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Jūratė Levina
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 81-91; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.8

Abstract:
The paper outlines the methodological orientation of Arūnas Sverdiolas’s scholarship and his school towards the praxis of the hermeneutic understanding of concrete cultural phenomena and takes this approach into the field of the phenomenology of literature. The attempt begins with a definition of the literary work in the hermeneutic framework of discourse, in which the work is considered to be an utterance that expresses an originary grasp of world phenomena. This capacity of the work to express is enabled by the operative mechanism of discourse, which binds, by the means of grammar and reference, the linguistic form of the work to the intentional structure of experience. To show this mechanism at work, the paper looks into Alfonsas Nyka-Niliūnas’s project of self-creation: Sverdiolas examines the poet’s diaries to reconstruct his effort of cultivating his poetic ego along the hermeneutic lines of the existential time, while Nyka-Niliūnas himself expresses this self-conception poetically as a more general phenomenon – the phenomenon of poetic self-consciousness as such – in the poem “Autobiography 1986”.
Nijolė Keršytė
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 69-80; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.7

Abstract:
Arūnas Sverdiolas’s way of reading Deleuze raises questions about the compatibility of two traditions: how and to what extent can a philosopher of Culture understand a philosopher of Nature and Life? Deleuze, formed in the rationalist tradition, resists the philosophy of Consciousness and Meaning, in which universality is held higher than empirical particularity. Abstract thinking – a cause of allergy for a Frenchman – is on the contrary an aspiration for a Lithuanian. Sverdiolas’s formation has its roots in resistance against Marxist-materialist thinking, with the help of philosophy of culture. He considers the whole philosophy of the 20th century as an anthropological philosophy of Culture. This does not facilitate understanding Deleuze’s thought. His vitalist philosophy is deemed paramaterialist and considered to be reductionist. Hence a contradiction: Deleuze is recognized as a gifted historian of philosophy, but his own thinking is viewed with scepticism, without seeing its roots in the history of philosophy. The reason why Deleuze’s philosophy rejects the anthropocentric perspective – that of the ego and of consciousness – is not considered.
Vaiva Kubeckienė
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 92-100; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.9

Abstract:
In the article the painting Card Player Showing His Hand by T. Rombouts (17th c. Netherlands) is being interpreted. It is noticed that two existential manifestations may interact in this composition: the gambler’s and Vanitas. In the first part of this article, an analysis is made how Rombouts presents card play as a way of being and how he integrates it into the genre of Vanitas. In the second part the hypothesis, is it proven that the composition of the painting continues the theme of Vanitas and questions it at the same time.
Jolanta Saldukaitytė
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 58-68; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.6

Abstract:
By distinguishing between space and place, the article situates and analyses the meaning of the closest place – home – in the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas. The effort to encounter transcendence, to escape, to leave, to not be attached a particular place, and not to be driven by a nostalgia to return, is dominant in Levinas’s philosophy. This article shows that dwelling in a place, as settling in a home, also has a positive meaning for Levinas. This positive meaning comes, however, not from an ontological but from an ethical relationship with a place. The home is shown as chosen place, warm and human, as opposed to a given or natural place. On the one hand, the home is a necessary condition for security, but also the very condition of interiority and activity, of having the place in the world in contrast to thrownness. On the other hand, it is not a place where I is embodied and rooted in like a vegetable, but a place where I welcome the other.
Arūnas Mickevičius
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 48-57; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.5

Abstract:
The article seeks to highlight and thus draw attention to some important features of A. Sverdiolas’s thinking and his hermeneutic research. The article discusses three models of cultural hermeneutics: “weak hermeneutics,” “strong hermeneutics,” and “deep hermeneutics.” The aim of the article is to substantiate the thesis that A. Sverdiolas’s hermeneutics can be assigned to the so-called “strong hermeneutics,” but with elements that are also characteristic of the so-called “deep hermeneutics.” The article emphasizes that A. Sverdiolas considers and discusses in his texts the conceptual approaches of the so-called “weak hermeneutics,” but does not theoretically engage in it. It should be emphasized that A. Sverdiolas considers and discusses the conceptual approaches of the so-called “weak hermeneutics,” but does not theoretically engage in it. Also, based on the metaphorical image of “urbanization,” the article seeks to draw attention to A. Sverdiolas’s contribution to expanding and deepening research in the field of culture in Lithuania.
Tojana Račiūnaitė
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 101-110; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.10

