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Masako Notoya, Katsumi Inoue, Ai Hirabayashi, Kana Sakamoto, Chihiro Sasaguchi, Minoru Toyama
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 282-292; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73024

Abstract:
In the present study, the ROCF test was initially conducted involving 30 healthy young individuals, in a quiet environment as Experiment 1 to examine variations in the score among different methods to memorize the figure. In such an environment, no significant differences were observed in the score between the copying and outer speech groups, which suggested the possibility of some of the former groups having used outer speech in a voice too low to be heard or moving their lips without vocalization, achieving the same effect as outer speech, and consequently leading to the absence of differences from the outer speech group. On the other hand, the score markedly varied between the mouthpiece and copying or outer speech groups. As lip movements were suppressed in the former case, the unconscious use of outer speech was also prevented, possibly leading to poor results. Based on these findings, it may be possible to enhance the effects of rehabilitation in a clinical setting by promoting patients’ memorization using outer speech to vocalize the contents of training.
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 307-326; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73026

Abstract:
Although very rare, the literature describes cases of Hashimoto encephalopathy attesting to its occurrence. Affected patients present with seizures, stroke-like episodes, transient focal and global neurological deficits, and a variety of neuropsychiatric disturbance from dementia to hallucinations and psychosis. The encephalopathy evolves with concomitantly elevated anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies, independent from hormonal thyroid function setting it apart from thyrotoxicosis and myxedema. A new patient reported with Hashimoto’s encephalopathy, in whom neurocognitive impairment and stroke-like onset of hemiparesis and hemiparkinsonism correlated with brain magnetic resonance imaging fused with positron emission tomography.
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 327-361; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73027

Abstract:
Autoimmune encephalitis is a potentially severe disorder of the brain of diverse causes with a complex differential diagnosis. Recent advances in the past decade have led to the elucidation of new syndromes and biological markers transforming the approach to diagnosis and management of autoimmune encephalitis. Limbic encephalitis, the commonest form of autoimmune encephalitis, combines common presentations of cognitive, psychiatric, and epileptic disorders and has until recently been considered paraneoplastic or postinfectious in origin. The autoimmune encephalitides are clinically and histopathologically associated with serum and intrathecal antibodies to intracellular and surface neuronal antigens, and constituents of the limbic system neuropil. This has led to a reconsideration of a number of neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive disorders as having shared mechanisms of origin. This chapter reviews their historical background, clinical presentation, laboratory evaluation, histopathology, diagnosis and management.
José Reinaldo Maximo Gomes, Fátima Karine Ferreira Santos, Isaac Filipe Melo de Freitas, Ilma Ferreira de Oliveira, Hete Aguida dos Santos, , Janise Dal Pai, Lysien Ivania Zambrano, , Milton Vieira Costa
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 275-281; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73023

Abstract:
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the circadian typology of medical students at public universities from one of the northeastern states in Brazil, active in the morning and afternoon shifts, checking the compatibility between their study time, productivity, income and chronotype. Methods: To obtain the results, the assessment of the chronotype in 342 medical students of both sexes was considered. Each participant was submitted to the questionnaire developed by Horne and Ostberg, adapted by Cardinali, Colomberk and Rey. It’s composed of 9 questions, providing the general ranking of each individual. Based upon scored, the chronotypes were classified. Results: The sample was composed of 49.12% (168) male and 50.87% (174) female subjects, a similar gender distribution of enrolled students during data collection time. By applying the questionnaire, the prevalent rating among the medical students as moderately morning (29.82%) and intermediate (43.85%) has been relevant. The academic performance assessment in two morning-intermediate groups (8.16) had no significant distance from others considered afternoon active (8.20). Conclusion: The health sciences student, especially Medicine, faces constant adaptation of scheduling, in the attempt of fulfilling the requirements throughout the course, causing chronogram desynchronization effects and forced readaptation to each different school semester.
Niknam Zahra, Saadat Alireza, Nabavi Seyed-Massood, Morsali Damineh, Hatami-Sadabadi Farhad, Kheirkhahan Meghdad, Mehdipour Baharak
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 267-274; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73022

Abstract:
Introduction: Stroke is the second major cause of mortality worldwide and in several cases, and it may lead to disability. Factor V Leiden is a common genetic thrombophilia, which causes activated protein C (APC) resistance. Hyperhomocysteinemia and factor V Leiden deficiency, two independent coagulopathy factors, can lead to venous and arterial infarctions in multiple small and large arteries and veins anywhere in the body. Case Report: Here, we report a unique case in which both hyperhomocysteinemia and factor V Leiden deficiency are documented together with MTHFR (C677T) (Methylene Tetra Hydro Folate Reductase) gene polymorphism and activated protein C resistance respectively. Conclusion: More interestingly, the mode of presentation in this case highly resembled that of progressive multiple sclerosis; all signs and symptoms slowly progressed without any systemic signs at first few years. Further studies needed to assess current outcomes.
W. John Martin
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 257-266; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73021

Abstract:
Living organisms derive energy for cellular activities through three primary mechanisms. The first is photosynthesis, which is restricted to plants and certain bacteria. It uses energy in sunlight to combine carbon dioxide with water to form carbohydrates plus oxygen. The second is chemical energy, which is ob-tainable by all organisms from the cellular metabolism of carbohydrates and other organic molecules. The third mechanism of obtaining cellular energy is the alternative cellular energy (ACE) pathway. The ACE pathway is expressed as an added dynamic (kinetic) quality of the body’s fluids. It results from the absorption of an environmental force termed KELEA (kinetic energy limiting electrostatic attraction). The fundamental role of KELEA is presumably to pre-vent the fusion and annihilation of electrostatically attracted opposing electrical charges. KELEA can loosen the hydrogen bonding between fluid molecules. KELEA benefits living organisms in part by enabling more efficient biochemical reactions. Cells require a minimal amount of energy to remain viable. Additional energy is required to undertake specialized cellular functions. Illnesses result if cells have insufficient cellular energy (ICE) for their specialized functions. Since KELEA is attracted to separated electrical charges, it is presumably attracted to the electrical charges comprising the membrane potential of cells. It is proposed that the depolarization of neuronal cells leads to the partial release of KELEA for use by the depolarized cell and as a contribution to the overall activation of the body’s fluids. Many brain illnesses currently attributed to cellular neurodegeneration are explainable as neuronal cells’ adaptations to ICE. The adaptations likely comprise initial hyper-excitability to obtain additional KELEA, followed by functional quiescence prior to actual neuronal cell death. Clinical recovery during both the hyper-excitable and hypoactive phases is potentially achievable by enhancing the ACE pathway. Furthermore, among the restored specialized functions of quiescent neuronal cells may be the capacity to again attract KELEA, leading to sustainable recovery. The opportunity exists for extended clinical trials involving the ACE pathway in neurological and psychiatric illnesses.
, Zhi Gang Lan, Yuekang Zhang, Chao You
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 233-243; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73019

Abstract:
Background: Intracranial schwannomas of the accessory nerve are very rare lesions. They are categorised according to their locations into either intrajugular or intracistemal schwannomas although most of them are intrajugular. The intrajugular type constitutes about 2% to 4% of all intracranial schwannomas described in literature. Aim: It’s very unusual for an accessory nerve to mimic glossopharyngeal nerve looking at the anatomical location of the accessory nerve. Although many authors have written on accessory nerve, none have described this unusual presentation. We present a case, management as well as review on the classification and appropriate surgical techniques we could have use to access the tumor in our patient since the choice of a particular surgical approach is based on the nature of tumor, location as well as it extension into other adjacent structures. Case Presentation: We present a case of 52-year-old woman with very unusual accessory nerve schwannoma which mimics the clinical presentation of glossopharyngeal nerve tumor. The main symptom in our case is six (6) months history of deviation of the tongue to right side with dizziness and change of voice. Conclusion: The unusual presentation in our case could be due to massive compression of glossopharyngeal nerve by the growing accessory nerve schwannoma since most lower cranial nerve schwannomas at this location will almost always course compressive symptoms.
, Shannon M. Cearley, Ruchir Paladiya,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 244-256; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.73020

