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O. O. AdeOluwa, C. O. Aworuwa, O. E. Ogunsanya
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/19823

Abstract:
Solanum lycopersicon; human urine; fertilizer; soil fertility; wastes management.
R Olorunsola, P Akinduti, A Oso, A Akapo, D Eruvbetine, M Oyekunle
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20076

Abstract:
Haematological indices; oxytetracycline; prebiotics; probiotics; serum chemistry.
Muhammad Usman, Waheed Ashraf, Ihsan Jamil, Muhammad Akhlaq Mansoor, Qamar Ali, Muhammad Waseem
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/19661

Abstract:
Like many other developing countries, Pakistan has lower agricultural productivity. It is due to the reason that the farming community is almost illiterate and, has traditional and conservative farming practices. Adoption and diffusion of new technology at farm level is hindered due to these factors. This study aimed at estimating; technical, allocative and economic efficiency. The determinants of inefficiency for the wheat farms in district Layyah were also quantified. Data of 120 farmers for the crop year 2010-11 were used for the analysis purpose. A non-parametric approach, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was used to find out the efficiency scores. Separate regression was used for these inefficiency scores for socio-economic and farm specific variables by using a Tobit regression model. The results showed that mean technical, allocative and economic efficiency of farms in the sample area was 84, 81 and 68 percent, respectively. Results of Tobit regression models showed that impact of years of schooling, access to credit, number of contacts with extension agents, and distance of farm from main road were negative and significantly affecting technical inefficiency of wheat farms. The farm size variable sign was negative and had significant impact on the allocative inefficiency. The coefficient of access to credit dummy variable was positive and had significant impact on allocative inefficiency. The coefficient of distance from main road was negative and significant which implied that as the distance of farm from main road increased the economic inefficiency will decreases. Quantified results urged the need of improvement in the agri-extension services, timely and proper availability of inputs, and establishment of local level markets at lower administrative units (like, town or union council) for the improvement of existing farming system.
A. E. Salami
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21748

Abstract:
Weather condition prevailing during pollination could have some effect on seed set and yield in maize. A controlled pollination experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria during the early seasons of 2007 and 2008 to investigate the effect of daytime on the performance and seed yield of five maize genotypes viz. two open pollinated, two inbred lines and one hybrid. Hand-pollination was done on an hourly basis between 09.00 to 18.00 hours which constituted the treatments. The ten treatments were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. In all the experimental units, five plants were bulk pollinated for each of the time treatment. Results indicated differential responses of the genotypes to time of pollination. When averaged across the five genotypes, there were significant (p<0.05) differences in cob length, weight of 100 seeds weight, and seed yield per cob for the two years whilst cob diameter and number of kernels per row were only significant in 2008. Hand-pollination of maize can be done between 09.00 and 18.00 hours, however, the optimum performance was obtained for cob and seed traits when pollination was done between 10.00 and 12.00 hours, There was 36.65% reduction in seed yield per cob when pollination was delayed till 16.00 hours compared with when done at 10.00 in 2007 and 32.94% reduction between 11.00 and 17.00 hours in 2008. The rate of decline can be minimized when pollination is delayed till 18.00 hours when temperatures are relatively low, which implies that perhaps the most determining factor that precludes pollination is temperature which is comparatively high between 13.00 and 17.00 hours. Furthermore, suboptimum performance was observed when pollination was done at 09.00 hours possibly due to the dampness of the pollen which may impair pollen shedding.
J. Sosnowski, , P. Domański
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22110

Abstract:
The study was conducted to determine the effect of soil type on total protein content and the formation ratio of sugars to proteins in dry matter varieties of cocksfoot and tall fescue. The experiment was arranged and conducted according to Research Center for Cultivar Testing guidelines. The experimental plots were sown with varieties of Dactylis glomerata: Niva, Tukan, Amila, Crown Royale and with varieties of Festuca pratensis: Limosa, Pasja, Anturka, Amelka. The plots were randomly selected, 1.5 meters wide and 6.67 m long, with an area of 10 m2, grouped in blocks with four replications. They were separated by 1 meter pathways between blocks and with 0.5 meter pathways between sub-blocks. The pathways lay fallow. The experiment in Krzyżewo (organic soil) was set up on ploughed soil, with spring barley as the forecrop. In Uhnin (mineral soil) the experimental plots were located on peat meadow. The airy dry matter was shredded and ground. The obtained material was subjected to chemical analysis to determine dry matter (by determining moisture content), protein compounds and simple sugars. The method of determination was near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) using a NIRFlex N-500 spectrometer and readytouse INGOT calibration applications. Regardless of variety, cut and years of research, higher total protein content occurred in dry matter of cocksfoot grown on mineral soil (165 g∙kg-1 DM) than organic (172 g∙kg-1 DM). Higher values of sugar-protein ratios characterized biomass of varieties of meadow fescue (0.50) than cocksfoot (0.85). Regardless of the examined grass species, better nutritional value had the plant varieties located on mineral soils than organic.
G Böhm, R Karsburg, C Heidrich, E Böhm, R Machado
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21730

Abstract:
Sewage sludge is a residue rich in organic matter and nutrients important for plant growth and soil fertility, but it may contain in its composition heavy metals that can result in toxicity to the plant, soil and humans when used as fertilizer. The objective was to assess microbial activity and heavy metal residues in soil and radish tubers grown with different concentrations of sewage sludge. Carbon microbial biomass, total organic carbon, soil basal respiration and zinc, copper, chromium and lead levels in soil and radish tubers were analyzed. According to the results, application of 30 Mg ha-1 of sewage sludge promoted higher microbial activity and lower metabolic quotient, and resulted in 490 tili-1 of microbial carbon and 11.12% of soil organic carbon. Heavy metal contents in radish tubers were 266.15, 2.82 and 15.42 mg kg-1 of zinc, chromium and lead, respectively, with the lead content found in the samples were above the maximum extent permitted recommended by the Codex Alimentarius.
O Aderi
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20597

Abstract:
Aims: To evaluate population densities and cultivars on the biomass and crop growth rate (CGR) of upland rice and their correlation with grain yield.
, Richard Onwonga, John Kimenju
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20209

Abstract:
Aims: Spider plant (Cleome gynandra L.) is one of the most important traditional vegetables in Kenya, albeit underutilized. Concurrently, scanty information is available on its potential for vegetable and seed production. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate spider plant germplasm for agronomic traits pertinent to seed and vegetable production.
L Fayeun, D Ojo, A Odiyi, A Adebisi, L Hammed, Oluwaseun Omikunle
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/15261

Abstract:
Apomixis is seed and embryo formation without fertilization. A study was carried out from August, 2012 to May, 2014 in order to investigate the possibility of occurrence of apomixis in fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.) using emasculation method. Five genotypes of fluted pumpkin were used. Ten plants from each genotype were planted out in a screened environment at the department of Crop, Soil and Pest Management, Federal University of Technology, Akure. The crop being dioecious, all the male plants were emasculated (by total removal from the site) as soon as they were noticed, leaving only the female plants. Seeds obtained from the fruits of isolated female plants were later subjected to viability test. After several weeks of flowering, flowers and developing ovaries abortion, they eventually set fruits. All the genotypes produced fruits (one or two) though at different times. Both apomictic and parthenocarpic fruits were produced. The seeds obtained from the apomictic fruits of all the genotypes had high seedling emergence percentage and good seedling vigour. Apomictic fruits, seeds and seedlings were similar to those of sexually produced fruits. The observed facultative apomixis could be as a result of natural selection. This study confirms that apomictic form of reproduction occurs naturally in fluted pumpkin. Facultative apomixis in the fluted pumpkin is being reported for the first time and its implication in the genetic improvement of the crop is discussed.
K Akande
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21980

Abstract:
Canavalia ensiformis; tryspin inhibitors; concanavalin A; canavanine; canaline; saponins; cyanogenic glycosides; poultry.
K. E. Akande
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22378

Abstract:
Starter diet; finisher diet; jack bean; soybean; performance; unconventional protein sources.
S Saha, A Islam, M Rahman, M Hasan, R Roy
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20799

