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Aliyu Jibril, Hamidu Sharubutu Garba, Yunusa Alhaji Adamu, Mohammed Aminu Umaru
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 474-480; doi:10.14196/aa.v7i5.2548

Abstract:
The effect of using dry layer litter and rice husk as alternative feed source on seminal characteristics of red Sokoto bucks was investigated in a 98 day study using eighteen healthy Red Sokoto bucks. The bucks were divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 6 bucks each. Concentrate containing 15.01% CP was formulated using conventional feed sources and fed to group A, while group B were fed 15.13% CP concentrate formulated using dry layer litter (DLL) and rice husk (RH). Group C (control) was not fed any supplement. All groups were fed a basal diet of cowpea hay and water ad libitum, while supplements were fed at 2% body weight in two divided portions. Feeding 15.13% CP diet formulated using RH and DLL favoured spermatogenesis in Red Sokoto bucks as evident from increased semen concentration by 160×106/ml at day 98, high percentage viable spermatozoa (74.89%) and high percentage spermatozoa with normal morphology (77.55%). This was attributed to high available nitrogen from the poultry litter and its utilization by the rumen microflora making it available for absorption leading to improved spermatogenesis. It was concluded that, feeding dried layer liter and rice husk as alternative feed supplements resulted improved semen quality of red Sokoto bucks. It is therefore recommend that dried layer litter and rice husk can be used as a feed supplements for red Sokoto bucks as they can compete with feed from conventional sources.
Masoud Mohseni, Mohammad Hossein Haddadi, Maryam Yousefnezhad
Published: 21 March 2018
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 469-473; doi:10.14196/aa.v7i3.2507

Abstract:
A split plot experiment using the randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Gharakheil Agronomic Research Station of Iran in the crop year 2014 to evaluate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer and cultivar on forage corn yield and yield components. The main-plot factor included three corn cultivars (SC704, SC677 and SC400) and the sub-plot factor, four application rates of urea (100, 200, 300 and 400 kg/ha). Analysis of the data showed that the effects of cultivar and rate of urea application and their mutual effects on most of the studied traits were significant (α=5%). The mean comparison, using the Least Significant Range (LSR) test indicated the maximum forage and dry matter yields (40.95 and 12.90 t/ha, respectively) were obtained in the treatment of SC704 and urea at 200 kg/ha.
Joel Herve Mba, Joseline Motsa’A Sob, Christian Keambou Tiambo
Published: 25 January 2018
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 455-468; doi:10.14196/aa.v7i1.2485

Abstract:
Brachiaria grass has a major potential to relieve the polygastric livestock sector and support its growth in pastoral and extensive mixed systems where ruminants suffer permanent or seasonal nutritional stress from inadequate feed supply as an endemic problem. Morphological description of Brachiaria spp germplasm is helpful for the identification and delimitation of taxa that could lead to accession collections and selection of varieties with high agronomy value. The identification of potential accessions of Brachiaria in the mount Cameroon area was phenotypically based on twelve qualitative and eleven quantitative descriptors, data been collected using a structured questionnaire. The Brachiaria spp have light green coloured leaves (70.9%) which are mostly pubescent (34.5%), intermediate (29.1%) or glabrous (25.5%). The internodes are mostly yellow green (25.5%), the stigma is mostly white (40.0%) while the own panicle is mostly absent. The panicles are mostly open (61.8%) while the grains are mostly round shaped (74.5%). The glumella pubescence is mostly absent while the lemma and palea mostly have a straw colour and the apiculus and/or awn colour are mostly absent (74.5%). There is huge variability for the quantitative traits whatever the locality is. The traits varying most are the number of panicle per plant (146.86%), the grain weight (141.17%) and the number of spikelets per plant (135.10%). The correlation between measurements vary from weak to moderate, the highest positive significant (p<0.01) correlation coefficient (0.637**) was observed between the flag leaf length and the panicle length, while the significant native correlation (-0.283*) was found between the panicle fertility and the flag leaf width. The cumulative variance of the first five principal components explains 73.958% the genetic variability observed within the studied population. The flag leaf length, flag leaf width and culm length are components contributing most to that variability, with respectively 23.10%, 17.16% and 13.16%, giving a total cumulative genetic variability value of 53.43% of the whole Brachiaria spp population germplasm in the area of mount Cameroon. The hierarchical clustering revealed that there could exist four main clusters or accessions of Brachiaria spp germplasm in the area of mount Cameroon. Accession 4 is the most distant from the three others, while accessions 1 and 2 are the closest. The clustering into groups of accessions with similar morphological within the collection Brachiaria germplasm in this study will enable researchers interested in this grass to easily identify subsets of accessions for further evaluation aimed at specific uses. Morphological differences between these accessions and taxonomic differentiation to species level will need molecular characterization for confirmation.
Never Assan
Published: 24 January 2018
Agricultural Advances, Volume 7, pp 444-454; doi:10.14196/aa.v7i1.2490

