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Results in Journal Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research: 318

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Ameaka Fatima Nkempu, Tembe Estella, Tchadji Mayoudom Vanessa Edwige, Bayaga Herve, Dobgima John Fonmboh, Eustace Bonghan Berinyuy, Njinkio Borgia Nono, Tabi Yves Omgba, Ngameni Bathelemy,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 134-149; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430303

Abstract:
Introduction: Liver or hepatic disease refers to different conditions that affect the liver. Chronic alcohol consumption is one of the most frequent causes of liver disease and accounts for about 55% of liver cirrhosis deaths recorded in Cameroon in 2020. Standard accessible treatments focus on end-stage liver disease with safety and efficacy obstacles. We have a research gap in Cameroon to understand the alternative use of natural products as treatment with a long traditional history of safe use. Curcuma longa has long been a source of traditional and modern medicine. It is commonly used in Cameroon as a spice and herbal product with some level of activity against various forms of liver disease. Objective: To phytochemically screen for bioactive metabolites and evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of Curcuma longaon alcohol-induced toxicity in Wistar rats. Methods: Phytochemical screening was carried out on the aqueous extract obtainedfrom maceration of plant rhizomes. Three doses (125, 250 and 500mg/Kg) of the plant extract and the reference (Silymarin 50mg/Kg) were administered daily (p.o) to rats 30 min before administration of 40% alcohol (2mL/100g p.o) for 21 days. Biochemical parameters such as ALAT, ASAT, GGT, Bilirubin and Lipid profile were quantified and histological studies of the liverwas carried out using standard procedures. Results: Phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract of C. longa revealed polyphenols such as flavonoids, tannins, quinones, saponins and phlobatanins. The plant showed hepatoprotective activity by decreasing liver toxicity markers such as ASAT, ALAT, GGT and Bilirubin. Histology revealed dose-dependent protection with 500 mg/Kg showing the most cellular integrity, no central vein occlusion and minimal fibrosis. Conclusion: This study indicated the presence of polyphenols like flavonoids and tannins in the aqueous extract of C. longa. The presence of these secondary metabolites in the studied extract justifies its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties confirmed by its hepatoprotective effects on alcohol-induced toxicity. This was clearly shown by biochemical and histological parameters. More sensitive and specific methods are required to test for these secondary metabolites in serum.
Abiodun Olusoji Owoade, Adewale Adetutu, Olufemi Ogundeji Ogundipe, Akinade William Owoade
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 121-133; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430302

Abstract:
This study was carried out to compare the in-vitro antioxidant potentials, antidiabetic and phytochemical constituents of methanolic leaf extracts of Anthocleista djalonensis, Chrysophyllum albidium, Bauhinia thonningii, Daniellia oliveri, and Cola nitida. The results of this study show that all the plant extracts have strong antioxidant potentials against various radicals. The extracts scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals, in a concentration-dependent manner and scavenged nitric oxide radicals with IC50 values of 152.39, 186.36, 213.40, 303.58 and 355.53 µg/ml for C. albidium, D. oliveri, C. nitida, A. djalonensis and B. thonningii, respectively. All the extracts also inhibited the induction of lipid peroxidation and α-amylase activity in a concentration-dependent manner, while the degree of ferric reducing power by the extracts was of the order C. albidium > D. oliveri > B. thonningii > C. nitida > A. djalonensis. Phytochemical and gas chromatography analyses carried out on the extracts revealed the presence of known chemical constituents. The amounts of total phenolics in A. djalonensis, C. albidium, B. thonningii, D. oliveri, and C. nitida were 68.39 mg/g, 95.11 mg/g, 61.03 mg/g, 103.74 mg/g, and 63.31 mg/g, respectively, in gallic acid equivalents. In all cell-free assays, C. albidium and D. oliveri, the two plants with higher amounts of phenolic compounds, were found to be more effective as antioxidants than other plant extracts with lower phenolic contents under the same experimental conditions. Therefore, the effectiveness of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of these plant extracts may be related to their phenolic content. The presence of phenolics and various antioxidant compounds in the plants may explain the strong pharmacological potentials of these plants.
Uloaku Okeke, Eucharia Oluchi Nwaichi, Princewill Chukwuemeka Stanley
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 113-120; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430301

Abstract:
The impact of rotational work system on the mood and energy level among Oil and Gas workers was evaluated. The design was set in Port Harcourt metropolis Nigeria and questionnaire, cohort session and interviews were the instruments deployed. Questionnaires were administered to randomly selected workers from international Oil and Gas Companies located in Port Harcourt, Questions that bothered on the effect of rotational work on the mood and energy level of Oil and Gas workers were posed. It was observed that 38.8% and 41.2% agree and strongly agree that their mood is affected on site while 13.8% remained neutral. Interestingly, over 80% of Oil and Gas workers agreed to feeling of anxiety from the interview and cohort sessions. 40% and 43.8% of workers agree and strongly agree respectively that rotational work does affect their energy on site. Obtained median of 4 means that over 50% of the response belongs to the category that agree strongly agree while a mode of 5 has more responses in the category of strongly agree which is in agreement with results from the percentage frequency. Rotational workers were affected by absence from family and loved ones, social isolation and constant reminder of hazard and working in hazardous environment with work pressures and unrealistic deadlines. These cause depression and general dissatisfaction with life. Results from interviews revealed neglect of mental wellness of workers. The Oil and Gas workers are willing to face these hazards because of the economic gains arising from their work, however provision of recreational amenities and making policies that bring the Oil and Gas workers back home every seven days forbidding the schedule of trainings and workshops during time off duty will make rotational work more bearable.
Dobgima John Fonmboh, Tembe Estella Fokunang, Ngwasiri Pride Ndasi, Thierry N. Noumo, Njinkio Nono Borgia, Lovet Bengyella Fokunang, Edrice Ajabi Eselle Samelle, Bengyella Louis Tita, Kaba Nubia Kristen, Ejoh Richard Aba, et al.
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 83-112; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430300

Abstract:
The causative etiology of the viral pneumonia outbreak in the Wuhan province of China of December 2019 initially identified as “novel-Coronavirus-2019” and today called “Corona Virus Disease-2019 has been identified as “severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. Tireless efforts have therefore been invested to elaborate a treatment and/ or vaccine though with much controversy due to the lack of proper mastery of the structure, mode of action, mutation, recombination and transmission mechanism of the virus. Numerous public health measures have thus been imposed to slow down the rate of invasion and/or transmission (regular hand washing, face mask wearing, quarantine as well as method of diagnosis and symptomatic treatment) and now a convinent and acceptable treatment protocol and/ or vaccine. With the difficulties encountered in the development of an effective and efficient control and / or preventive towards the virus even in the western world, countries in sub-Saharan Africa, especially those in the tropics like Cameroon will endure sigficant consequences due to limited funds, technology, equipment and experts. It is therefore imperative to exploit other possibilities as the recombination rate and mutation possibilities within the genome of SARS-CoV-2 is indicative that, the 2019 outbreak was just a tip of the iceberg as more virulent variants beyond Delta variants, are still to emerge. One of such suitable and affordable possibilities is to nutritionally fortify and prepared the body to fight against infection. Zinc, Copper and Sellenium are essential micronutrients with demonstrated viral chelating activities found in selected commond foods which in adequate amounts will strengthen the immune system and tonify the body energy. A non-exhaustive list of common foods rich in the indicated micronutrients as well as those endowed with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties have been established from an extensive literature search in order to emphasize on the regular consumption.
, Sunday A. Musa, Barnabas Danborno, Sohnap J. Sambo
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 71-82; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430299

Abstract:
Aim: The current study seeks to explore the neuroprotective benefits of Adansonia digitata against lead induced memory impairment, neurotransmitter/AChE activity imbalance, oxidative stress as well as brain damage. Methodology: Thirty male adult rats weighing 160g-200g were divided randomly into six groups (I-V1) consisting of five (5) rats in each group. Group I served as control and were administered with distilled water (1 ml/kg) only while groups II -VI were treatment groups. Group II were administered 250 mg/kg of Adansonia digitata; group III were administered 30 mg/kg of lead; Group IV were administered 250 mg/kg of Adansonia digitata plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group V were administered 500 mg/kg of Adansonia digitata plus 30 mg/kg of lead; Group VI were administered 30 mg/kg of lead plus 10 mg/kg of succimer. All administrations were carried out through oral gavage for a period of 28 days. Results: Lead administration caused memory impairment, decreased dopamine concentration and AChE activity in brain, induced oxidative stress resulting in brain damage. Adansonia digitata treatment significantly (P<.001) attenuated memory impairment, modulated dopamine concentration and AChE activity, prevented oxidative stress and ameliorated histopathological changes in the brain of Wistar rats. Conclusion: The result showed that Adansonia digitata ameliorates lead-induced memory impairment in Wistar rats by improving memory index, controlling dopamine concentration and AChE activity, preventing oxidative stress and neuronal degeneration.
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 59-70; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430298