Abstract:
An experiment was conducted at the field laboratory of Department of Crop Botany and Tea Production Technology, Sylhet Agricultural University from May to October 2013 with a view to select the superior Okra cultivar (s). The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. A total of 8 cultivars viz. BARI Dherosh-1 (control), Orka Onamika, Bankim, Durga, JO (Japanese Okra)-1, JO-2, JO-3 and JO-4 were evaluated in relation to morphological and yield attributes in acidic soil conditions. Significant variations were observed in almost all parameters. Results revealed that high yielding cultivar Bankim exhibited taller plant at final harvest, produced early flowers with maximum fruit setting (%) and fruit length. The cultivar JO-3 produced maximum number of branches and leaves at final harvest. Local check cultivar showed highest internodes number and length along with maximum number of flowers and 100 seed weight. The cultivars JO-1 and JO-4 showed highest individual fruit weight and maximum fruit diameter, respectively. The cultivars Bankim was proved to be promising cultivars in acid soil conditions of Sylhet considering overall performance of morphological and yield attributes.
B Akinwalere, M Ajibola
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20041

Abstract:
This study was conducted to assess the impact of rural infrastructural projects in Ondo State using the bottom-up approach (Community Drive Development) through the Ondo State Community and Social Development Agency (ODCSDA). A multi-stage sampling technique was used. In the three(3) senatorial districts that constitute Ondo State, six (6) local government areas (LGAs) were randomly selected from existing eighteen (18) LGAs on the basis of two (2) LGAs from each of the senatorial district, and six (6) Communities were purposively selected from each of the selected LGAs based on the presence of fully completed and functional projects. Ten (10) respondents were randomly selected in each of the communities making a total sample size of sixty (60) respondents. A likert scale perception tool was used to investigate respondents’ level of project identification, project planning and implementation, socio-economic impacts of projects and its sustainability. Descriptive statistic, Pearson correlation and Relative Importance Index (RII) were used for analysis. Results showed that more than eighty percent (80%) of the respondents were fully involved in project identification, planning and implementation in their respective communities. Level of community contribution and participation project identification, planning and implementation, location of project, standard of project implemented were found to have positively affected their perception of project sustainability. Study also showed that community participation and sustainability of infrastructural projects were significantly related.
O. Idowu, O. Olawole, O. Idumu, A. Salami
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21348

Abstract:
Biological control agents are known to reduce the effect of plant pathogens and also reduce the environmental hazard caused by the persistent use of synthetic chemicals. In this study the effect of Trichoderma asperellum and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices were observed on young okra seedlings infected with the same concentration of disease causing microorganisms; Pythium aphanidermatum and Erwinia carotovora. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of biocontrol agents against okra seedlings infected with Erwinia carotovora and Pythium aphanidermatum. The experiment was conducted in the green house of the faculty of Agriculture, Ile- Ife, Nigeria. Different combinations of these microorganisms were observed on the growth performance of Okra seedlings. Okra seedlings were planted in the nursery for 2 weeks and 3 weeks respectively before they were transplanted into pot of 17 cm by 17 cm filled with sterilized soil. Inoculums concentration of 10-8CFU/ml of each micro- organism and 30 g of AM were introduced to the root zone of the young seedlings during transplanting from nursery tray to the growing pots according to the designated treatments and each treatment was replicated thrice. The same procedures were used for 3 weeks okra seedlings. The effects of micro-organisms were observed using plant growth parameters such as; stem girth, number of leaf, stem height and leaf area. The result shows that the bio-control agents reduced the negative effect of the pathogen on the young seedlings and Glomus intraradices enhanced the development of plant parameters. The organisms had a lesser synergistic effect on each other due to their high requirements for metabolic product of plant but produced more antagonistic effect on the pathogenic micro-organisms. In conclusion, Glomus intraradices and Trichoderma asperellum could be effectively used as bio-control agents to reduce the effect of Erwinia carotovora and Pythium aphanidermatum on young Okra seedlings.
L. Guluwa, O. Oluremi, M. Tion
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/18876

Abstract:
A ten-week two stage experiment consisting of starter and finisher broiler feeding trials was conducted with one hundred and eighty Marshal broiler chicks to determine the replacement value of water soaked Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) fruit peel meal as a substitute for maize. Sweet orange peels were divided into five equal parts, and a part each soaked in water for a duration of 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, sundried and milled to formulate five (5) test diets T2, T3, T4, T5, and T6, respectively, in which the peel replaced maize in the control diet (T1) at 40% inclusion levels one hundred and eighty birds were randomly allocated to the six dietary treatments each of which had three replicates of ten birds each in a completely randomised design. Significant increases (P<0.05) were observed in feed intake, live weight, body weight gain, water intake while, significant decreases (P<0.05) were observed in feed conversion ratio, water: Feed ratio and mortality of starter broiler as duration of soaking of orange peels increased from 0 to 96 hours. In the finisher phase, significant increases (P<0.05) were observed in feed intake, live weight, body weight gain, whereas, water: Feed ratio decreased significantly (P<0.05) as duration of soaking of sweet orange peel increased from 0 to 96 hours. The study has shown that sweet orange peel when soaked for 96 hour can be used as a replacement for maize in broiler chicken diet at 40% levels while, longer soaking duration is further investigated.
, Muhammad Anwar-Ul-Haq, Abid Niaz, Javaid Akhtar, Zahid Ashfaq Ahmad, Atif Muhmood, Muhammad Ashfaq Anjum, Syed Shahid Hussain Shah
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/23267

Abstract:
Photosynthetic rate; Biplot graph; K+: Na+ ratio.
Zachee Ambang, Sully Mengue, Philippe Kosma, Charles Carnot Asseng, Jules Patrice Ngoh Dooh
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22138

Abstract:
Bacterial wilt; Erwinia stem rot; resistance; tomato varieties; Cameroon.
A. F. Agboola, B. R. O. Omidiwura, E. A. Iyayi
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/25082

Abstract:
The effect of varying levels of commercial probiotic on the performance, microbial status and carcass quality of broiler chickens was investigated in a 42-day experiment between March and April, 2014. Two hundred (200) one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly allotted to 4 diets with 5 replicates of 10 birds each in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 was the basal diet with no supplement while diets 2, 3 and 4 were basal diets supplemented with graded levels (200, 400, 600 mg/kg) of probiotic. On day 42, ileal digesta were collected for microbial count and intestinal pH. The weight of carcass primal cuts and visceral organs were also recorded. There were no remarkable differences observed in the final weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio of the birds on the experimental diets in both starter and finisher phases. However, significantly higher (P= .05) feed intake (550.00 g/bird) was recorded in birds on diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg probiotics while birds on the basal diet had the least (470.00 g/bird) at day 0-21. Meanwhile between 22-42 days, the highest feed intake (1821.25 g/bird) was recorded for birds on diet supplemented with 400 mg/kg probiotic while the least (1630.00 g/bird) was observed in birds fed basal diet. There were no appreciable differences observed in the microbial population in the GIT of birds on the experimental diet except in the gram negative Enterococcus and Lactic Acid Bacteria counts. Birds on 600 mg/kg probiotic dietary supplement had the highest live weight (2142.00 g/bird) which was similar to those on 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg probiotics. There were no significant differences recorded for visceral organs and weight of the primal cuts of birds on the experimental diets except for drumstick. In conclusion, improved growth response and carcass quality were achieved at all the inclusion levels of dietary probiotic without compromising birds’ performance.
Ambreena Din, Imtiyaz T. Nazki, Muneeb A. Wani, Sajid A. Malik, Shameen Iqbal
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/27020

Abstract:
The present study was designed to standardize protocol for asepsis of different explants of Alstroemeria hybrida cv. Pluto (rhizome tips, rhizome sections, shoot tips and shoot nodal segments). Carbendazim 200 ppm for 30 minutes + mercuric chloride (0.1%) dip for 10 minutes and final treatment with ethyl alcohol (70%) for one minute proved best for culture asepsis of rhizome tips and rhizome sections at 2 and 4 weeks of culture, whereas carbendazim 200 ppm for 15 minutes followed by mercuric chloride 0.1% dip for 3 minutes proved better for culture asepsis of shoot tip and shoot nodal segments at 2 and 4 weeks of culture. Also carbendazim 200 ppm for 30 minutes + mercuric chloride (0.1%) dip for 10 minutes and final treatment with ethyl alcohol (70%) for one minute proved best for culture survival of rhizome tips and rhizome sections at 4 weeks of culture., whereas carbendazim 200 ppm for 15 minutes followed by mercuric chloride 0.1% dip for 3 minutes proved better for culture survival of shoot tip and shoot nodal segments at 4 weeks of culture. In this study protocol for sterilization of different explants leads to the standardization of the explant for tissue culture in Alstroemeria hybrida cv. Pluto.
A. Biswas, M. S. Islam, S. Dey, A. A. Shimu
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/26402