Abstract:
The concepts of representation and perception, which are specially employed and contextualised in this article, were introduced for cultural reflection by Arūnas Sverdiolas. Pamėklė is a Lithuanian equivalent of “simulacrum,” which can be associated with images that are distinguished by a doll effect and provoke spectator-participant reaction and involvement, and can therefore be associated with reckoned instruments of experience. Another strategy for representing a person encompasses the phenomenon of relics, the fragmentary remains of the body. The article shows how these kinds of anthropomorphic representations of the body can be detected individually and how they can co-exist in a hybrid structure. The example of such a structure we can find in the exposition of relics from the body of St Boniface in the church in Valkininkai.
Dainora Pociūtė
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 120-129; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.12

Abstract:
The article deals with the absence of medical studies at the Vilnius Jesuit Academy. The question in the historiography is linked rather with the local peculiarities than the Jesuit attitude toward medicine in particular. Some attempts to establish medical studies in Vilnius during the 16th and 17th centuries are discussed in the context of Early-modern Jesuit universities that forbade Jesuits to involve themselves in academic medicine. The exclusion of medicine from Jesuit schools is analyzed as an intentional dissociation from the rise of the learned medicine and early modern philosophical tendencies of the medicalization of the soul. Jesuits also introduced the pattern of medicus religiosus instead of medicus philosophus, which represented their image of medical practitioner.
Darius Kuolys
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 111-119; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.11

Abstract:
By refering to the examples of different cultural traditions, Arūnas Sverdiolas in his study Constitution and Preservation described the mechanisms that are involved in the creation of culture – constitution and preservation. The goal of this article is to show how these mechanisms operated in the reality of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The article analyzes the roles that the Lithuanian political society gave to legislation, upbringing, historical narratives, heroic and occasional poetry while constituting and preserving itself.
Danutė Bacevičiūtė
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 19-30; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.2

Abstract:
The article explores Kant’s notion of the human being as the ultimate end of nature, presenting an ethical interpretation of this notion. The author of this article believes that the analysis of Kant’s assumptions will allow a deeper understanding of our own hermeneutical situation, in which ecological problems force us to rethink our relationship with nature and the meaning of human existence. Analyzing Kant’s early texts on Lisbon earthquake and his reflection on the sublime in the Critique of Judgement, the author asks how the experience of an uncontrolled natural element complements Kant’s ethical vision of nature’s teleology. Emphasizing the importance of insight into human vulnerability for the implementation of moral purpose in nature, the article outlines guidelines for interpretation that allow the relevance of Kant’s position in the context of contemporary environmental ethics.
Arūnas Sverdiolas
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 9-18; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.1

Gintautas Mažeikis
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 38-47; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.4

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to analyze how existential phenomenology and hermeneutics of Sverdiolas helps to understand the formation of culture as a transcendental process in the periods of the social and cultural crisis. Sverdiolas explains in detail the egology of Greimas and the cultural sociology of Kavolis, their understanding of the crisis, the exile and decline of cultures, and the radical choices of public intellectuals. Since much is said about egology and participatory understanding, the article develops the concept of hermeneutical anthropology. In this connection, we discuss Sverdiolas’s relation to the hermeneutical anthropology of Cl. Geertz and the condition of the transgressive being, which partly explains the role of personal choice in the time of cultural crisis. The article asks where and how do existential hermeneutics become anthropological or sociological. Greimas is discussed in the context of the crisis of meaning and phenomenological egology, and Kavolis in the context of group symbolic interactionism, the sociology of trust and friendship.
Dalius Jonkus
Published: 1 December 2020
Problemos pp 31-37; doi:10.15388/problemos.priedas.20.3

Abstract:
The article deals with the relationship of hermeneutics and phenomenology in Arūnas Sverdiolas’s philosophy of culture. Firstly what is discussed is the problem of the separation between culture and nature, and then the concept of cultural activity and creation is analyzed. In cultural philosophy it is not enough to reflect on the cultural act of creation. Creation is the discovery of the world’s essential forms of expression. Ideas need to be discovered and only then they can be materialized and communicated to others in such an objective way. Therefore, culture must be understood as the communication of meaning. Cultural objects refer not only to the actions that create them, but also to the demands placed on potential perceivers.
Dalius Jonkus
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 21-32; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.2

Abstract:
Nicolai Hartmann interprets the logic of knowledge as a dialectical process that must reveal the processionality of being itself. Sesemann not only extends Hartmann‘s philosophical insights, but also supplements them significantly. He also understands the knowledge of reality not as an analysis of static objects, but as a dynamic and temporal reconstruction of becoming reality. Acknowledging the limitations of intuition, he returns to the possibilities of logically formed knowledge. Sesemann argues that the logical constructions of knowledge must maintain a connection with primal intuition. However, logically formed knowledge is limited by its static nature. A dialectic is needed to reveal a dynamically changing being. I will begin the article by discussing the relationship between intuition and logical knowledge, then examine the problem of the ideal being and conclude by evaluating the significance of dialectics in Sesemann’s theory of knowledge. According to Sesemann, the dialectic, unlike formal logic, must reveal not the ideal laws of thought, but how live knowledge takes place. Dialectics allows one to analyze being as incomplete and indefinite, as becoming and open to infinite change, it allows one to relate a separate aspect of knowledge to the whole.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 71-82; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.6