Abstract:
At present, researchers are unclear about which activity within the brain is responsible for the emergence of consciousness—the subconscious or unconscious. Current literature suggests that consciousness is isolated in the brain; however, we suggest consciousness emerges from both—subconscious and unconscious activity, in addition to sensory consciousness. This article contends that sensory consciousness arises from neurophysiological brain activity, intrapersonal space, sensory information, and parallel processing of the external and internal environment through vision, olfaction, the integumentary system, gustation, and audition. Traditionally, lateral inhibition is defined as the ability for an excited neuron to laterally inhibit its neighbors, and is an integral part of neurophysiology in all senses. In this article, we are connecting the science behind the well-established physiological observations of gamma wave activity in the interneurons of peripheral receptors with what is currently unknown regarding the functional significance of seemingly unrelated gamma activity in the cortico-thalamic gamma oscillations. We suggest that this allows for instantaneous integration of the brain with sensory receptors. This article uses existing literature on lateral inhibition to investigate its role in sensory organs and various areas of the body. We explain how sensory consciousness is only one component of unified consciousness. We propose that lateral inhibition also plays a vital role in consciousness theory, and understanding this can help illustrate the dynamic interactions between the central and peripheral nervous systems within the body.
Salvatore Giuffrida, Giuseppe Carpinteri, Daniela Modica, , Alfio Catalano, , Giovanni Pennisi, Carolin Cornelius,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 03, pp 53-56; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2013.32007

Abstract:
Introduction: Although anemia is not regarded as an usual vascular risk factor for stroke, it is one of the potential mechanism by which the brain does not receive adequate oxygenation. Moreover, the relationship between drop of hemoglobin and acute focal neurological deficits is not clear. We report two patients with cerebral infarction due to acute anemia. Case Reports: Case 1 was a 73-year-old man who complained an episode of loss of consciousness followed by right hemiparesis and dysarthria after few hours. The day after admission he presented melena caused by a duodenal ulcer bleeding. The hemoglobin dropped from 11.3 g/dl to5.6 g/dl in 24 hours. Areas of acute infarctions were evident at diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the brain. Case 2 was a 77-year-old man with a transient episode of aphasia, right lower limb paresis and mental confusion twelve hours after an intervention of PTA and stenting of the left internal carotid artery. Hemoglobin was11.8 g/dl before intervention and9 g/dl 48 hours later. DWI showed bilateral and widespread acute infarcts. Conclusion: Anemia has to be considered as a potential factor in determining or worsening cerebral infarction, especially in patients with carotid or intracranial stenosis, high cerebrovascular lesions load or insufficient collateral supply. Acute or severe anemia may negatively impact the cerebral blood flow and decrease oxygen-carrying capacity, promote rapid deterioration of ischemic penumbra. Brain DWI and treatment of the underlying etiology of acute anemia are crucial in early identification and recovery of cerebral infarctions.
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 03, pp 57-60; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2013.32008

Abstract:
Cholinergic dysfunction is common to Alzheimer’s dementia and Schizophrenia. The objective of this study is to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature on the cognitive and clinical effects of cholinesterase inhibitors administered to patients with schizophrenia and co-morbid Alzheimer’s disease dementia. A literature search of the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, AMED, BNI, HMIC and Health Business Elite databases has been performed (up to January 2013) to investigate the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in patients with schizophrenia and dementia. The terms “schizophrenia”, “dementia”, “rivastigmine”, “donepezil”, “galantamine” and “cognitive deficit” have been searched, with a restriction for English language. Five published studies including 1 RCT have been included for the qualitative review. Treatments include Donepezil 5 mg and 10 mg as well as Rivastigmine 9 mg. The numbers of participants vary from 2 incase report to20 inthe RCT. Only 1 study qualifies for meta-analysis. There is a very limited evidence on the efficacy and safety of using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in the management of dementia co-morbid with schizophrenia. The only randomised controlled study shows lack of evidence in terms of efficacy in using cholinesterase inhibitors in the management of dementia with schizophrenia. Future research projects will have to look at an adequate sample size to explore treatment on various cognitive and noncognitive domains and the sample should be selected by using definitive and internationally acceptable diagnostic criteria.
Hamidreza Famitafreshi,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 223-231; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.72018

Abstract:
Introduction: Pain is a complex phenomenon and in many diseases is the cardinal manifestation. In many of them, the source of pain is obscure and in turn curing pain also becomes difficult. Finding a new regulatory mechanism for pain perception and processing such as alternation of neurogenesis may establish a new treatment. Methods and Materials: In this study, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: social, isolated, morphine-treated socialized (MTS) and morphine-treated isolated (MTI). After injection of BrdU for 14 days (50 mg/kg/rat/day/i.p) and morphine for seven days from day 8 (3 mg/kg/rat/day/i.p), rats were performed tail flick test and then sacrificed. Brains were prepared for assessing neurogenesis and serums were collected for assessing glutathione. Results: In tail flick test isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats had decreased sensitivity to pain stimuli compared to social and morphine-treated socialized rats, respectively. In assessing neurogenesis, isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats had reduced numbers of newly generated neurons compared to social and morphine-treated socialized rats, respectively. Glutathione in serum in isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats increased compared to social and morphine-treated socialized rats, respectively. Conclusion: Reduction of neurogenesis was associated with reduced pain sensitivity in isolated groups. So, isolation may alleviate pain and reduce pain threshold and sensitivity.
Makana Tsutsui, Masako Notoya, , , Takashi Fujita, Nobuyuki Sunahara, Katsumi Inoue
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 216-222; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.72017

Abstract:
Although many studies have explored the utility of tracing as a rehabilitation approach for patients with aphasia and alexia and for Japanese patients with various disabilities, this may be the first study to demonstrate the superiority of tracing over copying for enhancing long-term memory. We investigated the utility of tracing as a memory storage method. Young and elderly participants learned a figure from the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure test by copying or tracing its outline. They were asked to reproduce the figure after 3 min and 3 days. Although the copying group performed better than the tracing group in immediate recall after 3 min, the performance of the tracing and copying groups after 3 days was similar. Among younger participants, the tracing group achieved higher scores than the copying group after 3 days; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Copying as a learning strategy has a substantial temporal gradient of memory loss; tracing may be more appropriate for improving long-term memory. This result could have considerable practical usefulness, e.g., among professionals who provide memory training for the elderly. Tracing, which uses visuomotor memory, is acquired earlier than transcription. Tracing may be effective for rehabilitation because it is a developmentally appropriate approach to early instruction.
Mingqing Wei, Xuekai Zhang, Jing Shi, , Ting Li, Tao Lu, , Liping Zhang, , Shenghua Kang, et al.
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 209-215; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.72016

Abstract:
Background: Although Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been intensively investigated for many years, the effective treatments are largely missing. Commonly used conventional therapy, such as cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI) and N-methyl D-asparate receptor antagonist, have been generally considered as having symptom-relieving rather than disease-modifying effects. Thus, how to improve cognitive function beyond such effect & time limitations has become a serious challenge. Aim: In order to solve this challenge, a sequential therapy with the integration of conventional therapy and herbal therapy was applied to AD patients. Careful clinical observation was conducted in our outpatient setting. Case Presentation: A case of probable AD received the sequential therapy has achieved relative stable cognition and overall status in eight years. Conclusion: During the treatment of this AD case in eight years, sequential therapy showed great potential in stabilizing and improving cognition and overall status. Well designed preclinical and clinical studies are needed to investigate the efficacy of sequential therapy for AD and other type of dementia.
Vellingiri Raja Badrakalimuthu
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 203-208; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.72015