Abstract:
The rabbit meat producers have a strong desire to improve productivity in order to maximize on financial gains. There has been a deliberate move to target improved weaning weight, which is thought to be a critical component in influencing total meat yield and economic returns. However, it has been acknowledged that weaning weight is partly influenced by individual kit genetic potential at the same time its overwhelmed by various non genetic factors. In this respect, weaning weights a complex character which reflects the influence of many biological processes namely fertility, maternal instinct, growth and viability. For the purpose of increasing production, it is reasonably to suggest that the complex inter-relationship among known various non genetic factors that influence weaning weight and the degree of their interactive effects need to be ascertained and understood in different production systems. While, genotype is a major contributor to weaning weight, environmental, nutritional and management practices also play significant roles in influencing weaning weight. There are several known environmental factors that influence weaning weight and these include feeding practices, birth weight, parity order, sex of kits, management, etc. The rabbit producers’ attention to the aforementioned factors is likely to improve weaning weight at enterprise level. It is important to note that selection for increased litter size have an adverse effect on average litter birth weight which subsequently reflects on weaning weight. The enhanced prolificacy in does has resulted in an increase in within litter variation and a larger number of kits born light. From the farmer’s performance point of view, genetic diversity utilization in crossbreeding has been the focus in improving weaning weight in commercial rabbit meat production. However, the complementary role played by nutritional status in optimization of performance in selected genotypes has been tremendous in the past two decades. Crossbreds have performed at levels consistent with different targeted rabbit meat market expectations. Generally, it is pronounced that improved nutritional regime and patterns for lactating does and their suckling kits had a positive effect on weaning weight. On the other hand, unbalanced parity structure and distribution in rabbit enterprise results in unreasonable variation in weaning weight, which impacts negatively on subsequent kits management after weaning. The purpose of this review is to discuss the influence of genotype and some non-genetic factors (litter size, birth weight, parity) on weaning weight in rabbits.
Never Assan
Published: 18 November 2017
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 436-443; doi:10.14196/aa.v6i11.2478

Abstract:
Weaning age is one of the critical components under management practices which can affect the profitability of a rabbit enterprise, because of its consequence on productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties in rabbits. Choice of weaning age suitable for a particular production system which brings about positive change in productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties in rabbits is bound to increase economic returns. There has been inconsistence in the observations made in different studies on the influence of early versus late weaning on productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties. This has made the comparison of different studies to ascertain optimum weaning age questionable, due to the fact that performance, mortality and carcass parameters results are derived from rabbits slaughtered at the same weaning age, but differing in their nutritional regime, slaughter weight and genotypes. Different fixed effects (production system, nutrition, slaughter weight, genotype, etc.) and their interactive effect with weaning age in various studies have been a source of variation in productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties. Genetic groups might differ in productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties at the same weaning age, hence it’s necessary to determine the optimum weaning age in different production systems for different genetic groups. This is on the backdrop that the choice of inappropriate weaning age in rabbits may reduce productivity and increase mortality as well as affecting carcass parameters adversely. It has been noted that any management practice which do not curtail mortality compromises on total meat output ending up in reduced income earned from rabbit production. It would be reasonable to conclude that performance of rabbits, the resultant carcass and meat quality properties as well as mortality rates depend greatly on the management practices such as weaning age and its interactive effect with other factors adopted during the production cycle. This review looks at the effects of weaning age on productive traits, mortality, carcass and meat quality properties in rabbits.
Never Assan
Published: 10 September 2017
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 425-435; doi:10.14196/aa.v6i9.2463

Abstract:
Nutritional programs and feeding patterns accounts for major production costs in a commercial rabbit enterprise. A successful rabbit enterprise is characterized by high feed consumption and adequate balanced essential nutrients to sustain the elevated nutritional requirements in support of intense productive animals. Rabbits improved growth pattern, efficient reproductive capacity and minimal kit mortality are closely associated with adequate nutrition. Enough energy dietary provision is required to mediate the nutrients metabolism for high production, while the protein component is the key factor in fueling tissue accretion (meat). In addition to energy and protein requirement, inclusion of dietary fiber is essential mainly because of its effects on the digestive transit and promotion of hind gut microbial activity where volatile fatty acids with high quality microbial protein can be recycled through caecotrophy benefiting the host animal. Inadequate dietary protein, energy and fiber levels have been associated with negative consequences on growth, reproduction and increased mortality. The nutritional value of feed resources and their constituents must be precisely balanced for optimum productive and reproductive performance to grantee economic viability and sustainability of a rabbit enterprise. On the other hand, any alternative feedstuff that might reduce variable costs are beneficial to the producer because apart from viability and sustainability can enhance profit margins in the long run. This implies that due to scarcity and the prohibitive cost of the commonly used classical dietary protein sources in feed industry, chemical evaluation of available non-conventional feedstuff as potential sources of rabbits feed is crucial, if profits are going to be realized in commercial rabbit production, especially in developing countries. The preceding review looks at the effects of nutrition on growth traits, reproductive performance and mortality in rabbits.
Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Kamrul Hasan, Obidullah Shaddam, Ayman El Sabagh
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 418-424; doi:10.14196/aa.v6i7.2468