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to discuss the later development of Nietzsche’s notion of ressentiment in the philosophies of Gilles Deleuze and Vladimir Jankelevitch. In the context of Nietzsche’s philosophy, the concept of ressentiment is used to explain a revolution in morality. It is argued that ressentiment should not be understood with appeal to the motivation of a subject, whose notion Nietzsche refuses, or to the intensity of exterior excitation, but rather to the function of memory. In Deleuze’s theory, ressentiment is understood as the product of reactive forces that triumph over the active by eliminating the faculty of forgetting. The man of ressentiment is said to be unable to get rid of external excitations and, in turn, he projects his frustration on other people. Because of this, the figure of a “faulty other” functions as a priori of the man of ressentiment. In the philosophy of Jankelevitch, ressentiment is also understood as a negative, anti-vital phenomenon. However, Jankelevitch also introduces the positive notion of ressentiment, which functions as a precondition of authentic forgiveness.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 45-57; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.4

Abstract:
This article analyses the Plotinian reconsideration of the link between the definition of happiness and the homonymy of life. To safeguard Platonism, Plotinus inverts the Aristotelian discussions of homonymy and its metaphysical implications, and presents the prior-posterior relationship in terms of progressive degradation. Happiness does not consist of “life” in general (understood in a univocal sense) nor of the “rational life” (understood as the sum of genus and specific difference); rather, it consists of the life that is situated in the ontologically first and most perfect degree, which is the life that pertains to intelligence and is consubstantial with it, and of which the other lives are progressively degraded derivations. The man who possesses the first and perfect life of the intelligible in actuality, like the gods, can be considered happy.
Merabas Mamardašvilis
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 170-182; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.15

Abstract:
Translation and Preface – Kristina Baranovaitė
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 141-153; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.13

Abstract:
The article discusses the development of the Gaia Hypothesis as it was defined by James Lovelock in the 1970s and later elaborated in his collaboration with biologist Lynn Margulis. Margulis’s research in symbiogenesis and her interest in Maturana and Varela’s theory of autopoiesis helped to reshape the Gaia theory from a first-order systems theory to second-order systems theory. In contrast to the first-order systems theory, which is concerned with the processes of homeostasis, second-order systems incorporate emergence, complexity and contingency. In this respect Latour’s and Stengers’s takes on Gaia, even defining it as an “outlaw” or an anti-system, can be interpreted as specific kind of systems thinking. The article also discusses Haraway’s interpretation of Gaia in terms of sympoiesis and argues that it presents a major reconceptualization of systems theory.
Jūratė Baranova
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 94-106; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.8

Abstract:
The article starts with the question: how is the political philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche even possible? The author discusses with Tracy B. Strong’s presumption that Nietzsche’s political philosophy is not possible as a transcendental deduction. The author supposes that this type of question clashes with the premises of Nietzsche’s thinking and also undermines the interpretation of the other aspects of his philosophy. First of all: the question of nazification and denazification of Nietzsche’s thought. The article comes to the conclusion that in the scope of recent investigation there is not much sense in raising the question whether Nietzsche’s political views are political philosophy in the normative meaning of the term, but it is possible to discuss the question of political anthropology as the psychology of the nations Nietzsche was really interested in.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 136-140; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.12

Abstract:
Alter (2016) elaborates and defends an ambitious argument advanced by Chalmers (2002) against physicalism. As Alter notes, the argument is valid. But I will argue that not all its premises are true. In particular, it is false that all physical truths are purely structural. In denying this, I focus not on the objects of pure physical theory but on the homely, macroscopic objects of our daily lives.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 58-70; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.5

Abstract:
Irony and sarcasm are common linguistic tropes. They are both based on falsehoods that the speaker pretends to be true. I briefly characterize their differences. A third trope exists that works when the relevant propositions are true – yet its rhetorical effect resembles irony and sarcasm, I call it mocking. It is mimetic evil: an agent copies another so that the result ridicules him. The image is, in a limited way, true of him and it hurts; we all are vulnerable. I provide a systematic framework for understanding this phenomenon, mocking, in terms of emulation and simulation. Finally, I introduce an idea of universal mimesis and discuss René Girard’s theory of desire. He argues that desires are copies of a model. This may not be possible, and I suggest a modification to his theory. I pay attention to his idea of mimetic desire as a source of hatred, which is obviously related to what I call here mimetic mocking.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 33-44; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.3