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to pilot FORGET as screening tool for dementia in community OP clinic and acute medical hospital assessments. Sample size included 30 each of memory clinic and acute medical hospital patients. Assessments included FORGET and MMSE. Psychometric test parameters were calculated for FORGET (Cut-off >1 in OP clinic and >3 in acute medical hospital). Of 30 referrals to memory clinic, 25 had dementia. A score >1 on FORGET had sensitivity 80%, specificity 80%, PPV 95.24%, NPV 44.44%, OR 16.00 (p = 0.02) for diagnosis of dementia. Of 30 acute hospital referrals, 20 had dementia. A score >3 on FORGET had sensitivity 95%, specificity 90%, PPV 95% and NPV 90%, OR 171 (p = 0.0005). FORGET at a score of >1 in community and >3 in acute medical hospital is a useful screening tool for dementia.
, Rubyeat Adnan
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 193-202; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.72014

Abstract:
Objective: Genetic and neurobiological factors are considered to be the major causes of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, over last few years study results revealed that socio-demographic factors contribute a significant role in abnormal functional activity and recognized as major causative factors to the pathogenesis and severity of MDD. The aim of this study was to assess the socio-demographic characteristics of Bangladeshi MDD patients and to discover their role on the severity of disease. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of the case notes of psychiatry outpatients at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) was carried out between Sep-Nov 2016. A total of 234 MDD patients (aged 18 to 60 years) were randomly recruited. Relevant information was obtained by collection of prescription details from the patients or their relatives by face to face interview. Results: Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were found 34.734 years (SEM ± 0.842) and 22.014 kg/m2 respectively. Among all respondents, 56% (133) were male and 44% (106) were female where mean income was 26.84 KBDT (Kilo Bangladeshi Taka) (SEM ± 0.749). Roughly 46% (111) patients were found to be below secondary level of education. Married people (56%) had a tendency to develop depression compare to unmarried people (36%). Urban residents (64%) are more prone to suffer from depression than rural residents (36%). There was mild depression in 28% (68), moderate in 37% (157), and severe in 14% (34) patients. Correlation analysis shows that age, sex, marital status, education, family income, and area of residence (p-values 0.004, 0.001, 0.000, 0.011, 0.000 and 0.000, respectively) are associated with the severity of disease. Moreover, among all significant correlations age, marital status and area of residence were positively correlated with the severity of MDD (r = 0.184, r = 0.238 and r = 0.256) while sex, education and family income were negatively correlated with the severity of depression (r = ﹣0.207, r = ﹣0.164 and r = ﹣0.722). Conclusion: Current study shows that age, gender, marital status, education, family income, and area of residence are associated with the severity of depression. Age, marital status and residence of MDD patients are positively correlated with the severity of disease while gender, education and family income are negatively correlated with the severity of depression. It is predicted that this study will be helpful for the management and assortment of MDD patients with more accuracy based on their socio-demographic features.
Matej Kravos, Ivan Malešič
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 181-192; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71013

Abstract:
The specific role of Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) in the brain is not yet clear, but it is an important enzyme in protein degradation as well as a metabolism regulator of glutamate as a neurotransmitter. The enzyme probably provides crucial protection for postsynaptic membranes against the neurotoxic effects of glutamate neurotransmitters. In men, GLDH activity declines almost evenly through the ages; in women, it declines faster in the first five decades. In the years of menopause, GLDH activity declines slower. The diminished GLDH activities in leukocytes and in the brain vary considerably, but they are parallel with the progress of neurodegenerative diseases. The GLDH activity is partly deficient in the brain, particularly in the leukocytes of patients with heterogeneous neurological disorders and degeneration of multiple neuronal systems. We found a statistically significant difference of GLDH activity in the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with neurological diseases and unexpected in patients with degenerative and inflammatory disorders. The decrease in GLDH activity in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with neurodegenerative disorders may be one of the reasons for the neuro-excito-toxic glutamate effect. Defining the GLDH activity in leukocytes is at the moment the sole experimental method. The second one could be the measurement in cerebrospinal fluid. The results suggest a possibility to regulate glutamate level in human brain through activation of GLDH.
, Rong-Fu Chen, Yu-Ying Yang
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 05, pp 323-327; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2015.55029

Abstract:
Background: Adiponectin is involved in regulating both glucose and fatty acid. Associations of the known adiponectin receptors 1 (ADIPOR1) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with diabetes have been demonstrated while hypertriglyceridemia is frequently associated with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) among diabetes. Triglyceride metabolism was also reported to be different between genders and estrogen was observed to interfere with adiponectin effects via ADIPOR1. It seems important to investigate whether the ADIPOR1 SNP variants may be significant determinants in triglyceride metabolism and hence be a risk of CVD in specific gender. Methods: A survey was performed on random self-reported healthy subjects aged 35 and above with their biochemical data collected. Genotyping for ADIPOR1 SNP (rs1342387) was carried out using TaqMan Genotyping Assays. Interviews were also conducted regarding stress, adverse diet behavior and exercise. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the strongest contributing variables. Findings: The ADIPOR1 minor allele carrier (T/T and T/C) had significantly (p = 0.02) higher TG mean compared to homozygous (C/C) major alleles. TG difference was significantly higher in male (p = 0.02) with a larger difference in mean, whereas the difference disappeared among female (p = 0.32). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed by defining abnormal TG based on NCEP criteria of metabolic syndrome, and when all life style variables were entered in the model with ADIPOR1, only the ADIPOR1 inmale showed significant (p = 0.03) and very high association with abnormal TG (Exp(β) 16.31). Discussion: The findings provide sample evidence of a relation between ADIPOR1 SNP minor allele carrier and high TG concentrations in male. The association of abnormal TG and ADIPOR1 is much stronger than that compared to life style. The implications of this survey may be further extend to identifying the genetic risk of abnormal TG at young age and reduce the CVD incidence by early intervention.
Ken Ware, Elio Conte, Riccardo Marvulli, Giancarlo Ianieri, , Enrico Pierangeli, Sergio Conte, Leonardo Mendolicchio, Flavia Pellegrino
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 05, pp 162-173; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2015.52018

Abstract:
This is a study on autonomic neuroscience. In a previous paper in [1], we studied a subject affected from facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy before and after Ken Ware treatment (NPT). Using the non linear methodology of the Generalized Mutual Information (GMI) analysis of Sensory Motor Rhythm, we produced detailed results evidencing that the mentioned NPT treatment involved a net improvement of the patient under his subjective psychological condition, and in particular, under the neurological and sensory motor profile. We quantified with accuracy the improvement that the subject realized during such treatment. Of course, previous studies of several authors have evidenced that muscular dystrophies are strongly linked to a profound ANS disfunction.Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the ANS of the subject before and after the treatment. We performed analysis in time as well as in frequency domain and by using non linear methods. The basic result of the paper was that, according to our analysis, the subjects started with a serious ANS disfunction before the NPT treatment and that a net improvement was obtained after this therapy. All the examined parameters resulted strongly altered before the treatment and all they returned in the normal range after the NPT.
, Nigel Gericke, Samir Suliman, Gwladys N. Chiegoua Dipah
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 140-171; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71011

Abstract:
Zembrin® is a botanical functional food and dietary supplement ingredient sold in the USA, and Canada for enhancing mood, decreasing anxiety and stress and improving cognitive function under stress. It is a proprietary extract of a cultivated selection of Sceletium tortuosum. The present investigation aimed at the measurement of the effect of 25 or 50 mg of Zembrin® in comparison to placebo after daily repetitive intake for 6 weeks. Sixty healthy male (n = 32) and female (n = 28) right-handed subjects between 50 and 80 years old (59.7 ± 5.43 and 56.7 ± 5.88 years, respectively) were recruited. The EEG was recorded bipolarly from 17 surface electrodes (CATEEM®) before and 1 h after intake. Six cognitive tests were performed: d2-test, memory test, calculation performance test, reaction time test, number identifying test and number connection test. Three questionnaires were included: Profile of Mood States, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and a sleep questionnaire. Quantitative EEG revealed increases of delta activity during performance of the d2-test, the number identification and number connection test in the fronto-temporal brain region. Higher theta activity was seen during relaxation and performance of the d2-test after intake of 50 mg of Zembrin®. Statistically conspicuous increases of alpha1 spectral power were seen in the relaxed state. With respect to alpha2 spectral power larger increases were observed in the centro- occipital region. Discriminant analysis revealed a projection of Zembrin® data into the vicinity of the calming preparation Calmvalera tablets and a Ginkgo-Ginseng mixture. Statistically significant improvement during performance of the arithmetic calculation test and number connection test was documented. The HAM-A anxiety score revealed a statistically significant decrease (p = 0.03) after six weeks. Zembrin® showed significant activity on three levels of evidence: questionnaires, psychometry and quantitative EEG. The results indicate that in healthy people Zembrin® improves some aspects of cognitive function, decreases anxiety, and may enhance mood.
Guangsheng Wang, , Xiaodong Chen, Tonghui Yang, Yeting Zhou
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 95-105; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71009