Abstract:
Introduction: Lateral Epicondylitis is a overuse syndrome usually seen in people who perform repeated extension and supination movement of elbow against resistance. Tissue Extensibility Dysfunction (TED) is a term which suggests apparent tightness of the muscle which has occurred due to spasm, lactic acid accumulation, inflammation or over use. Need of The Study: Many Studies involving manual therapy with different techniques have already demonstrated manual therapy is effective in reducing pain in subjects with lateral epicondylitis. Very few studies have focused on Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon (PRP) which is established to reduce pain and improving range of motion. Also, there is dirth in literature related to tissue extensibility dysfunction occurring in subacute variant of tennis elbow and the effect of PRP on TED. Hence this study is been undertaken. Methodology: A total of 50 sample size was randomized into 25 per group. Group A consisted of Conventional therapy and Group B consisted of Conventional therapy with Mulligan’s PRP. Outcome measures were noted pre therapy and on the 7th day that is post therapy and results were tabulated. Results: The results declare that pain (0.05 and 0.001), grip strength (0.001, 0.001) and disability (0.001, 0.001) showed significant improvement in the scores in both the group whereas muscle stiffness (0.341 and 0.001) significantly improved only in Group B. Conclusion: Mulligan’s Pain Release Phenomenon technique can be used to treat Subacute tennis elbow effectively and is known to reduce the muscle stiffness along with pain and disability and improving strength.
Romanus A. Umoh, Affiong C. Essien, Imoh I. Johnny, Nsima A. Andy, Anwanabasi E. Udoh, Omodot T. Umoh
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 47-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430297

Abstract:
The aim of this work was to compare the antibacterial properties of methanol extracts and fractions of Myristica fragrans seed and Thymus vulgaris leaf on the gram positive and negative bacteria. The Myristica fragrans seeds were crushed, defatted and air-dried. The defatted seed and leaf powders were separately macerated in absolute methanol for 72 hours. The methanol extracts and fractions were reconstituted at different concentrations of 100mg/mL, 80mg/mL, 60mg/mL, 40mg/mL and 20mg/mL for the antibacterial assay by agar diffusion method with activated cultured Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli , incubated at 37oC for 24 hours . The results showed that these plants possess antibacterial activity on the basis of their zones of inhibition. Methanol extract of M. fragrans had a higher activity of 8-19mm on S. aureus than E. coli with 5-14mm range respectively. Ethylacetate fraction had the highest activity with 9-25mm on S. aureus, while chloroform fraction had the highest activity on E. coli with 8-18mm. For T. vulgaris, the methanol extract had a higher activity of 6-18mm on E. coli than S. aureus of 4-17mm and for the fractions, n-hexane fraction had the highest activity of 7-20mm on S. aureus , while aqueous fraction had the highest activity of 5-18mm on E. coli, compared with zones of inhibition of 18mm against S. aureus and 28mm against E. coli for gentamycin of 2mg/mL which was the reference drug. Methanol extracts and fractions of M. fragrans seed and T. vulgaris leaf showed excellent activities on the gram positive and gram negative bacteria but the M. fragrans had a better activity than T. vulgaris.
Olubunmi Simeon Oyekunle, , Adijat Funke Ogundola
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 35-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430296

Abstract:
This study assessed the effects of Sarcocephalus latifolius Afzel. Ex R.Br. leaf powder on the kidney function of alloxan-induced diabetes rats. Forty-five healthy female albino rats were used in the experiment and assigned into 9 different groups. Diabetes was induced intravenously with 150 mg/kg body weight alloxan. Normal and diabetic rats were administered orally with 300, 600, 750mg/kg/ b.w of S. latifolius. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and blood with the kidney were harvested for biochemical and histological studies. In our result, significant (p<0.05) increase was observed in creatinine concentration of diabetic rats, which was significantly (p0.05) difference was observed in the urea concentration of all the groups. Significant (p<0.05) difference in sodium concentration was only observed between the diabetic untreated and metformin treated groups whereas, potassium concentration varied significantly (p<0.05) across the groups. Certain degenerative changes in the kidney of normal and diabetic rats treated and untreated with S. latifolius leaf powder were observed but at a lower degree in the group treated with the 300 mg/kg/bw of the leaf powder. The result of this study showed the possible renal toxicity potential of the plant at high dose.
, Masihuzzaman Ansari
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 30-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430295

Abstract:
People have always felt the need to seek the knowledge from time immemorial. Be it the knowledge of religion or science or philosophy or astronomy. The knowledge of medicine was confined to cultures till 4th century AD. Every subcontinent and every civilization was having its own traditions to treat the diseases, e.g. Ayurved in India, Egyptian traditional medicine in Egypt, Chinese traditional medicine in China, Iranian Traditional medicine in Iran etc etc. It was during the 5th century AD when Roman Empire cracked down on its seminaries and the intellectuals were forced to leave the country. Those intellectuals were given refuge by Persian Empire where in a city was established with ultimate autonomy under Khusro, Jundi-Shapur became a prosperous metropolis, refuge, and melting pot for intellectuals from many regions. Shapur II (309-379 A.D.) is credited for conceiving and establishing the nucleus of the university in the latter part of the fourth century. The closing of the Athenian school by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian (AD 539) also drove many leaned Greek physicians to Jundi-Shapur. This was the start of the integration of different traditional medicine of different civilizations. This formed the basis of what we see today as modern medicine. In this way JundiShapur has important role in the development of Medical knowledge and it remained in the leading role until 9th Century AD.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 38-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330293

Abstract:
Background: Petroleum exploitation and production have resulted in various environmental, socio-economic, political and health problems. This study is part of ongoing research to evaluate sustainability development goal in host communities of gas flaring operations. Objective: The research purposes to generate thematic opinions of the community regarding the risks associated with gas flaring and evaluate the mitigation and adaptation programs of government and oil and gas companies in the Delta region, Nigeria. Methods: This was qualitative with a quantitative component utilizing a survey of 8 open-ended and 2 semi-quantitative questions. Sample size was N = 488 and participants were over 18 years old. Thematic analysis adopted word cloud, followed by thematic aggregation and quantification. Results: The response rates were 99.2%, 76.2%, 75.4% and 70.1% for Sections B, C, D, and F, respectively. Over 66% reported negative impacts of gas flaring including specifications of some health problems and stress and respiratory problems were most common. Lack of opinion e.g. on how oil and gas companies liaise with the community (47%) and on how government liaises with companies (63%) were observed. Conclusion: While the majority of respondents had opinions, they however lacked knowledge regarding what the government and/or oil and gas companies could do on mitigation and adaptation on negative impacts of gas flaring. This therefore calls for awareness campaign and health promotion in the affected communities.
, J. B. Oso, J. O. Fatoki, A. L. Adedeji, G. E. Adeleke
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i430294

Abstract:
Tramadol is a popular drug of abuse among adolescent and young adults in many developing African countries due to the opioid agonist properties. We investigated the health implications of the sub-chronic concurrent abuse of tramadol, caffeinated drink and alcohol in adult male Wistar rats. Tramadol was administered at 40 and 20 mg/kg BW respectively, caffeinated drink at 10 ml/kg BW and alcohol at 2 ml/kg BW. The rats were handled such that: group A received distilled water; groups B and C received tramadol and distilled water; groups D and E received tramadol and caffeinated drink; groups F and Greceived tramadol and alcohol; and groups H and I received caffeinated drink and alcohol respectively. The concentrations of nitric oxide (NO), reduced glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),protein carbonyl (PC),protein thiol (PT), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), oxidized low density lipoprotein cholesterol (ox-LDLC), and activities of paraoxonase (PON-1) and acetylcholine esterase (ACE) were determined. Histo-pathological analysis was performed on the liver, kidney, brain and small intestine. The concentrations of blood nitric oxide, GSH and MDA increased (p0.05). Inconsistent alterations were obtained in blood PON-1 activities across the groups. Decreases were recorded in the GSH and TPT in the liver and brain with increases in PC and MDA (p<0.05). Inconsistent increases were obtained in the concentrations ox-LDLC, VCAM-1, IL-1β and MCP-1, and ACE activities. Consistent alterations were observed in the photomicrographs of the brain, kidney, intestine and liver of rats co-administered 40 mg/kg BW of tramadol withcaffeinated drink or alcohol. The overall findings indicated that the use of tramadol singly at 40 mg/kg BW or co-administered at both doses with caffeinated drink and alcohol precipitated various dysfunctions to health that could reduce the quality of life.
, Adewale Adetutu, Adijat Funke Ogundola
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 24-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330292

Abstract:
Various studies suggest that mortality due to liver disease in diabetic patients is very high; however, the recognition of DM as the primary cause of chronic liver disease is neglected in medical practice, we therefore evaluated the activities of Sarcocephalus latifolius leaf powder on the liver function of alloxan – induced diabetic rats. Forty-five healthy female albino rats were randomly assigned into 9 different groups; diabetes was induced intraperitonealy with 160 mg/kg of alloxan. Normal and diabetic rats were administered orally with 300, 600, 750 mg/kg/ b.w of S. latifolius. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed for biochemical and histological studies. The body weight of the normal and diabetic rats increased significantly with S. latifolius treatment, the increase observed in the blood glucose was brought down upon treatment with S. latifolius leaf powder. The activity of ALT increased significantly with 750 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder, while low dose of the plant decreased it significantly in diabetic rats. GGT activity only decreased in the diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg of S. latifolius whereas albumin increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the groups administered S. latifolius powder relative to the untreated diabetic group. Bilirubin concentration only increased significantly (p<0.05) in the group administered 750 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder. Histological changes including infiltration of the sinusoids and focal area by inflammatory cells and mild portal congestion were observed in all the groups except the normal and diabetic rats treated with 300 mg/kg of S. latifolius leaf powder. The result of the study showed that S. latifolius could only be encouraged for diabetes management only at low dose and might be hepatotoxic at high dose.
, Sujatha Dinesh, Prashanth Shetty
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 7-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330290

