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, Sofia Abdella
Published: 2 September 2021
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2021, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8805366

Abstract:
Butterflies are good indicators of environmental health, and they play a critical role in the food chain. Butterfly diversity and abundance were studied for the first time at three forests and their surrounding habitats in northwestern Ethiopia, a borderline ecosystem between the subtropical savannah and the Ethiopian highlands (Afromontane). Butterfly species richness and abundance were assessed using transects between October 2018 and June 2019. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, correlation and regression analysis, diversity indices, ordination analysis, cluster analysis, and rarefaction curves. A total of 27,568 butterflies were recorded that belonged to three families, five subfamilies, and eight genera. The forest habitat had more butterfly taxa (abundance and diversity) than other habitats. Belenois spp. and Mylothris agathina were the most abundant in all three study locations. Species common to all study areas include Belenois aurota, Belenois raffrayi, Mylothris agathina, Eronia leda, Junonia terea elgiva, and Phalanta eurytis neuritis. Forest edge and woody forest habitats were the richest in terms of both number of species and number of individuals. Equitability (Pielou's index) showed equal distribution of the species, i.e., 0.8 to 0.9, except at the open grassland at Tara Gedam (0.3). Margalef's index varied between habitats and locations showing differences in species richness (from 0.25 at the woody forest of Mount Bezawit to 0.86 at the forest edge of Tara Gedam). Ordination analyses also showed that associations existed between habitats, locations, and dates of sampling. Rarefaction curves rose quickly at the forest edge and woody forest habitats compared to other forests. The cluster analysis discriminated the different habitats. Populations declined during the dry season (December to April). In conclusion, butterfly species diversity and abundance varied with respect to habitat and sampling date (season), although less diverse than other regions in the country where natural forests still widely exist. Butterfly species must be regularly monitored, and their habitats must be preserved for the health of the entire ecosystem.
D. S. Dissanayake, C. D. Wijekoon, H. C. Wegiriya
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9911571

Abstract:
Dengue has become a national burden in Sri Lanka, and the understanding of breeding ecology of vectors, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse, is the most effective way to control the disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relative larval abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in different types and characteristics of containers in three selected localities in Galle district, Sri Lanka. Totally, 550 containers were positive for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae. Aedes albopictus showed the high larval abundance in all studied sites. The larval abundance of artificial containers (90.57%) was high than that of natural containers (9.43%) for both Aedes spp. ( P < 0.05 ). The breeding preference for A. aegypti was high in tires (rubber) (17.82%), while plastic cups (28.00%) were the most preferable container type for Ae. albopictus. Dark color containers than light color containers ( P < 0.05 ) and containers with leaf litter accumulated as detritus ( P < 0.05 ) showed high relative larval abundance for both Aedes species. Containers with 50–100 ml volume of water showed the highest relative abundance of both Ae. aegypti (29.28%) and Ae. albopictus (41.79%) ( P > 0.05 ). The high larval abundance of Aedes recorded in ground level containers (1–5 cm) and their abundance decreased significantly with the increasing of height where containers were found (1–20 cm) ( P < 0.05 ). The significantly high relative abundance was observed with the increase of the shady level for Ae. aegypti (57.34%) and Ae. albopictus (61.32%) ( P < 0.05 ). This knowledge will be helpfull to implement dengue surveillance programs in the area.
, Yalemtsehay Mekonnen
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6684156

Abstract:
Background. Malaria is one of the deadliest mosquito-borne diseases in sub-Saharan Africa and Ethiopia. Owing to their costs and environmental issues, synthetic insecticides are poor choices to control mosquitoes. Plant-based products can be considered as safe and biodegradable alternatives. The present study aimed to test the toxicity and oviposition deterrent activities of Thymus serrulatus and Thymus schimperi essential oils (EOs) against Anopheles arabiensis. Methods. Thyme EOs were extracted by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger-type apparatus. They were named Tar, Ala, and Yil after the areas of thyme collection Tarmaber, Alamata, and Yilmana Densa, respectively. Laboratory-based tests were used to determine the larvicidal, adulticidal, oviposition deterrent, and half lethal dose (LD50) of each EO. Results. The concentrations of 100 μl/L and 50 μl/L resulted in complete mortalities of larvae and adults, respectively, for all the three Eos considered. The EOs exhibited high repellency with oviposition activity index of −1 (OAI = −1) at concentrations of 50 μl/L (Tar), 100 μl/L (Ala), and 200 μl/L (Yil). Conclusions. The EOs of T. serrulatus and T. schimperi were effective against larvae and adult mosquitoes at small doses and resulted in oviposition deterrence at doses from 50 to 200 μl/L. Thus, these EOs are promising mosquitocides and oviposition deterrents. But, further tests both in the presence of already known and effective deterrents and field trials are required.
Fouad El-Akhal, Amal Ramzi, Abdellah Farah, , Moussa Benboubker, Khalid Taghzouti,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8872139

Abstract:
The Culex pipiens mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) is highly suspected to be the vector responsible for the spread of several parasitic and viral diseases. The use of synthetic insecticides is generally the preferred method of controlling these mosquitoes’ proliferation. However, it has led to resistance problems in target mosquitoes and environmental damage. Hence, diverse plant extracts could be considered as an alternative and potential source as mosquito control agents. In this study, essential oils of Lavandula angustifolia subsp. angustifolia and Lavandula dentata spp. dentata that are growing in Morocco were examined for their insecticidal effects on Culex pipiens larvae. The bioassay was performed according to a methodology inspired by the standard protocol of the World Health Organization. The mortality rate was determined after 24 hours of exposure, and probit regression analysis was used to calculate LC50 and LC90. The chemical analysis revealed that the principal compounds of L. angustifolia subsp. essential oils include linalool, linalyl acetate, geraniol, lavandulyl acetate, camphor, β-caryophyllene, terpinen-4-ol, β-myrcene, and 1,8-cineole, while the essential oil of L. dentata spp. was mainly composed of 1,8-cineole, camphor, α-pinene, trans-pinocarveol, linalool, and borneol. These volatile compounds have shown a toxic effect against Culex pipiens larvae, with lethal concentrations LC50 and LC90 being, respectively, 140 µg/ml and 450 µg/ml, for the L. angustifolia subsp. essential oil. Meanwhile, they were estimated at 2670 µg/ml and 7400 µg/ml, respectively, for the L. dentata spp. essential oil. These results suggest using essential oils of two species of Lavandula to control the Culex pipiens mosquito. It could be useful for the study of new natural larvicidal compounds.
Aidan Wilcox
Published: 28 January 2021
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8856155

Abstract:
Fluorescence across the family Lampyridae has been documented sporadically but not comprehensively in formal research. Fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), best known for their bioluminescence, are also fluorescent. This fluorescence has been documented in several genera within the clade but is still an often overlooked aspect of firefly physiology in the common understanding of the species. To this end, the purpose of this study was to document and describe the fluorescence in nine species of North American fireflies, across three genera. Each species was photographed and a description of the fluorescent pattern was provided, as well as measurements of the specific spectral sensitivity of the fluorescent excitation and emission wavelengths. These data are intended to provide an identification guide of sorts to different firefly fluorescence, as well as documenting definitively its presence in several firefly genera.
Lidia Komondy, Jose Huguet-Tapia, Marina S. Ascunce, Ericka E. Helmick, Erica M. Goss,
Published: 5 January 2021
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6625462

Abstract:
Haplaxius crudus Van Duzee is a pest of various economically important palms due to its ability to transmit lethal yellowing, a fatal phytoplasma infection. It is also the putative vector of lethal bronzing in Florida, another lethal phytoplasma disease causing significant economic losses. To date, no mitochondrial genomes for species in the family Cixiidae are sequenced. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of H. crudus was sequenced, assembled, and annotated from PacBio Sequel II long sequencing reads using the University of Florida’s HiPerGator. The mitogenome of H. crudus is 15,848 bp long and encodes 37 mitochondrial genes (including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, and 2 rRNAs) in addition to a putative noncoding internal control region. The nucleotide composition of H. crudus is asymmetric with a bias toward A/T (44.8 %A, 13.4 %C, 8.5 %G, and 33.3 %T). Protein-coding genes (PCGs) possess the standard invertebrate mitochondrial start codons with few exceptions while the gene content and order of the H. crudus mitogenome is highly similar to most completely sequenced insect mitochondrial genomes. Phylogenetic analysis based on the entire mitogenome shows H. crudus resolving closely to Delphacidae, the accepted sister taxon of Cixiidae. These data provide a useful resource for developing novel primer sets that could aid in either phylogenetic studies or population genetic studies. As more full mitogenomes become available in the future for other planthopper species, more robust phylogenies can be constructed, giving more accurate perspectives on the evolutionary relationships within this fascinating and economically important group of insects.
Hanna Yu Honchar
Published: 7 December 2020
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2020, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5182146

Abstract:
Species composition, distribution, and trophic relationships of bumblebees are studied in six types of urban habitat: urban parks, botanical gardens, least-disturbed areas within the city, residential areas, and roadsides. Twenty bumblebee species are recorded in the present study. The species composition of bumblebees has changed from 1933 to 2017. Rare species have disappeared from the city—Bombus fragrans, B. cullumanus, and B. jonellus. The core of urban bumblebee communities consists of ecologically plastic species, most of which belong to the functional morphoecological “short-tongued” group (83%). The more specialized “medium-tongued” and “long-tongued” species are less diverse. Their populations make up 14% and 3% of the total bumblebee population. Five most common species, B. lucorum, B. terrestris, B. lapidarius, B. pascuorum, and B. hypnorum, are found at locations of the most noted categories of habitats. One of the main factors affecting the diversity of morphoecological groups of bumblebees in urban conditions is the state of floral resources. The bumblebees are observed feeding on more than 60 plant species of the families Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, and Salicaceae in urban environment; however, the insects favored plants of 30 species. The ornamental, ruderal, and some invasive species of plants are significant in bumblebees’ feeding in urban conditions. The resources for bumblebee feeding and sustainable density of nesting sites are rich in quality and quantity only at a few of model urban sites. At these territories, the highest species diversity of bumblebee is recorded, including rare, protected, and vulnerable species. The ecological potential of other studied urban sites is enough to sustain the most ecologically plastic bumblebee species.
Godfrey O. Mauti, Peter F. Kasigwa, Joan J. E. Munissi, Justus M. Onguso
Published: 11 November 2020
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2020, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3298479

Abstract:
Callosobruchus chinensis causes damage to the Phaseolus vulgaris seeds. Traditionally, Dioscorea sansibarensis serves as a medicinal plant. Naturally, D. sansibarensis has toxins that protect against herbivores and the surrounding invasive plants in its natural habitat. Phytochemical analysis by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and laboratory experiments was carried out to determine the activity of D. sansibarensis leaves, bulbils, and yams powders on antioviposition and inhibition of the F1 emergence of C. chinensis. Bioassay data were subjected to nonparametric (Kolmogorov–Smirnov) statistical analysis and a generalized linear model at P ≤ 0.05 . Statistically, the powders had an antioviposition activity of 34.3% (R2 = 0.343). A recommendable activity on antioviposition was displayed by the yams powder; treatment by 0.8 g of yams powder had a Wald Chi-Square value of 1.291, P = 0.26 . Inhibition of F1 emergence was significantly attained by the yams powder; the treatment by 0.6 g of yams powder had a Wald Chi-Square value of 7.72, P = 0.01 . Statistically, the bulbils powder displayed low antioviposition and inhibition of F1 emergence. Observations on the TLC exposed compounds with similar Rf values; saponin with an Rf value of 0.72 was portrayed in the leaves, bulbils, and yams. A terpenoid and a flavonoid with Rf values of 0.37 and 0.71, respectively, were observed in bulbils and yams but absent in leaves. A terpenoid with an Rf value of 0.49 was visualized in leaves and bulbils but not in the yams powder. The study concluded that the D. sansibarensis yams and leaves powders are viable for application by the farmers in the protection of stored legumes against attack by C. chinensis. However, there may be other diverse interests in other storage insects and other methods of phytochemical analysis that have not been investigated.
, Zabihollah Abedian, Abdolazim Nasiri, Farid Sarjamei
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2020, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/6483427

Abstract:
This research was conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of the silkworm hybrid p31×p32 reared with three varieties of mulberry leaves. In this study, the silkworms were fed with leaves from Kenmochi (Morus bombycis), native mulberry (Morus alba L.), and black mulberry (Morus nigra L.) trees and their influence on the leaf ingested, leaf digested, cocoon weight, efficiency of feed consumption to cocoon shell, efficiency of digested feed to cocoon shell weight, efficiency of digested feed to cocoon weight, and efficiency of feed consumption to cocoon weight was studied in the Torbat Heydarieh region. The results showed that silkworms that consumed leaves of Kenmochi had better performance. Also, they had better performance for traits of cocoon shell weight, feed efficiency to cocoon shell weight, and feed efficiency to cocoon weight. Therefore, Kenmochi tree is suggested for development of sericulture in the region.
Shigeyuki Aoki, Utako Kurosu, Keigo Uematsu, Takema Fukatsu, Mayako Kutsukake
Published: 11 November 2019
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/1280414

Abstract:
Species of the aphid genus Neothoracaphis (Hormaphidinae, Nipponaphidini) produce tiny, sessile, sclerotized apterous adults on leaves of oaks. Among Japanese species, “N. glaucae” has been known to have the largest, ovate apterae, while “N. saramaoensis” has smaller, elongated oval apterae on Quercus glauca. Through examining mitochondrial DNA sequences of Japanese Neothoracaphis species, we found that the two are the same species with a clear dimorphism. Neothoracaphis glaucae (Takahashi) was adopted as the valid name for the species. In Tokyo, Japan, apterae of the smaller type are abundantly seen throughout the year, and those of the larger type are generally few in number from summer to autumn. Alates, which are supposed to be sexuparae, appear from November to January. Nymphs developing into the alates are covered with long, semitransparent, bristle-like wax filaments. We conclude that N. querciphaga, N. elongata, and N. yanonis are distinct species and that both the genus Neothoracaphis and the three Neothoracaphis species other than N. yanonis form monophyletic groups among Japanese Nipponaphidini species we have examined.
Luciano André Chaves Ferreira, , Márcia Maria Corrêa Rêgo, Patrícia Maia Correia De Albuquerque
Published: 23 October 2019
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5356104

Abstract:
Eastern Amazonia is an area with great biological diversity that has suffered rapid deforestation and forest fragmentation over the years. Because of the scarcity of data on the fauna and flora, the northwest of the state of Maranhão has become a priority area for studies that seek to gain a better understanding of bee fauna. Between August 2013 and December 2014, in collections at two-month intervals, a total of 1047 bees belonging to 70 species were collected using two methods (an insect net and scent-baited traps). Apinae was the most abundant subfamily and had the greatest species richness (63 species and 1039 individuals); the most notable tribes in this subfamily were Meliponini (20 species and 445 individuals) and Euglossini (24 species and 452 individuals). In all, 62.8% of the total richness was sampled with an insect net and 34.2% with bait traps. Bees were present in every collection month, and August and December were the months with the greatest richness and abundance, respectively. Although the species accumulation curve did not stabilize, the results were positive as three new species were recorded for the Maranhão state: Bombus transversalis (Olivier, 1789); Xylocopa suspecta Moure and Camargo, 1988; and Xylocopa macrops Lepeletier, 1841, and eleven for the Amazonian region of the state.
Lelise Tilahun Dufera, Abebe Yimer Tadesse, Waktole Sori Gobena,
Published: 20 August 2019
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/2306742

