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Results in Journal International Journal of Poultry Science: 2,579

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J. Rahmahani, T. Sopandi, Wardah
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 16, pp 354-363;

Background and Objective: Quail breeders are continuously facing high mortality rates due to Newcastle disease virus infection. Administration of 4-6% Phyllanthus buxifolius leaf powder in the diet can decrease fat and cholesterol levels in egg yolk and increase the immunity of unchallenged quail against Newcastle disease virus. This study examines the effects of P. buxifolius leaf powder on liver function and the haematological responses of quail challenged with Newcastle disease virus. Materials and Methods: One day old quail were acclimatized for 14 days in collective bamboo cages. Seventy-five female quail with similar weights were transferred to individual cages and randomized into five groups, each group being fed a commercial diet containing either 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% P. buxifolius leaf powder. At the age of 47 days, all quail were infected with velogenic Newcastle disease virus. Haemogglutination inhibition tests were conducted on quail at the ages of 45, 65 and 80 days. Liver function tests and white blood cell and platelet counts were evaluated on quail at the ages of 45 and 75 days. Results: Supplementation with P. buxifolius leaf powder significantly increased antibody titers in 75 and 90 days old quail, significantly decreased aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase levels and decreased total leucocyte, thrombocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte counts. Leaf powders of P. buxifolius have a high potential to protect poultry from infection with Newcastle disease virus and reduce spread of the disease. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation with 4-6% P. buxifolius leaf powder does not cause liver damage or inflammation in quail and may protect against infection.
Muhammad Amrullah Pagala, Takdir Saili, La Ode Nafiu, Nasir Sandiah, La Ode Baa, Achmad Selamet Aku, Deki Zulkarnaen, Widhi Kurniawan
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 16, pp 364-368;

Background: The Mx gene plays a crucial role in the antiviral responses of chicken. The Mx gene codes for Mx protein, which possesses antiviral traits. The non-synonymous G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 2032 of chicken Mx cDNA results in a change at amino acid 631 of the Mx protein. This mutation affects the antiviral activity of the Mx molecule. Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic polymorphism of the Mx gene in the native chickens of South East Sulawesi, Indonesia, using PCR-RFLP. Materials and Methods: The Mx gene was genotyped in 25 Tolaki chickens from each of Konawe Regency and South Konawe Regency and in 21 Kampong chickens from Kendari City. Tolaki chicken is traditionally used as a medium for medicinal treatments in the Tolaki culture. PCR was used to amplify genomic DNA for the Mx gene (299 bp). The amplifier was cut using the Hpy81 enzyme. Results: The genotyping of the Mx gene of native chicken produced three genotypes, AA, AG and GG and two alleles, A (299 bp) and G (200 bp and 99 bp); the frequency of A was higher than that of G. The value of x2 showed that Mx|Hpy81 was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The values of He and PIC were 0.47-0.49 and 0.36-0.37, respectively. Conclusion: These results indicated that Mx|Hpy81 gene was polymorphic in all strains of chicken that were genotyped. The Mx|Hpy81 gene demonstrated a high potential for use as a genetic marker for resistance to Avian influenza and Newcastle disease infection in Indonesian native chickens.
Deni Novia, Ely Vebriyanti, Hari Firman Hakim
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 16, pp 369-373;

Background and Objective: Tannins, a major component in gambier liquid waste, are very useful for the preservation of raw salted eggs. However, gambier liquid waste from Pesisir Selatan, Indonesia, is often low in tannins. This study aimed to determine the evaluation of heating the gambier liquid waste at various temperatures on tannin content, moisture content, total plate count and shelf life of the eggs. Materials and Methods: Gambier liquid waste was collected from Pesisir Selatan District, West Sumatra Province, Indonesia and duck eggs were collected from Anduring, Padang, Indonesia. This study used experimental methods with group randomized design, consisting of 5 treatments and 4 replicates of each treatment. The liquid waste treatments were as follows: A (control), B (heating temperature at 29°C), C (51°C), D (73°C) and E (95°C). Raw salted eggs were then soaked in the liquid for 10 min. Tannin content, moisture content, total plate count and the shelf life of the salted eggs were determined. Results: The results showed that the temperature to which the gambier liquid waste was heated had a significant impact on the tannin content, moisture content, total plate count and shelf life of the eggs. Conclusion: Gambier liquid waste, after heating to 95°C, will increase the preservation of raw salted eggs by 2.67 times longer than the control treatment and six times longer than untreated eggs (7 days).
, M.J. Nahar, Chen Mo, Zhang Ganfu, Liu Zhongjun, Song Hui
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 16, pp 328-335;

A.M.J.B. Adikari, J. Xu, S. Casterlow, H. Li, E.R. Gilbert, A.P. McElroy, D.A. Emmerson, R.A. Dalloul, , E.J. Smith
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 16, pp 336-343;

