiriciliği bakımından kaliteli sofralık turunçgil üretimi yapılmaktadır. Çalışma killi toprak koşullarında yetiştirilen, 1964 yılında 7x7 m aralıkla dikilmiş Yerli turunç üzerine aşılı olan Kütdiken limon çeşidinde Ekim, Şubat, Mayıs ve Ağustos ayları olmak üzere yılda 4 dönemde ve 2 yıl süreyle 3’er yinelemeli olmak üzere örnekler alınarak yapılmış olup, ağaçlardan alınan tohum, meyve eti, meyve kabuğu, yaprak, ana dal, kalın dal, normal dal, ince dal, kalem, anaç, kök boğazı, kalın kökler, normal kökler ve kılcal kökler çalışma materyali olarak kullanılmıştır. Kütdiken limon çeşidinde çinko (Zn) ve mangan (Mn) besin elementlerinin mevsimsel dağılımları incelenmiştir, Araştırma sonucunda Zn ve Mn bitki besin elementleri bakımından organlar arasında önemli farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Kütdiken limon çeşidinde dönemlerin tamamında en yüksek çinko ve mangan değerleri kılcal köklerde bulunmuştur.
İsmail Hamit Hancı, Ankara Universitesi Tıp Fakültesi, İsmail Hamit Hancı & Leyla Didem Kozacı, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 128-143; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.219.4

Abstract:
Uyuşturucu maddeler belirli miktarda alındığında, kişinin sinir sistemine etki ederek, akli, fiziki ve psikolojik dengesini bozan, kişi ve toplum içerisinde ekonomik ve sosyal çöküntü meydana getiren, alışkanlık ve bağımlılık yapan maddelerdir. Madde analizleri, madde ile mücadelenin önemli unsurlarından biridir. Madde analizlerinde tarama ve doğrulama yöntemleri kullanılmaktadır. Maddelerin ve metabolitlerinin alındıktan sonra ne kadar süre ile tespit edilebileceği madde analizinden önce bilinmelidir. Tespit süresini belirleyen en önemli faktörler maddenin emilimi ve daha sonra vücut sıvılarına geçiş süresidir. Madde ve metabolitlerinin varlığını tespit etmek için çok çeşitli biyolojik örnek türleri (idrar, kan, tükürük, saç,vb) kullanılabilir. Özellikle, trafikte madde etkisi altında sorgulama yapılırken tükürük analizleri hızlı, güvenilir ve kolay uygulanabilir, noninvaziv olmaları yönünden kan ve idrar örneklerine alternatif olarak kullanılmaktadır. Tükürükte uyuşturucu madde tespiti amacı ile immünolojik kitler tercih edilmektedir. Tükürük örneği alınması görsel olarak takip edilebilir. Ülkemizde POCT temelli UTC Uyuşturucu Test Cihazı’nın (ARMAS) doğruluk oranı %90’ın üzerinde saptanmış ve Trafik Birimleri tarafından tarama testi amaçlı kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Dikkat edilmesi gereken bir nokta kullanılan POCT cihazlarının performans değerlendirmelerinin düzenli yapılması gerekliğidir.
Seyhun Yurdugül, Abant Izzet Baysal University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 66-82; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.213.1

Abstract:
The purpose of the current study is to evaluate the effect of edible fruit and vegetable coatings, the echinacea and the hawthorn tea solutions, solely or in combination of increasing the shelf-life of chicken meat by the inhibition of the microbial flora at the refrigeration temperature (+4˚C), without disrupting certain chemical and physical properties. Eight different combinations of treatment groups were formed as follows: (E): echinacea tea, (E+M): echinacea tea-hawthorn tea combination, (E+S): Semperfresh®-echinacea tea combination, (E+M+S): Semperfresh® -echinacea tea-hawthorn tea combination, (M): hawthorn tea, (M+S): Semperfresh®-hawthorn tea combination; (S): the edible coating (Semperfresh®), including the control. The total mesophilic aerobic bacteria(TMAB), yeast-mold, Salmonella spp., E. coli and Staphylococcus species were determined. The pH, firmness, weight and total sugar content were analyzed. It was found that the sole hawthorn tea and triple combination of Echinacea tea-hawthorn tea-edible coating SemperfreshTM(E+H+S) showed significant inhibitory effects on the mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), Staphylococci, Salmonella and Escherichia coli. Except for the Echinacea treatment group, the overall evaluation of taste panel showed a likeness of the remaining applications(p≤0.05). On the other hand, no significant effect was observed (p>0.05) on the pH, the firmness, the total sugar content and the weight of chicken meat among the groups. Different combinations, especially the triple combination was found to be successful on chicken thighs, due to the microbiological, chemical and physical findings. It can be inferred from the study that echinacea, hawthorn, and SemperfreshTM show a synergetic effect
Mehtap Kılıç Eren, Nur Betül Kartal, Aydin Adnan Menderes University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 83-97; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.213.2