Abstract:
In this article I seek to clarify the relation between the ideas of modernity and secularization in the thought of Augusto Del Noce, thus countering the argument that he is the ‘enemy’ of modernity and secularization. Contextualizing Del Noce’s place within the wider reflection of the problem of secularization in the 20th century European and Italian philosophy, I argue that his position on modernity and secularization cannot be squeezed into the bipolar ‘modern’ vs. ‘antimodern’ opposition, as stated by some of his critiques. I conclude that Del Noce should be regarded not as the ‘enemy’ of modernity or secularization but rather as the critic of postulatory atheism that presents itself as the inevitable outcome of the modern historical process.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 125-135; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.11

Abstract:
It is argued that scientific progress occurs not with the cumulative growth of knowledge or when theories get closer to the truth but with discovering new domains and new theories that fit these domains. This horizontal view on the direction of scientific progress (in contrast to vertical, when we aim to get from here to the abstract and ephemeral truth) allows avoiding traditional objections posed by the incommensurability thesis and pessimistic induction, namely, that radical theory changes leave no room for progress. According to this perspective, the discovery of quantum mechanics as a new field of inquiry is a progress in itself, since this discovery had opened up a new distinctive domain of physics and a new theory that fits this domain. While some perspectives on scientific progress maintain that there is a need for correspondence between competing theories, we shift the emphasis from correspondence towards the discovery of new domains and new theories that apply to those domains. This approach allows overcoming the problem of theoretical discontinuity after scientific revolutions. Correspondence between theories is an important but not necessary condition for progress, while the falsifiability of theories as a means of demonstrating the boundaries of old theories and domains and beginnings of the new domains and theories (instead of being merely a means of refutation) is a necessary condition.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 107-112; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.9

Abstract:
The most urgent challenge of this year – the COVID-19 pandemic and measures of response to it – has sharpened and accelerated the process which was initially driven by bureaucratization and formalization: increasing depersonalization of academic life and the erosion of the university as a unique form of coexistence. The Assuming the concept of the university as a value category, this article aims to review and assess the changes in the self-perception of the academic community that have matured and acquired institutional forms in an attempt to adapt to rapidly shifting societal expectations and needs. Modern trends in university development are best expressed in terms such as “bureaucratization”, “formalization”, “depersonalization”, “instrumentalization of knowledge”, and “community fragmentation”. The pandemic of effective management that has affected Western universities and has gradually reached Vilnius University, no less than the pandemic of COVID-19 and administrative response to it, weakens the academic community based on autonomous and collegial decisions, which should be considered among the most important grounds of uniqueness of university as an institution.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 8-20; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.1

Abstract:
This article will show how Natorp’s criticism of Husserlian phenomenology was one of the most important triggers of the hermeneutical transformation of Heideggerian phenomenology. Concepts like hermeneutical intuition, or tools like formal indication, are the means that Heidegger worked out in order to preserve the phenomenological access to pre-theoretical life as it gives itself. The first part of this article is devoted to presenting Natorp’s criticisms of Husserl’s phenomenology and Husserl’s attempts to answer them. The second part will illustrate how Heidegger, criticizing Natorp, retrieves the validity of the phenomenological intuition and expression by opening up their original, pre-theoretical meanings. It will conclude with a few critical remarks concerning Heidegger’s attempt to describe the motivation of philosophical activity in transcendental terms.
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 83-93; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.7

Abstract:
This article is a Heideggerian inquiry into the possibility of ontological experience, that is, the possibility of experiencing the ontological difference, something wholly distinct from beings. Heidegger, as we know, articulated this as the question of Being. It is a paradoxical question that cannot, at first sight, be answered phenomenologically (in the Husserlian style): if any conscious experience presupposes the constitution of an intentional object in the act of experience, there must be something in any experience.In this article, I set out to defend the position that ontological experience is possible and central to the human existence. This view rests on the Heideggerian notion of the affective grounds of all thinking, the attunement of any experience by moods. I will argue that: 1) any thinking is attuned by moods; 2) ontological experience (i.e. experiencing something wholly distinct from beings) occurs in certain negative moods. 3) ontological experience is possible only through failure, a malfunction in the fulfilment of meaning; 4) ontological experience is possible in art rather than in science (or in some rigorous philosophy).
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 154-169; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.14