Abstract:
An investigation was carried out with a view to estimating heterosis for yield and its attributes under high temperature conditions at the experimental field of Horticulture, Department of Agriculture, Sylhet Agricultural University, Bangladesh during hot summer season (May to August) of 2013. In this study ten tomato hybrids developed from half diallel crossing fashion among five parental lines of tomato in winter season of 2012- 2013 (October 2012 to February 2013). These ten tomato hybrids along with five parental lines were evaluated under RCB design with three replications to estimate better parent heterosis for ten characters. Significant better parent heterosis was found for all characters except days to first harvest. The maximum better parent heterosis for number of fruits per plant was observed for the cross combination of C51 × C71 (85.12%) followed by C41 × C11 (67.10%). The highest heterosis for individual fruit weight was recorded (69.31%) from FP5 × C71 indicating this combination is important for improvement of individual fruit weight of heat tolerant tomato. The highest positive significant heterosis for pericarp thickness was found for the cross combination of C41 × C71 (60%) followed by C11 × C71 (46.25%). Positive and significant heterosis for TSS (%) was estimated from the cross C11 × FP5 (8.7%). All the cross combinations showed positive and significant heterobeltiotic effect for fruit yield per plant of which C41 × FP5 exhibited the highest heterosis (203.22%) closely followed by C41 × C51 (183.33%). Therefore, this two cross combinations can be taken for further evaluation under high temperature condition for recommending summer season cultivation in Bangladesh.
, Edward Gizemba Ontita, Richard Ndemo Onwong’A, Nyamongo Desterio, Jean R. Gapusi
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/27363

Abstract:
Aims: In order to improve production, utilization and conservation of African nightshades (ANS) in Kenya, this study set out to better understand the current status and agronomic practices employed by some of the Kenyan communities. Study Design: The study entailed a survey of African nightshade farmers. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in representative counties, Kisii, Kakamega and Nakuru, of Kenya between the months of October and November, 2015. Methodology: A total of 630 ANS farmers (210 farmers per county) randomly sampled from purposively selected sub-counties in each of the three counties were used. The farmers interviewed consisted of men, women and youth. In addition, 6 focus group discussions consisting of 15 participants per group and 9 key informant interviews were conducted in each county to provide detailed information and opinion on the data collected during the survey. Data was collected on characteristics of Solanum farmers, agronomic practices in ANS production, amount of land allocated to ANS, income from ANS sales and challenges encountered in ANS production. Results: Results indicated that 75-80% of the ANS growers were women and 63% of farmers in Kakamega had primary education while 56% in Kisii and 40% in Nakuru of the farmers had high school education. Production is in small holdings (50% of the farmers mainly applied wood ash for pest and disease control while 73% used animal manure for plant nutrition. The farmers identified pests and diseases as the main challenge encountered during ANS production. Conclusion: ANS production is mainly a women activity with formal education up to secondary school level. More land is being allocated for ANS production. However, the production is still on small scale using rudimentary tools and farmers employ traditional methods to control pests and diseases. Moreover, pests and diseases is the main limitation to increased production of ANS.
G. J. O. Atsin, E. F. Soumahin, T. H. Kouakou, A. E. A. Elabo, K. M. Okoma, S. Obouayeba
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/26930

Abstract:
Fast-metabolism clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) are appreciated for their good agronomic performance with little hormonal stimulation, due to their high intrinsic metabolic activity. They are highly demanded and therefore exposed to a significant risk of overexploitation. In order to solve this problem, a study was carried out in a completely randomized design with clones IRCA 111, IRCA 130 and PB 260 planted at a density of 510 plants/ha in southwestern of Côte d’Ivoire for nine years. A single tapping system, that is every four days (d4) with different hormonal stimulation regimes (0/y; 2/y; 4/y; 6/y; 8/y; 13/y; 18/y; 26/y and 39/y), was applied to all treatments. The parameters measured in rubber trees were rubber yield, radial vegetative growth, physiological profile and sensitivity to tapping panel dryness. The results indicated that non-stimulated rubber trees of clones IRCA 111 and IRCA 130 showed the best rubber yields while two annual stimulations were necessary for clone PB 260. Moreover, the lack of hormonal stimulation had no negative impact on the vegetative growth, physiological profile and sensitivity to tapping panel dryness of the rubber trees. Clones IRCA 111 and IRCA 130 can therefore be tapped in S/2 d4 without hormonal stimulation.
, K. Nataraj, G. S. Guruprasad, K. Mahantashivayogayya, B. G. M. Reddy
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/27992

Abstract:
A new strobilurin group of fungicide, pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS (Seltima 100 g/l CS) was evaluated for its bio-efficacy against rice leaf blast disease under field condition during Kharif 2013 and 2014 at Agricultural research station, Gangavathi, Karnataka, India. The test fungicide, pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS was found effective against leaf blast disease which recorded least percent disease index (PDI) of 14.20 and 16.48 @ 75 g a.i./h and @ 100 g a.i./h, respectively. Other fungicides such as tricyclazole 75 WP (300 g/h), Carbendazim 50 WP (500g/h) and Isoprothiolane 40 EC (750 ml/h) recorded significantly more PDI than pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS. Due to difference in the PDI of leaf blast disease, different treatments recorded statistically significant yield differences. The highest yield (67.78 q/h) was recorded in the treatment of pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS @ 75 g a.i./h followed by the same chemical @ 100 g a.i./h (66.87 q/h). Therefore, pyraclostrobin 100 g/l CS (Seltima 100 g/l CS) @ 75-100 g a.i/h can be used for effective management of leaf blast disease.
Shah Alam, Rajendra Kumar Seth, , J. N. Srivastava, D. N. Shukla
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 14, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/29059

Abstract:
Brown leaf spot disease is the most serious disease of rice. 25 varieties were screened against brown leaf spot caused by Helminthosporium oryzae during session (Kharif) 2014 and 2015. The results were four varieties recorded viz. NDR-359, CR-1, CR-2 and N-18 in highly resistant. Seven varieties were recorded viz. PR-103, IR-36, Prasd, Narendra-2, IR-597, OC-1339 and Cross-116 in resistant. Six varieties were recorded viz. IET-849, Pusa NR-381, Narendra-80, Narendra Dhan-97, Jalnidhi and Jallahari in moderately resistant. Three varieties were recorded viz. Rupali, MTU-7029 and Sweta in moderately susceptible. IET-2969 and Annapurna was recorded in susceptible. Three varieties were recorded viz. Nagina-22, CR-126 and Cauvery highly susceptible in all three screening conditions, i.e. laboratory, pot and field. In view of present investigation, it provides a useful information to the farmers by which they can use these varieties which are resistant to brown leaf spot disease of paddy. This may increase the productivity and save the economy of farmers.
Biplob Kumer Roy, Muhammad Khairul Bashar, Shak Mohammad Jahangir Hossain, Khan Shahidul Huque,
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 14, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/29284