Abstract:
A germination test was carried out to observe the germinability of mungbean seed under storage periods and storage containers at Agronomy laboratory of Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University (HSTU), Dinajpur, Bangladesh during April-May 2014. The experiment was designed completely randomized design (CRD) with eight replications under three storage periods (15, 30 and 45 days after storage (DAS)) and three seed containers (tin container, polythene bag and gunny bag). The maximum values of germination percentages (GP) were recorded of mungbean seed with 15 days after storage (DAS) and the GP reduced significantly with increasing storage periods from 15 to 30 and 45 DAS. The highest GP (82.00%) was found at 15 DAS in tin container while the lowest (51.01%) at 45 DAS in gunny bag. The rate of reduction was found to increase with the advancement of storage periods. The germinability of mungbean seed was observed maximum levels (82.00, 80.89 and 72.68%) when seeds stored in tin container, and the minimum levels (72.42, 66.11 and 51.01%) whilst the seeds stored in gunny bags among the three storage containers under all storage conditions. Mungbean seed kept in gunny bag and tin container provide the highest and lowest reduction of GP, respectively. An excellent performance of germination was observed in tin containers seed while the gunny bag provided the inferior seed germination among all of the three containers. Finally, it could be possible to enhance and maintain the quality of mungbean seeds through proper storage medium with the adequate periods.
Gholamhossein Shiresmaeili, Aliakbar Maghsoudimood, Gholamreza Khajoueinezhad, Rouhollah Abdolshahib
Agricultural Advances, Volume 6, pp 407-417; doi:10.14196/aa.v6i5.2458

Abstract:
Safflower is a native plant to Iran, resistant to arid environment that will be used as an oil seed for future hopefully. The experiment was a split plot based on complete randomized block design with four replications. Main plot includes two spring and summer plantings and sub-plots include three irrigation withholdings (control, irrigation withholding at the start of flowering and irrigation withholding at the start of grain filling period) and ten safflower cultivars including Soffe, Goldasht, Sina, Faraman, Golmehr and Mexican cultivars, Mec117, Mec295, Mec184, Mec11, Mec7, were located in main plot as sub-plots. The results indicated that delaying in plantings reduced biologic yield, grain yield, harvest index and oil yield in Safflower cultivars, significantly. At the start of flowering, irrigation withholding reduced grain and oil yield significantly. Irrigation withholding treatments and safflower cultivars did not affect on oil percentage. However, Mexican cultivars had suitable yields in spring planting date, but it reduced during summer planting date, extremely; while, Iranian cultivars had higher grain and oil yields during both planting dates. Among the cultivars, Soffe and Goldasht had the highest grain and oil yield.
Abul Khaer Md Harunor Rashid, Kaium Chowdhury, , Mohammad Sohidul Islam, Celaleddin Barutçular
Published: 21 November 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 368-374; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i11.2334

Abstract:
A field experiment was conducted at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during Aman season in 2013 to evaluate the effect of proper time of nitrogen application on yield and yield parameters of high yielding rice varieties. Two transplanted aromatic aman rice varieties (BRRI dhan37 and BRRI dhan38) and four timing of nitrogen fertilizer application (N1= ½ during final land preparation + ½ at 30 DAT, N2= 1/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at 30 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT, N3= 1/4 at 15 DAT + ½ at 30 DAT + 1/4 at 45 DAT and N4= 2/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT) were used in this experiment. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications as factorial arrangement. All agronomic practices were applied as recommended for each cultivar. Yield and yield traits (plant height, total tillers, effective panicle, panicle length, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, straw yield, harvest index) was measured. Results showed that the effect of nitrogen split application on plant height, total tillers, effective panicle, panicle length, grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield and straw yield was significant. The results revealed that three equal splits of nitrogen (N2) application (1/3 at 15 DAT + 1/3 at 30 DAT + 1/3 at 45 DAT) produced the highest grain yield (3.29 t ha-1) which was statistical differed from all N splits application treatments and the lowest grain yield (2.41 tha-1) was obtained from N1 treatment which was statistically similar to N4 treatment. The variety effect was significant on all traits except plant height, number of grains panicle-1, number sterile spikelets panicle-1 and stubble yield. The variety BRRI dhan38 produced more grain yield than BRRI dhan37. The effect of nitrogen split application and variety (N×V) on total traits was significant and N2×V2 combination produced the highest grain yield among all the combinations.
Saiful Islam, Kaium Chowdhury, Abdur Rahman Sarker, , Celaleddin Barutcular
Published: 21 October 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 358-367; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i10.2333