Abstract:
Background: As a common and high incidence of disease, the minor ischemic stroke (MIS) has become an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to address whether patients with MIS have different types and outcome in the elderly in northern China. Methods: A retrospective cohort of consecutive patients was selected for study; all registered neurologic outpatients of the tertiary teaching hospital in northern Jiangsu, China between February, 2011 and February, 2012. A total of 433 outpatients, clinically only having had an initial visit and a MRI study of the brain, were enrolled. Results: Of 433 outpatients, 247 (57.0%) patients with MIS were diagnosed. The clinical types of MIS included stable MIS in 58.3%, acute progressive MIS in 5.3%, and chronic progressive MIS in 36.4% of patients. After adjusted Odd ratio (OR), only aged (OR, 1.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.007 - 1.087, p = 0.021), episode duration (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.011 - 1.024, p = 0.001), initial number of MIS (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.047 - 1.207, p = 0.001), and infarcts volume (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.253 - 2.681, p = 0.002) were independently associated with stable MIS and progressive MIS. Total survival was favorable among groups (p = 0.094), but the followed mRS score was significantly higher among those progressive MIS than those stable MIS (2.3 ± 1.0 vs 0.1 ± 0.3, p < 0.001). Conclusion: MIS had a very high prevalence and different clinical types. Stable MIS is a benign stroke, whereas those progressive MIS may have long-term instability or acute and chronic progressive trend. This information is important in prospectively determining outcome of MIS and in patient treatment.
Conor O’Brien, Rob Byrden
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 172-180; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71012

Abstract:
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome [TTS] is the most common lower limb focal neuropathy but it has a poor pick up rate in most Electrodiagnostic (EXD) Laboratories. There is no gold standard for assessing TTS. The tibial nerve has a complex branching system with 4 main branches and 9 different patterns of division. This study evaluated potential TTS with a similar and extensive assessment of the tibial nerve. The protocol involved 2 tibial motor studies to the Adductor Hallucis Longus (AH) and Adductor Digiti Quinti (ADQ) muscles, assessing amplitudes and distal latencies; medial plantar, lateral plantar and calcaneal sensory studies assessing amplitudes and distal latencies. A needle EMG to the tibial innervated AH and ADQ muscles was also performed. This protocol evaluated 12 different parameters which significantly increased the diagnostic yield. TTS has a low pick up rate using current standard assessment methods accounting for between 0.5% and 0.6% of positive cases referred to electrodiagnostic laboratories. This study had a pick up rate of 3.3% with 40 positive cases identified out of a population of 1210 patients referred to an electrodiagnostic laboratory in a calendar year. A combination of positive findings was observed. There were on average 4.3 positive parameters. The calcaneal sensory study and the needle EMG to the distal AH and ADQ muscles were the most sensitive tests. These 3 tests are not routinely performed in most labs. Of the 40 cases of TTS over 80% had a history of either prior injury or surgery to affected lower limb. This study suggests that this 12 parameter assessment will increase diagnostic sensitivity.
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 106-139; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71010

Abstract:
PET (positron emission tomography) in vivo imaging of cerebral conformational diseases is essentially based on non-peptide small molecule ligands used to detect early alterations in peptide secondary structures and subsequent accumulation of aberrant oligomers and protein deposits involved in progressive neurodegeneration, cognitive and movement disorders. In this article, an overview is given about tracers currently available and lead structures of potential PET probes for detection of β-amyloid (Aβ), tau protein, α-synuclein, constitutive (PrPc) and infectious isoforms (PrPsc) of prions (proteinaceous infectious particles) as imaging targets. Whereas the styrylpyridine derivative florbetapir, approved for clinical applications, the stilbene derivative florbetaben and the benzoxazole derivative BF227 show high affinity binding to Aβ, preclinical investigations promise improved pharmacokinetics for benzoimidazothiazoles, aryloxazoles and benzofuran derivatives. Tau protein imaging based clinically, presently, on the pyridine-pyridoindole T807 has got new incentives following identification of a series of pyrrolopyridine quinolines and pharmacokinetic improvements of fluoropropoxy quinolines including for instance THK-5351. The pyridine isoquinoline MK6240 is involved now in clinical trials. Most forward-looking efforts apply to small molecule ligands of α-synuclein, which are expected to permit a breakthrough in differential diagnostics of Parkinson-related dementia and Lewy body diseases. However, at the moment the proposed lead structures are in affinity and blood brain barrier delivery properties below the possibilities of Aβ and tau protein ligands. This is the case also for potential tracers of prion proteins.
, Shannon M. Cearley, , Santiago Junca
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 66-81; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71007

Abstract:
Understanding the mechanics of consciousness remains one of the most important challenges in modern cognitive science. One key step toward understanding consciousness is to associate unconscious physiological processes with subjective experiences of sensory, motor, and emotional contents. This article explores the role of various cellular membrane potential differences and how they give rise to the dynamic infrastructure of conscious experience. This article explains that consciousness is a body-wide, biological process not limited to individual organs because the mind and body are unified as one entity; therefore, no single location of consciousness can be pinpointed. Consciousness exists throughout the entire body, and unified consciousness is experienced and maintained through dynamic repolarization during inhalation and expiration. Extant knowledge is reviewed to provide insight into how differences in cellular membrane potential play a vital role in the triggering of neural and non-neural oscillations. The role of dynamic cellular membrane potentials in the activity of the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, cardiorespiratory system, and various other tissues (such as muscles and sensory organs) in the physiology of consciousness is also explored. Inspiration and expiration are accompanied by oscillating membrane potentials throughout all cells and play a vital role in subconscious human perception of feelings and states of mind. In addition, the role of the brainstem, hypothalamus, and complete nervous system (central, peripheral, and autonomic) within the mind-body space combine to allow consciousness to emerge and to come alive. This concept departs from the notion that the brain is the only organ that gives rise to consciousness.
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 55-65; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71006

Abstract:
The induction of host protective immunity is an important factor in the immunization against potentially fatal disease and emerging illnesses in the U.S. and global populations especially among immunologically susceptible na?ve hosts. Vaccination programs need to be evaluated as regards their health and economic population benefit among indigenous at risk populations taking into account emerging pathologies defined by the sudden appearance of a pathogen in nature or in a region of the world. Global collaboration is a necessary aspect of vaccine-preventable diseases since even a small number of wild-type cases of eradicated diseases in one region of the world present opportunities for their re-emergence in geographically remote areas. This study is a step in the direction of understanding the epidemiologic aspects of vaccination.
Lina Claudia Pereira Lopes, Daniel Almeida da Costa, Marcus Vinicius De Mello Pinto, Aline Ronis Sampaio, Lamara Laguardia Valente Rocha, Isabela Nardoni Bernardes, Rafael Batista Ferreira, Elias Sobreira Sathler, R. R. B. T. Vieira
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 82-94; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71008