Abstract:
The present experiment was conducted to evaluate intake, digestibility and growth performances of local growing bulls fed Moringa plant fodder or Australian Sweet Jumbo alone keeping Maize silage as control and to scaling up the available roughages. Eighteen BLRI Cattle Breed-1(BCB-1) growing bulls of 103.8±25.5 Kg live weight were randomly allocated to three dietary groups designed in a completely randomized design, having six animals in each group. The three experimental diets were Australian Sweet Jumbo silage and Moringa foliages considered as treatments and Maize silage keeping as control. Daily DM intake of bulls fed Moringa foliage was significantly higher (p<0.01) than those fed with Maize or AS Jumbo. A similar trend in CP (p<0.001) and OM (p<0.01) intake was found among the roughages. Compared feeding with AS Jumbo silage, the relative DM intake was increased (p<0.01) by 11.79 and 26.02 per cent, respectively for bulls fed Maize and Moringa foliages. The digestible DM, DCP, DE, ME and MP intake was significantly higher (p<0.001) in bulls fed with Moringa than the bulls fed with other roughages. Digestibility coefficient of nutrients reflected that Moringa foliage had the highest DM, CP, or OM digestibility, and they were significantly (p<0.001) higher than that of Maize or AS Jumbo. However, AS Jumbo fed bulls had a significantly (P0.05). Feeding Moringa foliage had significantly (p<0.05) higher average daily gain of 376 g compared to 289g of Maize or 218 g of AS Jumbo with an average feed conversion efficiency of 8.85, 11.52 and 13.08 respectively. It was concluded that Moringa oleifera had higher nutritional significance and less cost of production compared to Maize and Australian Sweet (AS) Jumbo silages.
, Muhammad Arif, Mushtaq Ahmad, Sajjad Zaheer, Abdul Baseer, Noor Ul Baseer
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22538

Abstract:
An experiment on maize crop with preceding legumes and nitrogen levels were carried out at the Research Farm of Agronomy, the University of Agriculture, Peshawar during 2011-2012 using summer legumes-maize cropping pattern. The summer legumes were sown in the summer gap (60-65days) for grain, fodder and green manure purposes. Mungbean for grain and cowpea for fodder purpose and Sesbania was for green manure purpose using fallow as control. After legumes experiment each plot was split into four sub plots to accommodate four levels of N (0, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha-1) for maize. Data were recorded on emergence, plant height, grains ear-1 and ear weight. Soil parameters after legumes; pH, total soluble salts (TSS), electrical conductivity (EC), and calcium carbonate (CaCo3) were not significantly affected by preceding legumes. Soil pH was higher in fallow plots while lower in plots previously cultivated with mungbean. Soil TSS, EC and CaCo3 were higher in plots previously sown with mungbean compared with fallow plots. All the parameters under investigation were significantly affected by nitrogen levels except maize seed emergence. In legumes the plots previously sown with cowpea and mungbean significantly affected grain per ear and ear weight of maize. Taller plants were produced in plots where N was applied at the rate of 150 kg ha-1 followed by N application of 120 kg ha-1while control plots resulted in short stature plants. Plots fertilized with high N (150 kg ha-1) had significantly higher ear weight which was at par with N application at the rate of 120 kg ha-1. Higher grains per ear was recorded in plots treated with 120 kg ha-1 N which was at par with plots fertilized with 150 kgha-1N. Control plots resulted in fewer grains ear-1. It is concluded from the results that plot previously sown with legume performed better than fallow and the use of legumes in cropping system will be a good strategy for sustainability in feature.
Richard Yaw Agyare, Richard Akromah, Mashark Seidu Abdulai
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/25186

Abstract:
Aims: To examine the genetic diversity and relatedness among pepper accessions using agro-morphological markers. Study Design: Augmented design with single rows of each genotype. Place and Duration of Study: Research field, CSIR-Savanna Agricultural Research Institute, Nyankpala-Tamale, Ghana, May to October, 2012. Methodology: Fifty local pepper genotypes from different agro-ecological zones in Ghana were characterized using 35 agro-morphological (11 quantitative and 24 qualitative) traits using standard descriptors for Capsicum sp. For quantitative traits, measurements were recorded on ten tagged plants and the mean value used while four tagged plants were scored for the qualitative traits. Results: The first three principal components accounted for 59.61% of the total genetic variance among the genotypes with the larger part of the variance explained by fruit pedicel width, fruit weight, fruit length, plant height, stem diameter, fruit pedicel length and fruit width. For qualitative traits, the first three principal components contributed to 51.65% of the total genetic variance with leaf pubescence density, fruit position, calyx annular constriction and filament colour as the most important parameters. The study showed a great variation in fruit traits revealing six fruit shapes and four fruit colours. Fruit weight exhibited positive and significant correlations with yield components such as fruit length and fruit width. Conclusion: The study has shown that morphological markers are effective tools in studying genetic diversity in Capsicum species. This observed diversity among the pepper genotypes would therefore be used for improving pepper through hybridization and selection.
H. N. Anyaegbunam, B. C. Okoye, J. O. Nwaekpe, M. E. Ejechi, P. N. Ajuka
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22057

Abstract:
The paper investigated the level of technical efficiency and its determinants in sweetpotato production in South-East agro-ecological zone of Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used in the selection of states and respondents. Two states, Abia and Enugu were randomly selected from the five states of south-east agro-ecological zone (Abia, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Imo States). 120 respondents were randomly selected (60 respondents from each state). Data collecting instrument was a well-structured questionnaire. Stochastic frontier production function was used to analyze the data. The result of the maximum likelihood estimate shows that labour (1 percent), fertilizer (10 percent), capital input (1%) and farm size (10%) were significant and contributing factors to the output of sweetpotato farmers. The result of the scholastic frontier estimate reveals that the value of total variance and variance ratio were significant at 1 percent with the values of 0.4040 and 0.5464 respectively. The maximum technical efficiency computed was 0.93; the minimum was 0.27 while the mean was 0.80.This implies that the farmers are technically in-efficient in resource allocation. Determinants of technical efficiency include; age, farm size, extension visit and farming experience were significant at varied risk levels. The results call for policies aimed at empowering the extension agents to enhance technology dissemination and transfer. Also, farmers, especially the younger ones are to be assisted in terms of capital input in order to boost productivity and increase efficiency.
Sarvjeet Singh, Pooja Grover, Jagmeet Kaur, Inderjit Singh, Jasdeep Kaur, Pritpal Singh, O. P. Choudhary, Anupama Hingane, C. V. Sameer Kumar,
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/24071

Abstract:
Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) genotypes acquired from diverse sources, were screened for water logging and salinity tolerance under laboratory and field conditions. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the genotypes for various traits. Based on seedling vigor index, six genotypes (AL 1756, AL 1849, AH-06-7, H-2000-14, H-2003-14, ICP 5028) were found highly tolerant, 10 tolerant, 24 moderately tolerant, 12 sensitive and eight highly sensitive to water logging. In case of salinity treatment, seven genotypes (AL 1849, AH-06-7, H-2000-14, H-2001-25, H-2003-14, ICP 5028, JBP 110B) were found tolerant, 14 moderately tolerant, 17 sensitive and 22 highly sensitive. Mean values for germination percentage, seedling length, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index were generally lower in salinity treatment than water logging treatment. Based on results of laboratory studies, 28 genotypes were screened in pot/field for tolerance to water logging and salinity and were categorized on the basis of plant survival percentage after treatments. Based on plant survival, four genotypes (AL 15, AL 1849, H-2000-14, H-02-28) were found highly tolerant, five tolerant, nine moderately tolerant, four sensitive and six were found highly sensitive in water logging treatment. In case of salinity treatment, six genotypes were found tolerant, five moderately tolerant, three sensitive and 14 were found highly sensitive. Based on higher plant survival (%) under both water logging and saline conditions, common genotypes were identified for their further use in breeding programme.
Mohunnad Massimi, Moh`d Al-Rifaee, Jamal Alrusheidat, A. Al-Dakheel, Faddel Ismail, Yousef Al-Ashgar
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/24292