Abstract:
Productivity of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Bangladesh is very low, due to many limiting factors beset in its cultivation. Plant density and weed competition in crop constitute the main limiting factors. In order to combat the problems, the optimum plant density and most appropriate weeding period for good production in groundnut has been investigated at Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Two plant density viz. 200,000 and 400,000 plants ha-1, and seven weed competition periods from 0, 25, 40, 55, 70, 85 DAS and up to harvesting time were studied. Nineteen species of weeds representing 10 families were found to grow and population density was 150 plants m-2. The major infesting species of weeds were Cyperus rotundus L. (Mutha), Chenopodium album L. (Bathua), Physalis heterophylla L. (Foska begun), Gnaphalium luteo-album L. (Shwetomuli) and Paspalum disticum L. (Knot grass) which constituted about 84.66% of the total weed population. Cyperus rotundus alone shared the maximum relative density (57%) having 85.5 plants m-2 area of total weed vegetation and also shared the maximum intensity of infestation (2.85). Intensity of weed infestation was always higher at lower plant density. Weed dry matter production was higher at a density of 200000 plants compared to 400000 plants ha-1. In contrast, weed dry weight was progressively increased with increasing weed competition period and it was the highest in unweeded plot and critical period of weed competition appeared at 40 DAS. Weed competition period from zero to 40 DAS and thereafter weed free up to crop harvest with a density of 400000 plants ha-1 gave the highest pod yield The pod yield was found to have a significant negative correlation with weed dry matter production i.e. an increase in the dry matter production will lead to a decrease in the yield of pods.
Muhammad Ebrahim Khalil, Kaium Chowdhury, Ayman El Sabagh, Mohammad Sohidul Islam
Published: 20 September 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 349-357; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i9.2328

Abstract:
To evaluate the effects of plant spacing on the growth and yield of aromatic rice varieties, a field experiment was carried out at the Agronomy Filed Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh during aman season. Four plant spacings viz. 25cm x 25cm (S1), 20cm x 20cm (S2), 20cm x 15 cm (S3) and 15 cm x 10cm (S4) and four fine rice varieties viz. Basmoti 370 (V1), BRRI dhan37 (V2), BRRI dhan38 (V3) and Kailijira (V4) were used. As factorial arrangement the experiment was fitted in a randomized complete block design with three replications. All agronomic practices were applied as recommended for each cultivar. The result revealed that the BRRI dhan38 produced the highest 1000-grain weight (19.05g) as well as yield (3.62 t ha-1). Oppositely, the V2 produced the maximum tillers hill-1 (11.7), effective tillers hill-1 (9.5) but the poorest 1000 grain weight (14.81g) compared to V3 resulting in the second highest grain yield (3.30 t ha-1). The highest number of spikelets panicle-1 (175.0), grain panicle-1 (126.6) and sterile spikelets (48.6) but the lowest number of effective tillers hill-1 (7.4) and minimum 1000 grain weight (10.25g) were recorded at Kailijira (V4) resulting the lowest grain yield (2.27 t ha-1) at Kailijira. The results that the widest spacing S1 produced the tallest plant stature (147.5cm), the highest number of tillers hill-1 (14.0), effective tillers hill-1 (11.0), total spikelets panicle-1 (124.2), filled grain panicle-1 (102.0) while the lowest number of sterile spikelets (22.4). In terms of m-2 basis, all the characteristics were lowered compared to the spacing of 20cm x 15 cm resulting in the lowest grain yield (2.66 t ha-1). The variety BRRI dhan38 at the spacing of 20cm x 15cm produced significantly the highest grain yield (4.27 t ha-1) and the second highest grain yield was (4.00 t ha-1) recorded in BRRI dhan37 with the same spacing.
, Sobhy Sorour, Hirofumi Saneoka, Mohammad Sohidul Islam
Published: 19 August 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 345-348; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i8.2327

Abstract:
Soybean is susceptible to saline stress and reduced yield loss. Organic fertilization has several beneficial effects on agricultural crop fields. To minimize the deleteri­ous effects of the salinity organic fertilization is using which can provide economic yield under saline conditions. Therefore, a greenhouse research was conducted at the Department of Environmental Dynamics and Management, Hiroshima University, Japan to find out the role of compost in alleviating the adverse effects of salinity stress on soybean. The nitrogen-fixing activity was estimated by using gas chromatograph. The results revealed that salinity stress reduced the biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity. Our results show that, there was a corresponding improve in nitrogen fixation with compost application.
, Abdelhamid Omar, Hirofumi Saneoka, Mohammad Sohidul Islam
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 340-344; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i7.2326

Abstract:
Presently, increasing nitrogen fixation in soybean is critical because of widespread increase in soil degradation in Egypt. Therefore, a greenhouse research was conducted at the laboratory of Plant Nutritional Physiology, Hiroshima University, Japan for assessing the impact of compost in alleviating the adverse effects of water stress on soybean. The nitrogen-fixing activity was estimated by using gas chromatograph. The results showed that water deficit stress reduced biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity than normal irrigation conditions. Application of compost increased the biological nitrogen fixation and specific nodule activity under water stress conditions. As the results indicate that compost application could help in improving nitrogen fixation in soybean.
Esmaeil Yasari
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 333-339; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i6.2320