Abstract:
Maize is the second most widely grown cereal and gaining importance as a highly nutritious crop in Ethiopia. However, it is severely destroyed by storage insect pests and needs further research to minimize losses. In line with this, research was initiated to evaluate the efficacy of two botanical plant powders (Eucalyptus globulus Labill leaf and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. whole plant) against storage insect pests of maize grains of two maize varieties (BH-661 and Limu) in polypropylene sacks storage conditions at Jimma Zone, Sokoru district. The plant powders were compared with untreated control, and completely randomized design was used in the experiment with three replications for each treatment. Germination capacity, thousand grain weights, percent of insect damage, and weight loss of the stored grains were evaluated and reported in the range of 69.67–94.33%, 318.7–339.3 g, 3.67–50%, and 0.2843–5.22%, respectively, after five months of storage for grains treated with botanicals. However, germination capacity of 10% and 65.33%, percent insect damage of 80.33% and 48%, and weight loss of 23.53% and 5.89% were observed for BH-661 and Limu varieties, respectively, after five months of storage for untreated control. The result indicated that both tested botanicals were effective in protecting the storage insect pests and maintaining the quality of the grains tested in comparison with control and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. whole plant powder is more effective. Although there was significant protective effect compared to untreated control, their effectiveness was decreased drastically after five and three months of storage for Chenopodium ambrosioides L. whole plant powder and Eucalyptus globulus Labill leaf powder, respectively. It is recommended that further research should be done to check if the increasing rate of application increases protection duration of these botanicals and the toxicity of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. should be further studied to use it as a storage insect protectant of maize grains intended for food purpose.
, Yohannes Ebabuye, Sang Woo Kim,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3728651

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted to determine the integrated effect of planting dates, insecticides, and their interaction on the reduction of yield and yield related components of haricot bean caused by haricot bean foliage beetle damage at Sirinka Agriculture Research Center, Ethiopia. Planting dates were normal planting (NP) and late planting (10 days after normal planting) (LP), while insecticides comprised Apron star seed dressing (A) and without insecticide (WI). The combined analysis revealed that late planting combined with Apron star seed dressing (LPA) resulted in the highest yield (1223.7 Kg/ha). On the other hand, normal planting date without insecticide application (NPWI) gave the lowest yield (209.6 kg/ha) and the maximum yield loss (209.6%). The cost-benefit analysis showed that use of LPA gave by far better high net profit over control. Thus, LPA are recommended for haricot bean foliage beetle management in northeastern Ethiopia.
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4602785

Abstract:
Size variation of both males and females leads to taxonomic confusion regarding wholly parasitic euglossines. The six most widespread species, Exaerete frontalis, E. smaragdina, E. dentata, E. trochanterica, E. lepeletieri, and Aglae caerulea, ranged from 12.5 to 28 mm in length (n = 522; 50 females; 472 males), and within species, some were 40-80% larger than others. The size of E. lepeletieri matches E. smaragdina and E. dentata, but not E. frontalis, which it was said to resemble. Female E. lepeletieri, here described from Amazonian Ecuador, has a range shown to also include French Guiana and Suriname. Female Aglae and Exaerete were larger than males. Statistically, female Exaerete tended toward larger individuals more than did males. Each species should parasitize Eulaema and Eufriesea that have comparable size and provisions; thus multiple hosts may cause parasite size variation. Unknown factors may promote host resource partitioning between sympatric parasites, which include up to six in Yasuní Biosphere Reserve, Ecuador, the richest known euglossine community. Scutellum and metafemur punctation, sculpture and the frontal knob of both sexes, and male mesotibial tuft and metafemur permit easy identification of the six common species and E. azteca. Existence of E. kimseyae in Panama is questionable, while E. dentata there is certainly rare. The female tibial scoop, a structure in both Aglae and Exaerete, with a proposed function in material transport, is discussed. No new phylogenetic interpretation is presented.
, Claudio José Von Zuben
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/7929717

Abstract:
In this study, we compare and analyze different ant taxa hindwing morphologies with phylogenetic hypotheses of the Family Formicidae (Hymenoptera). The hindwings are classified into three Typologies based on progressive veins reduction. This analysis follows a revision of the hindwing morphology in 291 extant and eight fossil genera. The distribution of different Typologies was analyzed in the two Clades: Formicoid and Poneroid. The results show a different distribution of Typologies, with a higher genera percentage of hindwings of Typology I in the Clade Poneroid. A further analysis, based on genetic affinities, was performed by dividing the Clades into Subclades, showing a constant presence of hindwings of Typology I in almost all the Subclades, albeit with a different percentage. The presence of hindwings of Typology I (hypothesized as more ancestral) in the Subclades, indicates the genera that could be morphologically more similar to their ancestral ones. This study represents the first revision of the ants’ hindwings, showing an overview of the distribution of different Typologies.
, P. Kirk Visscher
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/4939120

Abstract:
It is known that the honey bee waggle dance communicates the distance and direction of some item of interest, most commonly a food source, to nestmates. Previous work suggests that, in order to successfully acquire the information contained in a dance, other honey bees must follow the dancer from behind. We revisit this topic using updated methodology, including a greater distance from the hive to the feeder, which produced longer, more easily-read dances. Our results are not congruent with those of earlier work, and we did not conclude that honey bees must follow a dancer from behind in order to obtain the dance information. Rather, it is more likely that a follower can successfully acquire a dance’s information regardless of where she may be located about a dancer.
Thitipan Meemongkolkiat, Atsalek Rattanawannee,
Published: 20 February 2019
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2019, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/5823219

Abstract:
Knowledge of the genetic diversity of Apis spp. is important in order to provide a better understanding of breeding strategies that relate to the conservation of wild species and colony survival of farmed species. Here, honeybees of five Apis species were collected from 12 provinces throughout Thailand. After DNA extraction, 28S rRNA nuclear (710 bp) and cytochrome b (cytb) mitochondrial (520 bp) gene fragments were sequenced. Homologous sequences (nucleotide identity of over 95%) were obtained from GeneBank using the BLASTn algorithm, aligned, and analysed by maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetics. For 28S rRNA, a low genetic variation was detected within species (haplotype diversity ranging from 0.212 to 0.394), while 19 polymorphic sites were detected between species. Although the relative haplotype diversity was high, a low nucleotide divergence was found (0.7%), with migratory species. For cytb, the sequence divergence ranged from 0.24 to 3.88% within species and 7.35 to 13.07% between species. The divergence of cytb was higher than that of 28S rRNA. A. cerana showed two distinct clades between Southern Thailand and the other regions. Groups of A. cerana (Asian cavity-nesting), A. mellifera (European cavity-nesting), A. dorsata (giant open-nesting), and A. florea and A. andreniformis (dwarf bees) were defined in the 28S rRNA and cytb tree topologies.
Published: 18 December 2018
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2832690

Abstract:
Myrmecia impaternata is an allodiploid all-female species of hybrid origin. Its parental taxa are confirmed here to be M. banksi and M. pilosula. We suggest that its queens produce diploid female offspring by gynogenetic parthenogenesis, a process which requires interaction between unreduced maternal oocytes and allospecific sperm cells obtained by copulation with another related species. We propose that impaternata queens almost certainly mate for this purpose with males reared in impaternata nests from eggs laid by impaternata females. Because sex in ants is determined by haplodiploidy (males haploid, females diploid), we posit that these males would in fact not be technically conspecific with the females in whose reproductive systems they developed, since they would each carry the haploid genome of one or other of the hybridic parental species. They would therefore be individually identical karyologically to males of either M. banksi or M. pilosula and appropriately allospecific to M. impaternata. We postulate that, unlike all other known gynogens, M. impaternata would have no need to maintain parasitic affiliation or sympatry with free-living sperm-donor host species. Its queens are arguably able to produce the required allospecific males by accessing their own genomes. M. impaternata apparently originated by instantaneous speciation when individuals of its parental species first successfully hybridized.
, David W. Roubik, Ruben P. Picón
Published: 22 October 2018
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2678632

Abstract:
A checklist of Euglossini in Ecuador is given, including all currently described, valid species collected until 2018. The list has been assembled from museum records, fieldwork cited herein, and literature. The former species lists are nearly doubled here, with 1 Aglae, 23 Eufriesea, 68 Euglossa, 18 Eulaema, and 5 Exaerete, 115 in total with >50 new records for the country. Distribution and collection data are included, and some doubtful species are discussed. The Amazon region is the most species rich area but not necessarily a natural pattern, perhaps due to uneven sampling effort across the country. Southern Ecuador is relatively little sampled.
, Gideon N. Nyamasyo, Paul N. Ndegwa, , Robert Kajobe, Kasangaki Patrice, Nyamasyo N. Gideon, Ndegwa N. Paul, Angiro Christopher, Kajobe Robert
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4079587

Abstract:
Honeybee defensive behaviour is an important trait for selection of honeybees for breeding programs. We evaluated the variation in honeybee defensive behaviour with environmental factors and hive conditions. Factors such as the difference in the agro-ecological zones, colony strength, mean elevation, type of bee hive used, and the vegetation cover were considered. The number of honeybees attacking the researchers’ protective gear within one minute of disturbance was recorded per colony and analyzed. Apis m. adansonii was found to be the most defensive. Variations in the agro-ecological zones, colony strength, and mean elevation were found to significantly influence the defensive behaviour of the honeybees. Honeybee colonies in the Mid North AEZ were the most defensive. The type of bee hive and vegetation cover did not have any influence on the defensive behaviour. From this study, we suggest that selection of honeybees that are less defensive for breeding programs should consider A. m. scutellata and honeybee colonies from West Nile and Southern Highland AEZs at higher elevations.
Juliana Rocha Da Silva, Aline Zanotelli De Souza, , , Aline Silva, João Carlos Teixeira Dias, ,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7915464

Abstract:
Ectatomma tuberculatumhas one of the most toxic venoms known among ants but there is no detailed study on its characteristics. In light of this, knowing the venom’s chemical composition is of paramount importance in order to obtain information about the mechanisms of its components. Several bioactive molecules have already been identified in Hymenoptera venoms, i.e., proteins such as phospholipases, hyaluronidases, and proteinases, as well as peptides. Protein databases show that information on protein components of ant venoms has been recently growing exponentially. In this study, we have identified proteins from the venom ofEctatomma tuberculatumby means of 2D PAGE, followed by tandem nanochromatography with mass spectrometry. A total of 48 proteins were identified, of which 42 are involved in metabolic processes, transport, and structural support. Moreover, six of them show similarity with not yet characterized proteins. Nine proteins are related to the attack/defense or maintenance process of the colony (colony asepsis, conservation of venom constituents, venom diffusion on prey, paralysis of prey, alteration of homeostasis, and cellular toxicity). Our findings may contribute to the identification of new natural prototypes of molecules to be synthesized and used in several areas of pharmacology.
, Andrew J. Ross, Robert A. Coram
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6706120

Abstract:
Species previously attributed to Necrotauliidae are revised from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of England based on examination of type specimens and non-type material. The necrotauliids have been considered as a basal family of caddisflies (Trichoptera) or as a paraphyletic assemblage of stem-amphiesmenopterans. Herein a new genus, Austaulius, is erected which includes all Lilstock Formation∖Lower Lias material from England; the previously described species are synonymized with A. furcatus and a new species, A. haustrum, is described from the Dorset Coast, the holotype of which preserves synapomorphic traits of the Trichoptera not previously described suggesting that the family is trichopteran. The type genus remains Necrotaulius and type species N. parvulus (Geinitz, 1884) from the type locality of Dobbertin, Germany. One species of Necrotaulius is represented in the UK, N. parvulus, which is found in the Upper Lias.
Qodratollah Sabahi, Mollah Md. Hamiduzzaman, Juan S. Barajas-Pérez, Jose M. Tapia-Gonzalez,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6196289

Abstract:
This study examined the toxicity of anethole and that of the essential oils of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and sweet marigold (Tagetes lucida) to the mite Varroa destructor and to honey bee workers and larvae. Anethole was the most toxic compound to V. destructor (LC50: 304.9 μg/ml), whereas Tagetes oil was the least toxic (LC50: 1256.27 μg/ml). The most and least toxic compounds to worker bees were anethole and Tagetes oil with LD50s of 35942 and 85381 μg/ml, respectively. For larvae, Tagetes oil was the most toxic compound (LD50: 9580.7 μg/ml) and anethole the least toxic (LD50: 14518.0 μg/ml). Anethole and Cymbopogon oil had the highest selectivity ratios. The expression of AChE, a gene that regulates the production of acetyl cholinesterase, a detoxifying enzyme, was not altered in bees treated with the plant compounds at 48 h post-treatment. This study showed that anethole and Cymbopogon oil have potential for controlling Varroa mites and seem to be relatively safe for larvae and adult honey bees.
Prabhakargouda B. Patil, , Shaibal K. Dasgupta, K. V. Seshu Reddy, Shirish R. Barwale, Usha B. Zehr
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7814643

Abstract:
OX513A Aedes aegypti is a genetically engineered strain carrying a self-limiting gene. Studies in several countries have shown the effectiveness of the strain at reducing pest Aedes aegypti populations. As a component of biosafety assessments relevant to Indian environments, OX513A and two Indian wild-type Ae. aegypti strains (from Aurangabad and Delhi) were tested for susceptibility to a range of commonly used insecticides in India, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin using World Health Organization (WHO) testing kits and following WHO standard test procedures. Knockdown times (KDT) for all compounds were determined separately for male and female adults of the three mosquito strains. Results indicated that adults of OX513A, Aurangabad, and Delhi strains were resistant to DDT, yielding mortality rates of 90.9, 87.4, and 44.4% and 70.1, 3.0, and 6.0% for male and female adults, respectively. In contrast, adults of all three strains were found to be susceptible to malathion, deltamethrin, and permethrin, exhibiting mortalities between 98 and 100%. The magnitudes of susceptibility, based on the KDT50 values, were greater in the OX513A strain, as compared to wild-type strains of Ae. aegypti for all insecticides tested. The results confirm that, aside from historical resistance to DDT, OX513A has retained full sensitivity to these commonly used compounds and exhibits responses akin to those of susceptible Indian wild-type strains.
Terumi Ikawa, Yuichi Nozoe, Natsuko Yamashita, Namiko Nishimura, Satoshi Ohnoki, Kyoko Yusa, Sugihiko Hoshizaki, Masayuki Komaba, Akihiro Kawakubo
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3464829

Abstract:
There exist surprisingly few marine insects, most of which are confined to the intertidal zone. Halobates is the only genus to have some oceanic species along with some coastal species. Among the coastal sea skaters, that is, genus Halobates and its close relative, genus Asclepios, there are variations in their affinity for the shore. We have studied the distributions of two endangered Japanese sea skaters, Halobates matsumurai and Asclepios shiranui in Kujukushima, where they cooccur in coves. To compare their survival strategies at sea, we especially noted differences in their distributions along the shore during high and low tides. The results show that A. shiranui tended to remain along the shore during low tide. This species appeared to cling to the shore against the ebb current and to stay in the protected coves. By contrast, H. matsumurai tended to leave the shore during low tide. Notably, some adults were found skating outside the coves. The strategy of H. matsumurai appeared to be leaving with the ebb current even beyond the coves, thereby using more resources and enlarging its habitat. Some such coastal Halobates might have acquired the ability to live on the open ocean clearly independent of the shoreline.
Shinichi Hiramatsu,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9754376

Abstract:
In lowland areas of the world and high-altitude European mountains, the species compositions, body sizes, and wing forms of carabid beetles are known to change according to vegetation structures. However, little is known regarding the assemblage structure and habitat associations of carabid beetles in Japanese alpine-subalpine areas. We surveyed carabid beetles in four habitats (snow beds, alpine meadows, Pinus scrub, and fell-fields) in the alpine-subalpine zone on Mt. Hakusan, Japan. We surveyed carabid beetles six times between mid-July and late September. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) revealed three distinct carabid beetle assemblages in snow beds and alpine meadows, Pinus scrub, and fell-fields. The carabid beetle assemblages in the four habitats consisted predominantly of small and/or wingless species with differential spatiotemporal variability in abundance. Biota-environment (BIO-ENV) analyses showed that the percentage coverage by Pinus scrub, soil water content, and ground surface temperature were among the most significant variables affecting carabid beetle compositions. Given their small sizes and reduced wings, which are characteristic traits for limited mobility, and high-level habitat specificity, carabid beetles in the alpine-subalpine zone may serve as an important target group to monitor the impacts of global environmental change on mountain ecosystems.
Sarika Baidya, Dipendra Nath Basu, Souparno Roy, Arjan Basu Roy
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3059017