Objective: The aim of this study was to screen the chLEAP-2 gene for DNA sequence variation and to evaluate the relationships among its haplotypes (based on haplogroups), expression levels, weight gain and lesion score in two chicken lines challenged with Eimeria maxima. Methodology: A total DNA sequence of 4.6 kb including the chLEAP-2 gene was screened by re-sequencing of individual amplicons. Sixteen SNPs, including seven each in the promoter and introns and two in exons, were identified. Results: One of the exonic single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) was non-synonymous, involving a cysteine to tyrosine codon change. About 25% of the SNPs were in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. Linkage disequilibrium (D’) among the SNPs ranged from 0.02-1.00. The haplotypes observed from the 16 SNPs were assembled into 5 haplogroups. The estimated frequencies of the haplogroups ranged from 0.17-0.23 in the combined chicken lines. Although not significant (p>0.05), the chLEAP-2 gene expression varied among haplogroups. Differences among haplogroups for lesion score and weight gain were consistent, but not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, Hap4 appeared to be the haplogroup least susceptible to coccidiosis. At a minimum, the data do not support an association between chLEAP-2 DNA sequence variation and symptoms of coccidiosis such as weight gain depression and lesion score. Conclusion: Therefore, earlier reports of differences between resistant and susceptible lines in chLEAP-2 expression may be due to trans-acting factors. The genomic results reported here provide resources for testing the trans-expression control theory and will be useful for future genotype:phenotype evaluation studies between chLEAP-2 and other traits in the chicken.
M. A. Soltan, R. S. Shewita, M. I. El-Katcha
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 7, pp 1078-1088;

The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary anise seeds supplementation on growth performance, immune response, some blood parameters and carcass traits of broiler chickens. Two hundred and seventeen Arbor Acre one day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted into 7 groups (31 per each) of mixed sex. Anise seed was supplemented to the basal diet at 0.0 (control), 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.5 g/kg diet (groups 2-7), respectively and the trail was lasted for 6 weeks. The analysis of variance of the data indicated that anise supplementation at 0.5 and 0.75 g/kg of diet (groups 3 and 4) significantly (p < 0.05) improved body weight gain, performance index and relative growth rate of broiler chicken, while had no significant effect on feed intake and feed conversion ratio when compared with the control. Moreover the highest inclusion level of anise (1.5 g/kg diet) of broiler chicken diet (group 7) reduced growth performance. On the other hand anise supplementation at 0.5 g/kg (group 3) of broiler diet improve blood picture (RBCs counts, WBCs count, HB and PCV%) clearly than other anise supplementation levels and significantly (p < 0.05) increased lymphocytes when compared with the control, while anise supplementation in broiler chickens diets increased serum albumin, decreased globulin concentration, increased albumin/globulin ratio, non significantly reduced serum GOT and the lower levels of anise (groups 2 and 3) reduc ed serum concentration of GPT, glucose, cholesterol while had no effect of seru m phospholipids and uric acids concentrations when compared with the control. Anise supplementation had non significant effect on HI antibody titer to Newcastle disease vaccine, dressing percent and the anise level at 0.5 g/kg (group 3) non significantly increased thymus gland weight relative to the body weight and had no effect on both bursa and spleen index while the higher level (group, 7) had negative effect on spleen, bursa and thymus gland weight percent, that indicate anise at 0.5 g/kg supplementation had stimulatory immune effect, my provide hepatoprotective effect and improve the economical efficiency of production while, the higher level may be had negative effect.
Marcia Nishizawa, , Antonio Carlos Alessi, Aryana Duker Nunes, Josie Maria Campioni, Laura Satiko Okada Nakaghi, Luciano Doretto Junior, Fabiana Silva Lima
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 5, pp 786-788;

This study aimed the characterization of the importance of vaccination against Newcastle disease in white Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos), and investigated the state of carrier of the virus in this species. There were used 120 Pekin ducks, distributed at random into 4 groups, vaccinated or not. At 60 days of age, all groups were challenged with a pathogenic virus (NDV) suspension, EID = 10 /0,1mL. Cloacal and 50 8,15 tracheal swabs were collected after 6, 14, 20 and 30 days post-challenge for viral isolation in SP F embryonated eggs. White Pekin duck of all the groups did not demonstrate symptoms of the Newcastle disease. They were refractory to the clinical disease with the NDV. In Pekin ducks from control group, the viral isolation was obtained from 20 up to 30 days after challenge. It was demonstrated therefore the state of carrier of NDV of the Pekin duck. In ducks from vaccinated groups, the viral isolation was null. It was also demonstrated therefore the importance of the vaccination in the suppression of the state of carrier of the NDV in white Pekin ducks.
, V. Bautista, L. Nollet, A.C. Beynen
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 5, pp 583-588;