Abstract:
This research intended to study the effects of various levels of humic acid and organic matter forming the substrate for rice seeds of the Tarom cultivar to germinate and for seedlings to grow. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted using split-plots base on randomized complete block design with three replications in the Research Field at Dasht-e Naz in Sari in 2015. Four mixed substrates of clay soil and organic matter (100% soil, 90% soil+10% organic matter, 80% soil+20% organic matter, 70%+ 30% organic matter) were applied as main plot, and four application levels of humic acid (2, 4, 6, and 8 ppt) as sub plot. Results showed that increases in the organic matter content of the substrate improved the seed yield, in which the maximum seed yield obtained in the mixture containing 10% organic matter (1485 g/2m2) and in the treatment of applying humic acid at 6 ppm (1477 g/m2). Moreover, the largest seed yield under the interaction effects of organic matter and humic acid (1800 g/2m2) was achieved at the organic matter content of 10% and humic acid concentration of 6 ppt. Seed nitrogen concentration improved with increases in the organic matter content, with the highest seed nitrogen concentration (1.673%) observed under the interaction effects of 30% organic matter and humic acid at 6 ppt. In addition, when the organic matter content of the substrate was raised, seed phosphorous content improved, with the maximum seed phosphorous content (0.20%) obtained under the interaction effects of 20% organic matter and application of humic acid at 6 ppt.
Mohammad Anwar Zainudini
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 315-324; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i5.2158

Abstract:
This research was carried out on steep slope area planted with trees in different elevation terraces. The experiments were conducted at the experimental site at the Chabahar Free Zone. One major disadvantage of trickle systems is the tendency for emitters to clog. A trickle irrigation system was installed in a 50 m long and 20 m wide plot. The hydraulic performance of emitters was based on water flow, uniformity coefficient, application efficiency, and water losses through deep percolation. The flow volumes along the lateral length were fairly consistent and the variation was diminutive under both types suggesting uniform distribution of water. The difference in elevation between upper and lower terraces at the area of study was about 50 m irrigated by drip irrigation system. The system of irrigation has a problem in distribution uniformity of water resulted from initial filling of the pipes and drainage of water after stopping irrigation. Therefore, the lowest terrace receives the highest, while the upper terrace receives the lowest amount of water. The problem of a lateral pipe with equally emitters and uniform supply of water is investigated. The flow volumes along the lateral length were fairly consistent and the variation was diminutive under both types suggesting uniform distribution of water. The system achieved rationally high DU, CU, Ea. The CU values for randomly selected laterals with smooth emitters averaged to 81.7% and spiral emitters averaged to 87.4%. The DU values averaged to 75.4% for smooth and averaged to 81% for spiral emitters. The overall Ea achieved were 82.7% and 89.4% for smooth and spiral emitters, respectively. The higher values of CU, DU, and Ea with spiral emitters as compared to smooth emitters suggest that they performed better and could be preferred to achieve uniform water distribution. Water movement below the emission point was more pronounced in the vertical.
Sumiya Jamshieed, Tanveer Ahmad Sofi, Mp Sharma, Ps Srivastava
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 325-332; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i5.2195

Abstract:
Attempts were made to correlate the secondary metabolite content with genetic diversity in Taraxacum. In the present study, esculin, one of the important cytotoxic coumarins was analysed in populations of Taraxacum officinale collected from Districts Baramullah (Jammu and Kashmir) and Chamoli Garhwal (Uttarakhand) respectively. The two populations differed in a number of morphological and phenotypic characters. Genetic profiling of esculin quantified individuals was done using RAPD markers for the identification of high esculin yielding genotypes.
Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Published: 25 April 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 275-314; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i4.2183

Abstract:
Sudan's climatic conditions (mainly the rainy seasons) enable double annual harvests (in July and November) in the southern parts of the country. Most of the agricultural activities are concentrated near the Nile River. The El Gezira irrigation system that is located between the White and the Blue Nile Rivers (both rivers merge to form the Nile River) is the most important agriculture project and, according to some statistics, is also the largest artificially irrigated region in the world. As the irrigation system has been put in place, sorghum, wheat, and groundnuts have been planted instead of cotton in an effort to make Sudan self-sufficient in foodstuffs. The agricultural sector is the most important economic sector in Sudan. It created 39 percent of the gross domestic production (GDP), employed about 80 percent of population, and contributed 80 percent of the country's exports in the late 1990s. Cotton is the main agriculture export item, although its export volumes have been decreasing recently. The lack of any marketing or developed market policy is evident. The government has suggested the end of export taxes in order to promote more agriculture products in the future. Other agricultural products include sesame seeds, sorghum, and gum Arabic. Animal husbandry represents a very important part of the national economy, as well. Its production increased during recent years as a result of better veterinary treatment, better credit policy, and higher prices in the market. Fishing is another important sector of the national economy.
Mohammad Hossein Haddadi
Published: 25 March 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 269-274; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i3.2154