Abstract:
Mating across species occurs rarely in nature, which contends prevalent idea of biological species concept. Throughout species range, mating pattern varies and reproductive barriers are also not fixed among different species. In this study, two instances of interspecific mating between two widely common Nymphalid Tiger butterflies (Danaus Kluk, 1780) in Indian region are reported. Observations imply lack of absolute reproductive barriers, where possible interplay exists among prezygotic and postzygotic isolating factors compensating each other in order to restrain interspecific hybridization.
, Francesco Croci, , George Melika, , Guido Tellini Florenzano,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8078049

Abstract:
Native parasitoids may play an important role in biological control. They may either support or hinder the effectiveness of introduced nonnative parasitoids released for pest control purposes. Results of a three-year survey (2011–2013) of the Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW) Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) populations and on parasitism rates by native indigenous parasitoids (a complex of chalcidoid hymenopterans) in Italian chestnut forests are given. Changes in D. kuriphilus gall size and phenology were observed through the three years of study. A total of 13 species of native parasitoids were recorded, accounting for fluctuating parasitism rates. This variability in parasitism rates over the three years was mainly due to the effect of Torymus flavipes (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), which in 2011 accounted for 75% of all parasitoid specimens yet decreased drastically in the following years. This strong fluctuation may be related to climatic conditions. Besides, our data verified that parasitoids do not choose host galls based on their size, though when they do parasitize smaller ones, they exploit them better. Consequently, ACGWs have higher chances of surviving parasitism if they are inside larger galls.
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2712945

Abstract:
We tested whether brood parasitism could be successful between two co-occurring species of burying beetles, Nicrophorus guttula and Nicrophorus marginatus, and whether these species exhibit an adaptive response to brood parasitism by detecting and removing parasites. We cross-fostered larvae between broods of the two species and created mixed-species broods to simulate the addition of brood parasites. Brood parasites survived in both species’ broods. Nicrophorus marginatus culled 86% of brood parasites compared to 56% of their own larvae, and N. guttula culled 50% of brood parasites compared to 22% of their own larvae. Additionally, N. guttula brood parasites were significantly smaller than N. guttula that were raised by N. guttula parents, but N. marginatus brood parasites were significantly larger than N. marginatus that were raised by N. marginatus parents. This paper provides the first evidence that burying beetles can discriminate between their own larvae and other species’ larvae. We suggest that brood parasitism may be the selective force responsible for this ability.
, X. Chen, R. M. Strecker, L. M. Hooper-Bùi
Published: 4 January 2018
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2018, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1808370

Abstract:
Insects that live in the saltwater and brackish marshes, which fringe the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico, are largely unstudied. During 2011–2013, a survey of insect fauna of the coastal salt marshes of the Mississippi Delta in Louisiana was conducted. We present the species of terrestrial representatives of Heteroptera and Auchenorrhyncha collected during that study. The Auchenorrhyncha are represented by 33 species in 6 families, with Cicadellidae (16 species) and Delphacidae (13 spp.), and are the most diverse. The terrestrial heteropterans are represented by 11 species in 5 families with the majority of species in Miridae (6 spp.). A list of species, annotated with numbers of specimens collected, ranges of collection dates (seasonality), and published information on their hosts, habitats, and ranges, is presented. Of 44 identified species, ten species (22.7%) are reported from Louisiana for the first time. The paper provides evidence of a diverse terrestrial arthropod community in brackish marshes; a community that is largely understudied.
Djibril Aboubakar Souna, Aimé Bokonon-Ganta, Marc Ravallec, , Barry Robert Pittendrigh, ,
Published: 28 September 2017
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2017, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3156534

Abstract:
Therophilus javanus is a koinobiont, solitary larval endoparasitoid currently being considered as a biological control agent against the pod borer Maruca vitrata, a devastating cowpea pest causing 20–80% crop losses in West Africa. We investigated ovary morphology and anatomy, oogenesis, potential fecundity, and egg load in T. javanus, as well as the effect of factors such as age of the female and parasitoid/host size at oviposition on egg load. The number of ovarioles was found to be variable and significantly influenced by the age/size of the M. vitrata caterpillar when parasitized. Egg load also was strongly influenced by both the instar of M. vitrata caterpillar at the moment of parasitism and wasp age. The practical implications of these findings for improving mass rearing of the parasitoid toward successful biological control of M. vitrata are discussed.
, Mamoru Terayama, Ryota Kawauchiya, Natsuki Ogusu, Yusuke Fujita, Syunta Mikami, Yuuka Murakami,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2017, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4520109

Abstract:
The first workers produced by an ant queen with a claustral founding mode are much smaller than the workers after the second generation and are thus called “nanitics.” These nanitics shoulder the initial fate of the colony and thus may be different morphometric morph from the other workers in mature colony to optimize the survival of their own colony. We report here that, in the ant Camponotus obscuripes Mayr, the allometric rules of the nanitics are different from those of other workers in mature colonies, suggesting that the nanitics constitute an independent caste as with soldiers or queens in other species. In addition, the antennae of the nanitics show the minimum absolute length-difference with the mother queen compared to the other traits measured. This result suggests that this small size difference enables C. obscuripes nanitics to communicate with the other members of the colony. Our results indicate that polymorphic societies affect the growth rules of workers.1. IntroductionMany ant species show the claustral nest-founding mode, in which a dealated queen produces a few 1st workers using only the reserved nutrition in her body [1–3]. Eclosed 1st workers are much smaller than the workers after the 2nd generation and are thus called “nanitics” [2]. The nanitics are special workers that shoulder the fate of the colony. Since the amount of resources that can be invested into the production of the nanitics is limited to the stored nutrients in the queen’s body, a trade-off between size and numbers is expected to occur among the nanitics produced by a queen [4]. In fact, this trade-off has been detected in the nanitics of the monogynous ant Camponotus japonicus Mayr, 1866 [5]. A previous study showed that there is a negative correlation between the number and the size of the nanitics when a queen’s investment into them was controlled statistically [5]. Therefore, the nanitics are assumed to be under strict constraints in terms of their development to maintain the optimal relationship between size and number. This suggests that the nanitics may have different growth rules relating morphological traits to body size compared with other workers in mature colonies.From the analysis of the slope and the intercept of this equation, we can determine the growth rules of the traits. In some cases, the allometric rule of a trait changes with body size, namely, a morphological polymorphism. For example, males of a stag beetle, Prosopocoilus inclinatus (Motschulsky, 1857), show a dimorphism in the mandible size to the body size [6]. The male mandible of stag beetles is a special organ used to fight with other males, and the two morphs adopt different reproductive strategies [7, 8]. Thus, the growth rules are affected by the ecology of the focal organism.In ants, worker polymorphisms are classified into five types, that is, monomorphism, monophasic allometry, diphasic allometry, triphasic allometry, and complete dimorphism [9]. A species showing distinctive polymorphisms has more than one worker-morph, each of which has a different allometric rule for some traits, for example, the small normal workers and the soldiers with a huge head in species of the ant genus Pheidole [complete dimorphism [10]]. In this distinct polymorphism, each caste has a different allometric rule for some trait (e.g., the head of workers in Atta spp.). In this type, the allometric line has one (or more) inflection point(s), meaning that there is more than one morph, each of which has a different allometric rule [9, 11]. Another type is monophasic allometry, in which the size of workers varies considerably within a colony, but the allometric rule is represented by a simple linear regression, with Camponotus obscuripes Mayr 1879 belonging to this type [12].In a monophasic allometric ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972, allometric rules have been shown to differ depending on the colony size or the social form (monogyny or polygyny) [13]. In S. invicta, the allometric equation of the ratio of the antennae/body size to the body length has a negative slope [13]. In our interpretation, this result suggests that the antennae of S. invicta are under a constraint in terms of their absolute length, likely because the ants communicate with other colony members by physical contacts with the antennae, and thus, communication may occur only between workers with antennae of a similar length.We generalized two hypotheses to be tested from this consideration; (1) antennae are the smallest divergent trait between small and large individuals in an ant species, and (2) nanitics may have different allometric rules for several traits (especially for antennae) comparing with workers in mature colonies, meaning that nanitics are a distinct morphological caste as with soldiers in the complete dimorphic species.In this study, we tested these hypotheses using a monophasic allometric ant, C. obscuripes. We compared the allometric rules for several traits of the nanitics and workers in mature colonies. In addition, we checked the degree of the difference in absolute length for examined traits between the nanitics and their mother queens. Based on the results, we tested the above hypotheses and will discuss how the social lives of ants affect the morphological growth rules of workers belonging to different generations.2. Materials and Methods2.1. Study OrganismsWe examined a monophasic allometric ant, Camponotus obscuripes. Eighteen incipient colonies were obtained (see below). Each individual was separated into the head, thorax, right-side legs, and abdomen. These body parts were fixed to a glass slide using an adhesive agent and were dried at 60°C for 3 days before the measurements. All the measured traits are exoskeleton parts, and thus, the drying did not shrink the sizes of the traits.The allometric rules of the workers in mature colonies were examined using a sample from a mature colony from Niigata Pref., Japan. Thirty-three workers that covered the full size range of the colony were prepared as described in the previous paragraph. All the individual body parts were photographed with a scale bar (10 mm) using a digital camera (WRAYCAM-NF300, WRAYMER, Osaka, Japan) attached to a binocular microscope (SZH, OLYMPUS, Tokyo, Japan).In autumn 2016, eighteen incipient colonies (including a queen and a few nanitics) of C. obscuripes were bought from an online insect shop (the Ant-Room; http://www.antroom.jp/about.php). All the queens were collected in the summer of 2016 in Hachioji, Tokyo, Japan.2.2. Morphological MeasurementsWe measured several morphological traits of all the individuals (see Figure 1; head width (HW), head length (HL), thorax length (TL), pronotum length (PN), length of right forefemur (FF), foretibia (FT), midfemur (MF), midtibia (MT), hindfemur (HF), hindtibia (HT), width of posterior end of 1st segment of abdomen (AW), and lengths of the left antennal scape (AS) and the antennal funiculus (AF)) to 0.001 mm using a freeware (ImageJ, ver. 1.45) on the digital photographs. For the mature colony, we selected 33 workers that covered the full size range of the sample. For the incipient colonies, we measured 18 queens and a total of 78 nanitics (2 to 7 nanitics per queen).Figure 1: The traits measured.First, we conducted a principal component analysis of the workers in the mature colony to determine the index of body size. As the antennae are focal objectives, we removed AS and AF from this analysis. Relationships of growth among organs are represented by the allometric rules between two traits [14]. In an allometric analysis, a trait is selected as the index of body size (for the selection method, see [15], pp 203–205), and the regression of other traits on the body size is calculated using the log-transformed data. The trait that is the most isometric with the principal component 1 is used as the index of body size (see [15], pp 203–205). AW was selected as the index of body size. Then, we calculated allometric equations for the remaining traits based on AW for the nanitics, the workers in the mature colonies, and the queens using log-transformed data. Then, linear regression equations were calculated for each class. The slopes and the intercepts of the two allometric equations for each trait pair were compared within the 3 classes using ANCOVA.Second, we compared the absolute sizes of each trait between the queen and her nanitics as (the worker’s length)/(the queen’s length) to determine which trait shows the lowest size difference between the queens and the nanitics. Using the 76 data points for each trait, we compared each pair of traits for significant differences between the two traits using the Wilcoxon matched pairs test. The significance level was corrected using the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. In addition, we calculated the same ratios for the workers in the mature colony between the largest and smallest workers (in AW).3. ResultsFirst, there is no significant correlation between the sizes of the same trait of the queens and her nanitics for all the measured traits (Pearson’s correlation coefficient; for all the traits, ), meaning that we can treat each nanitic’s data as an independent data point because these results showed that there is no phenotypic correlation between the mother queen and her nanitics. Probably, the expected genetic correlation has been covered by differences in nutritional condition among queens because sizes of nanitics have shown to be affected by the initial amount of resources stored in their queen [5]. Thus, we combined all the data for the incipient colonies for the statistical analyses.Figure 2 shows the allometric relationships for each trait in each class (nanitics, workers in a mature colony, and queens). In several traits, there is a difference in the allometric slopes between the nanitics and the other workers (i.e., HW, HL, TL, FF, FT, and MF); the differences are significant after the Bonferron
Laura Yêyinou Loko, Obédatou Alagbe, Elie A. Dannon, Benjamin Datinon, Azize Orobiyi, Agnés Thomas-Odjo, Alexandre Dansi,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2017, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5468202

Abstract:
Dinoderus porcellusis considered as the most important pest of stored yam chips and compounds extracted from plants can be used for its control. The present study aimed to test the insecticidal and repellent activities of powders and extracts of leaves ofBridelia ferruginea,Blighia sapida, andKhaya senegalensisagainstD. porcellus. The efficacy of plant powders was compared with the synthetic pesticide Antouka (Permethrin 3 g/kg + pirimiphos 16 g/kg). The results of the experiment revealed that all plant powders were effective as repellents. Antouka was more effective as insecticidal than the plant powders and minimal weight loss was observed withB. sapidaat 2%. Among treatments, propanol extract ofK. senegalensisat 5% was found to elicit the highest repellent effect onD. porcellus. The LC50results revealed that the acetone extract ofK. senegalensisis the most toxic (0.29 μL/insect) to the pest, while the propanol extract ofB. ferrugineaat 5% exhibited strong fumigant toxicity againstD. porcellus, with 88.89% of pest mortality at 160 μL/L air. The findings from the current work proved that plant powders and extracts of the three plants are sources of botanical insecticides which may be used in the integrated management ofD. porcellus.
U. J. M. Shanika R. Jayasinghe, T. H. Saumya E. Silva,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2017, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4624062