Abstract:
Background: The present work aims to characterize the profile of patients with stroke treat at a hospital located in the Region of the Mata of Minas Gerais, Brazil, considering the findings of the clinical vocal tract, kind of stroke, age and gender of such patients. Methodology: To obtain data, the clinical profile of 133 patients with a clinical or tomography diagnosis of stroke was analyzed, and the results were presented in percentage. For quantitative data average and analysis the tests were done with associations that held χ2 test, and for significance it was considered p < 0.05. Results: From the total of patients, 63 were women, accounting for 47.4% and the other 52.6% were males. Clinically, they were characterized with the highest percentage for ischemic stroke (89.4%) compared to the hemorrhagic type (10.6%). Most of them were referred for computed tomography (86.5%) and remained hospitalized for an average of 6.496 ± 7.372 days. Similar percentages were obtained in the analysis of the population in question, when considering if they had (54.1%) or not (49.6%) any damage in their speech, language skills or swallowing. There were different types of disabilities in patients with stroke. Men with an average age of 69.8 ± 13.9 presents mostly ischemic stroke, and the majority of patients with stroke had hemiplegia and abnormalities of the vocal tract, dysphasia, and aphasia. While older patients had an ischemic stroke and were presented with left hemiplegia, the younger ones suffered from hemorrhagic strokes that caused a disability characterized as right hemiplegic. Conclusion: Our results show important conclusions regarding the clinical evolution of the vocal tract of patients who suffered strokes during the period of the analysis, being useful for better comprehension of how the vocal tract from these patients evolved according to the kind of stroke, sex and age also allowing a contraposition with other future statistics periods available in literature. It can also be pointed out the difficulties in diagnosing the stroke and the concern with the immediate care, but not with its continuance or with its multidisciplinary approach, giving an evident life risk through dysphasia and the increase of permanent damage when there isn’t an appropriate work done with the patients.
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 48-54; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71005

Abstract:
Background: Childhood mental illness is a major factor of overall lifespan of children continuing into adulthood. Population based surveys and public health surveillance provide the much needed evidence to understand mental health promotion, prevention, and treatment of mental illness in children in the United States. Objective: To review available current national survey data regarding mental illness in children over the past decade and to review the global implications of childhood mental illness. Results: Altogether, 13% - 20% of children experienced a mental health disorder from 1994 to 2011. The prevalence of depression among children of 3 - 17 years old was 3% and the prevalence of lifetime and past year major depressive episode were 12.8% and 8.1% respectively among adolescents of 12 - 17 years old, with a prevalence of depression in the preceding 2 weeks of 6.7%. 7.1% of children of 12 - 17 years old ever had a diagnosis of depression, 3.5% had current depression and 5.1% had a diagnosis of depression in the past year. Overall, 28.5% of high school students of 14 - 18 years old reported feeling so sad or hopeless every day for two weeks or more in a row that they stopped doing usual activities, higher among girls (35.9%) than boys (21.5%), and greater in Hispanic students (32.6%) than white non-Hispanic (27.2%) or black non-Hispanic students (24.7%). The overall rate of suicide in children in 2010 was 4.5 per 100,000. Conclusions: Mental illness presents serious departures from the expected cognitive, social, and emotional development in children, and an important area for prevention in the U.S. and globally. Mental illness will be managed effectively when there is adequate access to treatment services to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality.
, Susan M. Ludington-Hoe
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 38-47; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71004

Abstract:
As a part of their routine care, full term newborns face many painful procedures immediately after birth and during the first couple days of life. Skin-to-Skin Contact (SSC) has been recommended as a non-pharmacological pain management intervention in newborns. However, the use of SSC in labor and delivery rooms as well as in postnatal units and nurseries is limited due to the discomfort that the nurses and phlebotomists themselves experience during positioning the newborns and themselves to complete these routine procedures. The objective of this paper is to describe a step-by-step procedure that was developed and used in a randomized clinical trial to manage newborns pain during clustered pain procedures. The procedure worked well and no complaints of discomfort were reported by the nurses during the study.
Abdelmajid Naceur, Wafa Ferchichi, Rahme Boualleg
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71001

Abstract:
Tunisian veterans experienced uncommon circumstances that put their lives in permanent threat. In this context, it is crucial to understand the adaptive strategy they tend to use. Distress takes place when military veterans use ineffective coping styles within a taxing and high demanding context. The aim of the current study was to estimate the link between coping styles, the psychological well-being and work related stress. A second goal is to extend the analyses for clinical diagnosis and providing a specific interpretation of the military’s behavior. We investigated these issues in a qualitative study. Findings are discussed in the context of a theoretical framework of transactional approach. This was a survey with a random sample of military officers stratified by rank (n = 26). Coping strategy scale (CSS), perceived stress (PSS) and psychological well-being (PWBM) were administrated to veterans from different ranks (high ranks and low ranks). Additionally, Chi square frequencies were constructed between the perceived stress scales, coping strategies and psychological well-being. Results were consistent and showed a best fit between perceived stress and ranks of officers (X2 = 0.026, p < 0.05). Problem focused coping is known to be more effective than other coping strategies, but our findings add the fact that veterans using this style are completely deprived from happiness. The data emphasized specifically the absence of difference between men and women, or between the various ranks regarding coping styles; otherwise seniority plays a role in modulating this relationship. Comparison tests showed a significant difference across years of employment in terms of well-being: more senior participants had more self-esteem than new ones (X2 = 0.010, p < 0.05). Our results reveal that only two major coping strategies are predominantly used: problem resolution and avoidance. This further clarifies that military personals are incapable to maintain emotional balance and a satisfied image of themselves, complete absence of happiness and balance.
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 19-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71002

Abstract:
Background: The family of disorders associated with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens is a rapidly expanding category of autoimmune neurologic disease. Methods: Clinical and laboratory findings of a patient with voltage-gated Kv1 potassium channel (VGKC)-complex autoantibodies are reported and the literature is reviewed. Results: New-onset faciobrachial dystonic seizures, distal large and painful small fiber peripheral neuropathy, dysautonomia, cognitive and memory disturbances were associated with hypometabolism of the left temporal lobe without evidence of systemic malignancy in whole-body positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography. Brain MRI and cerebrospinal fluid were normal with absent intrathecal VGKC-complex antibodies consistent with extrathecal production. Epidermal nerve fiber studies confirmed small fiber neuropathy in association with abnormal autonomic laboratory testing. Discussion: Neurologic involvement associated with VGKC complex autoimmunity is a precisely delineated disorder involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous system.
Yamin Shahriar Chowdhury, Narayan Chandra Saha, M. Abdullah Yusuf, Ariful Islam, S. K. Azimul Hoque, Rajib Nayan Chowdhury, M. Enayet Hussain
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 07, pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2017.71003

Abstract:
Background: EEG could be normal or atypical in spite of suggestive clinical features and positive measles Ab of SSPE cases which could have typical EEG pattern after Benzodiazepine. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to find out the necessity of administration of benzodiazepine during EEG recording of SSPE cases as well as to compare the efficacy of diazepam and midazolam in eliciting EEG pattern. Methodology: This double blind, parallel, single centered, non-randomized clinical trial was conducted in the Department of Pediatric Neurology at National Institute of Neurosciences, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2014 to June 2015 for a period of 1 (one) year. All the clinical and investigational suspected cases of sub-acute Sclerosing Pan- encephalitis (SSPE) children in both sexes were included as study population. Others neurodegenerative diseases including Wilson’s disease were excluded from this study. Patients were divided into two groups named as group A who were given diazepam and the other group B was given midazolam in IV during EEG recording. The clinical outcomes were measured and were recorded in a pre-designed data sheet. Result: The characteristic typical periodic slow wave complex (PSWC) was found only in 8 (30.8%) patients among the 26 (100.0%) before intervention with benzodiazepines. The remaining 18 (69.2%) had non-typical PSWC of which 10 (38.5%) were normal, 3 (11.5%) with atypical PSWC and 5 (19.2%) were with other EEG findings. After intervention with benzodiazepines, 23 (88.5%) had shown typical PSWC and only 3 (11.5%) had non-typical PSWC. Among the typical PSWC cases after intervention, 8 (30.8%) had normal EEG initially, 5 (19.2%) had other EEG finding, 2 (7.7%) had non-typical PSWC and 8 (30.8%) had typical PSWC from the beginning. Of the 3 (11.5%) of the non-typical PSWC of intervention group, 2 (7.7%) had shown no changes in EEG from the beginning and 1 (3.8%) had shown other EEG finding. The difference between before and after intervention was actually statistically extremely significant (p < 0.0001). Among the two study groups, 11 (84.6%) and 12 (92.3%) patients had shown typical PSWC respectively in Group A and Group B after intervention. The non-typical PSWC was seen in 2 (15.4%) of Group A and 1 (7.7%) of Group B patients. The statistical difference between the two groups was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The role of benzodiazepine is very obvious in eliciting the typical EEG pattern in SSPE patients which has shown the characteristic PSWC in EEG in most cases.
Masako Kato, Shinsuke Kato, Kiyota Kato,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 310-324; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64034

