Results in Journal Berkala Arkeologi: 406
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Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 79-100; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.508
Java was once the center of Hindu and Buddhist culture around the 4th until the 15th century AD. The number of archaeological remains from this period is infinite, both monumental remains such as temples and petirtaan (water shrines/ temple), and other remains such as yoni, linga, and statues. These remains are registered systematically by the Dutch East Indies government through its Archaeological Service (Oudheidkundig Dienst). unfortunately, most of them cannot be identified for their exact present locations. Some of the remains were later discovered unexpectedly at the time of construction or agricultural work activities. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the locations of archaeological remains as reported by the Dutch Archaeological Service in the region of Magelang using the Geographic Information System (GIS) approach. This study suggests that, during the period of the Dutch East Indies, Magelang region has a very high density of Hindu-Buddhist archaeological remains. The result of this study can be used for further surveys, re-inventory, as well as protection and preservation efforts.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 23-44; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.506
The evidence of prehistoric life in Aceh has been proven by the results of archeological research conducted by the North Sumatra Archaeological Institute. Until now, the research only focuses on the eastern coast and the central mountains of Aceh. The western coast of Aceh, which also has the potential to provide information, has never been studied. The western coast of Aceh is an area that has a wide karst landscape with many caves that might be used as a settlement in the past. One method used to predict such caves included a topographic map, a geological map, and a digital elevation model (DEM). The inventory results of caves on the western coast of Aceh were also used as preliminary data to obtain the distribution of caves and rock shelters. In this study, the area surveyed was Aceh Besar Regency. Three parameters of inhabited caves, i.e. morphology and genesis, environment, and archaeological content, were used to describe the potential of each cave. Of eleven caves and rock shelters, three caves are qualified as the past settlement and potential for further research, four caves are qualified as the past settlement but not potential for further research, and four caves are neither qualified as a settlement nor potential for further research.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 63-78; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.477
Ganesha is the best-known deity after Trimurti in the Hindu pantheon. He is worshipped as the lord of beginnings and as the lord of removing obstacles. He is sculpted in various depictions. One of them, collected by the Prambanan Temple Museum, Yogyakarta, shows a snake and a mouse as his vahana (mount/vehicle). This image has never been found anywhere else. Therefore, this study was aimed to find out the mythological story behind that depiction and to investigate the past people’s understanding of it. This descriptive study employed an iconographic analysis to analyze the collected data. The analysis results indicate that Ganesha is revered as the protector of crop yield (the harvest deity).
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 121-142; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.499
This study was aimed at analyzing and interpreting the instructional media existing in the classical period of the Hindu - Buddhist kingdoms. The object of the study was inscriptions found on the Semeru Slope, inclduing Widodaren, Pasrujambe, and Gerba. This study employed a qualitative method with an archeological-historical framework. The data was collected through a literature review and in-situ research of the inscriptions. The collected data was analyzed using a structural analysis in the forms of transliteration of the contents and meaning written at the inscriptions. The study found that there is evidence of the use of instructional media in teaching process. This finding is also supported by the Nāgarakṛtâgama and Bujaņga Manik manuscripts which narrate educational and moral values as one of the characteristics of instructional media. In addition, the instructional media serve as a tool support the teaching and learning process at that time.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 101-120; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.514
This paper discusses the makara found at Adan-Adan Temple, Kediri. So far, it is the largest makara in Indonesia and, in terms of iconography, has distinctive features. The data was collected through detailed observations both directly in the field or through photographs. This study employed a comparative analysis, i.e. comparing the collected data to the makaras from different periods (the Ancient Matarām, the Srīwijaya, and the Siŋhasāri). From these comparisons, it is known that the makara at Adan-Adan Temple has special characteristics, i.e. different depictions between the makara on the left and the right as can be seen from the figure of a mythical creature inside the makara’s mouth, from the sculpture on the front of the makara, and on the back of the makara. This particularity may be included as an art style of the Kaḍiri period (the transitional period of from Ancient Matarām to Siŋhasāri).