Abstract:
Aims: Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis which commonly affects weight-bearing joints like the knee, hip, spine, and joints. Since the effectiveness of conventional medicine on severe types of osteoarthritis is surgical intervention, the patients are seeking alternative medicine. A warm Epsom salt pack is used commonly for pains over joints. Hence this study is undertaken. Study Design: Randomized Controlled Trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Naturopathy, SDM College of Naturopathy and Yogic Sciences, between November 2019 and January2020. Methodology: From the inpatient department of Shri Dharmasthala Yoga and Nature cure Hospital Shanthivana, hundred subjects diagnosed with osteoarthritis belonging to the age groupof35to75yearswererecruitedandwererandomlyallocated to case (Warm Epsom salt pack) and control group. Subjects were assessed for Goniometry, Visual analog scale (VAS), Shortform-12(SF-12), Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index Scale (WOMAC) before and after the intervention of 20 minutes. Results: The study was done to evaluate the effect of Warm Epsom salt on Knee Osteoarthritis. There were 100 subjects in the sample. Shapiro-Wilk’s test/Quantile-Quantile (QQ) plot was used to check the normality of variables. In study group there was a significant decrease in Goniometry (p=<0.0001), SF 12 (p=<0.0001), WOMAC (P=<0.0001). In the control group, other than VAS there were no significant changes in other variables (Goniometry, WOMAC, SF-12). Conclusion: Our study indicates that a warm Epsom salt pack may reduce pain, stiffness, range of motion, and improves the quality of life. The study revealed that Warm Epsom salt reduced Range of motion from 172.94 to 134.5, WOMAC from 65.94 to 26.38, and Quality of life from 33.98 to 31.22. Results reveal with significant improvement (p<0.001) in pain, swelling, and quality of life.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi, Josiah O. Adjene,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 16-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330291

Abstract:
Background: Pollutants are released into the atmosphere by gas flaring, and these cause a range of health problems, including heart disease and respiratory disorders. This article assesses the opinion and perception of the community regarding association between gas flaring and prevalence of diseases. Methodology: This research followed a descriptive quantitative approach. Purposive survey using 2 Likert scale questionnaires was adopted, and the first questionnaire collected data on distance to gas flare site, health status and family health history, amongst others. The second collected data on perception and knowledge-based opinions regarding association and correlation. Summated Likert scale were collated and descriptive and correlation analysis between distance to gas flare site and number of diseases in respondents and their families were done. Results: In this purposive survey, there is no correlation between nearness to gas flare and prevalence of diseases. There appears no difference in communities proximal to flare sites compared to non-host communities farther from site. Multivariate analysis further shows that no statistically significant difference between groups, except in comparison of perceptions. Conclusion: This investigation shows a variation from previous observation in this series i.e. that distance to gas flare site is a potential factor influencing community members’ perception about their health impact, but the surveyed opinion of healthcare workers differs. This implies that nearness to gas flare sites mediate perception of negative health impact and this calls for further research to delineate perception from knowledge-based opinion.
, Ahmad Najmi
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i330286

Abstract:
Adverse drug reporting of herbal drugs is less common as they are generally considered as safe. It is also very common to use self-medication by people in the case of herbal drugs. But many times, mild to severe events have been seen with the use of herbal or ayurvedic medicines. We have reported a case of post-covid patient, who was having complained of headache, body ache, lethargy, backache, generalized weakness and excessive sweating since one weak. Patient had past history of hospitalization due to COVID-19 moderate pneumonia one month back. Patient also had history of type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia and was taking anti-diabetic and anti-hypertensive medications continuously. Ashwagandha powder (Withania somnifera), Maha yogaraj guggulu (herbal anti-inflammatory) and Syrup Amynity Plus (herbal immune-booster) were prescribed for these complain. Conversely, moderate severity adverse reaction like nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps were noted after the intake of suspected drug i.e. ashwagandha powder. Nevertheless, symptoms were relieved after the de-challenge. This shows a temporal relation of the event with the suspected drug. One more possibility of drug-drug interaction in this case cannot be ruled out completely. Causality assessment was done for this adverse event and it was considered as the “probable” category of the adverse event in WHO causality classification.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 42-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230285

Abstract:
Background: This is a 5th in the series on gas flaring in Niger Delta Nigeria and previous reports have highlighted health impact and comparison of communities, amongst others. Government have mitigation programs whose satisfaction in the communities of Niger Delta is unknown. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate government’s efforts at mitigation and adaptation whether there are age and/or gender differences Methods: This was a quantitative survey cross-sectional study that used Likert scale questionnaire to generate views of the community on the behavioural change wheel (BCW) as well as mitigation and adaptation efforts of the government. Respondents were stratified into age groups and dichotomized in female or male and analysis involved multivariate analysis (MANOVA) to evaluate age and gender differences. Chi-Square tests were performed to assess associations between BCW components mitigation versus adaptation. Results: A total of 435 respondents were included and the results show levels of inconsistent age and gender differences. Men tended to agree more on government’s BCW albeit not significance achieved, while women agreed more mitigation and adaptation (p < 0.02). On age, the silent generation (>70 years old) group agreed more on BCW, but contrarily disagreed on mitigation and adaptation while younger generation agreed on the latter (0.001). Chi-Square tests show significance for association. Conclusion: This report highlights divergent views of the community on the discourse of government’s efforts at mitigation and adaptation of gas flaring in Niger Delta Nigeria, thereby providing empirical evidence of generational gap on environmental issue.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 31-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230284

Abstract:
Background: Gas flaring, which occurs as part oil and gas operations results in release of gaseous toxins into the environment thus has a negative impact on the host communities including fauna, flora and humans. Previous studies focused mainly on the contribution of gas flaring to environmental pollution but not on human health. This article assesses disease prevention and treatment programs for ill-health associated with gas flaring. Methodology: This research followed a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Qualitative data comprised open-ended questions that sought the thematic views of community on how the companies liaise with either community and/or government, and what they would want the companies to provide to alleviate the health effects of gas flaring. Chi square and correlations were used on quantitative data to determine agreements and statistically significant differences of responses by participants from the questions that were set on Likert scales. Outcome: Chi-square showed statistically significant difference (X2 = z76, p < 0.017), when distribution of responses to Question-1 (Benefit of oil company to the community) and Question-4 (Oil companies awareness of potential health problems in the community) were compared. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected i.e. there is association between variables and awareness of prevalent ill-health due to gas flaring are responded to with preventive and treatment programs. Conclusion: This notes that there is a relationship between awareness of health problems and intervention and also a lack of capacity among the communities’ low-mid social class to appropriately dialogue with the government for change.
, Enemali M. Okey, Achimugu I. Isiah, Andafu T. Ali, Yusuf Z. Jimoh, Chibuzo C. Nweze
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 23-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230283

Abstract:
Malaria still remains an endemic disease especially in Sub-saharan Africa. The current study was aimed at evaluating liver function biomarkers and histology in albino mice following their infection with Plasmodium berghei and treated with Sodium Bicarbonate. Twenty mice were divided into five groups of four each. Groups 1; normal control, group 2; infected with P. berghei, untreated, groups 3, 4, 5; infected, treated 84mg/kg NaHCO3 once, twice and thrice respectively. Blood samples and liver were collected for analysis of liver function biomarkers and histopathology by standard procedures. AST was significantly (p<0.05) higher in group 5 (13.33±0.707) when compared to the control (11.33±0.707). ALP activity increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 5 (11.76±0.707) when compared to the control (10.29±0.707). Total protein increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups; 2 (4.29±0.007), 3 (4.09±0.007), 4 (4.46±0.007) and 5 (4.65±0.007) when compared to the control (4.05±0.007). Albumin increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups; 2 (3.58±0.007), 3 (3.76±0.007), 4 (3.61±0.007) and 5 (3.58±0.007) compared to the control (3.57±0.007). Total bilirubin concentration significantly (p<0.05) decreased in groups 3 (0.42±0.007), 4 (0.47±0.007) and 5 (0.48±0.007) compared to the control. Direct bilirubin concentration was significantly (p<0.05) higher in groups 4 (0.20±.007) and 5 (0.22±.007) compared to the control (0.15±.007). Photomicrograph images showed inflammation in group 2; infected, not treated. Sodium bicarbonate did not play ameliorative role against plasmodium berghei infected liver.
M. Gnnanaprakasham, Sunny Mathew, N. D. Mohan
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230282