Abstract:
In order to optimize the use of moisture, nutrients and solar radiation, and to obtaine suitable yield, seeds must be planted under optimum cultivated systems. Intensive production of field crops practiced until recently to achieve high yields required intensive tillage and application of other high-technology inputs. This concept, however, implies a number of problems, among which relationship between product quality and quantity are in the foreground, along with increase crop production which shows an important ecological sustainability. Above all, farmers approach production in terms of the cost effectiveness of the applied system. In order to compact soil loss and preserve soil moisture, a more attention has been focused on conservative tillage involving soil management practices that minimize the disruption of the soil structure. In addition reduced cultivation is considered to be more environmentally friendly and sustainable than the conventional plough-based system. Cultivated systems specialize in the provision of food, feed, and fiber, often at the expense of other ecosystem. Conservation tillage after wheat and barly harvesting were extended in Iran. Hydroponics is a method of agriculture that grows plants without soil using a mixture of water and nutrient salts, commonly called a nutrient solution. The nutrient solution is fully controllable and can be delivered to plants on an as needed basis. This makes hydroponics capable of high yields while minimizing water and nutrient consumption.
Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Published: 21 February 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 251-268; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i2.2127

Abstract:
Biogas from biomass appears to have potential as an alternative energy source, which is potentially rich in biomass resources. This is an overview of some salient points and perspectives of biogas technology. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biogas technology. This communication gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biogas technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.
Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Published: 19 February 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 227-250; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i2.2126

Abstract:
The increased exploitation of renewable energy sources is central to any move towards sustainable development. However, casting renewable energy thus carries with it an inherent commitment to other basic tenets of sustainability, openness, democraticisations, etc. Due to increasing fossil fuel prices, the research in renewable energy technologies (RETs) utilisation has picked up a considerable momentum in the world. The present day energy arises has therefore resulted in the search for alternative energy resources in order to cope with the drastically changing energy picture of the world. The environmental sustainability of the current global energy systems is under serious question. A major transition away from fossil fuels to one based on energy efficiency and renewable energy is required. Alternatively energy sources can potentially help fulfill the acute energy demand and sustain economic growth in many regions of the world. The mitigation strategy of the country should be based primarily ongoing governmental programmes, which have originally been launched for other purposes, but may contribute to a relevant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (energy-saving and afforestation programmes). Throughout the study several issues relating to renewable energies, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. The exploitation of the energetic potential (solar and wind) for the production of electricity proves to be an adequate solution in isolated regions where the extension of the grid network would be a financial constraint.
Masoud Mohseni, Mohammad Hossein Haddadi, Majid Zamani
Published: 17 January 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 215-220; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i1.2091

Abstract:
In order to investigate the amount of resistance in and early maturity lines and hybrids to ear rot fusarium disease, an experiment was caried out with 56 lines and 34 hybrids which were extracted from material corn and forage crop department were planted in Gharakhil agricultural research station in 2010-2011. Inter row space was 75 centimeters, row legth was 2/5 m and pland distance in row was 25 centimrters. By using artifical inoculation, all of gonotyps were inoculated by using scale rating, the rate of resistance was indentfied (Diseas severity) and the result in2010 showed that three lines were very suseptible, 11 lins were susceptible and others were tolorant. Two hybrids were susceptibl and others tolorant. Results in 2011 showed that five lines were susceptibleand12 lines were very tolorant. Hybrid, KE77007/14 × KE1264/5-1 was resistant, 31 hybrids were tolorant and one hybrid was susceptibl.
Mohammad Hossein Haddadi, Masoud Mohseni
Published: 17 January 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 210-214; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i1.2088

Abstract:
In order to investigation and compare of kernel and other traits of eight sweet corn hybrids with conventional sweet corn (SC403) an expriment was conducted in randomized compelet block design at the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Mazandran, Qarakheil, Qaemshahr, Iran in 2007-2009 (three years) after rice harvesting (August). Each hybrid was planted in four rows. Each row included 30 plants at 20 cm distance from each others. Harvesting was done in two middle rows. After harvesting, kernel yield for each hybrid determined. analysis of variance and mean comparison were done. The result in three years showed that higher kernel yields were resulted from hybrids BASIN and POWER HOUSE with 7.66 and 7.31 t/ha respectively. these hybrids had higher yield than the check (SC403) with 6.11 t/ha and there was significant difference at 5%level between check and these hybrids according to Duncan's Multiple Range Test. EX08716636 Had higher kernel yield than the check (SC403 ) but this hybrid had not significant difference at 5% level. Hybrids CHALLENGER with 5.34 t/ha, HARVEST GOLD with 5.16 t/h, OBSSESION with 5.01 t/h, CHASE with 4/26 t/h and TEMPTATION with 3.8 t/h had lower kernel yields than check. HARVEST GOLD, POWER HOUSE and BASIN had Higher forage yeild with 50.99, 50.58 and 48.71 t/ha respectively but these hybrids had not significant difference at 5%level in compare of SC403 with 49.29 t/ha forage yield. Correlation between measuremented traits was showed that kernel yield have positive correlation with forage yield (%76), kernel row number (%60), kernel in row (%56) and ear diameter (%66). Kernel yield had negative correlation with cob diameter (-%56). Forage yield also had positive correlation with plant height (%67), ear hight(%81), kernel row number (%55), kernel in row (%54) and ear diameter (%70). Forage yield had negative correlation with cob diameter (-%55).
Seyedeh Fatemeh Moosavi Sardoo
Published: 17 January 2016
Agricultural Advances, Volume 5, pp 221-226; doi:10.14196/aa.v5i1.2097