Abstract:
The impact of climate change and global warming on food and feed crops production is reported in Jordan; a country where dry areas constitute about 90% of its land. The remaining arable areas (under rain fed or irrigated farming system) are decreasing due to urbanization, land fragmentation, drought, water scarcity, underground water over pumping and salinity. There is an urgent need for more tolerant crops that are capable to stand and cope with adverse climatic conditions and for diversification of crops in the farming systems. The purpose of this work was to introduce a new forage crop suitable for small holders suffering from soil and, or water salinity. Triticale (X Triticosecale Witt) lines were evaluated for salt (soil and water) tolerance at Al-Khaledeya station and the most promising line was introduced to farmers' fields. Two-year field observations were conducted to study the effect of crop genotype on total yield. Two crops (triticale "Syria-1" cultivar, and barley "ACSAD 176" cultivar) were used in these trials, seeds from different crops were planted in both growing seasons of 2011-2012, and 2013-2014 at Azraq saline region (16.7 dS/m, and 2.1 dS/m in soil and water, respectively) field, and at Hashmyahh treated waste water region (3.17 dS/m, and 1.98 dS/m in soil and water, respectively). The grain and straw yield were compared with barley in the same region. Grain and straw chemical traits were evaluated in the laboratory by measuring Protein, fibers, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) percentages for the cultivated triticale in both regions of one season 2011 - 2012. Results indicated that triticale had positive effect on total yield in the salty region, triticale grains neutral detergent fiber percentage was 64.42% and was higher than that of triticale grains under treated waste water. In addition, acid detergent fiber percentage in the grains of the triticale was 12.54% and was lower than acid detergent fiber percentage (21.02%) of triticale grains grown under treated waste water. Triticale was adopted as a new forage crop by the farmers and its cultivation was disseminated in the salty regions. The total cultivated area to triticale in 2011 – 2015 expanded up to 46.6 ha, and this crop became commercialized and part of the seed production market in Jordan.
E. Afutu, K. E. Mohammed, , M. Biruma, P. R. Rubaihayo
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/25138

Abstract:
Aims: This study was conducted to identify cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivars with high yield potential and resistance to scab disease caused by Sphaceloma sp. in Uganda. 100 cowpea genotypes were evaluated at two locations (Kabanyolo and Serere) in Uganda between April and July, 2014 using a 10 × 10 alpha lattice design. Place and Duration of Study: Makerere University Agriculture Research Institute - Kabanyolo (MUARIK) and the National Semi Arid Resources Research Institute (NaSARRI) – Serere between April to July, 2014. Study Design and Methodology: Hundred cowpea lines (69 landraces, 25 inbred lines at F7, 1 local and 5 improved cultivars) were grown at each location in a 10 × 10 alpha lattice design with 3 replications to assess their reaction to the scab disease and yield potential (grain yield and yield related traits). Results: The cowpea lines differed significantly (P = .05) in their response to natural disease pressure as determined by disease incidence, apparent infection rate (r) and severity indicated by area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Analysis of variance showed that there was highly significant differences (P < .001) in genotypes, locations, AUDPC and other traits and genotype by location (G×L) interaction on AUDPC. The correlation analysis revealed a positive relationship of scab disease incidence with AUDPC (0.8; P< .001) but a significant (P< .001) negative relationship with grain yield (-0.8), number of pods per plant (-0.5), number of seeds per pod (-0.5) and 100 seed weight (-0.5). Cluster analysis based on only scab disease indexes produced 4 main clusters while cluster analysis based on disease and yield traits produced 3 main clusters. However, the two different clusters revealed similar grouping patterns in which cowpea lines with similar resistance ratings were shown to form unique clusters. R-mode principal component analysis yielded 4 principal components explaining 62.28% of the variation observed. Conclusion: The study revealed that the use of apparent infection rate “r” alone as an index for rating a genotype for scab reaction was not decisive. One line (NE 15) was found to be resistant to the scab disease at both locations and high yielding and could be used in the cowpea improvement programme to breed for resistance to the scab disease.
Pauline Aluka, Fabrice Davrieux, Kahiu Ngugi, Rose Omaria, Fourny Gerard, , Magali Dufour, Pinard Fabrice
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/23004

Abstract:
Aims: This study characterized biochemical compound variability that influence green bean quality in C. canephora as a basis for identifying heterogeneous genotypes for use in crop improvement because genetic erosion aided by climate change effects is gradually threatening the cultivation of Ugandan Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) local races. Study Design: Four hundred and fifty four accessions from twenty four districts were analyzed with Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) for six biochemical compounds using calibrations developed at CIRAD, France. Place and Duration of Study: This work was conducted at the National Coffee Resources Research Institute (NaCORRI), Uganda between January 2007 and December 2013. Methodology: Spectrometer Nirsystem 6500 Foss- (Denmark) machine and Software ISI NIRS 2 version 4.11 (Infra Soft International, Port Matilda, USA) were used to analyze ground samples in diffuse reflectance from 400 nm to 2500 nm (2 nm steps) and predictive models were used to quantify the biochemical contents in the green beans. Data was analyzed with XLSTAT version 2011.2.05 (Addinsoft), Paris, France. Results: Chlorogenic acid and fat concentrations of 13.26 and 13.19% dry matter respectively reported in this study, were much higher than 5.88 and 9.0% dry matter respectively reported earlier. Caffeine concentrations were positively significantly correlated with cholorogenic acid but negatively significantly correlated with trigonelline, sucrose, fat and dry matter contents. Caffeine and chlorogenic acid concentrations increased with age whereas trigonelline declined as trees aged. Chlorogenic acid and trigonelline concentrations were at their lowest levels in elevations of between 1000- 1200 metres above sea level and like fat and dry matter concentrations, the compounds were at their highest levels in higher elevations of about 1500 metres above sea level. Local landraces, ‘’nganda’’ and ‘’erecta’’ had higher concentrations of chlorogenic acid, sucrose and caffeine than improved, hybrid and commercial types. Conclusions: Ugandan C. canephora caffeine content was lower than that of West-African Robusta coffee but higher than that of Arabica coffee. Four distinct diversity groups derived from the six biochemical compounds represented the major organoleptic categories. The results reported here will be useful in defining the desirable cup qualities of Robusta coffee as demanded by world markets.
Ndiang Zenabou, Bell Joseph Martin, Ouattara Bassiaka, Mokake Seraphine Ebenye, Ngalle Hermine Bille, Fonceka Daniel
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/20592

Abstract:
Vigna subterranea is a leguminous species which produces edible seeds (Bambara groundnut). Its seeds are included in the daily diet to compensate the lack of proteins in the food which occurs frequently in populations under the tropics. However information regarding the extent and pattern of variation in Bambara groundnut accessions in Cameroon is limited. The objective of this study was to estimate variation in seed physical traits of twelve Bambara accessions collected in different regions in Cameroon. Seeds of Twelve Bambara accessions were harvested in Janaury 2013 and kept for four months in the Laboratory of Botany and Plant Physiology of the University of Douala. Selection was based on their color. Individual seed length, width and thickness were measured as the physical traits. The seed characteristics were also calculated as the geometric mean diameter, sphericity, seed volume, seed surface area and the aspect ratio. Moisture content varied from 8.11 to 13.12%. Results revealed that there was a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) for all the studied physical traits and seed characteristics, indicating large variation in seed physical traits of Bambara groundnut in Cameroon. The mean length, width and thickness of Bambara seeds ranged from 9.68 to 11.75 mm; 8.73 to 10.46 mm and 8.12 to 10.30 mm, respectively. Large seeds had higher geometric mean diameters, volume and surface area. However, small seeds had higher sphericity and aspect ratio than large seeds. The seeds were irregular in shape and size, and highly spherical with high aspect ratio and will roll rather than slide. Thus variation between individuals has to be attributed to a high number of additive effects and parameters can be studied through selection as major candidates.
I. M. Koloche, A. M. Hamza, A. Mohammed, S. A. Yahaya, H. M. Garba, O. F. Oladipo
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/24444

Abstract:
This study assessed the quantity of Shea nut Assessed, collected and processed using improved Shea nut processing technologies in Niger State. The specific objectives of study were to; describe the socio economic characteristics of the Shea nut processors, determine the quantities of Shea nut/butter produced by the processors and income generated, and examine the constraints faced by the processors in adopting Shea nut processing technologies in the study area. A total of 150 Shea nut processors were selected randomly. Primary data were collected and analyzed. The result revealed that Shea nut processing activities were mainly women business and that the processors collected above 500,000 kg of Shea nut from the wild plantation of Shea trees in their communities and processed above 800 kg into Shea butter in a year which served as a source of income. It is recommended that Shea stakeholders in processing and marketing should interact with Nigerian Institute for Oil palm Research (NIFOR) that has the national mandate on Shea tree research and development to produce sufficient quantity of hybrid/improved Shea tree seedling varieties for modern plantation establishments.
O. A. Adeogun
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/21691

