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Results in Journal Berkala Arkeologi: 428

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Bugie Kusumohartono
Published: 19 January 2021
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 14, pp 36-44; doi:10.30883/jba.v14i1.628

Abstract:
Sampai pertengahan dasawarsa yang lalu, penelitian arkeologi masih didominasi oleh model-model pemikiran sarjana asing sebelumnya. Model pemikiran tersebut dicirikan oleh orientasi pemikiran (hanya) pada tinggalan masa lampau yang dikaji. Pada model ini para peneliti berangkat dari tinggalan masa lampau, yang melalui pekerjaan klasifikasi dan analisis akan sampai pada interpretasi tentang peran (makna, fungsi, teknologi) benda yang bersangkutan pada masa lampau. Bahkan seringkali hasil-hasil kajian tersebut hanya berhenti pada tingkat klasifikasi dan analisis saja, tanpa interpretasi sama sekali.
Novida Abbas
Published: 19 January 2021
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 14, pp 16-27; doi:10.30883/jba.v14i1.626

Abstract:
Salah satu sarana pertahanan yang berasal dari masa kolonial di Jawa adalah benteng-benteng Belanda, yang beberapa di antaranya masih dapat disaksikan bekas-bekasnya hingga kini. Keberadaan benteng-benteng tersebut menyiratkan adanya konflik antara kelompok-kelompok masyarakat di Nusantara melawan kolonial, yang memaksa pihak kolonial untuk mendirikan berbagai sarana pertahanan guna menangkal upaya perjuangan rakyat tersebut. Di antara sejumlah bekas benteng Belanda di Jawa, salah satu yang masih dapat disaksikan adalah sebuah benteng yang terdapat di Jepara. Benteng yang dikenal dengan sebutan Benteng VOC atau Benteng Kompeni ini terletak di wilayah Dusun Ujung Batu, Desa Ujung Batu, Kecamatan Jepara, Kabupaten Jepara, Propinsi Jawa Tengah. Tepatnya benteng tersebut terletak di puncak sebuah bukit yang menghadap ke Laut Jawa.
Sudarti Prijono
Published: 19 January 2021
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 14, pp 1-6; doi:10.30883/jba.v14i1.624

Abstract:
Temuan benda-benda logam dari masa lalu, tersebar di beberapa daerah di Indonesia. Hal ini menunjukan bahwa masyarakat di beberapa daerah tersebut telah mengenal logam dan mungkin juga telah mengenal cara pengolahannya. Artefak besi baik dalam bentuk kerak maupun fragmen alat, merupakan sisa-sisa hasil teknologi masa lalu yang menarik untuk dipelajari secara lebih mendalam.
Djoko Dwiyanto
Published: 19 January 2021
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 14, pp 28-35; doi:10.30883/jba.v14i1.627

Abstract:
Penelitian di bidang arkeologi akhir-akhir ini semakin berkembang pesat seirama dengan perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi. Perkembangan itu tidak saja tampak dari pemilihan situs, penerapan teori dan metodologi, penggunaan metode dan teknik, melainkan juga pemilihan dan penampilan subjek penelitiannya. Arkeologi yang pada awal perkembangannya hanya dikenal sebagai hobby, tidak mengherankan jika pusat perhatian mula-mula tertuju pada benda-benda yang mempunyai nilai seni. Di dalam perkembangan selanjutnya para pemerhati tidak hanya tertarik pada benda yang bernilai seni, tetapi juga yang tidak bernilai seni bahkan mencapai taraf perhatian terhadap komplek-sitas hubungan antar benda yang dapat mencerminkan berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia masa lampau.
Bambang Soelistyanto
Published: 19 January 2021
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 14, pp 7-15; doi:10.30883/jba.v14i1.625

Abstract:
Para ahli selama ini beranggapan bahwa di antara sekian banyak kerajaan kuna di Indonesia, Majapahit adalah yang paling kuat meninggalkan kenangan dalam masyarakat masa sekarang ini. Kerajaan terakhir dari negara tradisional Hindhu-Jawa ini, tercatat berhasil sepenuhnya menegakkan kesatuan politik dalam suatu wilayah yang luas dan belum pernah terjadi pada masa sebelumnya.
Nfn Harriyadi
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 219-242; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.479

Abstract:
Wonosari Basin is a plateau area and has been inhabited by humans continuously. This research goal is to determine the environmental factors that considered by humans to settle in Wonosari Basin in proto-history until Hindu-Buddhist period. Data used in this study are proto-history and Hindu-Buddhist sites distribution in Wonosari Basin. Analysis is conducted by spatial approach through map overlaying between sites distribution and environmental variable such as water source, slope, soil, and rock formation. This study shows that Wonosari Basin has been selected by human to settle because it has greater water source compared to other landform area in Gunung Sewu. In addition, Wonosari Basin has large flat area which simplify accessibility to utilize natural resource.
Harry Widianto, Sofwan Noerwidi
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 153-178; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.598