Abstract:
The response of tomato genotype Chef against five salinity levels (distilled water or control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM) were studied at germination and early seedling stages. An experiment with conducted by using a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Shoot and root length, shoot and root fresh weight, seed vigor, meangermination time, germination percentage and rate measured 14 days after germination. Results of data analysis showed that, there were significant differences between salinity stress levels for all investigated traits except mean germination time. Results of data analysis showed that, indicate that the maximum germination percentage during the test was related to the observer control (Distilled water) treatment and 25 mM. The maximum germination percentage at day 14, with an average of 84.34 and 58.8%, were related to the control (Distilled water) treatment and 25 mM treatments. The maximum root and shoot length, at day 14 of the test, was from the control (Distilled water) treatment, which show a significant statistical difference with the observer treatment.
Abate Dawit, Bogale Solomon
Published: 13 December 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 138-209; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i12.2074

Abstract:
A diagnostic survey was conducted in the highlands of Bale, Southeast Ethiopia with the objectives to assess the status and challenges of smallholder dairy cattle production. The study area was stratified into two based on the rainfall patters, human and livestock population. For the study the total of 120 households were randomly selected and interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Dairy cattle management system was predominantly traditional. Livestock breeds were almost indigenous local zebu type. About 31.7% of the interviewed households had only a single lactating cow whereas 20% of them did not have lactating cows. Mating was free and commonly seasonal in the area. Almost all classes of dairy cattle were herded together with other livestock species on communal grazing lands. Stall-feeding was, however, practiced in certain cases. Native pasture, crop residues and grazing of aftermath and fallow land are the dominant feed resources available for dairy cattle. Reproductive and productive performances are poor, and mean age at first calving, parturition interval and average calf born per lifetime of local breeds are discussed in the text. Traditional management system coupled with poor nutrition resulted in low milk production in the study area.Therefore, improvement should be made in the area of feed resources and feeding strategies, husbandry practices, health aspects, artificial insemination services and reproductive performance as well as marketing and market infrastructure to increase milk production and household income in the area.
Bashir Ahmad Sheikh, ,
Published: 13 December 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 129-137; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i11.2046

Abstract:
During the study period of two years the prevalence of helminth parasites in domestic fowl from Gurez valley were analysed. A total of 137 domestic fowl were examined for helminth parasites from May 2013 to April 2015. A high rate of helminth infection (40.14%) was observed. One cestode Raillitina tetragona and two nematodes, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum were encountered during the study period. High prevalence of infection was observed during summer (41.86%) followed by autumn (34.21%), spring (33.33%) and winter (30.76%). Males (36.96%) were more infected than females (34.37%). The young ones were more infected than adults. Nematodes were more prevalent than cestodes.
Shakeel Ahmad Rather, Hidayatullah Tak, Dalip K. Kakru
Published: 13 December 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 122-128; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i11.2051

Abstract:
The study was designed to investigate the seroprevalence of haemoparasites (Babesia, Anaplasma and Theileria) among ruminants from Kashmir valley for a period of two years. A total of 585 blood samples were collected from selected small holders and private livestock farms using multistage cluster random sampling technique. EDTA containing, methanol fixed and Giemsa (1:10) stained thin peripheral blood smears were microscopically examined. Microscopic examinations showed the overall 74(29.83%), 9(4.29%) and 3(2.27%) seroprevalence of haemoparasitic infection in cattle, sheep and goats respectively. Prevalence of Babesia, Anaplasma and Theileria in cattle were 33(13.30%), 18(7.25%) and 23(9.27%) and in sheep 5(2.43%), 1(0.487%) and 3(1.46%) respectively. In goats the prevalence of Babesia and Theileria was 1(0.75%) and 2(1.51%). Age-wise epidemiological observations revealed highest prevalence rate in 1-5 years age group in cattle Overall gender-wise prevalence was not much prominent but female hosts were found to be more infected than males. The highest 56.71% prevalence of haemoparasitic diseases was found in exotic cattle with zero prevalence in local sheep.
F. Kheiri, M.J. Rostami, S.M.A.J. Hajiabadi
Published: 26 October 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 115-121; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i10.2012