3 The hypothesis tested was that the feeding of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS) will suppress the signs of a coccidiosis infection in broilers. Two separate experiments were performed in which part of the broilers used were infected with Eimeria tenella. In each experiment there were three treatment groups: a negative control group fed the basal diet and two infected groups fed the basal diet without or with a commercial MOS preparation. The infection of the broiler chickens was successful as based on the caecal lesions, oocyst shedding and schizonts in the lamina propria of the caecum, but did not affect growth performance of the birds. In the infected birds fed the MOS preparation, the number of schizonts was reduced without a decrease in the severity of caecal lesions and without impact on growth performance. It i s suggested that the MOS preparation had enhanced the immunity of the infected birds and thereby had decreased the number of schizonts. It is concluded that this study presents evidence for a protective effect of MOS against coccidiosis infection in broilers.
, E. Botsoglou, P. Florou-Paneri, , G. Papageorgiou
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 4, pp 969-975;

Twenty four 12-week-old turkeys were divided into four equal groups. One of the groups was given a basal diet containing 30 mg •-tocopheryl acetate/kg feed (CONT), whereas the other groups the basal diet further supplemented with 100 mg •-tocopheryl acetate/kg (TOC), or 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg (OR), or 100 mg oregano essential oil plus 100 mg •-tocopheryl acetate/kg (ORTOC), for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation, total viable counts (TVC) and Pseudomonas spp. counts were all assessed in breast fillets stored refrigerated at 4°C for 12 days. Results showed that the OR group was more effective (P0.05) among each other. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2005
P. Florou-Paneri, G. Palatos, , D. Botsoglou, I. Giannenas, I. Ambrosiadis
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 4, pp 866-871;

The objective of this study was to investigate the use of oregano herb versus oregano essential oil as feed supplements to increase the oxidative stability of turkey meat stored at 4 C. Thirty 12-week-old o turkeys allocated into five groups were fed a control diet and diets supplemented with 5 g oregano herb/kg, 10 g oregano herb/kg, 100 mg oregano essential oil/kg, and 200 mg oregano essential oil/kg, for 4 weeks prior to slaughter. Lipid oxidation was assessed by monitoring malondialdehyde formation in breast and thigh meat at 0, 3, 6 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Results showed that the feed supplements increased the oxidative stability of meat without exerting any effect on feed intake and daily weight gain of turkeys. Oregano essential oil supplementation at 100 mg/kg was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation compared to the control diet at all time points, but inferior to the oregano herb at 5 g/kg. Also, oregano essential oil at 200 mg/kg was more effective than the oregano herb at 5 g/kg and equivalent to oregano herb at 10 g/kg, in delaying lipid oxidation. Thigh meat was more susceptible to lipid oxidation compared to breast meat.
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 4, pp 851-855;

This study was conducted to determine the use of anise oil in broiler nutrition as a natural growth promoting substance instead of antibiotics. Different levels of anise oil were added to a standard diet, to determine its effect on feed intake, daily live weight gain and feed conversion ratio compared to control and antibiotic groups. Two hundred day-old broilers (Ross-308) were divided into groups of 40 birds each and randomly assigned to the five treatment diets. Each treatment has four replicates. Experimental groups were as follow: A Control group with no anise oil or antibiotic added, a 100 mg/kg Anise oil group, a 200 mg/kg Anise oil group, a 400 mg/kg Anise oil group with corresponding inclusion levels, and an antibiotic group with 0.1% added antibiotic (Avilamycin). The feed intake was similar in groups (p>0.05). The highest (p<0.01) daily live weight gain was observed on the 400 Anise oil group (70.35 g) and followed by Antibiotic group (65.84 g), 100 Anise oil group (62.57g), 200 Anise oil group (62.47 g) and control group (61.30 g). The addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved daily live weight gain by approximately 15% compared to the control group. This improve was remained 7 % level in antibiotic group. Additionally, the addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved daily live weight gain by approximately 6.5% compared to the antibiotic group. The addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved feed conversion ratio by approximately 12 % compared to the control group. This improve was remained 7 % level in antibiotic group. Additionally, the addition of 400 mg/kg anise oil to the diets was improved feed conversion ratio by approximately 6 % compared to the antibiotic group. 7. In conclusion, anise oil could be considered as a potential natural growth promoter for poultry.
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 4, pp 612-619;