Abstract:
Sixty percent of the angiosperms with poricidal anthers are buzz-pollinated by bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). Plant taxa with Solanum-type flowers have larger anthers and shorter filaments. Solanum melongena (Solanaceae) is more commonly and efficiently pollinated by buzz pollinators. The present study documented bees and their diurnal pattern of visitation to flowers, relationship between their handling time and flower age, and the effect of bee visits on fruit and seed set in S. melongena in two sites in Kandy District. Efficiency of buzz pollination over pollination in the absence of bees was determined using open buds and buds covered with pollinator exclusion bags. On average, 150 days were taken to complete the life cycle of Solanum melongena. Three buzzing bees and two nonbuzzing bees in site I and five buzzing bees and two nonbuzzing bees in site II were recorded. Handling time of Pachynomia sp. and Hoplonomia westwoodi indicates that bees spend more time at new flowers than at old flowers. Handling time is higher in the smaller bee, Pachynomia sp., than in the larger bee, H. westwoodi. Statistical data on pollinator exclusion experiment revealed that the fruit set and seed set of S. melongena are enhanced by buzz-pollinating bees.1. IntroductionPollination is one of the most important plant-animal interactions for reproduction of plants [1]. Pollinator organisms are engrossed to pollinate 35% of the plants cultivated in the world [2]. Among them, more than 1500 plant species are pollinated by bees [3]. Crops such as coffee (Coffea spp.) [4, 5], melon (Citrullus lanatus) [6], tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) [7], sunflower (Helianthus annuus) [8], canola (Brassica spp.) [9], and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.) [10] are common examples of bee-pollinated crops. Among pollinator bees, certain clades such as carpenter bees (Xylocopini), bumble bees (Bombini), and orchid bees (Euglossini, Centridini, and Augochlorini) are able to vibrate flowers to collect pollen. Since this strong rapid vibrations made a buzzing sound, this phenomenon is known as “buzz pollination” [11].Buzz pollination can be seen in 357 genera of plants representing 54 families of angiosperms [12]. Those plants have poricidal anthers, which mean anthers do not split open to release pollen but need natural or artificial vibrations to release pollen through their apical pores [13]. As pollen is well hidden and available only to specialized buzzing bees that vibrate the anthers of flowers, pollen waste is very low in buzz-pollinated flowers [12]. Most buzz-pollinated flowers have few stamens [14] and downward facing position which is positive discrimination to hanging of bees while they buzz [15]. The strong yellow colour of the anthers contrasting markedly with the usual purple or white corolla is a characteristic of buzz-pollinated flowers. Flowers with such strongly contrasting colours within the visible spectrum of light have been shown to be attractive to pollen-gathering bees even in the absence of reinforcing UV patterns [11].Solanaceae is one of examples of plant families that are pollinated by buzzing bees. Though Solanum flowers lack nectar, they afford a moderately wealthy pollen load for bees that visit them [16]. Solanum is the second largest genus of flowering plants which contains more than 2000 species [17]. It includes major economical crop species such as Solanum melongena (eggplant) and S. tuberosum (potato). The eggplant, S. melongena (Solanaceae), is a major vegetable crop in many countries of the world [18]. It is a delicate, perennial, annual tropical plant native to Africa and Asia [19]. Fruits are formed due to both cross pollination [12] and self-pollination [17, 20]. However, according to Buchmann and Cane [17], S. melongena is more commonly and efficiently pollinated by buzz pollinators. Several studies had been carried out to test the effect of self-pollination on seed set in S. melongena [21–24] in temperate countries of the world. However, very few studies [25, 26] have been conducted in tropical countries on the pollination ecology of S. melongena. The present study was designed to fill this vacuum, with the aim to (i) identify bees visiting flowers of S. melongena and their diurnal pattern of activity, (ii) record the handling time of buzzing bees at flowers with respect to age of flowers, and (iii) determine the effect of bee visits to flowers on fruit set and seed set.2. Materials and MethodsRegarding study sites, field work was conducted in Sri Lanka at two sites (Miwatura and Gelioya) in Kandy District (7°15′N, 80°45′E), central Sri Lanka, for a period of 10 months (from June 2008 to April 2009). The mean annual temperature and rainfall of the two sites were 41°C and 700 mm (source: Natural Resources Management Center, Peradeniya), respectively. The site at Miwatura is a semiagriculture research field of University of Peradeniya, located in the western valley of the Mahaweli River, in close proximity to a Peradeniya, Gampola main road. In this site, several vegetable crops belonging to Solanaceae and Leguminosae had been cultivated from time to time for research purposes. The site at Gelioya is surrounded by a paddy field, a home garden, and plots of vegetable crops mainly belonging to Solanaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Leguminosae.2.1. Field Preparation and Planting of S. melongena SeedlingsFrom June 2008 to September 2008, field was prepared and planted at Miwatura site. First, seeds of S. melongena were planted in seed beds following agricultural recommendations. Then, 20-day-old germinated seedlings were cultivated in the field for field experiments. Depending on the availability of land, an area of 12 m × 15 m in Miwatura site was selected and 50 S. melongena plants were cultivated. At Gelioya site, 80 S. melongena plants were present in a 15 m × 15 m area.2.2. Recording of the Times of Stigma Receptivity and Anther DehiscenceTimes of stigma receptivity and anther dehiscence were observed in freshly opened five flowers of S. melongena. The time of stigma receptivity was determined by observing the stigma through a hand lens every 10 minutes from 7.00 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. The stigma was touched by a needle tip to observe the stickiness and was considered as the time of stigma receptivity. The time of anther dehiscence was observed by shaking the flower onto a white paper every 10 minutes from 7.00 a.m. The time at which pollen was released and collected onto the white paper was considered as the time of anther dehiscence.2.3. Study of Bee Visitors, Species Composition, and Their Diurnal ActivityOver a period of 5 months (September 2008 to January 2009), bees visiting S. melongena flowers were observed at the two sites. Bees visiting flowers of S. melongena were observed for ten sunny days until no new species were recorded. Bees that visited flowers were categorized into two groups as buzzing or nonbuzzing bees. Buzzing bees were identified by carefully listening to the sound they produce at the time of pollen collection. Bees that collect pollen from anthers without producing a sound were considered nonbuzzing bees. Bees collected using sweep net were curated and identified using published keys [27]. Reference specimens were logged in the Invertebrate Systematics and Diversity Facility (ISDF) of the Department of Zoology, University of Peradeniya.The time of visits of each species was observed from 07:00 to 15:30 at 30-minute intervals on two sunny days at the Miwatura site and four sunny days at the Gelioya site. However, no attempt was made to count the number of individuals (abundance) of different species visiting flowers.2.4. Determining the Number of Pollen Grains in Anthers of Flowers of Different AgePollen from 20 flowers at different age (five flowers from each stage) was counted to determine the relationship between buzzing time and available pollen grains at Gelioya site. Flowers at four different ages, newly opened flowers, one-day-old flowers, two-day-old flowers, and flowers that were more than two days old, were selected. Newly opened flowers were observed on 27 September 2008. On the following day, these flowers were considered to be 1 day old and, on the third day, these flowers were considered to be 2 days old. On the fourth day, these 20 flowers were considered to be 2 days old. From each flower, one anther was removed and cut open longitudinally to collect all the grains. From each anther, the pollen grains were put into 1.5 ml of 50% alcohol in separate watch glasses. From each sample, 1 ml of the mixture (after stirring) was transferred into McMaster Chamber. The average number of pollen grains in each chamber was counted. The available pollen grains per 1 ml of the four mixtures were calculated.2.5. The Relationships between the Handling Time of Bees at Flowers and Age of FlowersHandling time (total time that a particular bee buzzes at a flower during a single visit) was recorded for two of the common buzzing bee species (Hoplonomia westwoodi and Pachynomia sp.) at the Gelioya site. Flowers of different ages, newly opened, one-day-old, two-day-old, and more than two-day-old flowers, were selected by following the above-mentioned way. Flowers of different age groups were tagged using different coloured tags. Five flowers were selected from each age category and the handling time (in seconds) in each of the selected flowers by the two common bee species was recorded. The procedure was followed on two sunny days for H. westwoodi (25 December 2008 and 26 December 2008) and Pachynomia sp. (10 January 2009 and 23 January 2009). Ten specimens of each of the two common female (male bees do not buzz at flowers to collect pollen) buzzing bee species were measured for body length to investigate the difference between the body lengths of the two buzzing bee species. The relationship between the handling time and the mean body size (body length from the anterior end of the head to the posteri
Meghan L. Bentz, Eve A. Humphrey, Lawrence G. Harshman,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2017, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/3593509

Abstract:
The immune response of Drosophila melanogaster is complex and involves both specific and general responses to parasites. In this study we tested for cross-immunity for bacteria and viruses by scoring the incidence of infection with the vertically transmitted Sigma virus (DMelSV) in the progeny of a cross between females transmitting DMelSV at high frequencies and males from lines subjected to three selection regimes related to resistance to Bacillus cereus. There was no significant difference in transmission of DMelSV among selection regimes, though results suggest that the B. cereus selected lines had lower rates of infection by DMelSV. We found a significant difference in viral infection with respect to the sex of the progeny, with males consistently less likely to be infected than females. Given a finite energy budget, flies that have experienced immune system challenge may show alterations in other life history traits. Later eclosing progeny were also less likely to be infected than earlier eclosing progeny, indicating a relationship with development time. Finally, there was a significant interaction between the timing of collection and the sex of the progeny, such that later eclosing males were the most resistant group. Increased development time is sometimes associated with increased energy acquisition; from this perspective, increased development time may be associated with acquiring sufficient resources for effective resistance.1. IntroductionThe goal of this study was to test for cross-immunity between bacteria and viruses by scoring the incidence of the vertically transmitted rhabdovirus Sigma (DMelSV) infection in progeny of DMelSV-infected females and males from lines subjected to three selection regimes related to resistance to the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus cereus. Cross-immunity among viruses has been previously demonstrated for flies selected for survival following infection with DCV [1]. Similarly, if there are overlapping pathways involved in resistance to bacteria and viruses in Drosophila, then selection for resistance to the bacterium might also confer resistance to DMelSV.The Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus cereus might be expected to mount an immune response via the Toll pathway; however, the DAP-type peptidoglycans of the Bacillus genus elicit IMD response [2]. There is conflicting evidence with respect to a role for the Toll and IMD pathways in response to infection by DMelSV. One study found that the major resistance gene to DMelSV, ref(2)P, was a component of the Toll signaling pathway [3]. In another study, expression of various downstream genes regulated by the Toll pathway was significantly increased in response to DMelSV, and key components of that pathway such as Toll, as well as Relish from the IMD pathway, were upregulated as well; however, neither the Relish nor Toll increases were statistically significant [4]. Yet another study failed to find any evidence of upregulation of either Toll or IMD upon infection with DMelSV [5]. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be cross-immunity between B. cereus and DMelSV infection via either Toll, IMD, or yet another pathway.Bacillus cereus are an aerobic spore forming Gram-positive bacteria that are closely related to Bacillus anthracis. B. cereus is commonly found in soil, on vegetable matter, and in human foods (both raw and after cooking). B. cereus is a saprophyte in soil and can be an opportunistic pathogen of soil invertebrates. This bacterium can cause medical problems in humans through consumption of bacterial contaminated food, causing several types of self-limiting gastric problems.DMelSV is a rhabdovirus commonly found in Drosophila [6]. DMelSV is transmitted to progeny by a parent of either sex (vertical transmission), but transmission by females is typically more effective [3, 4]. The virus is virulent; DMelSV can result in a reduction in fitness in the laboratory and in field populations [4, 5]. Infection of Drosophila by DMelSV results in a characteristic sensitivity to CO2 [7], such that infected flies will become paralyzed and die when exposed to concentrated CO2. This sensitivity can be used to infer the presence of the virus in individual flies and thus estimate the prevalence of the virus in fly populations.We used lines previously selected for resistance to the bacterium B. cereus [6, 8] to test the hypothesis that there would be cross-immunity between bacteria and viruses, in this case, DMelSV. As a partial control in the previous selection experiment, some lines were also evolved in response to sterile wounding, which could involve inflammatory processes or other responses connected to the immune system [7, 9, 10], and perhaps similarly result in diminished infection by DMelSV. The test for D. melanogaster refractoriness to infection by DMelSV was novel in that the consequences of two regimes of genetic selection on the host flies were investigated in terms of the likelihood of virus transmission. We performed crosses between males from the S, CI, and CN selected lines and females from an unrelated line infected with DMelSV to test for relationships between transmission and selection regime, progeny sex, and development time in these D. melanogaster populations that were related by common ancestry but differentiated by selection.We did not find evidence for cross-immunity; that is, the B. cereus selected lines did not have significantly lower rates of infection by DMelSV. There was, surprisingly, a significant difference in viral infection with respect to the sex of the progeny: male progeny were consistently less likely to acquire the virus than were female progeny. Later eclosing progeny were also characterized by higher rates of uninfected flies than earlier ones. Finally, there was an interaction between timing of collection and progeny sex such that late eclosing males were the least likely to be infected. Thus, longer development time appears to be associated with reduced virus acquisition.2. Materials and MethodsThe present study involved progeny from crosses between a stock of female D. melanogaster that carried DMelSV with male flies from lines that were selected for survival after infection by B. cereus and control lines. The incidence of DMelSV in progeny was assessed by exposing female and male progeny to concentrated CO2.2.1. Fly Stock and LinesBecause DMelSV transmission by females is higher than that from males [6], we used infected females in our experiment to explore interactions between resistance to B. cereus and transmission of DMelSV. The females used for crosses in our experiment were DMelSV-infected via injection and were effectively isogenic (stock 27, described in detail by Rittschof et al. [11]; this stock is not infected with Wolbachia). Flies were cultured under standard light and temperature conditions (12 : 12, light : dark; 25°C) on standard molasses-agar food. Individual vials were set up with a constant density of five females and five males and allowed to lay eggs for five days, for at least three generations prior to the experimental crosses. The experimental crosses were kept under similar light and temperature conditions in standard food vials (described by Rittschof et al. [11]). Flies infected with DMelSV die after concentrated CO2 exposure [9], which serves as an inexpensive, quick, and reliable way to test for infection. Females were transmitting virus at 100% frequency (i.e., half their progeny were exposed to CO2 and all of those progeny died) at the start of the study.Selection was conducted on three replicate lines for each of the three treatments: S (resistance to B. cereus infected), CI (response to wounding), and CN (the unperturbed control) for 19 generations prior to the experiments reported here (i.e., selection was relaxed for one generation prior to shipment of flies to UF) [12]. None of the lines were infected with Wolbachia, no doubt reflecting the low frequency of Wolbachia-infected flies in the original population from which the lines were derived. Following selection, a 3.3-log increase in the number of spores required for 50% mortality was observed [12].2.2. Experimental ProtocolNonvirgin, uninfected males from S, CI, and CN lines were crossed to virgin, DMelSV-infected females. Females were held for 12–36 hours prior to crossing. Virginity was verified by checking female holding vials for progeny (larvae or pupae) a week later. No incidents of nonvirginity were discovered. Crosses were performed with a controlled density of five females and five males in each vial. Females were permitted to lay eggs for five days at the standard light and temperature conditions described previously. Females were then assayed for infection via a CO2 sensitivity assay per the protocol of Wayne et al. [13]; no females recovered from the assay, confirming their positive DMelSV infection status. Nine replicate vials of crosses were used for the CI lines, nine replicated crosses were used for the CN lines, and eight replicate crosses were conducted for the S lines.Two collections of offspring from the experimental crosses were made: the first was 11 days after the crosses were initiated and the second was 13 days after the crosses were initiated. Thus, day of collection was a proxy for development time. Following collection, progeny were held for 24 hours and then assayed for sensitivity to CO2 [13].2.3. Statistical AnalysisThe dependent variable was the percentage of flies that did not show CO2 sensitivity, that is, the percentage of uninfected flies. The percent data was transformed by arcsine square root to improve normality of the residuals. The data were then analyzed in R using lme4: ANOVA with type III Wald tests and Kenward-Roger degrees of freedom. The model included the main effects of selection regime, day of collection, and sex of the progeny and main effect interactions.3. ResultsThe vast majority (1,826/1,946; >93%) of progeny flies succumbed to CO2
, Eming Sudiana, Darsono Darsono
Published: 31 January 2017
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2017, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2968414

Abstract:
Increases in mean temperature affect the diversity and abundance of wild bees in agricultural ecosystems. Pollinator community composition is expected to change along an elevational gradient due to differences in the daily ambient temperature. This study investigated the diversity and abundance of wild bees in an agricultural area along an elevational gradient in Central Java, Indonesia. Wild bees were collected using a sweep net in 40 green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivation sampling locations at seven different elevations (8, 108, 224, 424, 644, 893, and 1017 m above sea level). Species diversity was determined using the Shannon–Wiener diversity index. We identified 932 individuals from 8 species of wild bee belonging to 3 families. The family Apidae was predominant, with 6 species, while only 1 species was found from each of Megachilidae and Halictidae. Across the study sites, diversity increased with increasing elevation (H′= 1.4,D= 0.25, andE= 0.78 at low elevation toH′= 2.04,D= 0.13, andE= 0.96 at high elevation), and higher numbers of species were found at middle and high elevations. Species richness and abundance increased linearly with increasing elevation, and species diversity was highest at middle elevations.
D. G. R. M. M. Kaushalya Rathnayake, W. M. G. Asanga S. T. B. Wijetunga
Published: 28 December 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/8746251

Abstract:
Plant-animal interaction has been a major theme in ecology as it has helped ecologists to rule out different patterns they observed in the surrounding environments.Chromolaena odoratais another plant species that is studied extensively as it has become a major troublesome weed in many parts of the tropics. But, handful of studies are available on pollination of this invasive plant species in dry forests and its function as a pollinator sink in these environments. The current study was carried out in a dry zone secondary forest patch in North-Central Sri Lanka to assess the diversity, abundance, and pollination strength of flower visitors associated with theC. odorata. The results suggest that the diversity of Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera is higher than the other insect orders that visitedC. odorata, but all species exerted equal pollination strength on the plant. The attraction of large numbers of insects is concluded to as one of the factors that contribute to the reproductive success ofC. odoratain dry zone forests.
Published: 20 December 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4751280