Abstract:
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the contribution of CD3 epsilon (ε) epitope and oxidative type of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase to the degeneration processes of cerebellar Purkinje cells in patients with Multiple System Atrophy-Cerebellar type (MSA-C). Methods: This retrospective study was carried out on autopsy specimens of 17 patients with sporadic MSA-C and 10 normal individuals. Paraffin sections of autopsied cerebella and pontes were immunostained with polyclonal antibodies against CD3 ε epitope and oxidative modification to cysteine sulfonic acid of cys111 in human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Ox-SOD1). With respect to the areas of CD3-ε-epitope expression, the immunohistochemical study and the quantitative statistical analysis between the areas of CD3-ε-epitope expression in the surviving Purkinje cells of MSA-C patients and their disease duration were performed. Results: The cell bodies and dendritic arborization including primary, secondary, and tertiary dendrites of normal Purkinje cells were intensely immunostained by the antibody against CD3 ε epitope. Both the immunohistochemical study and the quantitative statistical analysis revealed that the areas positive for CD3 ε epitope disappeared in the order from tertiary dendrites, secondary dendrites, primary dendrites toward the cell bodies, along with the disease progression. In addition, Glial Cytoplasmic Inclusions (GCIs) and Neuronal Cytoplasmic Inclusions (NCIs) were strongly positive for CD3 ε epitope. The surviving Purkinje cells in MSA-C showed immunostaining by the anti-Ox-SOD1 antibody, although normal Purkinje cells did not. Conclusion: Based on the oxidative stress that the surviving Purkinje cells in MSA-C express Ox-SOD1, the functions of morphogenesis and morphological maintenance related to CD3-ε-epitope expression of the MSA-C Purkinje cells are impaired from the peripheral dendrites toward the cell bodies as the center of the Purkinje cell system. In addition, GCIs and NCIs that are pathological hallmarks of MSA also intensely express CD3 ε epitope.
Scott E. Stimpson, Anu Shanu, , Simon J. Myers
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 325-347; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64035

Abstract:
Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects the sensory neurons. Three missense mutations in serine palmitoyltransferase long chain subunit 1 cause hereditary sensory neuropathy type I. The endoplasmic reticulum, where the serine palmitoyltransferase long chain subunit 1 protein resides, and mitochondria are both altered in hereditary sensory neuropathy type I mutant cells. Employing a transfected neuronal cell line (ND15), we have identified and confirmed altered protein expression levels of ubiquinol cytochrome C, Hypoxia Up regulated Protein 1, Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein 1, Ubiqutin-40s Ribosomal Protein S27a, and Coactosin. Additionally, further 14 new proteins that exhibited altered expression within V144D, C133W and C133Y mutants were identified. These data have shown that mutations in SPTLC1 alter the expression of a set of proteins that may help to establish a causal link between the mitochondria and ER and the “dying back” process of dorsal root ganglion neurons that occurs in HSN-I.
Olga V. Vorob’Eva, Julia I. Stadnyuk
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 227-235; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64028

Abstract:
Purpose: To examine the impact of gender and social gender on the level and typology of interictal aggressiveness in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Material and Methods: 40 adult patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (TLE) and 86 healthy individuals were included. The qualitative and quantitative aggressiveness assess- ment was made with Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. The gender role behavior was measured with Bem Sex Role Inventory. Results: Patients with TLE didn’t differ from healthy subjects on the total scores of motor and attitudinal hostility components, but scored higher on subscales “resentment” and “guilt”. The comparative gender analysis showed there were no phenomenological differences in people with TLE. Assault dominated in healthy male subjects, resentment—in healthy female subjects. The prevalence of feminine social gender type was significantly higher in people with TLE in comparison to healthy people (55% vs. 26%, p < 0.01). In patients with TLE, the number of masculine traits positively correlated with indirect hostility subscale and attitudinal hostility component scores. In healthy subjects, the masculine traits positively correlated with assault.
John F. Hamer, Traci A. Purath
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 236-242; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64029

Abstract:
Objective: To address the degree and duration of pain relief from recurrent cervicogenic headaches and/or occipital neuralgia following retreatment with radiofrequency ablation of the C2 dorsal root ganglion and/or third occipital nerves; to review outcomes including duration and degree of pain relief; to evaluate procedure’s complication rate and patient’s willingness to repeat the procedure; to compare effectiveness of the most recent RF ablation to patient’s first RF ablation. Methods: This is a single-center retrospective observational study of 23 patients with recurrent cervicogenic headaches and/or occipital neuralgia treated with repeated RF ablation of the C2 dorsal root ganglion and/or third occipital nerves. All patients receiving treatment from January 2010 to July 2014 are included in this single site retrospective study. This is an IRB approved medical chart review study. Results: 22 of 23 patients underwent follow-up. An average of 86.5% of participants reported pain relief on average of 25.4 weeks at time of follow-up. 41% reported side effects including suboccipital hyperesthesia and/or ear discomfort, 95% reported willingness to repeat the procedure again if severe symptoms recurred, 59% of patients reported the most recent RF ablation had the same results as the first, 32% reported the most recent RF was the most effective, and 9% reported that the first RF was the most effective. Conclusion: Repeated RF ablation is a feasible option for recurrent cervicogenic headaches and/or occipital neuralgia. Effectiveness of repeat intervention is the same or better than the first ablation. Though there was a higher likelihood of side effects including suboccipital neuralgia and/or ear discomfort on repeat treatment, the side effects were generally well tolerated.
, Maria I. Shadrina, Timur A. Kolomin, Ludmila A. Andreeva, Nikolay F. Myasoedov, Petr A. Slominsky
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 243-259; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64030

Abstract:
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common severe neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Unfortunately, PD remains incurable. Therapy based on regulatory peptides, particularly neuroprotective peptides, which can sustain or activate neuron plasticity to enable their survival and function in difficult environments and after violated homeostasis, is a promising approach to cure PD. Some studies show that the synthetic analogs of natural peptides may be used as an etiological or at least a complementary therapy in PD. Therefore, in the present pilot study, we investigated the effects of the synthetic peptides Semax and dopamine neuron stimulating peptide (DNSP-5), and a new synthetic Semax-DNSP-5 hybrid peptide (SD) on the functioning of brain neurons. An analysis of the levels of dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), 5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT), an expression analysis of Gdnf and Gdnf receptor genes Gfra1, Gfra2, Gfra3, Gfra4, and Gfral in various regions of the brain of rats with 6-OHDA-induced PD-like parkinsonism, and a study of the motor activity of the rats in an “open field” test showed that DNSP-5 and SD elevated the level of DA in the nonlesioned striatum. DNSP-5 also increased the expression of Gfra1 and Gfra2 in the nonlesioned striatum and lesioned substantia nigra (SN) which suggested that DNSP-5 had compensatory and neuroprotective properties. SD demonstrated similar, albeit less pronounced effects to DNSP-5 on DA metabolism and gene expression. Of the peptides studied, only SD tended to increase the horizontal and vertical activity of rats. In conclusion, these findings suggest that DNSP-5 and SD have potential neuroprotective properties and may stimulate the surviving DA neurons.
Ravinder Jerath, Shannon M. Cearley, Vernon A. Barnes, Mike Jensen
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 287-302; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64032