Abstract:
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric condition affecting the children and adolescence. Nearly 8 percent of school - going children were diagnosed as ADHD and mostly as hyperactive type. More than 60 percent of children with ADHD were progressed to grow with the symptoms into adulthood which causes significant impaired academic achievements, poor interpersonal skills, disordered social activities, and various psychiatric disorders like learning disability, substance abuse, mood disorders, disruptive behavior disorder, etc., Homoeopathy a unique system of medicine which provides a beneficial effect on the human body through its ultra-diluted and potentized drug substances adopting holistic approach. There are reliable sources where homoeopathy proves its efficacy in treating ADHD children. This article provides a cluster of remedies derived through repertorisation considering only the symptoms of ADHD hyperactive type which will be helpful in cases where the individualization of the child is difficult to achieve. Considering the symptomatology of ADHD hyperactive type mentioned in DSM V criteria the most indicated remedies among various remedies were Medorrhinum, Nux. Vom, Carcinosinum, Hyoscyamus, Anacardium, Chamomilla, Veratrum. Album, Coffea Cruda, Tarentula etc.
Festus Uchechukwu Onuigwe, Nancy Chitogu Ibeh, Grace Ifechukwudebelu Amilo
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i230281

Abstract:
Background: Iron is an important micronutrient in the body, lead to anaemia, frailty and cognitive disorders in the elderly when deficient. Aim: This study was aimed to determine reference values of iron profile in apparently healthy elderly persons in Sokoto and compared with the local reference values. Study Design: This was a comparative study Duration of Study: The study lasted for a period of one year between January to December, 2020. Methodology: This was a comparative study involving 105 apparently healthy elderly persons aged 60 years and above in Sokoto metropolis. Serum iron and total-iron binding capacity (TIBC) were determined using Iron Ferrozine method. Serum ferritin, Serum transferrin (Tf) and Serum Transferrin Receptors (sTfR) were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transferrin Saturation (TS) and Serum Transferrin Receptors ferritin log (sTfR/FL) was calculated. Data were expressed as percentiles, mean and standard deviation and analysed using t-test and one way ANOVA. Results: The study established reference ranges of Serum iron,TIBC, Serum ferritin, Tf, sTfR, TS and sTfR/FL was calculated. in Sokoto. The study showed that iron and ferritin have high reference ranges than the local values in Sokoto. The local values for TIBC, ferritin, sTfR, TS and sTfR/FL were not available. Mean Ferritin (µg/L), sTfR (ng/L) and sTfR/Fl the test subjects were significantly higher in males than females in Sokoto (p=0.026), (p= 0.001), (p=0.044) and (p= 0.003) respectively. Iron, ferritin and TS increased as the BMI was increasing (p=<0.001). Conclusion: In conclusion, normal reference values obtained in this study notably vary with the local reference ranges used in the Sokoto metropolis. There is a need for each locality to have separate reference ranges for the elderly for their proper diagnosis and management of iron related disorders.
Michael Ikechukwu Ogamba, , Chisom Adaobi Nri-Ezedi, Lukman Shittu
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 42-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i130280

Abstract:
Alcoholic liver disease is a severe liver disease that affects substantial number of people in different parts of the world. However, there is low level of awareness regarding the disease and poor knowledge of the risk factors. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of alcoholic liver disease among the residents of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, as this will both provide a clear picture of the incidence, as well as, aiding the diagnosis and management of the disease and distinguish it from other forms of liver impairment. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital; a tertiary health facility serving treatment, teaching, health research and referral purposes for primary and secondary health care facilities within Rivers State and its adjoining states. The relationship between gender and age to the assayed parameters were investigated, shows that age (0.793) and sex (0.591) were not statistically significant for the circulating level of aspartate, with age (0.000) significant and sex (0.217) non-significant for alanine amino transaminase, while age (0.830) and sex (1.52) were not statistically significant for gamma T. the prevalence of liver disease is low (8.1%) in the population and this may be attributed to factors such as poor healthcare-seeking attitude among the residents and effective diagnostic tools to detect the anomaly in the liver, especially, at the earliest stages of the disease condition.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 34-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i130279

Abstract:
Background: Gas flaring occurs during crude oil extraction and can have adverse implications for the community’ health and the environment. Reports show that residents complain about ill-health e.g. insomnia due to heat generated during gas flaring. This article therefore compares the impact on health in gas flaring host and non-gas flaring host communities. Methodology: This research followed a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Six questions were asked on occupation, residence, distance from the gas flare, social status in community, health status and family health history. Two questions assessed health status as well as family health history of participants and were semi-qualitative. All questions were adopted from a previously published report. Comparison of environmental and occupational data between host and neighbouring communities was done. Outcome: Nearness of residence to gas flare sites show increased frequency in the number of ill health issues in respondents and their families. The impact of gas flaring i.e. ill health is high in those near to the site and diabetes is more prevalent amongst other ill-health conditions surveyed. Multiple comparisons show that the group farthest from gas flare site have significantly least proportion of members who are stressed or suffering respiratory problems. Conclusion: Impact on health or wellbeing among members of gas flaring host communities are more severe when compared to those far. Government policies need to mitigate the adverse effects of gas flaring and the community needs to be educated on the impacts of gas flaring and how this can be minimised.
Onengiyeofori Ibama, Aleruchi-Didia Tarila Ngowari, Nyebuchi Jonathan, Onengiye Davies-Nwalele
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 17-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i130278

Abstract:
Revive capsule, also called Kedi Revive capsule is a polyherbal formulation manufactured by Kedi healthcare company limited in Hong Kong, China. The drug is widely used around the globe, especially in Africa and Asia for the treatment of erectile dysfunction or enhancement of libido in men. Each capsule contains 400 mg of the constituent herbs including 80 mg of herb Epimedii, 80mg of Radix ginseng, 40 mg of Cordyceps militaris, 80mg of Tribulus terrestris, 80mg of Radix polygoni multiflori, and 40 mg of Eucommia ulmoides, with its effects exerted four hours after administration via the oral route. The adult man dosage is two capsules (800 mg) to be taken once daily for at least 28 days (before significant improvements may be observed when used to treat erectile dysfunction). Phytochemical analysis of the drug reported the presence of flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, polyphenols, alkaloids and quinones. Due to its speculated use in the treatment of erectile dysfunction or enhancement of libido, it may be referred to as an herbal phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor, that acts by selectively inhibiting the enzyme phosphodiesterase type-5, and thus enhancing increased arterial blood flow into the penis, which results in penile erection; however, the mechanism of action of this drug may be attributed to the contained phytochemicals. Additionally, due to its increased use, it is highly recommended that further studies be conducted on this drug to ascertain its effects on some biochemical components and vital organs of the body.
, W. M. S. S. K. Kulatunga
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i130277

Abstract:
Background: Vājīkarana - Aphrodisiacs / Virilification Therapy is one branch of Ashtanga Ayurveda. It deals with preservation and promotion of sexual potency of a healthy man, conception of healthy progeny, and management of sexual and reproductive ailments. Vājīkarana drugs have been selected for the present review due to high prevalence of reproductive disorders among young people below age 40 years, recorded neonatal death caused by congenital anomalies and the urgency of effective medicines in the community. Objectives: To identify Vājīkarana drugs mentioned in Bhaisajya Rathnavali and analyze the pharmacodynamics properties of commonly used Vājīkarana drugs. Methodology: The review was mainly based on Vājīkarana drugs mentioned in Bhaisajya Rathnavali by Acharya Govinda Das Sen and commonly used and mostly available drugs have been analyzed according to their pharmacodynamics properties. Collected pharmacodynamics properties from authentic texts and journal articles were tabulated and analysis was done by using SPSS. Results: Out of 67 Vājīkarana formulae, 208 single drugs were identified which included 83.65% of herbal origin drugs and 74.6% of drug formulae were used to increase the sexual power. 37.3% of the formulae were prepared as Churna (Powder) and most frequently used Anupana (Vehicle) was cow’s milk. Among frequently used & commonly available 10 drugs, Maricha - Piper nigrum has been used in majority of formulae (26.8%). Pharmacodynamics analysis revealed that 80% of drugs were Madhura rasa (sweet in taste), 70% were Guru guna (heavy in property), 70% were Shita virya (cold in potency) and 80% were Madhura vipaka (sweet in post digestive action). Based on modern science, 60% of the drugs had tonic action. Conclusion: Vājīkarana formulae mentioned in Bhaisajya Rathnavali were mainly used to increase the sexual power of man. Madhura rasa, Guru guna, Shita virya and Madhura vipaka were the pharmacodynamics properties of commonly used drugs in the formulae.
Pranjal C. Tidke, Nikhita Chambhare, Milind J. Umekar,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 29-43; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i430275

Abstract:
India is perhaps the most unique country in the world, with the richest tradition of indigenous and health care medical practices. Most of these practices are unique and known to very few individuals or communities. Leonotis nepetifolia Family (Lamiaceae) commonly known as ‘Klip dagga’ which has a long history of several traditional medicinal uses in many countries in the world. A huge number of phytoconstituents have been reported from the plant are allenic acid, iridoids, glycosides, terpenoids, and many more. This plant exhibited various biological activities and has been attributed to a variety of physiological effects like antifungal, antidiabetic, anxiolytic, arthritic, and many more activities. This literature review presents important species covering phytochemistry and pharmacological activities aspects systematically.
Nkemdilim I. Obi, Phillip T. Bwititi,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v16i130276