Abstract:
The range and quality of prey species differ greatly among closely related species of predators. However, the factors responsible for this diversified niche utilization are unclear. This is because the predation and resource competition do not always prevent species coexistence. In this paper, we present evidence in support of reproductive interference as a driver of niche partitioning, focusing on aphidophagous insect. Firstly, we present closely related generalist and specialist species pairs in aphidophagous lacewings to compare the reproductive interference hypothesis with two other hypotheses that have been proposed to explain niche partitioning in lacewings and sympatric speciation through host race formation and sexual selection. Secondly, we present a case study that shows how reproductive interference can drive niche partitioning in sibling ladybird species. Thirdly, we show that many ladybird genera include species inhabiting the same region but having different food and habitat preferences, raising the possibility that reproductive interference might occur in these groups. Finally, we show that intraguild predation cannot always explain the niche partitioning in aphidophagous insects including hoverflies and parasitoids. On the basis of the evidence presented, we urge that future studies investigating predator communities should take account of the role of reproductive interference.1. IntroductionIn nature, closely related species often occupy niches that diverge with respect to both type and breadth, and such niche divergence is observed not only in herbivores but also in many predators [1–4]. A frequently proposed explanation of niche differentiation is the trade-off hypothesis, according to which adaptations of a species that allow it to exploit one resource decrease its fitness on other resources, and this trade-off leads to different niche utilization by different species [5]. In predators, the main driving force of food specialization may be morphological and behavioral adaptations that enhance a species’ prey capture performance against one prey species but simultaneously reduce it against another [6]. However, the trade-off hypothesis is inadequate to explain differences in food choice among some closely related predator species. In particular, some species that possess traits that make them highly efficient foragers specialize in a highly defended prey species, even though they could potentially utilize a wide variety of food items, including less well-defended prey (e.g., [7–9]). For example, large-mouthed marine cottid fish species have been shown in a laboratory setting to have a high feeding performance on both slow-moving prey (e.g., crabs, isopods, and gastropods) and more mobile, and thus more elusive, prey (e.g., fishes and shrimp), but in nature they feed predominantly on elusive prey [10]. Such examples raise the possibility that negative interspecific interaction, rather than a species’ own resource-use traits, can restrict its host range in nature.Examples of negative interspecific interactions that might promote niche partitioning among predators include intraguild predation and parasitism, where species competing for a shared resource also prey on or parasitize one another [11, 12]. Predation by predators on predators has been widely reported under both laboratory and natural conditions [13, 14]. Moreover, multiple species involved in intraguild predation have been observed to persist in the same locality in field studies (see the “Aphidophagous Guilds”). Therefore, the idea that intraguild predation, which combines predation with resource competition, is sufficient to drive niche partitioning in predators is still controversial. Thus, we would propose that it should be fruitful to consider alternative interspecific interactions that might explain the divergent food choices of carnivorous species.One reported type of interspecific interaction between closely related predator species is heterospecific mating interactions (e.g., [15–17]). For example, in damselflies (Nehalennia), males frequently attempt to form a tandem pair with a heterospecific female, a behavior that may waste the time and energy of both species even if hybridization does not occur [18]. Moreover, in a molecular study, Fitzpatrick et al. [19] detected genetic introgression between specialist and generalist garter snakes, which is indirect evidence that interspecific copulation occurs in nature. In fact, such reproductive interference is a general mechanism that is applicable to various species assemblages with overlapping mating signals, regardless of trophic level, if at least one species engages in sexual reproduction [20, 21]. However, we think that the potential effect of reproductive interference on the spatial distribution and resource use by predator species has been underestimated, possibly because researchers have focused on mechanisms that are specific to predator-prey systems, such as intraguild predation and strong resource competition [22]. Therefore, we assert that reproductive interference should be given greater consideration in the search for a mechanism to explain ecological specialization in predators.In this paper, we focus on aphidophagous insects. First, we describe aphidophagous lacewing genera that include generalist and specialist predatory species pairs. In lacewings, it has been hypothesized that sympatric speciation has occurred through host race formation or sexual selection. We argue instead that the observed niche partitioning between closely related species may actually be a consequence of niche diversification through reproductive interference after allopatric speciation. Next, we present as a case study of niche partitioning by reproductive interference our own research on two species of ladybirds (Harmonia) in Japan. Then, we consider whether reproductive interference-driven niche partitioning can explain niche partitioning in other predatory ladybirds. Finally, we describe some aphidophagous insect communities in which intraguild predation is known to occur and discuss reproductive interference as a possible mechanism that can drive niche partitioning of intraguild predators. We hope that the arguments made in this paper will encourage researchers to pay more attention to interspecific mating behaviors and their ecological consequences in predator communities.2. Specialist and Generalist Lacewings in North AmericaIn this section we first examine the possible role of reproductive interference in the ecology of two sibling species (i.e., reproductively isolated species that are nearly identical in their appearance [25]) of the lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in North America, one in genus Chrysopa and another in Chrysoperla. The Chrysopa pair includes a strict specialist that uses a strange woolly aphid, and the Chrysoperla pair includes a conifer specialist. Then we compare the reproductive interference model with models of sympatric speciation based on host race formation and sexual selection, which have been considered the main drivers of genetic and habitat diversification in sympatric lacewings.2.1. Chrysopa and Chrysoperla Species ComplexesChrysopa quadripunctata is a generalist predator that preys upon a wide variety of aphids and other soft-bodied arthropods that live on various plant species, including apple, elm, goldenrod, hickory, maple, oak, and rose. In contrast, Chrysopa slossonae is a specialist predator that exclusively utilizes the woolly alder aphid, Prociphilus tessellatus [31]. Interestingly, the woolly alder aphid covers its body with secreted wax, which it uses to attract the ants that protect the aphid colonies from predators [31]. The wax may also serve as a physical defense against attacking predators [32]. However, C. slossonae larvae exhibit a sophisticated behavior in which they scrape the wax from their prey and attach it to their own back, thus preventing their detection by the attending ants [31]. In addition to this camouflage strategy, the specialized morphology (long legs and a large mandible) of C. slossonae larvae may enable them to consume the woolly alder aphid efficiently [33].We argue that reproductive interference by C. quadripunctata may be responsible for the restricted food range of C. slossonae, for the following reasons. First, C. slossonae larvae can develop on less elusive prey that they do not utilize in nature, such as Myzus persicae and A. pisum [7, 34]. These observations are evidence that the fundamental niche of C. slossonae is wider than its realized niche. Moreover, interspecific copulation and hybridization occur between C. slossonae and C. quadripunctata, at least under laboratory conditions [34]. Although interspecific pairs of C. slossonae and C. quadripunctata can produce viable hybrids, the ecological traits of such hybrids show the intermediate values between their parent species [34]. This indicates that hybridization may hamper the local adaptation to each habitat. Therefore, it is possible that C. slossonae is forced to specialize on a highly defended prey to avoid heterospecific mating interactions with C. quadripunctata, which utilizes various preferred prey species in nature.Chrysoperla carnea is a habitat generalist that lives in fields and meadows during the summer and migrates to deciduous trees in autumn. In contrast, its sibling species, Chrysoperla downesi, is a habitat specialist, living all year only in coniferous trees, in the region of eastern North America where the two species are sympatric [38]. It can be inferred that C. downesi specializes on conifer-associated prey items, but the information about the variety and quality of prey utilized by these species is still scarce. Each species, however, exhibits phenotypic traits that suit it to its preferred habitat. First, both species display cryptic adult body coloration that is specific to their habitats: C. carnea is bright green in spring
, Gervasio S. Carvalho
Published: 26 October 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/3623092

Abstract:
Over most of its range populations of the spittlebugProsapia ignipectus(Fitch) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) are monomorphic for black dorsal coloration. At the far northeastern margin of the species range in Maine, a cluster of populations is monomorphic for the presence of traverse orange dorsal lines against a black background. The narrow gap separating monomorphic black and monomorphic lined populations is less than 10 km wide, shows no evidence of a hybrid zone, and is without consequential physical barriers or ecological breaks. This sharp and unexpected division of color forms seems to have persisted for at least 90 years. It appears to be the sharpest divide ever recorded between geographically adjacent populations monomorphic for alternative aposematic color forms. About 45 kilometers to the southwest of this dividing line, three closely situated populations, surrounded by monomorphic black populations, are polymorphic for the two color forms. These observations are at variance with several expectations for aposematic species: (1) that local populations will be monomorphic for warning coloration, (2) that adjacent populations monomorphic for different local color forms will be linked by populations with mixed or hybrid forms, and (3) that geographic boundaries between contrasting aposematic color forms should be temporally unstable.
Utako Kurosu, Shigeyuki Aoki, , , Takema Fukatsu
Published: 5 October 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4036571

Abstract:
Aphid nymphs with enlarged fore- and mid-legs were found from woolly colonies of Thoracaphis kashifolia (Hormaphidinae, Nipponaphidini) on leaves of the evergreen Quercus glauca in Japan. It was shown that they grasped an introduced moth larva with their legs and some inserted their stylets deep into the body. These defenders were first-instar nymphs of the alate generation and were produced by aleyrodiform apterae from early September onward. There was a large variation in the size of their forelegs. First-instar nymphs (to be alates) produced early in the season had fore-femorotrochanters shorter than those produced later. The molting rate (the percentage of pharate individuals) of the latter was very low (less than 5% to zero), suggesting their semisterility. Although first-instar nymphs with various lengths of forelegs joined to attack moth larvae, these facts indicate that an incipient caste differentiation occurs within the first-instar nymphs of the alate generation.1. IntroductionSince the discovery of aphid soldiers in Colophina clematis [1], sterile or nonsterile defensive nymphs have been found in many species of two aphid subfamilies, Eriosomatinae and Hormaphidinae [2–5]. The former subfamily consists of three tribes, Eriosomatini, Pemphigini, and Fordini, and the latter also consists of three, Hormaphidini, Cerataphidini, and Nipponaphidini [6, 7]. These aphid species basically have a host-alternating life cycle; most of them induce galls on their primary host and form exposed colonies on their secondary host. Defensive individuals (usually first- or second-instar nymphs [2] but at times fourth-instar nymphs [8] or apterous adults [9, 10]) have been recorded from the gall or the primary-host generations of all six tribes [9–17], and from the secondary-host generations of Eriosomatini [1], Cerataphidini [15, 18–21], and Hormaphidini [22]. Although exules of Paracletus cimiciformis (Fordini) have recently been shown to suck on ant larva hemolymph [23], defensive behavior on the secondary host has been unknown from the remaining three tribes to date.In the course of studying the life cycle of the aphid Thoracaphis kashifolia (Nipponaphidini) in Japan, we noticed soldier-like first-instar nymphs with thickened fore- and mid-legs in its woolly colonies on leaves of the evergreen oak Quercus glauca. Having introduced lepidopteran larvae onto the colonies, we succeeded in inducing defensive behavior by these nymphs. In this paper, we describe the life cycle of T. kashifolia, the defensive behavior of the first-instar nymphs and when they are produced in the life cycle. Because there was a large variation in the size of their forelegs, we address the issue whether soldier-caste differentiation occurs in this species.2. Materials and Methods2.1. Study OrganismThe aphid Thoracaphis kashifolia (Uye) (the species epithet has been misspelled as “kashifoliae” [6, 24, 25] or “kashiwae” [26–28]) forms colonies on the upper surfaces of leaves of Quercus glauca (Figures 1(a) and 1(b)) in the south-western half of Japan [27, 28] and in Taiwan [24]. A record from Q. acuta [29] remains to be confirmed. The apterous adults are aleyrodiform (Figures 1(c) and 2(a)), sessile, and flattened and are found throughout the year on the leaves [27]. The colonies produce alates in autumn and become remarkably woolly like candy floss (Figure 1(b)) during this period. The life cycle is supposed to be anholocyclic, without returning to Distylium racemosum [6, 27], which is the only known primary host of Nipponaphidini in Japan [30–32]. In this paper, colonies that are covered with long wax filaments (Figure 1(b)) are called “woolly colonies,” while those that are not are “ordinary colonies” (colonies in Figure 1(a) but the central woolly colony).Figure 1: (a) Colonies of Thoracaphis kashifolia on leaves of Quercus glauca (Tama, Tokyo; 14 October 2015); (b) a woolly colony of T. kashifolia (Tama, Tokyo; 14 October 2015); (c) two apterous adults and one nymph to be aptera (upper right) of T. kashifolia (Tama, Tokyo; 8 February 2016); (d) defensive nymphs of T. kashifolia clinging to an experimentally introduced lepidopteran larva (Tama, Tokyo; 1 October 2015).Figure 2: Apterous generation of Thoracaphis kashifolia (Ome, Tokyo; 6 November 2013): (a) adult; (b) first-instar nymph. Scale bars: 100 μm.2.2. Sampling of the AphidsTo investigate the annual life cycle and the colony composition, T. kashifolia was sampled from Quercus glauca in various months. We regarded the aphids on a single leaf as a colony and sampled colonies mainly in Tama, Hachioji and Ome, western Tokyo, Japan, in 2013–2016. Additional colonies were sampled in Tsuchiura (Ibaraki Prefecture), Kashihara (Nara Prefecture), and Kyoto (Kyoto Prefecture) in 2015. The whole colonies each were preserved in a 30 mL glass vial of 80% ethanol together with the leaf. Later, under a dissecting microscope in the laboratory, the aphids in 23 woolly colonies listed in Table 1 and 22 ordinary colonies in Table 2 were detached from the leaf, counted, and sorted into the following groups: (1) apterous adults, (2) first-instar nymphs to be apterae, (3) non-first-instar nymphs to be apterae, (4) alate adults, (5) first-instar nymphs to be alates, and (6) non-first-instar nymphs to be alates.Table 1: Collection data, the number of nymphs to be alates, the percentage of first-instar nymphs and their molting rate, and the most advanced stage of the alate generation for 23 woolly colonies.Table 2: Collection data, the number of apterous adults and those of nymphs for 22 ordinary colonies.From some woolly colonies, emerged alates were collected and used for transfer experiments to confirm whether these alates are sexuparae or secondary migrants (Section 2.5). For the same purpose, some alates (22 alates collected in Tama on 30 September 2015, nine in Tama on 15 October 2014, and 12 in Ome on 6 November 2013) were confined, together with a piece of paper, in a 5 mL cotton-plugged glass vial to force their larviposition there. A few days later, after confirming first-instar nymphs walking in the vial, 80% ethanol was poured into it. These nymphs were slide-mounted (see Section 2.3), and it was determined whether they were of sexuals or virginoparae (i.e., whether their mothers were sexuparae or secondary migrants). To supplement this, ten alates from colony 15241 and ten alates from colony UE1013 (Table 1) were slide-mounted, and it was determined whether the embryos in their bodies were the same in morphology as the first-instar nymphs born in the glass vial.2.3. Examination of Aphid MorphologyFor slide preparation, aphids preserved in 80% ethanol were cleared in heated 10% KOH solution. These aphids were stained with either Evans’ blue or acid fuchsine, dehydrated in a mixture of glacial acetic acid and methyl salicylate for one day, and mounted in balsam via a mixture of xylol–phenol and pure xylol. Many slide-mounted specimens were examined under a light microscope. Since there seemed to be large variation in the sizes of their fore- and mid-legs, all or about 120–180 subsampled first-instar nymphs to be alates from the 23 woolly colonies listed in Table 1 were slide-mounted, and one of their fore-femorotrochanters was measured. For the first-instar nymphs in one colony (Exp#6 in Table 1), the length and width of one fore-femorotrochanter (defined in Figure 4(a)) were measured. Measurements were made using a digital camera (FX630; Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with image analysis software (FlvFs; Flovel, Tachikawa, Japan). It was also recorded whether these first-instar nymphs had the next instar cuticle developing inside (i.e., whether they were in the pharate stage). The percentage of nymphs in the pharate stage roughly corresponds to the degree of their sterility; if the defensive nymphs were completely sterile and did never molt, no nymphs with the next instar cuticle would be found. All non-first-instar nymphs to be alates in two colonies (Exp#1 and 14160 in Table 1) were also slide-mounted to know the composition of instars and whether they were in the pharate stage.2.4. Defensive TestTo confirm whether aphid nymphs with enlarged legs would really attack other insects, the following experiment was carried out. A total of seven leaves with woolly colonies, which seemed to have produced defensive nymphs, were carefully removed from trees of Quercus glauca in Tama on 28 and 30 September 2015. They were each kept in a plastic container with a sheet of paper, and on the day of collection, two lepidopteran larvae (collected from leaves of Broussonetia kazinoki; ca. 3–8 mm) were placed on each colony. When an introduced larva was attacked by aphids within a short period, the larva was placed on a sheet of paper and the attacking behavior was recorded by a video camera attached to a dissecting microscope. After taking a video, the larva and aphid nymphs clinging to it were deposited in a vial of 80% ethanol. When introduced larvae were not attacked by aphids, they were left in the container under a room temperature for approximately 24 hours and examined and deposited in 80% ethanol together with aphids clinging to them. Nine out of 11 larvae attacked by defensive nymphs were macerated in 10% KOH solution, stained with acid fuchsine, and mounted on a glass slide together with the nymphs to examine whether the nymphs really pierced the larval skins under a light microscope. Aphid nymphs that attacked the remaining two larvae were slide-mounted after being detached from the larvae. The remaining aphids were preserved in vials of 80% ethanol, and later defensive first-instar nymphs and other morphs were sorted and counted under a dissecting microscope as mentioned in Section 2.2.2.5. Transfer ExperimentTo confirm whether alates of Thoracaphis kashifolia are secondary migrants (alate virginoparae), a transfer experiment was carried out with a test tree (ca. 2.5 m tall, 5 cm in diameter at 50 c
, Parker H. Morrow
Published: 22 September 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9028105