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of two products containing essential oils in diets for broiler chickens. These products were RepaXol™, a mixture of essential oils (including oregano, cinnamon, thyme, and capsicum), and Avigro™, a mixture of essential oils along with organic acids (fumaric, citric, and malic). In the first experiment, conducted in litter-floor pens, eight replicate pens of 37 male and 37 female chicks of a commercial strain were fed a non-medicated corn-soybean diet, a diet containing antibiotics (bacitracin methylene disalicylate in starter and grower and virginamycin in finisher), a die t containing 0.5 kg/ton of Avigro™, and three additional treatments utilizing RepaXol™ at 100 g/ton continuously, 00 g/ton for 0-14 d, 75 g/ton for 14-35 d; 50 g/ton for 35 to 42 d, or 150 g/ton for 0-14 d, 100 g/ton for 14-35 d; 75 g/ton for 35 to 42d. All diets were in pelleted form with starter diets crumbled. Birds were grown to 42 d. In the second experiment, eight replicate pens of five male birds housed in battery brooders were fed the negative control diet with no additives, the negative control diet with 0.5 or 1.0 kg/ton of Avigro™, or diets with RepaXol™ at 100, 200, or 300 g/ton. Diets were fed as mash. Results from the first experiment indicated no positive improvements in body weight, feed consumption, mortality, or carcass yield from addition of Avigro™ or RepaXol™. Birds fed RepaXol™ at 150 g/ton had improved feed conversion at 14 d but not over the course of the experiment. Addition of the antibiotics to the diet also had no positiv e improvement in live performance; however birds fed the antibiotics had a higher dressing percentage. In the second experiment, birds fed 1.0 g/ton of Avigro™ or 300 g/ton of RepaXol™, higher than suggested by the supplier, had significantly lower feed intake and significantly better feed conversion than did birds fed the negative control diet. The results of this study show some beneficial effects from the use of product s containing essential oils or a mixture of essential oils plus organic acids. It appears that the response may be dose-related and that levels higher than suggested by the manufacturer may be needed to elicit this response.
D. Nideou, A. Teteh, E. Decuypere, M. Gbeassor, K. Tona, Oumbortime N'Nanle
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 16, pp 296-302;

Zachary S. Lowman, McCaide T. Wooten, Christopher M. Ashwell, Kenneth E. Anderso, H. John Barne
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 16, pp 242-247;

O.M. El-Hussein, A.G. Abdallah, K.O. Abdel-Lati
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 7, pp 862-871;

Ali Khosravi, Fathollah Boldaji, Behrouz Dastar, Saeed Hasani
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 7, pp 1095-1099;

Sasiphan Wongsuthav, Chalermpon Yuangklang, Kraisit Vasupen, Jamlong Mitchaotha, Paiwan Srenanual, , Anton C. Beynen
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 6, pp 800-806;

Anton C. Beynen, Sasiphan Wongsuthavas, Chalermpon Yuangklang, Kraisit Vasupen, Jamlong Mitchaothai, Paiwan Srenanual
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 6, pp 796-799;

International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 5, pp 938-941;

Eighteen healthy moorhens obtained to describe the anatomical and histological structures of uropygial glands. The gland in moorhen composed of two lobes, each one has a single uropygial duct and they joined together by isthmus. Uropygial gland is embedded beneath the skin in a mass of fatty tissue, they surrounded by a connective tissue capsule apparently devoid of muscle fibers and receives its blood supply from the caudal artery, and drained by the caudal vein. The gland parenchyma consist of a highly developed trabeculae packed with tiny parallel secretary tubules, smooth muscle fibers are founds around these trabeculae and also forms a sphincter at the nipple of excretory ducts.
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 5, pp 494-498;

2 In order to study the effect of turmeric rhizome powder (TU) and enzyme in some blood parameters of laying hens, an in vivo study was conducted. In a 5 * 2 completely randomized block design with factorial arrangement, 5 levels of TU (0.0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 %) and 2 levels of enzyme (0.0, and 0.05%) with 4 blocks (replicate) , 480, 100-week old laying hens for 4 weeks fed wheat-soybean meal based diets. Some serum blood parameters of laying hens including hematocrit value, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol were recorded at 104 weeks of age. Increasing dietary levels of TU with or without a dietary enzyme significantly decreased serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (P<0.05). TU without enzyme significantly increased HDL-cholesterol. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of T U improves some of good indices of serum blood components in laying hens and might be used as a n ingredient in laying hen diets for manipulating egg composition.
International Journal of Poultry Science, Volume 5, pp 395-397;

Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk in Persian) is a member of therapeutic plants in herbal medicine. There is evidence that its root contains components, such as berberine, berbamine, culumbamine and berberubine, with a relatively wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity. The aim of the present study was to examine if the plant root has any effect on the growth of broiler chickens. The plant was collected from Shiraz area in sufficient quantity and the roots were dried at room temperature and then ground into powder. One day old broiler chickens were randomly divided into seven groups (twenty chickens each) and were reared under similar conditions. The chickens received either normal diet not containing the root powder or were fed a diet containing one or two percents root powder. Chickens were weighed every five days until the age of fifty. Statistical comparison of average body weights in each group showed that chickens in group two (fed the diet containing 1% root powder from day one) were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier than the birds in the control group. It is suggested that the effect of active ingredients of the plant be examined in this respect in the future work.
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