Abstract:
Background: A variety of pollutants are discharged during gas flaring and these are detrimental to animals and the environment. These pollutants are linked to a range of adverse health impacts including cancer, neurological, reproductive and developmental effects. Furthermore, some of the pollutants such as sulphur dioxide cause environmental issues including acid rain as well as the production of greenhouse gases and this contributes to climate change. This article evaluates the public health impact of environmental pollution in areas with gas flares. Methodology: This research followed a mixed method approach of quantitative and qualitative analysis. Descriptive statistics were followed with frequency distribution of respondents to the Likert scaled questions. The nominal knowledge level of respondents was determined from their Likert scaled responses to questions. ANOVA comparisons were made between the subgroups of demographic factors to determine differences in knowledge level. MANOVA was also carried out to determine the influence of educational and social levels as well as duration of stay in the community. Outcome: Evaluation of the nominal knowledge level of respondents determined from Likert scale shows no statistically significant differences between demographic subgroups. Further, ANOVA of nominal knowledge between educational subgroups shows gradient increase but no statistical difference. Conclusion: The community has knowledge on the negative impact of gas flaring. This report increases understanding of community awareness about the effects of gas flares on the environment and health.
, Adegbola Peter Ifeoluwa, Owoade Abiodun Olusoji, Aborisade Abiodun Bukunmi, Oyekunle Olubunmi Simeon
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 44-67; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i430274

Abstract:
Ginger is one of the most valuable culinary medicinal spice with inestimable economic uses. Because it is, a well acknowledged plant both in folkloric and advanced medicine, there are no paucity of information on the many important uses of ginger in the literature. In this review, we conveyed important details on the chemistry, pharmacology, toxicity and clinical uses of ginger. Our review of over 171 articles showed that ginger use has a worldwide coverage. Randomized clinical trial studies on ginger are most prominent on the alleviation of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting with fascinating outcome. In addition, the prospective use as anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic, and anti-diabetic agent were well noticed. Although the dependent on plant as source of drug in the search for disease remedy is premised on their acclaimed effectiveness and safety, available data have showed plants may possess some toxic potential, overall, our review showed that ginger might be safe with no adverse effects when investigated in normal rodent and human.
Devanshi Chowdhary, , Vanita, Poonam Joshi, Anjan Trikha
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 11-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i430272

Abstract:
Hospitalization of COVID- 19 patients may lead to the development of varied levels of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. The present study was conceptualized to investigate the effect of guided meditation on anxiety, depression, and sleep quality among the hospitalized Covid-19 patients in a tertiary care facility. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 COVID-19 patients were conveniently enrolled and randomized to experimental (30) and control arms (30) using a computer-generated random table and opaque sealed envelope technique in a selected COVID unit of a tertiary care facility. The subjects were enrolled in accordance to the inclusion criteria. Intervention: The guided meditation was an audio recording of Sri Sri Ravi Shankar of 20 minutes duration. The intervention was provided twice a day to the experimental group for consecutive 5 days. A close watch was kept on the vital signs of the subjects during the intervention using a pulse oximeter. At the same time, the control group continued to receive the standard routine care. Results: There was a significant difference observed in the post-test anxiety and depression scores in the experiment and control groups (4.83±3.68 vs. 12.37±3.9 p=0.001 and 7.90±2.41 vs.12.67±2.65 p=0.001). A significant difference was also observed in the global sleep quality index (median (IQR)) in the experimental and control groups (11(9-14) vs. 15(10.75-17) p= 0.01). Conclusion: The guided meditation was effective in improving the global sleep quality index and alleviating the anxiety and depression to great extent as compared to the standard routine care provided to COVID-19 patients admitted in a tertiary care facility.
, Sujatha K. J., Prashanth Shetty
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 22-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i430273

Abstract:
Aims: Warm foot bath is a simple, cost-effective, efficient treatment modality used in Naturopathy in the management of hypertension, a preventable and treatable global public health issue. This study was done to assess the effect of warm foot bath on heart rate variability and blood pressure and thereby to substantiate the clinical understanding of its effect in hypertensive individuals. Methodology: From the inpatient department of Shri Dharmasthala Yoga and Nature cure hospital Shantivana, hundred subjects diagnosed with hypertension belonging to the age group of 30 to 60 years were recruited for the study and warm foot bath was given to all the patients. Subjects were assessed for Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate Variability (HRV) before and after the intervention of 15 minutes. Results: The data analysis shows a significant reduction in SBP (p<0.001) and DBP (P<0.001). Result showed there is significant reduction seen in MEAN RR, RMSSD, NN50, PN50, VLF and significant increase in LF, HR, LF/HF ratio p value of (p0.005). Conclusion: The result of the study shows that warm foot bath reduces the sympathetic tone and shifts the Sympatho-vagal balance in favour of parasympathetic dominance and hence, it can be concluded that warm foot bath can be effectively used in the management of hypertension. Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registry - India (CTRI), CTRI Reg. No.- CTRI/2020/01/022640.
, Dickson S. Nsagha, Niba Clinton Ambe, Micheal Okunlola, A. Oladokun Sina
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i430271

Abstract:
Background: Unsafe abortion is one of the commonest causes of maternal mortality and post-abortion care services have been acclaimed as the best remedy for this situation. Yet, high maternal mortality still prevails pointing to issues with the quality of services. The paper was designed to investigate women's motives for engaging in unsafe abortion; assess women's experiences on the quality of PAC services and identify the challenges women faced in accessing PAC services in Buea. Methods: This study recruited 10 participants in Buea. Using a structured interview, data was collected on women's motives for engaging in unsafe abortion; assess women's experiences on the quality of PAC services, and identify the challenges women faced in accessing PAC services in Buea. Thematic and grounded theory analytical techniques were used to organize and interpret the data. Results: Majority of women in Buea did not use contraceptives for different reasons ranging from personal, spousal consent, ignorance, and the fear of side effects of contraceptive use. The low contraceptive use accounts highly for unwanted pregnancy cases which results in the decisions to induce. Most of these women involuntarily engage in induced abortion, highly driven by second party influence like the request from spouse/partner, disappointment from the spouse, and fear of parents’ reactions; while some occur as a result of missed abortion. The quality of PAC services received by most of these women were merely emergency treatments without proper PAC activities like family planning counseling, provision of modern contraceptive methods, linkages to other reproductive health care services. Women in Buea encounter some challenges in the use of PAC services, pains associated with the procedure, the cost, the absence of some family planning methods, the absence of counselling before PAC and above all, non constant availability of blood in the bood bank for transfusion. Conclusion: This study concluded that most women in Buea engage in induced abortion on account of the pressure to terminate an unwanted pregnancy; resulting from low contraceptives use; desire to avoid problems from their spouses/partners as well as to pursue career ambition. Moreover, the quality of PAC services offered to women in Buea was emergency treatment; void of important aspects like family planning services, linkage to other reproductive health care services, and facilitating their social reinsertion and preventing future induce abortion.
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 23-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i330268

Abstract:
Music listening interventions (MLI) have grown into a major subcategory in the world of complementary and alternative medicine research. These studies have led to an epistemic explosion in MLI clinical application across many disciplines. However, this body of research still contains a critical handicap that will limit its potential: dose and dosing. Inconsistencies in how much of an MLI a research participant receives in a study will continue to impact generalizability until an MLI's dose is both defined and incorporated into clinical trials. This brief paper explores MLI dose, and attempts to frame MLI dose research as a priority for all researchers who utilize this intervention in their studies.
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 36-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i330270

Abstract:
Health education is important because of the need to promote health among members of the community, to maintain the health status and, if possible, to prevent people to get sick. Specific communities such as church members have unique characteristics that can facilitate health education so that it can be more easily accepted and implemented. The existence of Christian scholars among those specific communities can help the church to promote daily healthy living activities and maintain health standards, especially in the era of the Covid pandemic. This article aims to share our experience of doing multi-form community service in a specific community, a local church located in Tanjung Priok, Jakarta, Indonesia.
, Mohd Nayab, Abdul Nasir Ansari
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i330269

Abstract:
Ginger has been appreciated for over 2500-3000 years in many parts of the world due to its numerous scientific properties. The ginger plant (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) belongs to the Zingiberaceae family. It is a known food and flavoring ingredient reputed for its wide range of medicinal properties that have been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Unāni Tibb worldwide, since antiquity. Ginger has long been used to cure a variety of ailments, including diarrhea, stomach discomfort, indigestion, and nausea. It is a versatile herb with phenomenal phytotherapeutic and medicinal properties. Active ingredients available in ginger such as 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol, 6-paradol, and zingerone are responsible for upgrading enzyme actions and balancing circulation through rejuvenating the body with physical re-strengthening. Gingerols, the key phenolic plant secondary metabolites responsible for its distinct flavor and health benefits, are found in the rhizome of ginger Extensive study has been undertaken over the last two decades to uncover bioactive ingredients and the therapeutic potential of ginger. This review considers ginger's chemical composition and the most recent study findings on its possible health advantages, such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties due to its phytochemistry. Overall, clinical trials are needed to confirm these prospective various health advantages of ginger in human subjects and the most efficacious dosage, based on the current body of scientific literature.
, Thanushika Ranawaka, Dilan Chathuranga, Upekshi Kankanamge, Aindralal Balasuriya
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i330266