Abstract:
The article dwells upon the issue of a subject intrinsic to the art of the 70s and 80s of the 20th century, it elicits the reasons determining the problematization of “the Self” category inherent in the aesthetic program of the Moscow Conceptualism, preeminently with regards to the works of Dmitry Prigov. “The crisis of the language describing ‘the Self’” has been considered as discrediting the dominant discursive models, disabling the possibility of individual expressing. Within the first part of the article we problematize “the Self” category inherent in the aesthetic program of the Moscow Conceptualism, examine the dominant discursive models and denote the crisis of the language describing “the Self.” The second part is devoted to the issue of “the personal consciousness” coming into being within the aesthetic program of Moscow Conceptualism. The Self is considered as a “category of categories” in dichotomy between “the collective” and “individual” ones. Finally, the third part represents the analysis of a subject of the aesthetic activity. “An imaginary personality” intrinsic to the works of Dmitry Prigov is considered as a subject of “a gnoseological game.”
Published: 23 October 2020
Problemos, Volume 98, pp 125-136; doi:10.15388/problemos.98.10

Abstract:
Schmitt makes a distinction between politics and the political; however, he does not speak about the distinction between morality and the moral. By introducing the concept of the moral, we aim to show the weak points of his critique of liberalism. The aim of the article is to look at Schmitt’s concept of the political from the perspective of the moral. This helps to reveal previously unseen aspects of his theory. First, the ontology of the moral stands in direct competition with the ontology of the political. Secondly, the political is not a separate ontology because it depends on the primacy of anthropological presuppositions. Thirdly, Schmitt’s concept of the political is paradoxically like the liberal stance of morality, which is the object of his critique.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 150-163; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.12

Abstract:
The interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge claims that we come to know our own minds by turning our capacities for knowing other minds onto ourselves. Peter Carruthers argues that two of the theory’s advantages are empirical adequacy and scientific fruitfulness: it leaves few of the old discoveries unexplained and makes new predictions that provide a framework for new discoveries. A decade has now passed since the theory’s introduction. I review the most important developments during this time period regarding the two criteria: whether the theory’s six main predictions were supported, and whether the theory’s predictions contributed to new empirical studies. I argue that the interpretive-sensory access theory of self-knowledge remains empirically adequate and scientifically fruitful.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 24-35; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.2

Abstract:
The paper presents an analysis of the three stages of the development of political philosophy since the 17th century. The rise of modern political theory was marked by attempts to develop a philosophy along the lines of natural sciences. These attempts lead to the development of highly speculative and abstract doctrines; political philosophy ceased being a practical discipline. The paper argues that an important aspect of the traditionalist political thought of the 18th century was an attempt to reestablish the link between theory and practice. In the 19th century, the interest in history was supplemented with new premises about the historical process. Political philosophy, which strived to become scientific, became highly dependent on the premises of various philosophies of history.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 198-208; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.16

Abstract:
By analysing Jacques Rancière’s conception of art regimes and taking the practical example of paintings by Lithuanian artist Vincas Kisarauskas, it is demonstrated that by thinking about the modern art in the 20th century as the intersection of the three art regimes by Rancière, we might escape from the binary oppositions still prevailing in the interpretations of modern art in post-soviet and post-socialist countries, and also escape the current narratives of late and silent modernisms implying the belatedness and disability of modern art created in Soviet Lithuania. By writing histories of modern art with Rancière, it is possible to claim that at least a part of Lithuanian modern art is neither late nor silent. On the contrary, the part operating in the aesthetic regime of art becomes a space of search for the new tropes of expression and of the common sensual fabric of life.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 8-23; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.1

Abstract:
In the paper I analyse Daniele Archibugi’s conception of the new cosmopolitanism, aimed at formulation of a theory of cosmopolitan democracy capable of facing contemporary global problems that go beyond the competences of nation-states. My claim is that the advocates of the new cosmopolitanism have yet to come up with a theoretical minimum to which all parties of the cosmopolitan debate would subscribe. I argue that the main obstacle in formulation of a viable cosmopolitanism are attempts at imposition of the universalist uniformity inscribed in the traditional cosmopolitanism or, at best, a straightforward acceptance of cultural differences. In opposition to this, I outline the idea of reciprocal cosmopolitanism which, I believe, should proceed from the acknowledgement of human diversity, thus becoming a more inclusive project than its existing alternatives.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 61-74; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.5

Abstract:
The destruction of man in the Shoah or Holocaust did not mean that Levinas argues in favor of turning away from the socio-historical reality to cultivate his own little garden. The deepest truth of subjectivity can be found in an alterity that calls for a socio-political responsibility. The political implications are rooted in different layers of Levinas’s thought. In his Talmudic comments, Levinas questions the reality of war as the truth of politics. But his explorations of subjectivity, ethical relationality and society allow to understand different political options such as contract theory (responsibility in the first person), liberation philosophy and human rights (responsibility in the second person) and the necessity of building a just society (ethics in the third person). Paradoxically, a just and equitable society ignores the uniqueness of the unique other. While organized responsibility is necessary, it introduces a new form of violence. In this article, we bring together the different layers in Levinas’s political vision and we explore its limits. A fundamental question is whether Levinas’s vision of politics is based on ethics or whether his ethics is a critique of politics.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 36-47; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.3