Abstract:
The objective of this was to estimate the price efficiency of catfish grow-out production in Nigeria using parametric stochastic frontier and cost functions. A sample of 143 fish farmers using flow through system were purposively selected from the twenty Local Government Areas in the State for the interview. Data regarding input-output relations and socio-economic properties of farms were collected for the production season of 2012-2013. Price efficiency measures were derived for this sample by employing parametric stochastic frontier analysis (SPF). Finally, socio-economic factors affecting efficiency levels are estimated with a Tobit estimation procedure. The analysis shows that the mean price efficiencies are found to be 36.0%, 70.0% and 62.08% for plastic, fibre and concrete tanks respectively. These scores indicated that the inefficiencies in fish production are not trivial for farmers using concrete and fibre but trivial for plastic indicating considerable allocative inefficiency. Analysis of the role of various socio-economic factors on productive efficiency shows that the size of the farm, age, education, experience and machinery were found to be important determinants of price efficiency. A policy implication of this study is that there are more potential for farmers to increase fish production and net profit.
Jolly Masih, Amita Sharma
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/24737

Abstract:
Gluten-free food was among the top five most-searched words on Google in 2013. During past five years, “gluten” has steadily advanced in consumer online-search interest. Globally gluten free products were estimated to have a market potential of 4639.13 Million USD in 2015 and 7594.43 Million USD in 2020. Gluten-free foods were not only just a fad but a rising marketing section which had grown from a niche market to a main-stream market segment. It had immense potential specially in developing nations when its demand had been rising due to increase in awareness, product availability and number of cases being diagnosed. Regular use of gluten-free products was reported to have multiple health benefits like increased energy levels, reduced gas and bloating. Some major improvements were observed in patients of gluten sensitivity and autistic children. The gluten-free diet had become popular among celebrities and had gain media attention due to the claims of weight loss and boost in energy levels. Gwyneth Paltrow, Ryan Gosling and Jenny McCarthy were the celebrities who had adopted a gluten-free diet for health benefits. A detailed review study in this paper would facilitate understanding of trends, pattern, consumer preferences, market penetration and expansion strategies. This review paper would provide a detailed knowledge of leading sections of gluten-free foods and different factors affecting the buying behaviour of gluten-free foods.
O. A. Fakir, M. A. Rahman, M. Jahiruddin
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/24286

Abstract:
Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of foliar application of boron (B) on the grain set and yield of wheat (cv. Shatabdi). Study Design: The experiment was designed with six boron treatments, arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Place and Duration of Study: The field trial was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) farm, Mymensingh during 27 November 2010 to 24 March 2011. Methodology: The B treatments were (i) B control, (ii) soil application of B, (iii) seed priming into boric acid solution, (iv) foliar spray of B at primordial stage of crop, (v) foliar spray of B at booting stage and (vi) foliar spray of B at primordial and booting stages. The rate of B for soil application was 1.5 kg B ha-1 from boric acid (17% B) and the rate for each foliar spray was 0.4% boric acid solution. Seed priming was done by soaking wheat seeds into 0.1% boric acid solution for 10 hours and then seeds were dried before sowing. Every plot received 115 kg N, 25 kg P, 75 kg K and 15 kg S per hectare from urea, TSP, MoP and gypsum, respectively. Results: The treatment receiving foliar spray of B at both primordial and booting stages of the crop performed the highest yield (3630 kg ha-1) which was statistically similar with the yield recorded with foliar spray of B at booting or primordial stage of crop and with soil application of B before crop (wheat) was sown; all the yields were significantly higher over the yield noted with seed priming or control treatment. The control treatment (no B application) had the lowest grain yield (2600 kg ha-1) which was significantly lower than the yield observed with the seed priming treatment. Conclusion: Wheat yield was affected due to grain set failure induced by boron deficiency and it was possible to overcome this element deficiency by soil application at 1.5 kg B ha-1 or foliar application of 0.4% boric acid solution at primordial or booting stage of crop.
Sarad Gurung, S. K. Mahato, C. P. Suresh, Binoy Chetrri
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/25447

Abstract:
Investigation was carried out in the farmer’s field of Kalimpong to evaluate the effect of foliar application of different level of GA3 and micronutrients on Darjeeling mandarin. The experimental design was adopted randomized block design in which there was seven main plot treatments representing combinations of three growth regulators (GA3 @ 7.5 ppm and 15 ppm, BA @ 200 ppm and 400 ppm and 2,4-D @ 7.5 ppm and 15 ppm) and two micro nutrients (Zn @ 0.5% and Boron @ 0.1%). Foliar application of GA3 at the rate of 15 ppm along with zinc (0.5%) and boron (0.1%) improved growth morphology, fruit yield attributes is also effective in enhancing the fruit yield with better fruit quality. Generally, it could be concluded that the treatment (T3) seems to be the promising treatment for the hilly region of Darjeeling.
B. M. Abdulkarim, A. O. Ogaraku, S. A. Yahaya, R. E. Aliyu, J. A. Alanana, A. Mijinyawa
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/25622

Abstract:
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of Jasmonic Acid (JA) application on some morphological parameters of money maker tomatoe. This research was undertaken in Lancaster Environmental centre glasshouse, Lancaster university, United kingdom. Results showed that Tomatoe plants that received 3 mM JA seed treatment showed a reduction in their mean height and are significantly different (p<0.001) to control soil treated plants. Tomatoe plants of JA soil drench treatment also showed a significant reduction in their mean height (p= 0.001) compared to the control soil drenched plants. JA seed primed Moneymaker tomatoe plants showed significant increase in their mean root weight compared to the control at (p=0.026). However, there were no significant differences in mean dry weight between JA soil drenched plants and their controls at (p=0.110). Although, significant increase in mean root weight was found in soil-drenched plants compared to control seed treated plants (p= 0.002). Increase in total mean plant dry weight of Moneymaker tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum L.) was detected in those of JA seed treatment (Fig. 1, p=0.018) compared to control seed treatment (Tukey’s post hoc test). Similarly, there is significant increase in mean dry weight of JA soil drench plants than the control soil drenched plants (Fig. 1, p=0.001) using Tukey’s post hoc test. Finally it was also observed that no growth cost was associated with priming by exogenous JA application except for stunting of plant height.
J. J. Lelei, B. A. Tunya
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/26938

Abstract:
Aim: To determine nutrient balances in a sorghum based cropping system, following integration of legumes and phosphorus application. Study Design: Two field experiments were set up. They comprised either white lupin or chickpea, and are subsequently referred to as lupin-sorghum and chickpea-sorghum, respectively. A split plot in a randomized complete block design was used. Main plots were cropping systems; sorghum monocrop, legume-sorghum rotation and legume/sorghum intercrop. Subplots were phosphorus sources; triple super phosphate and minjingu phosphate rock. Place and Duration of Study: Njoro Kenya, in the short rains of 2012 and long rains of 2012 and 2013. Methodology: N, P and K balances were determined using NUTrient MONitoring (now known as MonQi) Tool box. Results: Nutrient balances were negative in both experiments, with nitrogen showing more negative values than phosphorus and potassium. Effect of cropping system and phosphorus sources on nutrient balances were significant (P = .05) in both experiments. Sorghum monocrop had more negative nitrogen and potassium balances, in both experiments. Phosphorus balance was more negative in the intercrop and monocrop in lupin-sorghum and chickpea-sorghum experiments, respectively. In the lupin-sorghum experiment, more negative nitrogen balance occurred with use of triple superphosphate in all cropping systems; for P with minjingu phosphate rock in intercropping and sole sorghum systems while for K, balances were more negative with minjingu phosphate rock in sorghum monocrop and intercrop. For the chickpea-sorghum experiment, N balance was more negative with the use of minjingu phosphate rock in the monocropping and intercropping system, for P, values were more negative with triple super phosphate in sorghum monocrop and intercropping systems while for K with triple superphosphate in all cropping systems. Conclusion: Greater nutrient losses occurred in sole sorghum, hence unsustainable. Integration of white lupin or chickpea, in rotation and/or intercropping systems, with application of either phosphorus sources is recommended for enhanced sustainability of the system. An economic analysis of the farms is also recommended in future studies.
Jeptanui Lilian, Kimurto Paul, Otaye Daniel, Mary Mgonja, Towett Bernard, Lagat Nicholas, Ojulong Henry
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/22981