Abstract:
Aims: Asthma is one of the biggest health burdens on the Sri Lankan population. Achievement of treatment goals isdetermined mainlythrough pharmacological management. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the patient inhaler handling techniques and their awareness regarding their disease condition, as well as to find out how an educational intervention effects patients‘ inhaler handling techniques. Study Design: A Prospective cross sectional study used. Place and Duration of Study: National Hospital for Respiratory Diseases, Welisara and Colombo South Teaching Hospital, Kalubowila between June 2017 to August 2017. Methodology: Clinically diagnosed asthma patients were randomly divided into Control and Test groups. Control comprised 94 patients and the test comprised 93 patients. Their baseline knowledge about asthma and inhaler-using technique were assessed in 1st month by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and checklist respectively. The test group was given both information leaflet and verbal instructions. Again, all the participants were assessed for the inhaler techniques on their next clinic day by using the same questionnaire and the checklist. Results: After the educational intervention, there was a statistically significant improvement in the test group, in the adherence to the nine steps, including critical steps, regarding all 3 device types (PMDI, DPI, and PMDI with Spacer) in the 2nd-month visit. (at P =.05) When considering awareness about asthma in the total population, most participants were knowledgeable regarding asthma. Conclusion: We observed gaps in knowledge between current practice and what is expected in patients with asthma regarding their inhaler therapy. This might be due to the quality of instructions delivered by health care providers being insufficient and them lacking the time to observe patients individually for the inhaler techniques. Awareness regarding asthma and inhalation techniques can be raised by using information leaflets as well as through verbal counseling.
, Essoh Etouke Adrien, Tchiedjo Marie Laure, Sulem Yong Nina Nindum, Fifen Ngapout Rodrigue, Owona Pascal Emmanuel, Etchu Kingsley Agbor, Dzeufiet Djomeni Paul Désiré
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 14-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i330267

Abstract:
Cameroonian farmers used Elaeis guineensis oil (EGO) named usually palm oil to reduce stress and mortality during the transportation of catfish fingerlings. The present study is aimed to evaluate the uses of EGO for stress management during the transportation of catfish fingerlings. Antioxidant activities of EGO were assessed in vitro. 1500 fingerlings were transported from Douala (Littoral Region, Cameroon) to Yaoundé (Centre Region Cameroon). The transportation was for 7 h 55 min in black tins of 10 L which contain 8 L of water and 100 fingerlings each. The following treatment was administrated: commercial anti-stress, 2, 4, and 6 drops of EGO. Control received no treatment and all groups were triplicated. After 10 fingerlings were sacrificed by decapitation. Total protein, total bilirubin (TB), triglycerides level, and lactate deshydrogenase (LDH) activity were assessed in the liver as well as oxidant stress parameters. Brain and gills were fixed for histopathological analysis. Results showed that transportation of catfish fingerlings induced a significant increase of TB level and LDH activity in the liver. Indeed, it induced cerebellar and gills necrosis. Moreover, EGO exhibits antioxidant activities in vitro against DPPH, ABTS radicals, and possesses a ferric reducing antioxidant power of 6.31 mEAG/g. This observation was confirmed in vivo by the increase in a dose-dependent manner of GSH and nitrites levels in the liver compared to control. However, the administration of 6 drops of EGO increased significantly (p < 0.05) the activity of LDH in the liver compared to control. Thus, high dose induced anaerobic respiration which was confirmed by alveolar necrosis in gills and neurodegeneration although low dose of EGO (2-4 drops) prevented those alterations compared to control. Hence, low doses of Elaeis guineensis oil can prevent liver, cerebellar and gills impairment during artisanal transportation to reduce the effects of stress.
, Mohd Khalid
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 69-81; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230265

Abstract:
Ancient people were as passionate about the aesthetics of appearance as are individuals of today. Physical appearance has consistently been an inseparable part of daily human growth, and most individuals prefer to be labelled as beautiful and handsome. The practice of ‘Solah Shringar’ comprises sixteen ways of adorning a woman's body in the Hindu as well as Muslim ceremonies in India. The description of Solah Shringar is commonly found in the writings of Hindi poets. Different poets and scholars have enlisted various cosmetics in their writings from time to time. In medieval India, the Solah Shringar was referred to the seven plus nine items in which seven were connoted as Haft Qalam Ārāyish along with other nine ornaments. These sixteen aesthetics have greater relevance with Unani therapeutics. This article is a sincere attempt to critically analyse the therapeutic and cosmetic importance of sixteen ornaments of medieval India in the light of Unani medicine.
, B. Aparna Roshini
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 63-68; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230264

Abstract:
Aims: To determine the effectiveness of the Cough trick technique on vaccination prick pain among preschool children. Study Design: Quantitative approach with true experimental research design. Place and Duration of Study: Pranav baby clinic, Chennai, from May 2021 to June 2021. Methodology: True experimental post-test only research design was adopted to conduct the study with a samples of 40 children. Children were randomly allocated into the experimental group (n=20) and the control group (n=20). Demographic variables were collected from mothers of preschoolers using a structured questionnaire. The cough trick technique was administered to the experimental group during intramuscular vaccination whereas the control group received the regular technique of the intramuscular vaccination. The post-test level of pain was assessed by FLACC scale for both the group. The data were tabulated and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS statistical package. Results: The result of the study shows that in the experimental group, 14(70%) had mild pain and 6(20%) had no vaccination prick pain whereas in the control group, 14(70%) had severe pain and 6(20%) had moderate vaccination prick pain. Independent‘t’ test reveals that there is a significant difference in the level of pain after administration of the cough trick technique between the experimental and control at the level of P<0.05. Conclusion: The finding of the present study concludes that cough trick technique is an effective and easy method to minimize and reduce the pain during intramuscular vaccination. It is a simple distraction technique that can be effective in helping children cope with the pain of immunization.
Jude Nwaogu, Aminu Umar Argungu,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 53-62; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230263

Abstract:
Aim: The current study determined phytochemical constituents evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxic profiles of Lannea acida methanol leaves extract (LAMLE) in Wistar albino rats Methodology: The phytochemical screening of LAMLE was conducted using standard methods. A total of 31 male albino rats were used for the antioxidant studies. A total of 31 male albino rats were used for the toxicological study. The LD50 was determined using six (6) rats according to OECD, 2001 using fixed limit dose. For the sub-chronic study, the rats were divided into five (5) groups of five (5) rats. Control group (group 1) received distilled water orally 2ml/kg. Groups (2-5) received doses of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg of the extracts. The experiment lasted for 28 days. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Flavonoids, Phenols, Tannins, Saponins, Alkaloids and Steroids. The LD50 of the extract was found to be greater than 5000mg/kg. There were significant reduction in the concentration of ALT, ALP and ALB (P<.05) in the group that received the highest dose of the extract when compared to the normal control while other liver biomarkers were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the control. The sub-chronic dose of 2000mg/kg of the extracts shows significant (P<.05) decrease in all kidney function biomarkers except chloride when compared to the control. The haematological parameters (WBC, RBC, HGB, Neutruphils) showed a significant decrease in Group 5 when compared to the normal control group while MCV and lymphocytes showed significant decrease (P<.05) when compared to the control. Conclusion: The result suggests that the methanol leaves extracts of Lannea acida is relatively safe and can be used in medicinal formulations.
, Kausik Bhar, Suvendu Kumar Sahoo, Ganapaty Seru, Ashfaquddin, Nitesh Kumar Pradhan, Anjum, Suraj Molla
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 22-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230262

Abstract:
The gluten-free pseudocereal Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (Silver hull buckwheat) belongs to the Polygonaceae family, which has a long history of both edible and medicinal use. It's a highly nutritious food ingredient that's been shown to have a variety of health benefits. Plasma cholesterol levels are lowered, neuroprotection is given, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic effects are provided, and hypertension conditions are improved thanks to Silver hull buckwheat. It has also been stated to have prebiotic and antioxidant properties. The aim of this review was to include an up-to-date and detailed study of F. esculentum. Furthermore, the potential for future research was addressed. Flavonoids, phenolics, fagopyritols, triterpenoids, hormones, and fatty acids are among the various compounds derived from F. esculentum. The main active ingredients were believed to be flavonoids and phenolic compounds. All of the information presented leads us to believe that Silver hull buckwheat has a strong medicinal potential. However, further research is needed to better understand its bioactive constituents, their structural functions, and molecular mechanisms underlying.
Blaise Mbembo Wa Mbembo, Colette Masengo Ashande, Lionel Asamboa Shotsha, Samy Ngunde Te Ngunde, Blanchard Mayele Masasi, Joseph Tshidibi Dipa, Sylvain Zogi Ngbo, Jean-Jacques Amogu Domondo, Dorothée D. Tshilanda, Damien S. T. Tshibangu, et al.
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i230261