Abstract:
Current research on the various forms of autoscopic phenomena addresses the clinical and neurological correlates of out-of-body experiences, autoscopic hallucinations, and heautoscopy. Yet most of this research is based on functional magnetic resonance imaging results and focuses predominantly on abnormal cortical activity. Previously we proposed that visual consciousness resulted from the dynamic retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations, such that the photoreceptors dynamically integrated with visual and other vision-associated cortices, and was theorized to be mapped out by photoreceptor discs and rich retinal networks which synchronized with the retinotopic mapping and the associated cortex. The feedback from neural input that is received from the thalamus and cortex via retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations and sent to the retina is multifold higher than feed-forward input to the cortex. This can effectively translate into out-of-body experiences projected onto the screen formed by the retina as it is perceived via feedback and feed-forward oscillations from the reticular thalamic nucleus, or “internal searchlight”. This article explores the role of the reticular thalamic nucleus and the retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations as pivotal internal components in vision and various autoscopic phenomena.
David S. Younger
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 260-286; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64031

Abstract:
Background: Over the past decade, there has been recognition of the importance of the human microbiome. Beyond improved microbial cataloguing through high- throughput genetic sequencing, we have learned that human beings are superorganisms integrating the identity, function and immunity of resident bacterial, while prepared throughout own innate and adaptive immune systems, to deal with invading organisms. Hypothesis: In keeping with the dynamic relation of infection, immunity and inflammation contained in I-Cubed, illness arises when protective immunity becomes the source of autoimmunity, conditioned by environmental and genetic factors. Results: This paradigm explains the etiopathogenesis of diverse medical (type 1 diabetes, spondyloarthropathy), neurologic (Lyme neuroborreliosis), and neuropsychiatric disorders (PANDAS, and autism spectrum disorders). Conclusion: Successful treatments employing immune-modulatory therapy may be employed. Public health officials will be called upon to guide the public’s understanding and mitigate the risk of disorders that result from the interplay of the human microbiome and I-Cubed.
A.R. De Albuquerque Sarmento Omena, , Camila Maria Beder Ribeiro, , Terezinha Rocha Almeida
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 303-309; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.64033

Abstract:
Introduction: Epilepsy is a syndrome characterized by the presence of seizures that can affect the cognitive performance of the individual. Neuropsychology has studied the idiopathic epilepsies to understand if the behavioral and cognitive impairments are associated with electrical discharges in the brain, and not with an injury itself. Objective: To identify cognitive impairments of a child with epilepsy associated with diagnosis of learning disorder. Method: The sample consists of a child diagnosed with epilepsy, nine years old, from Maceió-AL. The methodology applied is a qualitative and descriptive study of a case report. Neuropsychological tests are applied for that purpose. Results: The results of the tests show cognitive deficits, impaired attention, memory and slowness of reasoning. Conclusion: Despite the results, it cannot be said in this case that epilepsy was the only factor that triggered the learning disorder, because the child had related comorbidities.
Farihan Farouk Helmy, Adnan Amin Alsulaimani, Amal Abdulrahman Hunjur, Shahad Sati Alheraiti
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 220-226; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.63027

Abstract:
A 3-year-old female patient born of consanguineous parents presented to the (development and behavioral clinic) in Taif children hospital, Western Saudai Arabia, her mother complained that her daughter had speech delay, no eye to eye contact, and was performing stereotyped behaviors (hand flapping). The girl developed convulsions at the age of 3 months and was on anticonvulsant medication since that age; her convulsions were controlled on anti-epileptic treatment. Family history revealed that the girl had a 6-year-old male sibling who developed convulsions at the age of 4 months and is on antiepileptic medications; the boy suffered also from speech delay, absent social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. On examination the girl had characteristic features of angio-fibromas, hypo-pigmented macules on the trunk and legs, and moreover the boy had similar skin features plus hypo-pigmented tufts of hair. Both cases were diagnosed as Autistic spectrum disorder, tuberous sclerosis, and mental retardation. The family needed genetic counseling, while both cases needed as soon as possible behavioral and educational strategies.
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 214-219; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.63026

Abstract:
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate thiol-disulphide homeostasis in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) during attack and remission. Design and Methods: A total of 82 patients admitted to our clinic were divided into 2 groups according to whether they are having an attack or not. Peripheral blood samples were taken from all patients and their native thiol, disulphide and total thiol concentrations were measured by a newly developed automated method. In addition, their disulphide/native thiol, disulphide/total thiol and native thiol/total thiol ratios were calculated. Results: The average disulphide values, disulphide/native thiol and disulphide/total thiol ratios of the patients with MS who were having an attack were found to be significantly higher compared to those in remission (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Our results have shown that thiol-disulphide balance was shifted to the oxidative area during the relapse. These homeostasis parameters, which can be easily measured by this newly developed method at low costs, may be important in terms of showing the disease activity and presenting the underlying mechanisms of the disease.
, S. Tahbaz, A. Salahesh, Z. Behjati, F. Nourbala, S. Sadeghi, Z. Saeedi, D. Morsali,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 208-213; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.63025

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the relationship between depression, fatigue, disability and cognitive skills of patients with multiple sclerosis in a cohort of patients with multiple sclerosis in a single center in Tehran, Iran. Methods: One hundred and forty-seven patients with multiple sclerosis with mean age of 33 years, mean disease duration of 20.20 months, mean EDSS of 2.13, and F to M ratio of 76.5% over 23% were recruited for the purpose of this study. Cognitive function was compared with healthy control subjects (n = 100). Depression was measured by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), fatigue was assessed using Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), disability was evaluated by Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and cognitive function was assessed by Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N). All data were analysed using Pearson correlation. Results: Age and disability level generally correlated negatively and significantly with task performance, whereas a higher level of education was associated with better task performance. While the correlation between BDI, FSS, and MIFS was significantly positive, BDI was negatively correlated with the two subscales of BRB, namely PASAT and WLG. Higher levels of depression in patients with MS are associated with lower cognitive performance in tasks requiring higher-order working memory (WM) processes. FSS showed the strongest negative correlation score with BRB, however, the same parameter displayed significant positive correlation with MFIS. Moreover, the global EDSS scores were negatively correlated with BRB. Relative to controls, cognitive performance of MS patients was deficient in all BRB-N measures except Symbol Digit Modalities Test which is a measure of attention and processing speed. Conclusions: Depression, fatigue, and disability (the most common problems observed in MS patients) are clearly related with cognitive impairment in MS patients. Also, MS patients exhibit a pattern of cognitive impairment running across the studied cognitive domains in comparison to healthy subjects.
Richard Lawrence Norman, Jeremy Dunning-Davies, Jose Antonio Heredia-Rojas, Alberto Foletti
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 193-207; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.63024

Abstract:
Experimental evidence has accumulated to suggest that biologically efficacious informational effects can be derived mimicking active compounds solely through electromagnetic distribution upon aqueous systems affecting biological systems. Empirically rigorous demonstrations of antimicrobial agent associated electromagnetic informational inhibition of MRSA, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida albicans and a host of other important and various reported effects have been evidenced, such as the electro-informational transfer of retinoic acid influencing human neuroblastoma cells and stem teratocarcinoma cells. Cell proliferation and differentiation effects from informationally affected fields interactive with aqueous systems are measured via microscopy, statistical analysis, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and other techniques. Information associated with chemical compounds affects biological aqueous systems, sans direct systemic exposure to the source molecule. This is a quantum effect, based on the interactivity between electromagnetic fields, and aqueous ordered coherence domains. The encoding of aqueous systems and tissue by photonic transfer and instantiation of information rather than via direct exposure to potentially toxic drugs and physical substances holds clear promise of creating inexpensive non-toxic medical treatments.
Francesco Casciaro, Vincenza Laterza, Sergio Conte, Maria Pieralice, Antonio Federici, Orlando Todarello, Franco Orsucci, Elio Conte
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 03, pp 213-220; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2013.34028