Abstract:
In many communities of perching dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae), a size-dependent competitive hierarchy creates a positive relationship between male body size and perch height. We tested for this pattern among three similar-sized species: Celithemis elisa, C. fasciata, and C. ornata. Males were caught and photographed from May to July 2015 at Ashmore Heritage Preserve, Greenville County, SC, USA, and perch heights and perch distance to open water were measured. Five indices of body size were measured with ImageJ software: abdomen length, forewing length, hindwing length, area of forewing, and area of hindwing. Celithemis fasciata was significantly larger than the other two species for all five anatomical characters and used perches that were significantly taller and closer to open water than the other species, though these differences changed over the summer. Aggressive interactions between and within species were tallied and compared to expected distributions based on mean relative abundances derived from hourly abundance counts. Patterns of interspecific aggression were also consistent with a size-dependent hierarchy: the large C. fasciata was attacked less frequently, and the small C. ornata more frequently, than predicted by their relative abundances. We conclude that even small differences in body size may contribute to niche partitioning in perch selection.1. IntroductionIn general, large size confers a competitive advantage to animals engaged in physical combat [1–3]. As a consequence of greater strength and the application of greater force, larger animals are more likely to win contests for mates, territories, and other resources [2, 3]. Many dragonfly (order: Odonata) species are highly aggressive and territorial [4]; males perch on vegetation along the periphery of a water body and defend small territories around oviposition sites, driving off other males and attempting to mate with passing females. Appropriate perch selection has important benefits for reproductive success [5–8], and size-dependent hierarchies occur in both intraspecific and interspecific patterns of territory acquisition and perch selection.In Pachydiplax longipennis, for example, larger males are typically the aggressor in intraspecific interactions, forcing smaller males to disperse [9]. In several other species, males holding territories either are larger than “satellite” males without territories (suggesting a size advantage for acquiring territories) or win more intraspecific contests [10–14]. However, because body size differences within a species are often small, other factors like age, fat reserves, or sexual ornamentation can be more important than size to the outcome of a particular competitive battle [15]. Residency itself can provide a competitive advantage; territory owners are more likely to win contests than challengers, perhaps because of the competitive edge that earned them the territory in the first place or their greater familiarity with the site [4, 16–20].Competitive hierarchies also exist between species, particularly with respect to perch selection. Because perches are used to survey territories for food, mates, predators, and intruders, maximum visibility is probably a key component of perch quality [21]. Tall perches provide better visibility than short perches, particularly as the distance from open water increases and the view from short perches is obstructed by intervening vegetation. As predicted, competitively dominant large species use tall perches and relegate progressively smaller species to progressively shorter perches [22–27]. Perithemis tenera, a small species (20 mm), uses short perches (<20 cm) but maximizes visibility by selecting perches that are beyond the shoreline in open water [21].There are exceptions to these patterns, however, usually among closely related species that are similar in size. For example, Sympetrum flaveolum is slightly larger than Sympetrum sanguineum but uses shorter perches, probably as a consequence of exploiting earlier successional habitats with shorter vegetation [28]. In competitive interactions among closely related similar-sized species, the same factors that affect intraspecific competition may become important, like age, fat reserves, or residency [15]. Residency is a stronger predictor of competitive success than size in competitive interactions among five species of Erythrodiplax [29]. When size differences between species are small or inconsistent, size-dependent differences in perch height alone may not be enough to promote coexistence; selection may favor resource partitioning along additional niche dimensions like seasonality [30], diel period [31, 32], habitat [28, 33], or another characteristic of the perch like distance from shore [21].The genus Celithemis provides an ideal model system for examining these relationships. All of the eight species of Celithemis occur in the Eastern United States [34], with a narrow size range from Celithemis amanda (22 mm body length) to Celithemis eponina (38 mm) [35]. Most ponds and marshes in the region will harbor at least 2-3 species, particularly in southeastern states where as many as five Celithemis species can co-occur [36]. Lastly, Celithemis elisa, C. fasciata, and C. ornata are territorial; they exhibit both “site attachment” and “agonistic defense” [37]. This study had three objectives: (i) compare the body sizes of Celithemis elisa, C. fasciata, and C. ornata males and determine if patterns of perch selection (based on perch height and the distance of perches from open water) correlate with differences in body size; (ii) describe patterns of diel and seasonal activity to determine whether these species partition resources temporally; and (iii) describe patterns of intra- and interspecific aggression among these species to determine whether the patterns of spatial and temporal perch selection are consistent with a size-dependent competitive hierarchy.2. Materials and Methods2.1. Study SiteThis research was conducted at Lake Wattacoo at the Ashmore Heritage Preserve, Greenville County, SC, USA (latitude: 35° 5′ 6.83′′ N, longitude: 82° 34′ 43.64′′ W, elevation 347 m). The lake is a 2.2 ha impoundment on the 455 ha preserve, directly below the southeastern escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains [38]. The lake is bordered on two sides by mixed oak-pine woodlands. The study was conducted along 200 m of treeless lakeshore on the earthen dam. The steep slope of the dam limits rooted macrophytes to a zone of reeds extending 1-2 m from the bank. These reeds and the shoreline vegetation were used as perches by territorial male dragonflies. Celithemis elisa (Hagen), Celithemis fasciata Kirby, and Celithemis ornata (Rambur) are the most abundant libellulids at the site, constituting 85% of the libellulid individuals in a 2014 survey [39]. The most common species in the region, Pachydiplax longipennis (Burmeister), Libellula incesta Hagen, and Erythemis simplicicollis (Say), are present but uncommon at Wattacoo, so interactions among Celithemis species can be studied without the complicating effects of other species.2.2. Sampling ProtocolSampling was conducted from May to July 2015, 3-4 days/week, in 3–6-hour blocks of rainless conditions, between 1000 h and 1600 h. At the stroke of each hour, the 200 m dam was walked twice (“out” and “back” transects); the number of individuals of each species seen on each transect was counted, and the counts were averaged to compute an hourly abundance for each species. Between these hourly counts, we randomly shifted our activity between collecting males for body size measurements, measuring perch heights of territorial males, and observing aggressive interactions. These activities were done at different times in different areas on different males, so that our swinging nets and measuring perches would not disturb observations. Males were collected by aerial net, numbered on their wing with a Sharpie© marker for identification (and to prevent resampling), photographed with a ruler for scale, and released. Males were collected at the shoreline and along the bank, so both territory holders and satellite males were collected and measured. For territorial perches used by males, the vertical height and horizontal distance to open water were measured. Perches were considered “territorial” if they were along the shoreline (not on the bank) or on emergent vegetation. Aggressive interactions were scored by observing a target area (approximately 5 m of shoreline that contained perched dragonflies) for 15–30 minutes and recording as many interactions as possible. An “attack” was scored when a perched dragonfly was attacked by another dragonfly. A “sortie” was scored when a perched dragonfly left the perch to charge a passing dragonfly and return to its perch. A “chase” was scored when one dragonfly pursued another. The interactions can be rapid and dynamic; a perched dragonfly might be attacked, initiate a sortie against the attacker, and then be chased in an ensuing dogfight [40]. Each of these three interactions was scored separately, noting the species of the aggressor and target for each.2.3. Testing the Relationship between Body Size and Perch SelectionFive attributes of body size were measured on each dragonfly photograph using ImageJ software [41]: length and area of forewing, length and area of hindwing, and abdomen length. Variations in these parameters between species were assessed and described with MANOVA, ANOVA, and Tukey mean comparison tests. Variations between species and across months in perch height and distance from perch to open water were assessed with two-way factorial ANOVA and Tukey mean comparison tests and compared with predictions based on a size-dependent competitive hierarchy.2.4. Testing for Patterns of Temporal PartitioningVariations between species, across diel period, and across months in mean hourly abundances were assessed with three-way factorial ANOVA
, , Jimena M. Herrera, , Vanessa A. Areco,
Published: 20 September 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4595823

Abstract:
Many insects affect food production and human health, and in an attempt to control these insects the use of synthetic insecticides has become widespread. However, this has resulted in the development of resistance in these organisms, human diseases, contamination of food, and pollution of the environment. Plants natural products and essential oil components such as terpenes and phenylpropenes have been shown to have a significant potential for insect control. However, the molecular properties related to their insecticidal activity are not well understood. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the toxicity of terpene compounds against three insects of importance to human health: lice, cockroaches, and Triatominae bugs and to evaluate which molecular descriptors are important in the bioactivity of terpenes. For the insects studied, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) studies were performed in order to predict the insecticidal activity of terpene compounds. The obtained QSAR models indicated that the activity of these compounds depends on their ability to reach the targets and to interact with them. The QSAR analysis can be used to predict the bioactivities of other structurally related molecules. Our findings may provide an important contribution in the search for new compounds with insecticidal activity.
Satinath Paul,
Published: 22 August 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/4242317

Abstract:
The present study observed the effect of heat stress on ovarian development, fecundity, and vitellogenin gene expression in silkworm, Bombyx mori. The result showed that the heat shock treatment to spinning larvae and pupae at 39°C (1 h and 2 h) did not cause any adverse effect on the reproductive performance of B. mori. However, the heat shock treatment at 42°C or above caused a decrease in the fecundity. The heat shock treatment to day 2 pupae for 2 h at 45°C caused a drastic effect on the development of ovary as measured by gonadosomatic index. The study thus showed that a brief exposure of Bombyx larvae and pupae to a temperature of 42°C or higher, much prevalent in tropical countries like India, greatly affects the ovarian development and reproductive performance of this commercially important insect. The study further showed a developmental- and tissue-specific expression of vitellogenin mRNA in fat body and ovary upon heat shock. When heat shock treatment was done at 39°C and 42°C to spinning larvae, ovary showed an upregulation in the expression of vitellogenin mRNA, whereas fat body failed to do so. However, at 45°C, both fat body and ovary showed a downregulation. The heat shock treatment to day 2 pupae showed an upregulation in the vitellogenin mRNA expression in both fat body and ovary, even at 45°C. The upregulation in the expression of vitellogenin upon heat shock indicates its role in thermal protection of Bombyx larvae and pupae.1. IntroductionGlobal warming is one of the major challenges for the survival and reproduction of many life forms including insects. The increase of global mean surface temperature is likely to be 0.3–4.8°C by the end of 21st century relative to 1986–2005 [1]. It is warned that the heat waves will occur with a higher frequency and a longer duration [1]. Studies have shown that warmer temperatures associated with climate change can potentially affect insect species’ population dynamics directly through effects on survival, generation time, fecundity, and dispersal [2, 3]. Insects, being ectothermic organisms, are very likely to respond quickly to increased temperatures [4]. However the response of individual insect species will depend on their geographical range, trophic level, and natural history [3]. For majority of temperate insect species, increased temperature will allow them to extend their geographical range and enhance their population fitness [2]. However, for tropical insects, increased temperature is likely to have the most deleterious consequences as tropical insects are relatively sensitive to temperature change and are currently living very close to their optimal temperature [5]. Temperature above the optimum temperature is perceived as heat stress by all living organisms.In a tropical country like India environmental factors such as temperature and humidity play a major role in the success of sericulture industry. Because of the extensive and careful domestication over centuries, the silkworm, Bombyx mori, is very much susceptible to abrupt temperature changes. Studies have shown that cells of all known organisms including B. mori respond to stress such as temperature by increased synthesis of heat shock or stress proteins (Hsps) [6–10]. Accumulation of these stress proteins induced by exposure to mild stress results in a transient state of stress resistance. It is indicated that heat inducible Hsps are important for heat induced hormesis in longevity and heat stress resistance in Drosophila [11]. Hormesis is the phenomenon where a mild exposure to an otherwise detrimental factor such as heat, insecticides, and radiation becomes beneficial for many organism and life history traits [12–15]. In Drosophila, a significant increase in lifespan of females, repeatedly exposed to mild heat stress through hormesis, has been suggested by Hercus et al. [16]. In the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, the exposure of females to a single heat event at 38°C for 4 h caused an increase in the lifespan and length of the oviposition period, leading to a potential increase in lifetime fecundity and suggesting hormesis [17]. However, Forbes [18] suggested that not all aspects of organism performance can be hormetic simultaneously and there might be an energetic trade-off among life history traits. Since both survival and reproduction require energy and since energy is limited, it is expected that there will be a trade-off between these two fitness components [19].In B. mori, although literatures are available on the effect of heat stress on survival and expression of heat shock proteins [8, 20–25], little information is available on the effect of heat stress on its reproductive fitness. It is suggested that though the increased expression of heat shock proteins under mild heat stress plays an important role in helping insect to survive, its high level usually brings negative physiological effects on organisms [26]. The improved thermotolerance at the cost of reduced reproductive performance has been observed in many insect species such as Bicyclus anynana and Helicoverpa armigera [27–30]. In Spodoptera litura and Neoseiulus barkeri, mild thermal stress increases thermotolerance but brings a detrimental effect on fertility and fecundity [26, 31].The developing ovary in Bombyx consists of four polytrophic meroistic ovarioles, each of which contains a long linear array of developing follicles in progressively advancing stage of development. Each follicle is surrounded by a layer of follicle cells and contains an oocyte and interconnected nurse cells. Vitellogenin, a precursor of major egg yolk protein, plays an important role in promoting the growth and differentiation of developing oocytes. The regulation of vitellogenin is directly under the control of hormones at the transcriptional level [32]. In Bombyx, its biosynthesis is regulated transcriptionally in a sex- and stage-dependent manner [33]. Vitellogenin functions not only as an energy reserve for the developing embryo but also in innate immune response [34]. Singh et al. [35] showed the antibacterial activity of vitellogenin and found that the infected silkworm larvae, treated with purified vitellogenin, survived the full life cycle in contrast to untreated animals. Increased vitellogenin expression in Caenorhabditis elegans potently increases their resistance against pathogenic bacteria and heat [36]. Recently Ihle et al. [37] showed that aging and lifespan in honey bees are affected by vitellogenin. This protein influences worker lifespan both as a regulator of behavioral maturation and through antioxidant and immune functions as an experimental reduction of vitellogenin expression resulted in decreased lifespan and increased susceptibility to oxidative damage.Since development time and reproductive output of an insect are nearly as important to population growth as the survival of individuals, the present study has been carried out to investigate the consequences of heat stress on ovarian development and fecundity as well as on vitellogenin gene expression in B. mori.2. Material and Methods2.1. InsectSilkworm (Bombyx mori) L. (CSR 18, a bivoltine race) was used for present study. Disease-free layings of silkworms breed CSR 18 were obtained from Central Sericultural Germplasm Resource Centre, CSB, Hosur, Tamil Nadu, and reared with fresh mulberry leaves in laboratory under controlled conditions (temperature, °C; humidity, 60–90%, photoperiod, 12L : 12D). Larvae and pupae were staged according to days after ecdysis and the available morphological markers such as spinneret pigmentation and gut purge.2.2. Heat Shock TreatmentFor heat shock treatment, day 3 spinning larvae and day 2 pupae were placed individually in glass test tubes plugged with cotton and were submerged in a water bath at 39°C, 42°C, and 45°C for 1 h and 2 h, respectively, as described [38]. After the treatment, the larvae and pupae were returned to controlled laboratory conditions. Female larvae and pupae were considered for heat shock treatment. Male silkworm larvae and pupae were subjected to heat shock treatment only for the purpose of copulation.2.3. Determination of Gonadosomatic IndexHeat shock was given to day 2 female pupae and developing ovaries were dissected out after 48 h (day 4), 96 h (day 6), and 144 h (day 8) of heat shock treatment. The isolated ovaries were rinsed with insect ringer solution, blotted dry with filter paper, and the weight was measured using digital weighing balance. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated using the equation GSI = ovary wet weight (g)/total body weight (g) × 100 [39]. The experiments were repeated 2-3 times and mean value of GSI was calculated for each experimental group from the data obtained from 6–8 individuals.2.4. Estimation of FecundityDay 3 spinning larvae and day 2 pupae (both males and females) were subjected to heat shock treatment and the adult moths were collected for mating. The moths were allowed to copulate for 5 h and afterwards the moths were decoupled and the females were kept for oviposition and males were disposed off. The fecundity was calculated by counting the number of eggs laid by each female within 24 h time period. The experiments were repeated 3 times and the mean value of fecundity was calculated from the data obtained from 10–12 individuals.2.5. RNA Isolation and Semiquantitative RT-PCRThe fat body and ovary were dissected out from 5th instar larvae and pupae under cold insect ringer solution and homogenized immediately in TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated according to the manufacturer’s protocol. The concentration of RNA was measured spectrophotometrically at 260 nm. The purity of the total RNA was assessed using A260/280 ratios. Denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis was performed to ascertain the integrity of isolated RNA.The cDNA was synthesized from total RNA using M-MLV reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) and oligo dT 18 primers
Published: 14 August 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6938368