Abstract:
Medicinal plants are suppliers of molecules used in both modern and traditional therapy. One of these plants is Azadirachta Indica (also known as the neem tree).Originally from Asia (India), this plant is currently widespread and cultivated in several countries in the world, including in Africa, because of its extraordinary therapeutic properties. A survey carried out on the Internet revealed that A. indica contains various secondary metabolites such as: Azadirone, Nimocimol, Azadiradione, Epoxyazadiradione, nimbinin, salannin, nimbanal, salannol acetate, nimbandiol, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, gedunin, nimbinene, nimbolide, mahmoodin, margolonone, isomargolonone, azadirachtin, epicatechin, catechin, phenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenoids, anthraquinone, anthocyanins. The main structures of these different molecules were drawn using the ChemBioDraw Ultra 12.0 software package. As a result, it has been demonstrated that these compounds confer several pharmacological properties on the neem tree, including anticancer, antifungal, antidiabetic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiplasmodial, and anthelmintic activities. Because of its high anthocyanin content, A. indica could be an interesting candidate for the development of an anti-sickle cell drug.
, Edna O. Wachuku, N. Boisa, Nsirim Nduka
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 51-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130258

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study was to phytochemically analyze the aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic twig extracts of the species Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Plant Anatomy and Physiology Research Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, between July, 2018 and November, 2018. Methodology: Morus mesozygia linn twigs were collected and washed with distilled water, air dried for seven days and milled into fine powder. Maceration method was used to extract the powdered twig into a brownish paste using three different solvents; distilled water, ethanol and methanol. The different plant extracts were subjected to qualitative phytochemical screening for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, tannins and anthraquinones. Quantitative phytochemical analysis was done using a Gas chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy machine. Results: The results of this study showed that the powdered Morus mesozygia linn twigs contained flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, but not anthraquinones. The methanolic and aqueous twig extracts contained high amounts of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates and tannins, while the ethanolic extract also contained high amounts of the aforementioned phytochemicals in the same proportion, but had saponins in moderate amounts. It also showed that the methanolic twig extract had more carbohydrate than the other two extracts. The result of the GC-MS analysis showed that the three extracts contained complex compounds in varying amounts. Conclusion: The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses test results of Morus mesozygia Linn Stapf. revealed the presence of the substances like alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, oils, phenolic compounds, tannins and some complex compounds discovered using GC-MS technique, in their varying concentrations for the three different extracts.
Raphael Nyarkotey Obu, Lawrencia Aggrey-Bluwey
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 34-50; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130257

Abstract:
Background: Naturopathic medicine is at its embryonic stage of development in Ghana and West Africa in entirety. In jurisdictions where Naturopathic medicine is well regulated, Naturopathic practitioners are well integrated into the primary healthcare delivery team. In Ghana, the case is quite different due to a myriad of issues. Objectives: This study examines the role of Naturopathic medicine in Public Health in Ghana and potential policy direction for adoption of Naturopathic protocols in global pandemic management, the challenges faced by Naturopathic Physicians in primary healthcare delivery, and the challenges of Naturopathic Medical Students on their clerkship at one of the designated government Hospitals. Methods: The study adopted a mixed questionnaires study engaged in integrated data analysis. The respondents in this study were selected Naturopathic Medical Students of the Nyarkotey College of Holistic Medicine, Ghana. Results: Out of a sample size of 28, 100% (28) believed that, there is a role of Naturopathic medicine in public health management. 95% asserted that very little naturopathic remedies have been employed in the fight against Covid-19 in Ghana. There was also a unanimous agreement (100%) that Ghana needs to adopt a National Policy on Naturopathic remedies in Public Health. Conclusion: Naturopathic medicine should be embraced fully into Ghanaian primary healthcare delivery. It is important to look at the best practices which exist in other jurisdictions such as China and India for adoption. It is time for the policy makers to speed up the passage of the Traditional and Alternative Medicine bill.
Raphael Nyarkotey Obu, Lawrencia Aggrey–Bluwey
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 23-33; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130256

Abstract:
Background: The embryonic field of complementary alternative medicine in Ghana is gradually taking shape. Alternative medicine in Ghana is an important system of medical practice with legislation currently pending for promulgation. Objectives: To support this embryonic industry for potential role into our primary healthcare and public health system, there is a need for robust health care policy in the area of standardization coupled with strong political willpower and research in Ghana. The aim of this case study is to reflect the role of complementary alternative medicine in primary healthcare in Ghana. Methods: The study incorporates a mixed method engaged in integrated data analysis to investigate the challenges of practitioners of complementary alternative medicines as primary healthcare givers. Additionally, it evaluates the pull factors that drive consumers to complementary alternative remedies from the perspectives of the practitioners and finally, to evaluate the opinions of practitioners on consumers’ push factors from mainstream medicine using Ghana as a case model. Results: This study demonstrates that there is a role of complementary alternative medicine in primary healthcare delivery as well as the public health system. However, there are multifactorial challenges in the sector as respondents outlined lack of standardization, disunity and mistrust between complementary alternative medicine and mainstream medical practice. Some of these opposing forces prevent recognition of these remedies into the national healthcare delivery system. Conclusion: While our findings demonstrate that there is a role of complementary alternative medicines in our public health and primary healthcare in Ghana, we recommend collaboration between complementary alternative and conventional medical practitioners for improvement of quality of life the consumers. We are of the view that, unhealthy competition between the two medical systems should be controlled.
Shambhavi, S. Shanthi
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 16-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v15i130255

Abstract:
Aims: Malnutrition is an overlooked and undertreated problem among the cancer population. It is necessary to identify at-risk patients early and provide appropriate and effective nutritional interventions which in turn help the cancer patients to improve treatment tolerance and prognosis. Hence, the study was undertaken with the aim to assess the nutritional status of cancer clients admitted in the hospital. Study design: A cross sectional descriptive survey was used. Place and Duration of Study: Oncology wards of the AJ Institute of Medical Science and Research Centre, Mangalore between December 2019 to March 2020, then again December 2020 to February 2021. Methodology: We included 100 cancer patients (39 males and 61 females). Participants were selected purposively. Head, neck and breast cancer patients who are aged above 18 years, admitted in the wards were included in the study. Data were collected by using demographic proforma and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) scale. Results: Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the study revealed that more than half (56%) of the cancer clients are malnourished and 43% are at risk for malnutrition. Study found that there is a significant association of degree of malnutrition with demographic variables such as education and family income (at p=.05) Conclusion: Based on the result, it was concluded that the patients with cancer should undergo nutrition screening at the early so that appropriate nutrition intervention could be planned to have positive outcomes.
Naomi Chikwana, Esther N. Maina, , Wallace Bulimo, Fred Wamunyokoli
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 30-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i430253

Abstract:
Introduction: Rhabdomyosarcoma is an aggressive solid tumour of skeletal muscles origin whose current treatment is associated with high expenses, severe side effects, drug resistance and tumour regrowth. There is a need to develop safer and more effective chemotherapeutic agents. Annona muricata is one of the widely used plants in treating various diseases due to its reported effectiveness. However, there is a dearth of scientific information regarding the efficacy of Annona muricata on rhabdomyosarcoma and its safety. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Annona muricata ethanolic fruit extract on the antiproliferative activity and gene expression in RD cell line, including its biosafety in BALB/c mice. Materials and Methods: The resazurin metabolic assay was used to assess the antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities of Annona muricata ethanolic fruit extract on RD and Vero cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the gene expression profiles on c-Myc and FGFR1 genes. To evaluate the safety of the Annona muricata ethanolic fruit extract, an acute oral toxicity study was conducted on BALB/c mice. Results: Annona muricata ethanolic fruit extract significantly inhibited the growth of RD cells in a concentration and time-dependent manner while being highly selective on the Vero cells (selectivity index of 6.10 at 72h) compared to a reference cancer drug, doxorubicin (Selectivity index of 1.38 at 72hr). The c-Myc and FGFR1 genes were under expressed in RD cells treated with Annona muricata ethanolic fruit extract with (3.4 and 6.1 fold), respectively, compared to untreated cells. Acute oral toxicity studies revealed no significant difference (p ≥ 0.05) between the treated mice and the control group, indicating the safety of the fruit extract. Conclusion: Annona muricata ethanolic fruit extract can serve as effective and safe anticancer agents against rhabdomyosarcoma and further develop into standard drugs. Non-human primate studies need to be undertaken to step towards the clinical utilization of the Annona muricata ethanolic fruit extract in the management of rhabdomyosarcoma.
, K. J. Sujatha, Prasanth Shetty, Ganesh Prasad
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 47-55; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i430252