Abstract:
In the present research, we have used the brain entrainment (BWE) treatment simultaneously recording time series data of R-R intervals of the ECG during rest condition. In detail, we have used alpha brain stimulation and we have found that it induces an enhancement of HRV, particularly in Total Variability and Vagal Modulation activities. The experiment has been performed by us on ten subjects with age ranging from 20 to 70 years old. The risk induced from low HRV is by this time well known in literature. Therefore, the obtained result promises to be of valuable interest not only in terms of the basic neurological investigation but also because it delineates new possibilities in terms of clinical application.
Guohua Zhang, Chengguo Zhang, Guanglun Zeng
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 03, pp 209-212; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2013.34027

Abstract:
Our research was designed to explore the more effective rescuing treatment by summarizing clinical features of the patients with myasthenia gravis crisis. During the course, we carried out a retrospective analysis about clinical data and the course of diagnose and treatment of 38 patients (65 cases) with myasthenia gravis crisis who were in hospital in recent 15 years. As a result, most patients with myasthenia gravis crisis relieved after positive treatment and the mortality was 3.1%. Among lots of treatments, incision of trachea earlier, hormonal therapy, dry treatment and to unite these three treatments were more effective than other treatments. The effective ratio was 100%. In the end, we concluded that to unite incision of trachea, immunosuppressive treatment and dry treatment reasonably can increase the effective ratio of rescuing myasthenia gravis crisis and improve the prognosis of patients obviously.
Lei Zhang, Li Li, Xinmin Zhou, Feng Xia, Zuoming Zhang
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 03, pp 204-208; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2013.34026

Abstract:
Clinical observation of the neuropsychiatric condition, psychometric tests, and EEG recordings has been used to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy. However, no standardization for the diagnosis of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) has been achieved. According to the study in normal subjects, visual electrophysiology testing is a method of simple, objective record for the medical examination, which includes visual evoked potentials (VEP), electroretinograms (ERG), etc. 23 hepatic encephalopathy patients prospectively underwent visual electrophysiology testing and laboratory serum analysis, and it was found that 22 visual electrophysiology abnormalities which showed that the amplitudes were decreased and the implicit times were prolonged compared with the normal. The relationship between biochemical parameters and visual electrophysiology parameters showed that visual recording was related to the damage of the liver. On the basis of this preliminary study, we could conclude that this method can be as a way to predict for hepatic encephalopathy and it appears to be a method in the recognition of the MHE.
Chanyi Lu, Qiqin Li, Yaoyao Li, Yun Wang,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 184-192; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.63023

Abstract:
Depression leads to a large social burden because of its substantial impairment and disability in everyday activities. The prevalence and considerable impact of this disorder call for a better understanding of its pathophysiology to improve the diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Though productive animal models and pathophysiological theories have been documented, it is still very far to uncover the complex array of symptoms caused by depression. Moreover, the neural circuitry mechanism underlying behavioral changes in some depression-like behavior animals is still limited. Changes in the neural circuitry of amygdala, dorsal raphe nucleus, ventral tegmental area, hippocampus, locus coeruleus and nucleus accumbens are related to depression. However, the interactions between individual neural circuitry of different brain areas, have not yet been fully elucidated. The purpose of the present review is to examine and summarize the current evidence for the pathophysiological mechanism of depression, with a focus on the neural circuitry, and emphasize the necessity and importance of integrating individual neural circuitry in different brain regions to understand depression.
, Barbara Trimarco, Maria Antonietta Pinto,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 171-180; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.62021

Abstract:
Social cognition difficulties are well documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This clinical case study reports on social cognition assessment and treatment of a gifted child, SC (9 years), with ASD and an extraordinarily high verbal IQ (146). The assessment of theory of mind, emotion recognition and pragmatic abilities showed some weaknesses in these areas. The 4-month treatment was divided into 14 sessions and was aimed at helping SC to improve his abilities to recognize emotions and comprehend mental states. The main technique used in the intervention was “social reading” with video clips. The initial assessment was repeated after the treatment and in a follow up session. The results of this case study suggest that “social reading” can be considered as a beneficial technique for children with high-functioning ASD, and especially in giftedness conditions.
Chanyi Lu, Qiqin Li, Yaoyao Li, Yun Wang,
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 181-183; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.63022

Abstract:
Current rodent models of the complete congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1) were time- consuming in breeding and validation, which makes it imperative to find a more “easily handle” animal model to broaden our understanding of this disorder. In the present study, a light-deprivation (LD) mouse model was made to validate whether it was a more “suitable” animal mode for investigating the pathogenesis of the CSNB1. Compared with controls, the LD mice exhibited a remarkable reduction in the amplitude of the dark-adapted electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave, the Max-ERG b-wave and also the oscillatory potentials (Ops), indicating an abnormal activity of rod bipolar cells in the retina. However, the ERG a-wave was relatively normal in the LD mice, which was quite consistent with what was confirmed in previously reported animal models of the CSNB1 and CSNB patients. Taken together, the LD mouse model showed CSNB1-like negative ERG responses as evidenced by the abnormal b-wave. Our study will provide a potentially useful animal model to decipher the pathogenesis of the CSNB1.
Zbigniew Pawlowski
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 165-170; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.62020

Abstract:
Taenia solium taeniosis is a zoonosis transmitted by cysticerci from pigs. Neurocysticercosis is a fecal-borne infection spread exclusively by T. soliumeggs in a tapeworm carrier or around. Neurocysticercosis is frequently fatal and debilitating disease and a common cause of late epilepsy. Taeniosis/neurocysticercosis (t/nc) can be prevented both by control of meat-borne zoonosis, which is a traditional responsibility of veterinarians, and by chemotherapy of human taeniosis, which is usually underestimated by medical profession. Elimination of T. solium taenosis is not only the matter of organized control projects but also of routine, daily medical and veterinary services. In order to promote more effective control by treatment of human T. solium carriers the following suggestions are proposed to be discussed: 1) accept that leaving untreated any detected human carrier of T. soliumtaeniosis, the only source of neurocysticercosis, is a medical error. This statement concerns both clinical settings and field interventions; 2) accept as the clinical and public health standards a search for T. solium carrier in any possible t/nc foci and treat both detected and suspected cases of taeniosis; 3) make the diagnosis and treatment of T. solium infections in humans widely accessible and possibly free; 4) improve easy applicable tools detecting T. solium taeniosis; 5) make modern and traditional taenicides available. There is a need to improve the stability and efficacy of niclosamide and elaborate an instruction how to avoid neurological side- effects of praziquantel; 6) include prevention of t/nc into professional training, especially in mental health, public health and primary health care professions; 7) intensify preventive education adapted to the local endemic situation.
Kazuyuki Yamada
World Journal of Neuroscience, Volume 06, pp 151-164; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjns.2016.62019

Abstract:
As serotoninergic transmission plays a crucial role in higher brain function in mammals, the disturbance of this system will likely have significant effects on emotion and cognition. Previous studies have reported that chronic treatment with Specific Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) during both late pregnancy and lactation was associated with abnormal behavior in adult rats. These data imply that disturbances in serotoninergic transmission during neurodevelopment may have negative effects on both the structure and function of the resultant adult brain. Therefore, the effect of a single exposure to an SSRI or a tricyclic antidepressant that preferentially inhibits serotonin reuptake during the pre-weaning period was examined in adult mice. An oral infusion of paroxetine (70 mg/kg), fluvoxamine (250 mg/kg), clomipramine (180 mg/kg), or saline was administered on postnatal day 14. Starting at 11 weeks of age, mice were assessed using a comprehensive behavioral test battery. Mice treated with paroxetine demonstrated altered behavior on the open field and hole-board tasks; those treated with fluvoxamine had behavioral changes on the light-dark box, hole-board, and sucrose preference tasks, while alteration in forced swimming and cued fear behavior were noted in mice treated with clomipramine. These results suggest that even a single administration of an antidepressant could have profound effects on behavior in adulthood, although the effects might differ dependent on the specific drug that was administered.
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