Abstract:
The paper analyses the concept of panopticism formulated in Foucault’s works and its possibilities of relevance in contemporary power and (self)surveillance studies. In the book “Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison”, Foucault, applying Jeremy Bentham’s idea of a panoptical prison, writes about the power of the sovereignty that is replaced by the society of discipline. Foucault discusses panopticism in order to unfold the concept of the society of discipline. Here the essential measure of the society of discipline and panopticism becomes the concern for the individual per se. Deleuze in his text “Postscript on the Societies of Control” states that we no longer live in a society of discipline, but rather in a process, where we switch from the society of discipline to the society of control. In these changed circumstances, according to Deleuze, there are no longer individuals, rather dividuals. In these circumstances, is it possible to talk about panopticism? The paper shows that panopticism is still relevant while switching to the society of control. Also, it states that the currently unfolding scheme of the society of control has been programmed in the asymmetry of the panoptical gaze. Precisely in the processes produced in the asymmetry of the gaze gain its flexible totality in the society of control.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 75-86; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.6

Abstract:
Many critics of Hannah Arendt claim that her account of politics lacks moral guidelines and constraints. In their view, she radically dissociated politics from morality. Such an interpretation is mistaken. These critics fail to acknowledge that Arendt’s conception has its own resources of normativity. Fundamental categories of Arendt’s political theory (plurality, natality, freedom, equality, forgiveness, promise) serve moral, as well as political, purposes. The internalization of these categories strengthens political actors’ moral judgment and their sense of responsibility. Active participation in political life engenders respect for human dignity and the multiplicity of different perspectives. Critics ignore the moral dimension of Arendt’s conception of politics because they confuse different levels of analysis of the relationship between politics and morality. In the paper, these levels are discussed using the metaphor of a three-storey house.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 186-197; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.15

Abstract:
In the works devoted to the phenomenon of transhumanism, it is widely recognized that philosophy of the Enlightenment had a great intellectual influence on the formation of transhumanism. Yet, this article states that the ideas of Enlightenment philosophy can be reasonably treated as not only consisting the conceptual transhumanism core but also as being a source of its internal contradictions. The paper defends the position that transhumanism in general is an intrinsically controversial project and introduces the premises for this contradiction – the basic anthropological views inherited from philosophy of the Enlightenment. Finally, the article questions the status of transhumanism as a techno-scientific program and states it to be an ideologically engaged project in anthropological engineering, which, in its turn, is devoid of any clear theoretical and practical outline.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 176-185; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.14

Abstract:
The political context of Greek philosophy and its political themes are the subject of numerous studies, but the relation between diplomacy and philosophy, to the best of my knowledge, has not yet been studied. In this article I examine two episodes of diplomatic missions that have left a clear mark on the history of philosophy and I try to show that the link between the history of diplomacy and the history of philosophy is neither accidental nor superficial.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 87-98; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.7

Abstract:
Modern animal rights debates began in the 1970s, mainly as part of the budding field of applied ethics in Anglo-American philosophy. In just a short time, these animal rights discourses received international academic respect, especially through analytically trained philosophers. Central for this development was the analysis that rights language can be principally used species neutrally. This paper’s contribution is to examine the central terms of Tom Regan’s still widely discussed theory for their actuality and usefulness. Hence strengthening these arguments for modern animal rights theory as a serious approach in (inter)national ethical and legal disputes. Translated from German by Gary Steiner, Bucknell University
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 48-60; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.4

Abstract:
This article suggests that human action in Machiavelli is both materialistic and temporalized. It further argues that Reinhart Koselleck’s view of Machiavelli’s understanding of time as historical circularity is misleading. The author is making the case that Machiavelli drew from Lucretian materialism to strip political concepts of content via an animal-materialist anthropology and ontology holding that man, as any animal, is material reality acting under an atomic arrangement wherein no time, whether linear or circular, can exist. The conclusion is that Koselleck’s interpretation of the circularity of time in Machiavelli kept him from seeing his role as an antecedent of the conceptual and temporal revolution underlying the Sattelzeit.
Vijolė Valinskaitė
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 164-175; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.13

Abstract:
This paper examines under which conditions melancholic experiences of time (“Time has stopped, nothing happens”, “I cannot see the future”) are possible. In recent phenomenological research on melancholia, melancholic time experiences are analyzed as disturbances in affectivity. However, it is not always clear how the disturbance of time experience might be structurally interrelated with the disturbance in affectivity. This paper focuses on the interrelatedness of temporal synthesis and affectivity in Husserl’s phenomenology. Husserl’s analyses will be used to explain what role affectivity plays in the constitution of the normal daily world experience, and in particular the time experience. Further, it will be shown how a possibility of the disturbance in time experience is already rooted in the most basic layer of constitution.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 123-131; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.10