Abstract:
Sağlıklı hücreler genom bütünlüğünü, hücre döngüsündeki ilerleyişi erteleyen/durduran ve DNA tamirini devreye sokan korunmuş bir DNA hasarı yanıtı yolağını aktive ederek sürdürürler. Bu sinyal yolağının düzgün olarak çalışmasını engelleyen moleküler bozukluklar genellikle kansere yatkınlık kazandırırlar. DNA hasarı yanıtı (DDR), hücreleri genomik kararsızlıktan korur ve kanser gelişimini önler. DNA hasarının moduna ve seviyesine bağlı olarak, DDR sinyal ağı hücre döngüsünün geçici durdurulmasını (kontrol noktası), kalıcı büyümenin durdurulmasını (yaşlanma, senesens) veya programlanmış hücre ölümünü (apoptozis) teşvik eder. DDR'ye katılan proteinleri kodlayan genler tipik olarak tümör baskılayıcılardır ve yaygın olarak kanserde mutasyona uğrarlar. DDR yolağı temel olarak proteinlerin fosforilasyon ve defosforilasyonlarını kapsayan bir mekanizma ile düzenlenir. Yabanıl tip p53 ile indüklenen fosfataz veya (Wild-type p53-inducible phosphatase (Wip1)), veya protein fosfataz tip 2C delta (protein phosphatase type 2C delta (PPM1D)) olarak da bilinen Wip1, DDR’ ın merkezinde yer alan ve önemli tümör baskılayıcıları hedef alan bir onko-proteindir. Bu derleme de, DDR’nin ince ayarında Wip1 aktivitesinin rolü ve bir onkogen olarak apoptozis ve senesens gibi hücresel stres yanıtları üzerine etkileri tartışılmıştır.
Mert Metin & Özge Karakaş Metin, Özge Karakaş Metin, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 41-52; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.197.2

Çağan Berker Iyi, Dumlupınar University, Martha Mecartney, Daniel R. Mumm
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 20-40; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.197.1

Nihan Akgüç Çöl, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 53-65; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.197.3

Elif Merdin, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Graduate School of Natural Andapplied Sciences, Sezgin Aygün, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 9-19; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.187.2

Fatih Sezer, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 3, pp 1-8; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2019.187.1

Ayfer Karlıtepe, Mehtap Kılıç Eren
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 152-161; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.4

Niwagaba Silivano, , Okweny David, Abubakar Sunusi Adam, Aziz Katabazi, Micheal Tirwomwe, Albert Nyanchoka Onchweri, Muhwezi Reagan, Yashim J. S. Blessing, Bwalhuma Abraham, et al.
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 112-125; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.1

Betül Özbek Ipteç, Gamze Avcıoğlu, Ömer Faruk Şendur, Leyla Didem Kozacı, Adnan Menderes University, Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 140-151; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.3

Kaissa Boudıeb, Sabrina Ait Slimane - Ait Kaki, Hakima Oulebsir-Mohandkaci, Amel Bennacer
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 126-139; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.173.2

Murat Şeker, Engin Gür, Neslihan Ekinci, Mehmet Ali Gündoğdu, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 103-111; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.152.3

Fa’Izu Ahmed Lame, Department of Environmental Management Technology, Haruna Adamu
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 88-102; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.152.2

Münevver Kodan, Zirai Mücadele Merkez Araştırma Enstitüsü, Yasemin Güler, Agriculture And Livestock Ministry Of Food
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 79-87; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.152.1

, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Abdullahi Hassan Kawo, Bayero University Kano
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 41-57; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.140.1

Ekim Mor, Seyhun Yurdugul, Abant Izzet Baysal University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 69-78; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.140.3

Mohammed Nuru Yakubu, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Fatima Mohammed Adamu, Auwal Alhassan Barde, Muhammad Muhammad, Fatima Tahir
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 58-68; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.140.2

Hatice Pilevneli, Hatice Pilevneli & Mehtap Kılıç Eren, Adnan Menderes University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 25-40; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.132.3

, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Namık Özdemir, Fahrettin Yakuphanoglu, Zafer Şerbetci, Ali Bilici, Ondokuz Mayis Üniversitesi, Fırat Üniversitesi, BİNGÖL Üniversitesi, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart Üniversitesi
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 9-24; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.132.2

, Istanbul University Faculty of Science, Nermin Gozukirmizi
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 2, pp 1-8; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2018.132.1

Murat Şeker, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Engin Gür, Neslihan Ekinci, Nilüfer Kaleci, Mehmet Ali Gündoğdu
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 1, pp 1-7; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2017.99.1

Sezgin Aygün, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Ömer Faruk Öztürk
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 1, pp 21-32; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2017.99.3

Fatih Sezer, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 1, pp 69-77; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2017.99.7

Kaan Hürkan, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 1, pp 57-67; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2017.99.6

Aslıhan Özbilen, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 1, pp 47-56; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2017.99.5

Yasemin Kemec Hürkan, Canakkale Onsekiz Mart University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 1, pp 33-46; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2017.99.4

Mehtap Kilic Eren, Adnan Menderes University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Science Research, Volume 1, pp 9-19; doi:10.29329/ijiasr.2017.99.2

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