Abstract:
Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina(Loew) andCamptoprosopella borealisShewell], Chloropidae (Olcellasp.), and Anthomyiidae (Deliaspp.) in field crops. With lauxaniids, baiting with 2-phenylethanol on cotton-roll dispensers increased catch ofH.bispinain two corn plot tests, and methyl salicylate increased trap catch in one test. Traps baited with methyl salicylate increased the catch ofC.borealis. When using plastic-sachet dispensers, traps baited with methyl salicylate caught moreH.bispinathan ones baited with 2-phenylethanol, whereas traps baited with 2-phenylethanol caught moreC.borealisthan those with methyl salicylate. For chloropids, traps baited with 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine greatly increased catch ofOlcellaflies in corn and soybean. With anthomyiids, catch of maleDeliaflies in wheat increased with 2-phenylethanol on cotton rolls and with either 2-phenylethanol or methyl salicylate using plastic dispensers. In soybean, 2-phenylethanol formulated on cotton rolls or in plastic dispensers increased catch of maleDeliaflies, but methyl salicylate did not affect trap catch. Trap catch of femaleDeliaflies did not vary among chemicals. In another test in soybean, trap catch of both male and femaleDeliaflies was greater with 2-phenylethanol than with other volatile chemicals.
T. Keith Philips, Mark Callahan, , Naomi Rowland
Published: 14 August 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/1584962

Abstract:
A hypothesized evolutionary history of the North American endemic trichiine scarab genus Trichiotinus is presented including all eight species and three outgroup taxa. Data from nineteen morphological traits and CO1 and 28S gene sequences were used to construct phylogenies using both parsimony and Bayesian algorithms. All results show that Trichiotinus is monophyletic. The best supported topology shows that the basal species T. lunulatus is sister to the remaining taxa that form two clades, with four and three species each. The distribution of one lineage is relatively northern while the other is generally more southern. The ancestral Trichiotinus lineage arose from 23.8–14.9 mya, and east-west geographic partitioning of ancestral populations likely resulted in cladogenesis and new species creation, beginning as early as 10.6–6.2 mya and as recently as 1.2–0.7 mya. Morphological character evolution is also briefly discussed. The limited distribution of T. rufobrunneus in Florida and T. viridans in the Midwest mainly due to urban development and widespread agriculture makes these two species of conservation concern.1. IntroductionThe genus Trichiotinus Casey, 1915, comprises a group of eight species that are commonly known as the hairy flower beetles due to their namesake trait of being covered in setae. The genus is placed in the tribe Trichiini Fleming, 1821, and the subfamily Cetoniinae Leach, 1815 [1]. The Trichiini currently includes 43 genera that are found nearly worldwide except for Australia and Madagascar [2, 3] with thirteen of these taxa located in the New World. In the Nearctic realm including Central America, nine genera exist including Apeltastes Howden, 1968, Archedinus Morón and Krikken, 1990, Dialithus Parry, 1842, Giesbertiolus Howden, 1988, Gnorimella Casey, 1915, Iridisoma Delgado-Castillo and Morón, 1991, Paragnorimus Becker, 1910, Trigonopeltastes Burmeister, 1840, and Trichiotinus Casey, 1915 [4, 5].Trichiotinus is widespread in North America (Figure 1) with species distributed from Florida to Texas to southern Canada including Nova Scotia in the east to and as far north as the Northwest Territories in the west [3, 6]. While several species are widespread, others are relatively restricted including one species found mainly in Texas, another endemic to part of central Florida, and a third found in a small portion of the Midwest through to southern Ontario [7]. Adults are beautifully patterned and colored yet are thought to be harmful to flowers because they eat pollen and petals [8]. But due to their hirsute bodies, they certainly may act as successful pollinators [6]. Larvae are known to feed upon various types of dead hardwood.Figure 1: Distributions of the eight species of Trichiotinus from [3] (used with permission).The most obvious morphological characters uniting the species include the body dorsally and ventrally setose, the elytral margin bowed downward below and behind the humeral angle, the elytra with two raised intervals, and the presence of two transverse cretaceous (chalky white) bands in most but not all species [3]. Among taxa, there appear to be few morphological variations that can help hypothesize evolutionary history within the genus. A phylogenetic analysis was done using as many morphological characters that could be discovered, as well as molecular data from two genes. Furthermore, we briefly explore character evolution and the biogeography of the group and hypothesize the dates of cladogenesis based on CO1 divergence.2. Materials and Methods2.1. SamplingSpecimens were collected in various localities within the USA and Canada (Table 1). The molecular analysis used fragments of DNA sequence data from CO1 and 28S genes (ca 800 bp fragment of mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and ca 560 bp of D2 loop of nuclear 28S rRNA). While the CO1 gene is a standard gene used in phylogenetic studies, the nuclear 28S rRNA gene is a mosaic of highly conserved and variable regions [9] and has also proven to be useful for resolving relationships in numerous insect groups (e.g., [10, 11]), including studies of beetles (e.g., [12, 13]).Table 1: List of taxa used in the analysis, their collection origin, and accession numbers for DNA sequences on GenBank.2.2. DNA SequencingDNA was extracted using the Omega Bio-Tek E.Z.N.A. Insect kit. Muscle tissue was removed from the pro- and mesothoracic regions and ground up to improve the extraction of DNA. Sequences were amplified by PCR using combinations of published primers [14] and 5 Prime master mix was used in the amplification process. Typical PCR cycles for COI consisted of an initial denaturation at 95°C for 2 minutes, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 30 seconds, 46°C for 30 seconds, and 72°C for 1 minute, followed by a final extension at 72°C for 5 minutes. The PCR reaction for 28S was similar except for an annealing temperature of 55°C. Amplification of the 16S gene was attempted but the results were very poor in early tests and work on this gene was discontinued.PCR products were purified prior to sequence reactions and sequenced using ABI dye-terminator v3.1, following the standard protocol on an ABI3130 sequencing machine. DNA sequences were edited in Geneious version 7.1.4. Sequences were deposited in GenBank with accession numbers listed in Table 1.2.3. Morphological DataMorphological data was acquired by soaking specimens in lactic acid to macerate tissues before dissection. Various individual body parts were examined on slides in glycerine or dry to discover characters and states. Mouthparts were examined and found to be so similar that no useful character states from them were discovered. Some characters used to define the genus such as two protibial teeth were found to be uninformative and were excluded. Two characters were uninformative but each has three states (char. 10 and 14) and are included in the analysis. Characters and states for each taxon are listed in Table 2 and were found from the head, pronotum, elytra, pygidium, and ventrites with the descriptions as follows:(1)Elytral third and fifth intervals: strongly convex (0); feebly convex to flattened (1).(2)Head and pronotum color: bright metallic green (0) or not (1).(3)Elytra color: (0) bright metallic green; (1) light brown; (2) a combination of black and brown (may be some greenish reflections); (3) black; (4) dark brown. (Note that although T. bibens appears brownish underneath a bright metallic green, the species is classified as having state 0.)(4)Elytral lateral margin below humeral angle: abruptly deflexed down and outward (0) or smoothly rounded (1).(5)Elytral fourth interval: sparsely punctate (0); distinctly puntate (1). (Note that Osmoderma and Gnorimella have elytra lacking distinct intervals and are coded as inapplicable.)(6)Pygidium shape: approximately round with the width ~equal to the length (0); transverse, wider than long (1); narrow, longer than wide (2).(7)Elytra: obliquely transverse narrow white bands present (0); bands absent (1). (Note that Trigonopeltastes delta does not have bands present but at least one species does (T. sallaei). Therefore this taxon is coded as having both states present.)(8)Pygidium cretaceous patch: covering surface (0); on lateral edges only (1); absent (2). (This character in Gnorimella is dimorphic where females have the patch covering the surface and males have both lateral and a central longitudinal oriented patch. Further, some males appear to have no cretaceous patch at all. This character was coded for females. Some species of Trigonopeltastes have a patch similar to that seen in Trichiotinus but were coded as seen in T. delta typically with the entire surface covered.)(9)Ventrite cretaceous band: on 5th laterally (0); absent (1); covering entire surface on 1st–5th (2); covering lateral surface on 1st–5th (3).(10)Pronotal setae: present, erect, and dense (0); absent (1); setae recumbent and on outer edge in a line in triangular pattern (2).(11)Elytra: dull or opaque area on lateral declivous portion: absent (0); present on posterior 2/3 (1); present on entire surface (2).(12)Male paramere teeth: 2 teeth at apex (0); 1 tooth at apex (1); no teeth and apex tapered (2); no teeth and apex abruptly expanded and rounded (3); no teeth and apex gradually expanded and pointed (4); 1 tooth ~medially (5); no teeth and broadly curved at apex (6); no teeth and narrowly curved at apex (7).(13)Short cretaceous (i.e., chalky white) longitudinal band just posterior of scutellum: present (0); absent (1).(14)Scutellum shape: elongate triangular and sides slightly rounded (0); broadly triangular and sides rounded (1); elongate triangular and sides straight (2).(15)Female genitalia, dorsal view: stylus elongate and transverse (0) or broader, blunt, and/or obliquely positioned (1).(16)Female genitalia, dorsal view: apical tooth short and small (0) or not (1).(17)Metatarsal length: distinctly longer than metatibia (0) or shorter than metatibia (1).(18)Elytral striae: present (0); absent (1).(19)Elytral surface: in part smooth and shiny (0); velvet-like throughout surface (1).Table 2: List of taxa and their morphological character states used in this study. Note that Trigonopeltastes in character seven is coded as having both states as indicated within the parentheses.2.4. AnalysesAll sequences were assembled and edited by eye using the program Geneious, version 7.1.4 (Genecodes Corp., Ann Arbor, MI). Alignment of the CO1 and 28S data sets was done using Muscle, version 3.8.425 [15], with the default parameters including 8 iterations, max. number of trees to build = 1, and optimization = anchor.The data matrix was first constructed using WinClada [16]. Parsimony analysis was done using Nona and TNT [17, 18]. All characters were coded as unordered, and the matrix was analyzed with equal weights. The search was implemented using the following parameters, for example, in TNT: hold 10 000, hold/50, (random addition sequence, 1000
, Mohammad Saeed Mossadegh, Farhan Kocheili, Hossein Allahyari,
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9417496

Abstract:
Nephus arcuatusKapur is an important predator ofNipaecoccus viridis(Newstead), in citrus orchards of southwestern Iran. This study examined the feeding efficiency of all stages ofN. arcuatusat different densities ofN. viridiseggs by estimating their functional responses. First and 2nd instar larvae as well as adult males exhibited a type II functional response. Attack rate and handling time were estimated to be 0.2749 h−1and 5.4252 h, respectively, for 1st instars, 0.5142 h−1and 1.1995 h for 2nd instars, and 0.4726 h−1and 0.7765 h for adult males. In contrast, 3rd and 4th instar larvae and adult females ofN. arcuatusexhibited a type III functional response. Constant b and handling time were estimated to be 0.0142 and 0.4064 h for 3rd instars, respectively, 0.00660 and 0.1492 h for 4th instars, and 0.00859 and 0.2850 h for adult females. The functional response of these six developmental stages differed in handling time. Based on maximum predation rate, 4th instar larvae were the most predatory (160.9 eggs/d) followed by adult females (84.2 eggs/d). These findings suggest thatN. arcuatusis a promising biocontrol agent ofN. viridiseggs especially for 4th instar larvae and adult females.
, Shubhranil Brahma, Kaushik Sanyal
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5924521