Abstract:
Head smut caused by Tolyposporium penicillariae Bref. is a devastating fungal disease that cause up to 30% yield losses in pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.). An experiment was carried out in two sites (Koibatek and Marigat) in Kenya to estimate the losses in grain yield due to head smut at varying levels of susceptibility in 50 promising advanced pearl millet genotypes. The test germplasm were planted in a complete randomized block design (RCBD) in three replicates during the short rains (Sept -Dec 2011) and long rains (April-July 2012). To assess the yield loss, two experiments were set as sprayed with fungicide to control disease and unsprayed. Results showed that among the tested genotypes, KAT PM1 and ICMV 221 were resistant checks and showed minimum yield loss as compared to the susceptible genotypes, (SDMV 94001 and SDMV 94014) which had highest yield loss. The mean grain yield loss varied between 6.5 and 60.8% in different genotypes. Both incidence and severity of the disease were significantly and positively correlated with losses in grain yield but severity contributed more. The prediction models for estimating yield losses were derived from yield in protected plots compared to none protected plots. Results showed that yield and disease severity were highly significant among the genotypes tested (Fpr <0.001) with yield ranging from 1172-4122 kg ha-1. Overall mean yield for both the seasons in the two sites was 2650 kgs ha-1 for the sprayed experiment and 2390 kgs ha-1 in the diseased plots. The overall yield loss due to head smut was 18%. High yielding genotypes were SDMV 90031, IP 8783, SHIBE, ICMV 96603, ICMV221-1, IP6791 and ICMV 221 Bristled. These were recommended for further evaluation in multi-sites and be released as commercial varieties.
S. Anim Okyere, E. Larbi, F. Danso, I. Danso, P. Afari
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 13, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/18307

Abstract:
Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) establishment, growth and yield depend to a large extent on physical and climatic characteristics of the environment in which the palm is established. A ten (10) year researcher managed on-station experiment was conducted from 1995 to 2005 to assess the effect of transplanting period on the establishment, growth and yield of oil palm in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana. Farmers need to know the appropriate time to transplant their seedlings in southern Ghana in order to minimise the seedlings lost at the time of planting. This work seeks to address which month(s) of the year is (are) appropriate to transplant oil palm seedlings in order to achieve high percentage establishment and high yields. In this study, twelve months old Tenera (Dura and Pisifera crosses) from OPRI, -(D x P ex OPRI)- oil palm seedlings were transplanted onto the field in May, July, September and November signifying different moisture/ rainfall regimes of the year. Treatments were arranged in Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 replicates. It was observed that seedlings transplanted in July had better field establishment, growth, development and yield than those in May, September and November. The findings of this study have important ramification for oil palm farmers, extension services and future studies in order to maximise the yield of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB). It is recommended that under current climate variability transplanting of oil palm seedlings should be done in July in the semi-deciduous forest zone of Ghana.
H. M. Ambali, R. I. O. Nwoha, P. A. Abdu
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 14, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/27456

Abstract:
Despite the rigorous vaccination programs, outbreaks of Newcastle disease (ND) are often reported in vaccinated as in unvaccinated flocks. This study evaluated antibody (Ab) response following vaccination against Newcastle disease in three Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos State. A total of five hundred and twenty eight sera were collected and tested for NDV antibody using Haemagglutination- inhibition test. The three Local Government Areas (LGAs) were: Epe, Etiosa and Ojo of Lagos state, Nigeria. One hundred and three samples were negative and the mean Ab titre ranged from 2.86±2.92 to 5.19±3.00. Etiosa had a total of two hundred and forty six sera tested with forty one negative samples and a mean Ab titre of 5.19±3.00 and mode of 6 log₂. It had 25.1% of Ab titre of unprotective level at ≤3 log₂ and 74.9% of protective level at ≥4log₂. Antibody titre at protective level across the age distribution was recorded at 80.0%, 60.0% and 78.9% in Chicks, Growers and Layers respectively. The risk factors identified in Etiosa were rodent infestation 1.75, lizard infestation 2.00 and carcass disposal 1.82. A total of one hundred and twenty nine sera were tested for ND Ab in Epe with fifty seven negative samples and mean Ab titre of 5.63±2.15 and mode of 5 log₂. The number of samples with antibody titre at ≤ 3 log₂ was 15.0% and 85% sera at ≥4 log2. The age distribution of Ab titre at protective level was recorded at 76.7% in growers and 74.4% in layers while about 25.6 % in layers and 23.3% in Growers were unprotected. The risk factors identified were unmanned gate 2.10, Feed Spillage 2.10, Fly infestation 3.00, Carcass disposal 2.00 and backyard poultry 2.10. A total of one hundred and twenty two sera were tested in Ikorodu and fifty samples were negative with a mean antibody titre of 2.86±2.92. It had 54.3% antibody titre at ≥3 log2 and 45.7% at ≥4 log₂. It recorded percentage age distribution of unprotected antibody titre of 65.0 % in grower and 52.3% in layers. While 35.0% in growers and 47.7% in layers had protective antibody titre. Risk factors identified were unmanned gate 2.30, rodent infestation 2.30, lack of personal protective equipment (PPE) 2.40 and risky visitors 1.80. Conclusion, birds in Epe were better immune from Newcastle disease compared to Etiosa and Ikorodu in that order. Ikorodu recorded highest number of farms with risk factors and at risk of outbreak of Newcastle disease compared to Epe and Etiosa.
Goodness U. Adebo, Daniel B. Adewale, Malachy O. Akoroda
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/24806

Abstract:
Aims: To estimate the general and specific combining ability (GCA and SCA) of some cocoa clones for some vegetative and pod trait and to quantify the extent of variability among the studied cocoa genotypes. Place and Duration of Sample: The experiment was performed at Local Clone Trial plot, Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN), Ibadan between June 2013 and April 2014. Methodology: Three cocoa testers (N38 – T3, T65/7 – T4, and T8/27 – T5) were crossed with two cocoa lines (T12/11 – L1, and T30/13 – L2). Generated pods were evaluated for girth (PG), thickness (PIT) and inner diameter (PIW). Seeds from the selfed and the hybrid pods were sown and established in a completely randomized design with three replications. Data on stem girth (SG), plant height (PH), number of leaves (NL), leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), and petiole length (PTL) were taken at two weeks intervals for twelve weeks on the eleven cocoa genotypes. Results: Line and tester analysis revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences for treatment, parents, crosses, lines and line by tester sources of variation. The highest general combining ability (3.83) occurred in T3 for PH. The best (0.46) specific combiner for PG was L2 x T5, while L2 x T3 and L1 x T3 were the best combiners for PIT (0.18) and PIW (3.14) respectively. Analysis of variance also revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) differences among the genotypes. T12/11 and T65/7 had the highest genetic similarity (0.86). Conclusion: Hybrids from the crosses of the parents are new recombinants, adding to the cocoa germplasm size. The observed genotypic diversity forms a good basis for selection of traits to assist a further improvement of cocoa genotypes. Crosses with significant specific combining ability could be selected and use for implementing a more effective cocoa breeding programme.
I. K. Gideon, U. U. Akpan, I. E. Akpan
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/26602

Abstract:
This study was carried out to determine the factors that affect the utilization of selected fruits in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Data were collected using well-structured questionnaire and analyzed using Multiple Regression Analysis and descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentages. The results indicated that 68% of the respondents were male, 39.9% had secondary education and majority of the respondents were farmers. The results also showed that most of the respondents (98.2%) bought their fruit from the market. The result indicated that 100% of the respondents had adequate knowledge on the existence of Dacryodes edulis (eben), and 95% on Cola argentea (ndiya), while few of the respondents (27.9%) had little knowledge on the existence of Maesobotrya dusenii. The result also revealed that numerous benefits such as food, income medicine are derived from fruits and that lack of money (91%), non-availability of the fruits, and deforestation of the forest (64.9%) were the major constraints faced in the utilization of these forest fruits in the study area. Result of the regression analysis revealed that age was positively related to the value of forest fruits utilized. The level of education was positive and significant (P<0.10). Income was positive and significant (P<0.10) implying that as income increase, the quantity of forest fruits consumed is likely to increase correspondingly and vice versa. Also forest fruits are versatile in their uses as food for man and animals, source of medicine and income generation. They could be obtained from the forest, homegarden and markets. Socioeconomic factors such as age, educational qualification, and income influence the utilization of the forest fruits extension activities should be carried out to enlighten the public on the uses and importance of the different forest fruits. Also policy makers should enact laws which would strictly discourage deforestation. This will ensure adequate and all-year-round availability of the different forest fruits in the state.
F. O. Eichie, A. E. Salako, O. H. Osaiyuwu, S. E. Aggrey
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/25575