Abstract:
The article raises the question what is the content of Frege’s infamous notion of Bedeutung? It is claimed that the so–called standard interpretation of this notion – Bedeutung as referential relation between a name and an object – was developed and established evaluating Frege’s ideas in philosophy of language in isolation from his logicist ideas. However, precisely his logicist concerns have motivated Frege’s interest in semantic issues. A broader consideration of Frege’s works reveals an internalist and rationalist notion of meaning, that is based on the context principle, and that should not be reduced to mere reference. The question of the meaning of subsentential components, for Frege, is closely related to the question of the meaning of the whole sentence, that is, the meaning of sub–sentential components should be construed as secondary with regard to the meaning of the whole sentence.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 114-122; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.9

Abstract:
In 2012, Orenes and Johnson-Laird found interesting results from the cognitive point of view but problematic if analyzed under methods such as the semantic one of extension and intension presented by Carnap. The main difficulty in this way is that Orenes and Johnson-Laird showed that people tend to accept, in the case of certain inferences, conclusions that, by themselves, are, according to the aforementioned semantic method, false in absolutely all of the state-descriptions that can be imagined. However, in this paper, a way to overcome that difficulty is proposed. That way is based upon the idea that the real logical forms of the conclusions accepted by the participants in Orenes and Johnson-Laird’s experiments were not the apparent ones, but they corresponded to other very different structures that can be true in some state-descriptions.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 132-149; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.11

Abstract:
Over the past several decades, in the field of temporal logic there have been created a great number of semantical theories that provide different truth conditions for tensed propositions. In this article we deal with five non-bivalent semantical interpretations of the temporal logic systems CL (Cocchiarella Linear) and Kb (Kripke Branching): 1) Ł3 by J. Łukasiewicz; 2) K3 by S. C. Kleene; 3) Ockhamism by A. Prior; 4) supervaluationism by R. Thomason; 5) relativism by J. MacFarlane. The aim of this article is to present a detailed typology of the five semantical theories based on these criteria: a) the ability to deal with the problem of retrospective evaluation of future contingent propositions; b) the ability to deal with the problem of divine omniscience and free will; c) their relation to the law of excluded middle; d) their relation to other formulas that are intuitively acceptable in an intederministic context. It is argued that the only theory that satisfies all four criteria is the relativism of J. MacFarlane; however, it faces some serious challenges when dealing with the problem of retrospective evaluation of future contingent propositions in the theological context.
Published: 21 April 2020
Problemos, Volume 97, pp 99-113; doi:10.15388/problemos.97.8

Abstract:
In this paper, I sketch an account of emotion that is based on a close analogy with a Husserlian account of perception. I also make use of the approach that I have limned, viz., to articulate a view of the kind of “conflict without contradiction” (CWC) which may obtain between a recalcitrant emotion and a judgment. My main contention is that CWC can be accounted for by appeal to the rationality of perception and emotion, conceived as responsiveness to experiential evidence. The conflicts in question can be regarded as obtaining between different strands of evidence, and our perceptual and emotional experiences can be thus conflicted even among themselves, not only in the special case of a conflict with a judgment.
Published: 16 October 2019
Problemos, Volume 96, pp 160-171; doi:10.15388/problemos.96.13

Abstract:
The paper analyzes the effort to rethink the status of everyday life in the context of consumer society. Two concepts of everyday life are interpreted – Guy Debord’s critique of society of the spectacle, and Michel de Certeau’s concept of everyday life as resistance. As Debord says, the purpose of the critique of the everyday is to recharge the entire system of capitalism. By capturing the radical contrast between the current meager status of everyday life and the potential of the everyday, Debord was convinced that a radical discrimination of everyday life can only be overcome by radical means – the revolution of the everyday. Rejecting the possibility of transforming the entire structure of the society through everyday life, de Certeau focused on the everyday as resistance to the strategic domains of society. Thus, de Certau’s goal is not to transform the entire system, but to maintain the resilient potential of everyday life as a constant opportunity for daily renewal. The paper concludes that it is the attitudes of everyday life such as resistance that have influenced visual and urban studies.
Published: 16 October 2019
Problemos, Volume 96, pp 8-22; doi:10.15388/problemos.96.1