Abstract:
Background: Diabetes Mellitus is now becoming a serious medical and socio-economic issue all over the world. Early initiation of combination therapy has been suggested as a way to achieve glycemic control, postpone the complications and possibly restore β-cell function. Naturopathy and yoga is one of the upcoming medical systems which had showed a promising result for many lifestyle disorders and hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the effect of 10 days Integrated Naturopathy and Yoga (INY) treatment especially Abdomen Massage and Neutral Hip Bath on glycemic control and anthropometric measures. Methods: 100 subjects with diabetes were selected and randomly allocated into Case group (naturopathy & yoga intervention with Abdomen Massage and Neutral Hip Bath) and Control group (naturopathy & yoga intervention). The subjects were assessed for blood glucose levels and anthropometric measures at baseline and after the intervention of 10 days. Results: The result of this study showed a significant reduction in Fasting Glucose (FG) and Post Prandial Glucose (PPG) after 10 days of intervention where Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) have not shown significant changes in the groups. The case group has a larger mean difference between pre and post values of FG, PPG, BMI, and WHR as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Abdomen massage with neutral hip bath is relatively better for lowering the FG, PPG along with BMI and WHR, by the activation of adiponectin, Brown Adipose Tissue, Atrial natriuretic peptide and counter-regulatory stress hormones, which control hormonal activity, glucose absorption, metabolism and excretion.
, H. Brown, E. O. Nwachuku, N. Boisa
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 22-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i430251

Abstract:
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant potentials of Blue Whiting Fish (Micromesistus poutassous) oil extracts in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Study Design: An experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Animal House, Department of Applied and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt and University of Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria, between February 2020 and August 2020. Methodology: Thirty Six (36) albino rats were purchased and allowed to acclimatize for two (2) weeks in the laboratory at the animal farm house of the Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Rivers State University. They were fed the normal rat feed (Chow feed) and water was allowed ad libitum. The rats were weighed and randomly grouped into six (6) groups with six rats in each group. Group 1 (Negative control) was placed on normal diet while groups 2 to 6 were placed on a high fat diet (HFD) prior to the induction with Streptozotocin to achieve diabetes and the animals were treated according to their groupings for four weeks by means of oral gavage. The dose of Blue Whiting Fish (Micromesistus poutassous) oil extracts administered to the rats was extrapolated from human doses. The high fat diet was prepared by mixing the animal feed (Chow diet) with margarine in a ratio of 3:1. After each period of treatments, blood samples were collected from the rats at the end of the treatments via cardiac puncture by anaesthetizing the rats with chloroform after a six (6) hour fast. Fasting blood glucose was determined using the Glucose Oxidase method, total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione were analysed quantitatively and measured spectrophotometrically and the GC–MS analysis of bioactive compounds from Blue Whiting Fish (Micromesistus poutassous) oil was done using Agilent Technologies GC systems with GC-7890A/MS-5975C model. Data generated were analysed using SPSS version 22.0 of windows statistical package. Results were considered statistically significant at 95% confidence interval (p < 0.05). Results: After week 1 - 4 of exposure, the mean SOD (Superoxide dismutase) value of the Negative control group (NC), Positive control (PC) group, diabetic groups exposed for weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 expressed in U/ml were 299.41 ± 5.49, 217.38 ± 5.33, 220.56 ± 4.14, 240.45 ± 1.21, 258.19 ± 1.73 and 278.03 ± 1.98 respectively. The mean TAC (Total antioxidant capacity) value expressed in U/ml were 2.97 ± 0.10, 1.84 ± 0.04, 1.97 ± 0.04, 2.16 ± 0.02, 2.26 ± 0.02 and 2.46 ± 0.02 respectively. The mean GSH (Glutathione) expressed in µg/ml were 56.05 ± 0.60, 47.37 ±1.04, 47.94 ± 0.87, 50.80 ± 0.35, 53.07 ± 0.36 and 55.38 ± 0.33 respectively. The mean MDA (Malondialdehyde) expressed in nmol/l were 2.40 ± 0.13, 4.56 ± 0.28, 4.66 ± 0.06, 4.39 ± 0.01, 4.16 ± 0.03 and 3.70 ± 0.06 respectively. Comparison of different groups showed varying significant differences across groups. Conclusion: Hyperglycaemia induced in rats studied led to an increase in oxidative stress, depletion of antioxidant parameters was observed. However, after treatment with Blue Whiting Fish (Micromesistus poutassous) Oil extracts, it was observed that there was improvement in the overall antioxidant status of the rats.
, Dinesh Pandit, Sanket Walke, Ajit Kolatkar
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 12-21; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i430250

Abstract:
Aim: Ayurveda describes herbal or polyherbal or herbo-mineral medicines such as Avipattikar churna for treatment of Amlapitta, ajirna for centuries. Ayurvedic medicines are associated with limitations namely, palatability, stability and accuracy of dose. Ayurvedic medicines lack in adequate safety and efficacy evidence data. The aim of the study was to develop a stable and palatable Avipattikar suspension using recent formulation and analytical techniques. The study was also aimed at determination of acid neutralizing capacity of Avipattikar suspension and predicting its efficacy for treatment of Functional Dyspepsia and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disorder. Methods: Flocculated Avipattikar suspension was prepared using sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as the suspending agent, sodium citrate as the flocculating agent, mannitol as a taste masking agent. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose, sodium citrate, Tween 80®, glycerin and mannitol were not used in Deflocculated Avipattikar suspension. The sedimentation volume, degree of flocculation, redispersibility and pH of the suspension was evaluated. The acid neutralization capacity of Avipattikar suspension was determined by Unite States Pharmacopoeia method. Results: The present study successfully demonstrated formulation of stable Avipattikar suspension from Avipattikar churna. The suspendability of sediment was retained for 15 days in presence of CMC. The results indicated that the acid neutralizing capacity of Avipattikar suspension (2.80 mMol of H+/ gm) was similar to that of the marketed antacid suspension (2.756 mMol of H+/ gm). The unpleasant taste of herbal drugs was masked satisfactorily. Conclusion: Avipattikar suspension may be a cheaper, safer and effective alternative for current antacids for the treatment of functional dyspepsia.
Djam Chefor Alain, Earnest Njih Tabah, Bekolo Calvin Epie, Lenwo Njonwo Leslie, Augustine Eyong Bate
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i430249

Abstract:
Background: Improving maternal, neonatal and child health are two of the most critical Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs). The Cameroon health system has consistently faced huge challenges to meet these objectives. As upshot; decision-makers identified the lack of a suitable health financing policy as an important issue that needed to be addressed. In response; the performance- based financing (PBF) scheme was implemented. Objective of Study: Assess the short term effects of PBF on both maternal and child health services. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mifi Health District to compare the trend in some key child health indicators before and after PBF’s implementation across 41 randomly selected health facilities. A linear regression model and a paired sample T-test were used in the analysis, considering a p-value of <0.05 as significant and a confidence interval at 95%. Results: There was a significant decrease in the mean Pentavalent dropout rate (p-value=0.02) as well as in the mean number of child deaths (p-value=0.019), per facilities per year from 26.61 and 0.46 before, to -104.07 and 0.15. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of women per facility per year who came for first antenatal care visit (ANC) p=0.001 from 94.55 before to 229.71 during PBF. The mean number per facility per year of pregnant women who attended at least 4 ANCs (p=0.034) also increased significantly from 44.65 before to 119.05 during PBF. Equally, the mean number of women per facility per year attending post natal visits significantly increased (p=0.010) from 23.23 before to 75.29 during PBF. Conclusion: The findings of the assessment of the effect of PBF scheme on maternal and child health services in the Mifi Health District, demonstrates a significant improvement in key indicators of maternal and child health, following PBF implementation. This study highlights the essential need for policymakers to carefully examine the effect of the PBF strategy on maternal and child health with the perspective of further scaling up this reform to other regions. Therefore, PBF can be an effective strategy for improving maternal and child health by increasing the utilisation of MCH services.
Jude Nwaogu, Babangida Abubakar,
Journal of Complementary and Alternative Medical Research pp 32-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/jocamr/2021/v14i330248

Abstract:
Aim: The aim is to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of Eucalyptus camaldulensis methanol stem bark extract (ECMSBE) on Wister albino rats. Methodology: The phytochemical screening of ECMSBE was conducted using standard methods. A total of 36 albino rats were used for the antioxidant studies. The rats were divided into six (6) groups of six rats. Control group received distilled water orally at 2ml/kg. Oxidative stress was induced in groups 2 to group 6 CCl4 (1ml/kg, s.c) at every 72hrs for 10 days. Group 2 was untreated while groups 3 – 6 received doses of 50, 100, 150 and 200mg/kg of ECMSBE respectively. On the 11th day, the rats were sacrificed and the liver was removed and homogenised and oxidative stress parameters were determined. Results: Phytochemical analysis of ECMSBE revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and resins. There was no significant difference (P<.05) between the CCl4 induced group and the group treated with ECMSBE (50mg/kg). However, their concentrations were significantly different from the group treated with ECMSBE (100mg/kg – 200mg/kg) when compared to the group treated with CCl4 Only. The CCl4-induced group had its vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E concentrations significant different (P<.05) from the groups treated with ECMSBE (100, 150 and 200mg/kg body weight). There was no significant difference (P>.05) in the levels of SOD, CAT and GPx between the group induced with CCl4 only and the group treated with ECMSBE (50mg/kg), however, it these concentrations were significantly higher (P<.05). The enzymatic antioxidants concentration in the normal control group was not significantly different (P>.05) when compared the group that was treated with ECMSBE (200mg/kg) Conclusion: The result suggest that the extract of E. camaldulensis possessed antioxidant properties which can be used as effective protecting agents against oxidative stress and other diseases.
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