Abstract:
Three new species of Rheotanytarsus Thienemann and Bause are described and illustrated from India. R. nudicornus n. sp. belonging to the aquilus species group is described as adult male and pupa, R. spinicornus n. sp. in the muscicola group is described as adult male, pupa, and larva, and R. caputimberus in the trivittatus group is described as adult male with damaged pupa. A possible placement and inclusion of these three new species from India and other seven species recorded from the Oriental China in the key to males of genus Rheotanytarsus of Kyerematen et al. are proposed. A probable placement and inclusion of the 2 new species from India in the key to pupae of Rheotanytarsus of Kyerematen et al. are also stated. Diagnoses of the muscicola group and trivittatus group are emended.1. IntroductionThe genus Rheotanytarsus Thienemann and Bause is a diverse predominant group occurring in nearly all lotic water recorded from all biogeographic regions except Antarctica comprising more than 100 nominal worldwide species [1]. The larvae of Rheotanytarsus are rheobiontic, filter feeding using nets stretching between the anterior “arms” of their characteristic cases. The silk mesh retains suspended detritus from the water flowing past the case. Detritus are utilized as food and for dwelling material by the larvae [1]. Most larvae live in moderately fast-to-slow flowing rivers, streams, and creeks and rarely in stagnant water—more likely in near-shore habitats in wind—driven currents on lakes [2]. The larvae may be phoretic on a number of other aquatic invertebrates including naiads of odonates, may flies, larvae of caddis flies, megalopteran insects, and gastropod molluscs [3].Most species are described based on male adults including their distinctive genitalia; fewer are also known from their immature stages as Lehmann [4] described many western European species with their pupae while Cranston [5] did for Australian ones. “Composition of tentative species groups” of the genus Rheotanytarsus based on both pupal exuviae and adult males made by Sæther and Kyerematen [6] has been followed here. Of the three new species, R. nudicornus n. sp. belongs to the aquilus species group described as adult male and pupa, R. spinicornus n. sp. in the muscicola group as adult male, pupa, and larva, and R. caputimberus n. sp. in the trivittatus group as adult male and damaged pupa. A possible position and insertion of these three proposed Indian species and other seven species reported from Oriental China [7] including four species, namely, R. bullus, R. liuae, R. polychaetus, and R. quadratus described by Wang and Guo [7], R. tamatertius Sasa of Palaearctic Japan, R. buculicaudus Kyerematen, Andersen & Sæther of Ghana and R. muscicola Thienemann of Holarctic Region including Palaearctic China in the key to known males of genus Rheotanytarsus of Kyerematen et al. [2] are proposed. A probable placement and inclusion of the 2 new species from India in the key to known pupae of Rheotanytarsus of Kyerematen et al. [2] are also provided. Moubayed described Rheotanytarsus orientalis [8] and Rheotanytarsus thailandensis [9] from Thailand. Kyerematen et al. [2] made a review of the 26 species of Oriental Rheotanytarsus. Chaudhuri et al. [10] recorded four species of the genus from India. Later Wang & Guo [7] reviewed the genus from China stating seven species from Oriental China. With the addition of three new species here described, the number of species now increases to seven from India and thirty-six from the Oriental Region. Diagnoses of the muscicola group and trivittatus group are emended after examination of Rheotanytarsus spinicornus n. sp. and Rheotanytarsus caputimberus n. sp., respectively.2. Material and MethodsThe larvae collected from the streams of the Darjeeling–Sikkim, Himalaya, were reared in the glass vials containing substratum of the natural habitat plugged with cotton. The specimens were mounted on microslides following the method of Hazra et al. [11]. Morphological terminologies and abbreviations follow Sæther [12] and Epler et al. [1]. Measurements are expressed in micrometers (μm) except the total length and wing length which are in millimetres (mm) with the ranges suffixed by “” in parentheses denoting the number of specimens considered.Types of the new species specimens now retained with the entomological collections of the Department of Zoology, University of Burdwan (India), will be deposited at the National Zoological Collections (NZC), Kolkata, in due course.3. Results and Discussion3.1. The aquilus Group [6]Rheotanytarsus nudicornus n. sp. http://zoobank.org/NomenclaturalActs/4A09B167-16BE-43E4-ACE8-432D832DDBDF (Figures 1-2).Figure 1: Rheotanytarsus nudicornus n. sp., adult male: (a) wing; (b) hypopygium (left-dorsal view); (c) hypopygium (right-ventral view); (d) superior volsella; (e) median volsella; and (f) inferior volsella.Figure 2: Rheotanytarsus nudicornus n. sp., pupa: (a) frontal apotome; (b) thoracic horn; (c) wing sheath; (d) tergites I–VII; (e) tergite II; (f) tergite VIII and anal lobe; and (g) caudolateral spur.3.1.1. Studied SpecimensHolotype (male with pupal exuviae) (reared) (Type number B.U. Ent. 268), India, Sikkim, Jorethang (27°20′00′′N; 88°35′00′′E), 31/iii/1996, N. Hazra leg. Paratype (1 male), as holotype.3.1.2. EtymologyFrom the Latin nudus, bare, and cornus, horn, referring to the bare thoracic horn of the pupa.3.1.3. DescriptionAdult Male ( = 2) (Figure 1). Total length 2.40–2.5 mm. Wing length 1.56 mm. Total length/wing length 1.54–1.61. Wing length/length of profemur 2. Thorax light brown, abdomen and legs pale yellow.Head. AR 0.48–0.50; flagellomere 12 (Fm 12) 192–196 μm long. Eye with 60–64 μm long dorsomedial extension. Temporal setae 6, including 2 inner verticals (IV), 2 outer verticles (OV) and 2 postoculars (Po). Clypeus with 17–19 setae. Tentorial length 105 μm, 19 μm wide at sieve pore, 9 μm wide at posterior tentorial pit. Palpomere lengths (I–V): 27 μm, 30 μm, 84 μm, 93 μm, 117 μm.Thorax. Acrostichals 12–14; dorsocentrals 9-10; scutellars 9-10.Wing (Figure 1(a)). Membrane covered with setae, especially in distal half. Costal length 1.59 mm. Costa not extended. CR 0.90. VR 1.51. Sc, M and Cu1 bare, with 16–18 setae; 7–9; 60–64; 54–56; 48–52; Cu 60–64; PCu 68–70; An 26–28. Cell m with 10–12 setae, about 68, about 10, cu and an combined about 40 setae. absent. RM well proximal to FCu.Legs. Spur of fore tibia (ti) 22–24 μm long; spurs of mid ti unequal 20–22 μm and 32–34 μm long including 36–38 of comb; of hind ti spurs 26–28 μm and 36–38 μm long including 40–42 of comb. Width at the apex of fore tibia 36–40 μm; mid tibia 32–34 μm; hind tibia 38–40 μm. Lengths and proportions of leg segments as in Table 1.Table 1: Lengths (µm) and proportions of leg segments.Hypopygium (Figures 1(b)–1(f)). Tergite IX with 16–18 setae, anal tergite band V-shaped, separate, not joined by basal tergite band. Anal point 40–42 μm long, 8–10 μm wide at base, 6 μm wide at apex. Crest narrowly V-shaped and basally open, 40–44 μm long. Phallapodeme 45 μm long, transverse sternapodeme 54 μm long. Superior volsella (Figure 1(d)) 45 μm long, oval with knob like little apical projection; median volsella (Figure 1(e)) relatively short, 33 μm long, subulate setae fused into plate, not extending beyond both superior and inferior volsella; inferior volsella (Figure 1(f)) 60 μm long with 11–13 setae at apex. Gonocoxite 81 μm long; gonostylus 87 μm long, 26–28 μm wide at mid point with distal part not abruptly narrowed. HR 0.93, HV 2.75.Pupa ( = 2) (Figure 2). Total length 3.51 mm. Exuviae little dark.Cephalothorax. Frontal apotome (Figure 2(a)) rugulose. Frontal setae 46–48 μm long, seated medially, arising from tubercles. Thoracic horn (Figure 2(b)) 216 μm long, slender, pointed at the apex and completely bare. Thorax smooth, wing sheath with prominent nose (Figure 2(c)), 18–21 μm long. Two antepronotals, one median antepronotal 36 μm long and one lateral antepronotal 18 μm long. Three precorneals, anterior one 63 μm long, lemelliform; median one 36 μm long and posterior 36 μm long. Dorsocentrals Dc1 and Dc2 paired 14–18 μm and 10–12 μm long respectively and Dc3 and Dc4 also paired, 20–24 μm and 6–10 μm long respectively; distance between two paired dorsocentrals 78–82 μm.Abdomen (Figures 2(d)–2(g)). Tergite I bare. Tergites II–V with anterior pair of spines of circular patches. Tergites III–V with extensive shagreen present posterior of circular patches extending over and beyond the first dorsal seta, most pronounced on tergite V. Pair of circular patches on tergite V smaller than others. Median shagreen essentially absent, weak and sparse shagreen present caudolaterally on tergites IV-V. Number of spines on patches tergites II–V: 94–100; 84–88; 70–74; 44–48. Tergite II with additional few shagreen of very fine spinules just above the hook row; hook row small, not dividing medially, occupying 0.08 μm width of the segment width, containing about 36–40 hooklets (Figure 2(e)). Conjunctives without shagreen. Segment II with 2 L setae, III with 3 fine L setae; IV with 2 L setae and 1 posterior LS seta; V with 3 LS setae; VI-VII with 4 LS setae; VIII (Figure 2(f)) with 5 LS setae. Caudolateral spur (Figure 2(g)), single, 22–25 μm long. Shagreen present anterolaterally on anal lobe, 117 μm long and 163 μm wide with 34–36 taeniae in fringe, longest taenia 180–192 μm long. Anal lobe (Figure 2(f)) with one hair-like dorsal seta 36 μm long. ALR 1.45, G/F 1.71.3.1.4. RemarksRheotanytarsus nudicornus n. sp. is close to Afrotropical species R. aquilus Kyerematen & Sæther [13] in number of flagellomeres, wing length, number of acrostichals, absence of basal tergite band, median volsella not reaching beyond the apex of superior volsella but differs in AR, HR, shape of median volsella, anal point and anal crest. The species may be separated from other species of the aquilus group including oriental species R. bullus Wan
, Don Cipollini
Published: 21 February 2016
Psyche: A Journal of Entomology, Volume 2016, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/9671506

Abstract:
Pieris rapae L., an invasive crop pest, may have recently begun using Alliaria petiolata Bieb. (Cavara & Grande), a European invasive biennial. We investigated how P. rapae uses forest habitats for nectar and oviposition and examined larval performance on A. petiolata in the field and laboratory. Being known primarily to occupy open habitats, we found that P. rapae regularly uses forest edge habitats, most surveyed A. petiolata plants had P. rapae damage, and P. rapae successfully used both stages of A. petiolata for larval development.1. IntroductionAlthough some of the 50,000 alien species introduced into the United States have economic value, organisms unintentionally introduced to novel habitats have been estimated to cost the United States almost $120 billion in agricultural and economic damages each year [1]. Invasive species also cause untold damages to natural habitats through changing nutrient cycles, altering resource competition, and affecting the physical landscape structure around them, including nutrient cycling [2]. Where rare species live, invasion by novel plants or animals can cause vulnerable species to become endangered or extinct [3].Pieris rapae L. (small cabbage white; Lepidoptera: Pieridae) is a multivoltine European butterfly accidentally introduced to Quebec, Canada, in 1860. A specialist on glucosinolate-containing Brassicaceae host plants, it soon became a destructive crop pest in North America, moving south and west as far as Kentucky in just 12 years [4]. Being now ubiquitous and abundant across the United States and Canada, it is known as a butterfly of open meadows, crop plantings, and sunny areas where its cultivated and wild hosts are typically found [5, 6].Its primary hosts in its native range include Armoracia rusticana, Brassica spp., Cardamine spp., Crambe maritima, Sisymbrium officinale, and Tropaeolum majus, among others, most of which are high light requiring plants [7]. In North America, it benefits from habitat fragmentation and disturbance favoring growth of its weedy hosts, such as Barbarea vulgaris, introduced Brassica species, and Lepidium species, many of which are also nonnative [8–10]. As a common pest on commercial brassicaceous crops, P. rapae is highly visible as an adult and more cryptic in its larval stage and has been controlled in the past through application of DDT and Bt, along with introductions of Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula parasitoid wasps [6, 11, 12].Although it regularly uses crop plants in North America, P. rapae may also use the invasive European biennial Alliaria petiolata Bieb. (Cavara & Grande), in part due to the plant’s increasing abundance in the understory and close relationship with other host plants in the Brassicaceae. Unlike most other potential hosts, A. petiolata is unique in its shade-tolerance and occupancy of forest edges and understories. This invasive mustard allelopathically affects mycorrhizal forest plants as well as competes directly with neighboring plants for resources [13, 14]. Anecdotal observations suggest that this plant is much more abundant in North America than in Europe, and its presence may draw P. rapae into forests more often [15].There are not many herbivores that use A. petiolata as a food source in North America. Although Yates and Murphy [16] identified three arthropod herbivores present on A. petiolata in Ontario, Canada (Ceutorhynchus erysimi Fabr., Plutella xylostella L., and Philaenus spumarius), they did not observe P. rapae consuming A. petiolata, and no herbivore eats enough to control its spread or abundance. Even mollusks avoid consuming A. petiolata, instead preferring more palatable native plants [17, 18]. This suggests that A. petiolata is generally well defended from most North American herbivores, and the damage that it does accrue rarely reduces plant fitness. However, P. rapae may be able to use the European plant as a host in North America, especially since there is some evidence of it being used as a host in Europe [7]. At present, only rare, anecdotal observations exist of the use of forested habitats by P. rapae in North America [19–21].To investigate how P. rapae is using forested habitats and the host plant, A. petiolata, in North America, we directly observed P. rapae oviposition and nectaring behavior in forested habitats shared with P. virginiensis, a native congener. We also investigated how P. rapae uses A. petiolata in forest edge habitats. Finally, we compared the performance of P. rapae larvae and adults fed A. petiolata to that observed on its more typical hosts, Brassica juncea and B. oleracea.2. Methods2.1. Direct Observations of P. rapae in Forest HabitatsObservations of P. rapae occurred from April to June in 2011, 2012, and 2013 at three sites known to be occupied by P. virginiensis: a private site in Morrow Co. (MCO), OH, Wooster Memorial Park (WMP) in Wooster, OH, and Allegany State Park in Salamanca (ASP), NY. Basic visual observations were recorded using field notebooks and photography. Sites were surveyed in tandem with surveys for P. virginiensis, a related native butterfly. More details about observation protocols and site histories can be found in Davis and Cipollini 2014a, b publications [21, 22].More detailed behavioral observations were made at WMP. Twenty-five Pieris rapae individuals were monitored between 1100 and 1600 on Apr. 15 and 18, 2012, at least 300 meters away from the nearest edge or agricultural habitat. Behaviors of individual butterflies were recorded in ten-second intervals until the butterfly left the area and included flying, gathering nectar, oviposition, and resting. Although ten seconds is longer than the time required for P. rapae to oviposit, we gathered enough observations to capture the rate of oviposition through time.We identified all plants that the butterflies interacted with during oviposition and nectar gathering using the Newcomb [23] guide to wildflowers. Butterflies were identified as P. rapae and not as the native P. virginiensis by distinct, dark spots on the dorsal wing surfaces and yellow scales on the ventral wing surfaces. In contrast, P. virginiensis is white with occasional wing-vein shading and light spots on the wings [4].We also observed herbivory by P. rapae caterpillars at WMP during the same observation periods. Although the first instar Pieris caterpillars are difficult to identify to species, older P. rapae caterpillars develop a broken yellow line along the dorsal surface and yellow spots around the spiracles; these characters are missing in native P. virginiensis caterpillars [4].2.2. Herbivory by P. rapae on A. petiolata in Edge HabitatsWe examined how frequently P. rapae uses A. petiolata as a larval host plant in wooded habitats by measuring end-of-year herbivory on first-year A. petiolata plants in maple-beech-oak forests surrounding Dayton, OH. All herbivory experiments that follow were performed in late fall, when any P. rapae in the area would be in diapause as pupae. This ensured that we recorded a maximum amount of damage on individual plants.In 2011, we surveyed approximately 9000 m2 of a recreational trail in Beavercreek, OH, between Grange Hall Road and N. Fairfield Road (BCT, western corner: 39.734756N, 84.082472W; eastern corner: 39.724096N, 84.060070W). This trail has grass and unmanaged shrubs on the southern side and a strip of second-growth forest (20–60 m forest perpendicular to the trail) on the northern side. In 2013, we returned to resurvey BCT and also surveyed two other sites: Narrows Reserve in Beavercreek, OH (NAR, located at 39.691313N, 84.030293W), and Fairborn Community Park in Fairborn, OH (FCP, located at 39.789345N, 84.009446W). Approximately 3000 m2 and 2400 m2 were surveyed at NAR and FCP, respectively. All three sites had parking lots, recreation trails, and forest areas. We walked the perimeter of each study area and systematically examined every rosette A. petiolata within 3 m of the open area. In patches with more than 10 rosettes clumped together, we randomly chose 10 plants to sample. We surveyed 99 plants at BCT in 2011. In 2013, we surveyed 136 plants at BCT, 53 plants at FCP, and 81 plants at NAR.Plants with at least one leaf larger than 5 cm in diameter (most A. petiolata individuals) were surveyed for chewing damage from caterpillars (asymmetrical, smooth holes away from the leaf edge) on fully expanded leaves. Our observations of P. rapae damage are indirect only because the surveys were performed after P. rapae caterpillars had pupated for the winter. Damage was attributed primarily to P. rapae caterpillars for several reasons. First, caterpillar damage is distinct from other causes of damage and disease, including deer herbivory, slug herbivory, and flea beetle damage (SLD and DC, personal observations). Second, we have observed P. rapae caterpillars feeding on A. petiolata throughout the year at these locations, and P. rapae is the only caterpillar that we have ever observed feeding in this area, despite reports of Plutella xylostella as another lepidopteran herbivore on A. petiolata [16]. Finally, several other researchers have confirmed these observations of P. rapae feeding on A. petiolata in both Ohio and Massachusetts (John Stireman and Frances Chew, personal communications). Although some leaf tearing and disease were noted (especially the presence of a powdery mildew fungus [24]), these observations were excluded from analysis of herbivory. Each leaf on a chosen plant was scored for leaf area loss by caterpillars from 0 to 5 (undamaged, 1–20%, 21–40%, 41–60%, 61–80%, and 81–100% leaf loss). The damage rating was converted to percent leaf loss by weighing each leaf score as follows: 0 (0), 1 (0.1), 2 (0.3), 3 (0.5), 4 (0.7), and 5 (0.9). The leaf scores for each plant were averaged into a final plant score. We used the indices 1–5 because precise measurements of leaf damage in the field were not possible.2.3. Pieris rapae Larval Performance AssayIn
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