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to show that Ronald Dworkin’s objective to isolate ethics from metaphysics is not sufficiently grounded, and a certain metaphysics is inherent even in his own position of autonomous ethics. While opposing those thinkers who seek to ground ethics by finding an external – neutral and non-evaluative – ground, Dworkin identifies this externality to ethics with metaphysics and aims to show its fallibility. However, such a conception of metaphysics seems to be too narrow and one-sided and leads his own position into contradictions. This paper aims to demonstrate these contradictions and to argue that even the position that is inner to ethics and stems from a first-person agent’s perspective can only be developed while considering such metaphysical ideas as freedom, dignity, person.
Published: 16 October 2019
Problemos, Volume 96, pp 36-47; doi:10.15388/problemos.96.3

Abstract:
This article aims to answer the main question raised – is Rorty’s moral philosophy possible? To what extent is it possible to treat it as an authentic theory? Rorty’s criticism of Kant and the Kantians, as one of the key points of contemporary moral philosophy, determines the posture in the moral domain and provides a certain place in discourse. The article states that, despite the fact that Rorty’s moral philosophy is not based on a particular theoretical concept, it can be considered as a fragmented whole consisting of several parts, one of which is the agent’s openness to the choice of moral identity. At the same time, we will critically question the position of Rorty himself – while maintaining the suspicion towards the sources of moral knowledge, he maintains an insufficient distance with one of his own sources of moral knowledge, namely historical progress.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Belyaev, Ulyana Pavlovna Belyaeva
Published: 16 October 2019
Problemos, Volume 96, pp 172-183; doi:10.15388/problemos.96.14

Abstract:
The article explores one of the most remarkable and dynamic phenomena of modern technoculture – video games. It reconstructs the genesis of the philosophical discourse on video games, exposing the main difficulties arising in making the definitions. Special importance is attached to the critical comparative analysis of the major strategies for the philosophical explication of video games. With the aid of the method of comparative-historical reconstruction and a structuralist approach, the essential correlations between the essential definition of a video game and the ontological systems of Plato, the Gnostics, G. Berkeley, E. Kant, as well as post-modern philosophy was established. The research results in formulating a model-integrative definition of a video game.
Published: 16 October 2019
Problemos, Volume 96, pp 107-120; doi:10.15388/problemos.96.9

Abstract:
The focus of the paper is on Rein Vihalemm’s novel approach to science called practical realism. From the perspective of Vihalemm, science is not only theoretical but first and foremost a practical activity. This kind of approach puts chemistry rather than physics into the position of a typical science as chemistry has a dual character resting on both constructive-hypothetico-deductive (ϕ-science) and classifying-historico-descriptive (non-ϕ-science) types of cognition. Chemists deal with finding out the laws of nature like the physicists. However, in addition to this they deal with substances or stuff that is rather an activity typical to natural history. The analysis of the dual character of chemistry brings about the need to analyse philosophically the reasons why physics has held the position of the only science proper so far. The comparative analysis of physics and chemistry at the basis of practical realism suggests that it is chemistry rather than physics that should hold a special position among sciences. Perhaps we should exchange ϕ-science for χ-science.
Published: 16 October 2019
Problemos, Volume 96, pp 134-147; doi:10.15388/problemos.96.11

Abstract:
In the present paper, we defend the thesis that outer-world-directed perceptual consciousness is always accompanied by an inner awareness (IAOA). This is contrary to the view that outer-world-directed conscious mental states are not accompanied by an inner awareness, which is held by Gennaro (2008) against Kriegel’s (2009a and 2009b) self-representationalism. We attempt to show why philosophers like Gennaro get it wrong when they deny the IAOA thesis by critically examining his arguments against it and by giving arguments in its favour.
Ihor Karivets
Published: 16 October 2019
Problemos, Volume 96, pp 96-106; doi:10.15388/problemos.96.8

Abstract:
N this article, the author considers the particularities of Franz Brentano’s psychognosy (descriptive psychology) in the context of notion of “basic” or “analytic” truths and his methodological approaches to scientific, philosophical investigations as well as his influence upon Kasimir Twardowski, who was the pupil of Brentano and accepted the main points of his methodological program.The author also stresses that the study of Brentano’s and Twardowski’s heritage is important for tracing the origin of scientific/analytic philosophy. It is very important to investigate Brentano-Twardowski relations in the context of the concept of “basic truths” or “analytic truths”. Brentano stresses that “basic truths” can be found thanks to “psychognosy” or “pure psychology”. For Twardowski, psychology is the base for philosophical investigations because it helps to understand the formation of notions and judgements.This article is also dedicated to the inquiries of Brentano’s and Twardowski’s legacy provided by Ukrainian scholars Borys Dombrowskiy and Yanosh Sanotskiy. The reception of Brentano’s theory of judgement in Dombrowskiy’s works and the problem of Brentano’s psychologism in Sanotskiy’s works were examined.
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