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 1-22; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.522
This study discusses the interactions between Majapahit and other kingdoms from a contemporary time in Nusantara, Southeast Asia, India, and China and vice versa. The aim is to formulate the interaction between Majapahit and contemporary kingdoms and vice versa based on existing data. This is an ancient historical study that was conducted in three stages, namely: collecting data contained in written sources such as inscriptions, literary works, and Chinese Chronicles, and archaeological data. The second stage was a data analysis by linking data from written sources with other data, to look for elements that support each other, and always refer to the phenomenon of the study framework. The third stage included an interpretation to gain conclusions. According to the data analysis by examining Majapahit's contemporary regions and kingdoms, it turned out that the kingdom applied the basic concept of Tri Angga which refers to the macrocosm concept of Tri Loka. Majapahit's relationship with India is not as dynamic as that of China, instead, there is a view that India is religiously no longer a reference to Hinduism and Buddhism.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 45-62; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.478
Lara Jonggrang is one of the temples in Java that attracts several researchers from various disciplines. The abundance of discussion about this temple does not necessarily close the possibility of new discussion or merely reinterpreting old problems through new approaches. One of the aims of this study is to reopen the old discourse about Lara Jonggrang Temple which is considered to have reached the final stage through research questions, What is the relation between the reliefs of the Rāmāyana story and the Kṛṣṇa story in Lara Jonggrang Temple and the transfer of power in the Ancient Mataram in 9th Century AD? Through a descriptive-analytical method, this study found several things that have been considered final have still kept a few surprises from new interpretations. Through this article, it is shown that Rakai Pikatan and Rakai Kayuwangi play a role as a milestone for the construction, inauguration, and carving of story reliefs in Lara Jonggrang Temple. In addition, the existence of the two reliefs is also related to the process of transfer of power in the Ancient Mataram in 9th Century AD.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 159-182; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.331
The cities of the former Kedu Residency are part of cities in Java that have experienced growth and change over time. Although not a big cities in its time, the cities of the former Kedu Residency show an important role in the interior of Central Java. Its distinctive history in the 19th and 20th centuries formed a city center with an interesting city structure to study. This study aims to study the urban centers of the former Kedu Residency, namely the City of Magelang, Purworejo, Temanggung, Wonosobo, and Kebumen through urban morphology approach by observing the forms (morpho) of the city, such as urban tissue or city shaped, road tissue, land arrangements and buildings. The morphology analysis of the city in the urban centers of the former Kedu Residency shows the interesting facts, namely the development of the city, specifically the city center, from time to time while maintaining the basic characteristics of the traditional city morphology.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 183-200; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.269
One of the remains of the colonial period in Indonesia is the Dutch cemetery. The Dutch cemetery have splendid tombs, western-style decorations and gravestone written in Dutch. Dutch cemeteries can be find in cities such as Surabaya. During colonial period, Surabaya had four Dutch cemeteries in Jembatan Merah, Krembangan, Peneleh and Kembang Kuning. The aim of this study is to determine factors behind the displacement of the Dutch cemetery in Surabaya. The data in this study are including not only historical data (maps of Surabaya in 1787, 1825, 1866, and 1934), but also archives. The remaining observable cemeteries are in Peneleh and Kembang Kuning, because the Dutch cemeteries at Jembatan Merah and Krembangan have been demolished. Data from the observation are then sorted and analyzed to determine the displacement pattern and the factors behind them. The results show that there have been three Dutch cemetery displacements in Surabaya, triggered by three factors: health, unstable ground condition, and land conversion into settlement.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 221-234; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.464
The struggling in the ethical issues of submerged underwater sites and underwater cultural heritage have been undertaking in Indonesia for the last two decades. During these 20 years, commercial companies in collaboration with the National Shipwreck Committee recovered and salvaged substantial numbers of material cargoes. Unfortunately, the majority of these operations occurred without the involvement of archaeologists and lack of proper and controlled archaeological methods and excavation techniques. Since 2010, the Indonesian Government has declared a moratorium that temporarily stopped all commercial survey and salvage activities, and prohibits the sale of the artefacts. Nowadays, more than 190,000 artefacts raised by salvagers are currently stored at the National Shipwreck Committee warehouses near Jakarta, in Cileungsi, West Java, Indonesia. This study attempts to illustrate the disadvantages of the commercial salvage practices and the auction of salvaged artefacts. This research also discusses some recommendations to contribute to a more ethical system of protection and the long-term management of the Indonesian maritime cultural resources, including its existing collections from salvaged shipwreck sites that are stored at the National Shipwreck Committee warehouse today.