Abstract:
Restriction fragment length Polymorphism (RFLP) marker was used to investigate the effect of location on polymorphism, relationship and population structure with respect to prolactin gene (PRL gene) in Japanese quails in Nigeria. Blood samples were collected from thirty quails each from 5 different regions (North, South, West, East and North Central), for PRL loci analysis. DNA was extracted from the samples. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and electrophoresis was used to characterize a 24 base pair (bp) insertion/deletion (Indel) in a 358 bp PCR product. The populations were characterized for their genetic variability using allele frequencies, polymorphic information content, observed heterozygosity (Ho), genetic distance (D), F-statistics (FIT, FIS, FST), analysis of molecular variance, test for Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (H-WE) and cluster analysis. Two alleles A (0.35 to 0.63) and B (0.37 to 0.65) were observed at the PRL gene loci. The highest FIT was recorded between 0.10 (East) and 0.19 (North) indicating inbreeding within the population. The FIS among populations were between 0.09 (North central) and 0.14 (North) while FST ranged from 0.001 (North central) to 0.06 (North), indicating moderate genetic differentiation among populations. Chi Square result indicated that the population were not in H-WE. The phylogenetic relationships showed that the population from the 5 regions had common descent. Clusters from the combined population showed that PRL gene is based on individual genotype and not location. AMOVA analysis showed that 3% of the total genetic variation was explained by population difference, 19% by variation among individuals and 77% within individuals. The results showed that study of prolactin gene diversity is useful for decision making for selective breeding and conservation strategies for Japanese quails irrespective of the location.
Joanne A. Ogunah, , Crispin O. Kowenje, Joseph O. Lalah
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/26406

Abstract:
Chlorsulfuron is a sulfonylurea herbicide widely used in Kenya to control broadleaf and grass weeds in wheat. Its sorption was studied in five wheat growing soils from Mara River Basin in Kenya using batch sorption method. Freundlich adsorption equation described the sorption mechanism of chlorsulfuron with adsorption coefficients (Kf) ranging between 0.46 and 0.75. The Kf showed positive and negative correlation (P ≤ 0.05) with organic carbon (r = 0.7882) and soil pH (r = 0.8111) respectively. Adsorption isotherms were L-type suggesting the herbicide sorption was inversely related to the initial concentration of chlorsulfuron in solution. Desorption of the herbicide was concentration dependent and hysteresis effect was present in three soils implying that sorbed chlorsulfuron was not easily released possibly leading to phytotoxicity to rotational crops. Chlorsulfuron was poorly sorbed on to the soils demonstrating its high leaching potential onto the lower profiles and carry over that would injure susceptible plants in the future.
Tomasz Knapowski, Ewa Spychaj-Fabisiak, , Bożena Barczak,
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/23452

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of varied nitrogen fertilization and foliar application of microelements (Cu, Zn, Mn and combined application of Cu+Zn+Mn) and the effect of their interaction on the grain yield quantity and some technological parameters of grain and flour of Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta L. cv. ‘Rokosz’. Study Design: The field experiment was established with the randomized split-plot method in three replications. Place and Duration of Study: Field study was conducted in two vegetation season (2012/2013, 2013/2014), at the Research Station in Minikowo near Bydgoszcz (53°10′2″ N, 17°44′22″ E) in Midwest Poland. Methodology: The research factors were different levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 kg∙ha-1) and foliar application of microelements (Cu, Mn, Zn and combined application of Cu+Mn+Zn). The obtained grain yield from the plots was adjusted to the constant humidity of 15%. From each plot, representative grain samples were collected for determination of quality features i.e. falling number, protein content, wet gluten, sedimentation value, water absorption of flour and bread volume from 100 g of flour. Results: The grain yield of spelt cv. Rokosz ranged from 4.25 to 7.51 Mg·ha-1. In the season 2012/13 each increase in N by 20 kg∙ha-1 resulted in a significant increase (from 10.7 to 29.5%) in the grain yield in relation to the control. In the second year of the study, increasing fertilization by another 20 kg N∙ha-1 caused a significant increase in yield (from 7.8 to 10.9%) as compared with the lower fertilization treatment. All quantity parameters of spelt increased significantly (compared to control) with the increase of nitrogen fertilization level (4.3 – 28.8% in the 2012/13 season and 11.7-95.4% in 2013/14) and micronutrients foliar application (1.4 - 8.0% in 2012/13 and 2.8 – 5.9% in the 2013/14 season). Conclusion: Each increase in the nitrogen fertilization level caused an increase in grain yield of Triticum spelta L. cv. ‘Rokosz’. Separate and combined application of microelements resulted in a positive yield-forming effect as compared with the control. Varied fertilization with nitrogen and microelements significantly determined the values of the studied technological parameters.
Y. Danso, C. Kwoseh
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 11, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/24455

Abstract:
A survey was conducted among okra farmers in two agro-ecologies (forest guinea savanna transition and moist semi-deciduous forest) of Ghana between August and December 2014, to assess their production decisions and awareness of the Meloidogyne species infection menace in okra. There were 240 respondents and more males (58%) than females (42%). Thirty nine percent (39%) of the farmers had no formal education and 48% had basic education. Approximately 56% had been cultivating okra for up to 10 years. Sixty four percent (64%) did not treat their okra seeds before sowing. Eighty five percent (85%) cultivated okra on commercial scale level (>3 acres). About 65% practiced sole cropping. Whilst 45, 79, 15 and 47% of the farmers responded positively to the Meloidogyne species infection awareness in okra in the Atwima Nwabiagya, Wenchi, Atebubu Amantin and Kintampo North Districts respectively, none was aware of the infection in the Ejura Sekyedumasi and Offinso North Districts. All, 61, 88, 86, 95 and 72% of the farmers in the Ejura Sekyedumasi, Kintampo North, Atebubu Amantin, Wenchi, Offinso North and Atwima Nwabiagya Districts respectively did not manage the infection. This was first survey study in exploring farmers’ awareness on Meloidogyne species infection in okra. Future studies need to be improved to include the nature of management strategies adopted if any to increase yields and reduce synthetic nematicides usage.
E. K. Quartey, H. M. Amoatey, E. Achoribo, M. Owusu-Ansah, W. Nunekpeku, , A. S. Appiah, E. S. K. Ofori
American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, Volume 12, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajea/2016/18087

Abstract:
Two (2) month-old leaves of fourteen (14) breeding lines of cassava, consisting of five (5) parental lines and nine hybrids, were evaluated for their phytochemical constituents. The objective of the study was to determine total flavonoid, phenolic and antioxidant activity in the leaves of the breeding lines. The 14 breeding lines were grown in the research farm of the Biotechnology and nuclear Agriculture Research Institute between March and September 2011. Analyses were carried out at the laboratories Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) between July and August 2011. The randomized complete block design, with three replicates, was used. Results indicate statistically significant differences in Total Flavonoid Contents (TFCs), Total Phenolic Contents (TPCs) and Total Antioxidant Activities (TAAs) recorded for both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the breeding lines. Hyb-9 gave the highest total flavonoid content of 179.90±0.21 mg/g/QE (ethanol extract) as well as total phenolic contents of 128.25 mg/g/GAE and 95.33+3.61 mg/g/GAE for both ethanol and aqueous extracts, respectively, while Security gave the highest value for total flavonoid content of 96.7+0.03 (aqueous extract). Similarly, Larbi recorded the highest TAA in ethanolic extract (82.88+3.07%), while Hyb-15 gave the highest value of aqueous extract (80.92+2.79%). In general there was strong positive correlation among the TFC, TPC and TAA. Most hybrids exhibited higher TFCs and TPCs than their parents in the ethanolic extracts.
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