Abstract:
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feedingprotexin and chicoridin tableon performance and some hematological parameters of Japanese quail.A total of 240 seven days old quail chicks with an average weight of 18.50 g were divided into 8treatmentswith 3 replicates. The treatments were divided as basal diet with no protexin and chicoridinkept as control, and for others 100 mg/kg (T1), 200 mg/kg (T2) and300 mg/kg(T3) chicoridin with or without protexin (0-100 g/kg)were used respectively. The live body weight gains and feed consumption of birds were measured individually feed conversion efficiency were calculated. At the end of the trial for investigating the effect of using protexin and chicoridinsupplementationon performance of quails, 2 birds form each replicates were slaughteredand some blood samples were taken forhematological parameters determination.Data showed that using of protexin and chicoridinincreasedfeed intake (FI) in treatmentscompared to control.Alsobody weight (BW) (g/d) and Pre-slaughter weigh (g) were higher in protexin and chicoridingroups compared to the control. There were significant differences (p<0.05) for feed conversation ratio (FCR) among treatments.Data showed that using of protexin and chicoridincould increasecarcass yield (g), breast and drumstick meat percentage none significantly. Data showed that gizzard and intestine weightalso increased by usingprotexin and chicoridin. Hematological investigations showedthat although triglyceride, cholesterol and LDLhad decreased but glucose andHDLlevels had increased by usingprotexin and chicoridinin the T1, T2 and T3compared to the control.Data from this study showed that protexin and chicoridinmay be used as ingredient in quails ration without harming effects on performance and carcass quality of birds.
Tanveer Ahmad Sofi, , F. Ahmad
Published: 26 October 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 108-114; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i10.1942

Abstract:
This study reports the infection of liver and bile ducts, carried out from July 2012 to June 2014 on 282 randomly selected buffaloes—Bubalus bubalis, infected with the amphistome trematode parasite. Liver samples of buffaloes infected with amphistome were collected from the different abattoirs of Kashmir valley. Histological studies of infected livers revealed severe damage resulting in disrupted hepatic cords, inflammation, atrophy and necrosis. Bile duct hyperplasia was prominent with proliferation of epithelial cells. Macroscopic examination revealed massive infection of adult fluke in bile ducts and intrahepatic ductules in 49 (17.37) cases. The predominant features were multifocal granulomatous nodules throughout the luminal surface of the bile ducts. Histopathological study of 4 μm thick tissue sections cut adjacent to and through the site of attachment of individual worm and stained with hematoxylin and eosin revealed intense infiltration of inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, eosinophils as well as fibrocytes. This was associated with fibrosis and thickening of the bile ducts. Due to high level of prevalence and intensity of natural infection, amphistomiasis appears to be endemic in this geographical region and probably represent one of the most important animal health problems. The purpose of this paper is to overview the gross pathology (Macroscopic) and histopathological findings of amphistome infectionof liver of buffalo. It is hoped that the study may draw attention to the need for educating farmers, regarding the economic importance of infection of these amphistome parasites and also for the development of control strategies to prevent the spread of infection to ruminants.
Abdolkarim Saberi
Published: 25 September 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 93-99; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i9.1901

Abstract:
In this article, according to statistics published in 2014 Iran IDI's report, Iran's electronic commerce's situation and advance's procedure in the future are studied. Then fertilizer and pesticides market's available specifications and its distribution systems are mentioned and the possibility of using electronic commerce is assessed. In the end, according to the existing e-commerce infrastructure in Iran, as well as the current market situation fertilizers and pesticides in Iran, two general suggestions for how to implement effective e-commerce, in industry of fertilizers and pesticides are presented.
J.U. Chikaire, A.O. Ani, F.N. Nnadi, C.C. Godson-Ibeji
Published: 25 September 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 100-107; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i9.1937

Abstract:
The study examined the challenges semi-urban fish farmers face in their use of information and communication technology devices in Imo state. Data were obtained using structured questionnaire from 210 fish farmers selected randomly from a list of 2300 fish farmers obtained from fish farmers cooperative office in Owerri, the state capital. Using descriptive statistical tools, data were analyzed and presented in tables for understanding and clarity. Results revealed that majority (37.6%) are within the active age of 41-50, 58.6% are males, 50% have secondary education, and have about 11-15 years of fish farming. The respondents have frequent access to radio, telephone (mobile), television, magazines and newspapers. They need information on feed formulation, water management, disease management, fingerlings, processing and drug use. They face the following challenging erratic power supply, low level of education, language barrier, low income, lack of skills in ICT, among others. In view of the following we recommend that communication companies and service providers improve their network coverage. Government should also improve in their provision of electricity and make power supply constant and steady.
J.U. Chikaire, A.O. Ani, F.N. Nnadi, C.C. Godson-Ibeji
Published: 28 August 2015
Agricultural Advances, Volume 4, pp 84-92; doi:10.14196/aa.v4i8.1936

Abstract:
Energy is a very important part of any sustainable development strategy. Without modern energy services, the poor will go on being poor and the sick will continue to be sick. Access to clean, abundant, reliable domestic energy services is an enormous challenge facing Nigerian and Africa because energy is fundamental for socio-economic development and poverty reduction. Since majority (about 70%) of the Nigerian population live in rural areas, with agriculture as their major occupation, clean energy development and provisioning is important to meet their livelihood needs. Renewable energy technologies have been developed but most of these rural dwellers are ignorant of these technologies. This paper thus brings to the fore, the issue of energy extension and literacy. Energy extension is a necessary tool for education, development and adoption of renewable energy technologies in the rural areas. In developing energy technologies, extension by nature has an important role in promoting the adoption of new technologies and innovations with rural dwellers as the target group. The paper thus outlines the energy situation in the country, need for extension education in energy development and the veritable roles of extension in energy development, education and information provisioning.
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