Abstract:
Data paleontologis menunjukkan bahwa awal penghunian Jawa terjadi pada batas Plio-Plestosen sekitar 2.4 juta tahun lalu, namun fosil Homo erectus tertua yang ditemukan di Sangiran, berasal dari lapisan 1.5 juta tahun lalu. Belakangan ini, ditemukan situs-situs Plestosen, dari bagian barat Pulau Jawa, yaitu Rancah, Semedo, dan Bumiayu. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menampilkan signifikansi data arkeologi, paleontologi dan terutama paleoanthropologi dari situs-situs tersebut, serta implikasinya bagi penentuan strategi penelitian prasejarah kuarter di masa depan. Metode pengumpulan data meliputi studi pustaka, dan survei pada ketiga situs tersebut. Analisis data dilakukan pada data geologis, arkeologis, paleontologis dan paleoantropologis. Hasilnya, distribusi lateral Homo erectus semakin luas di bagian barat Jawa, dengan kronologi 1.8-1.7 juta tahun, lebih tua dibanding Homo erectus tertua dari Sangiran. Sebuah jendela baru tentang kedatangan Homo erectus di Pulau Jawa telah teridentifikasi. Implikasinya, sudah saatnya penelitian prasejarah kuarter intensif dilakukan di bagian barat pulau ini.
Nfn Suryatman, Nfn Fakhri, Ratno Sardi, Budianto Hakim
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 195-218; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.585

Abstract:
Penelitian yang intensif di gua-gua prasejarah Sulawesi Selatan telah menunjukkan kemampuan kognitif penghuni Sulawesi yang mungkin jarang dimiliki populasi lain di Wallacea. Pada paruh awal Holosen kemampuan yang diperlihatkan adalah memodifikasi alat serpih yang dikenal dengan tekno-kompleks Toalean. Namun demikian, gambaran perkembangan teknologi artefak batu pada masa antara sebelum hingga awal perkembangan tekno-kompleks Toalean masih jarang diteliti secara intensif. Situs Leang Batti adalah situs hunian yang dapat mengisi kekosongan informasi melalui studi teknologi artefak serpih. Artefak berjumlah 1376 buah diklasifikasi dan dianalisis pada serpih dengan mengamati dinamika morfometrik dan teknologi tipe alat antara Holosen Awal hingga Tengah. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pada Holosen Awal, teknologi yang dominan adalah serpih yang digunakan sebagai alat secara langsung tanpa dimodifikasi. Pada fase Holosen Tengah, ukuran serpih mulai mengalami perubahan karena pengaruh Toalean dengan karakter teknologi serpih yang dimodifikasi mulai masuk dalam konsep dasar sipembuat alat, namun tidak terlalu kuat.
Nfn Sunarningsih, Nfn Hartatik, Ida Bagus Putu Prajna Yogi, Unggul Prasetyo Wibowo, Nugroho Nur Susanto, Restu Budi Sulistiyo
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 287-308; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.590

Abstract:
Kuta Bataguh is administratively located in Bataguh and East Kapuas Districts, Kapuas Regency, Kalimantan Tengah. The research aims to reconstruct the characteristics of Kuta Bataguh. This research is using interpretive-descriptive method with the inductive reasoning. Data collection used surveys, excavations, interviews, and literature study. The analysis included environmental, stratigraphic, artifactual, spatial, and absolute dating analysis. Survey (surface and aerial) and excavation activities were carried out inside and outside the fence, both downstream and upstream of the Karinyau River. The results illustrate that the characteristics of Kuta Bataguh are a large permanent settlement that is split by a river. The fortified settlement of Kuta Bataguh was the leader residence of Ngaju community group (as the center of power). By referring to the pattern, function and extent of this settlement, it can be assumed that the local authorities in Bataguh are on par with early state in their socio-political organization.
Goenawan A Sambodo, Yoyon K. Suprapto, Eko Mulyanto Yuniarno
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 309-328; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.597

Abstract:
This research discusses and applies photogrammetry techniques to determine the depth of the script carvings on some worn-out stone inscriptions so images of scripts can be more readable. Inscriptions are the backbone of ancient Indonesian historical writings. Unfortunately the significance of many such ancient inscriptions can not yet be used optimally since many inscriptions are found in a state of having poor legibility, and this due both to natural as well as human factors. To this day, photogrammetry techniques have not been widely used by Indonesian researchers in order to help analyze existing cultural heritage objects, especially stone inscriptions. In addition to previous photogrammetric techniques reviews, this article also brings forward my experiment on the photogrammetric techniques, especially those directly related to the stone inscriptions. The reconstruction was not intended to interpret the meaning of the scripts, but rather to give epigraphists a new insight into other ways of clarifying worn-out scripts.
Agni Sesaria Mochtar
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 243-266; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.552

Abstract:
The Punjulharjo boat is a wooden watercraft, built in the traditional Southeast Asian boat building technique called lashed-lug tradition. It was found in 2008, excavated, and later was dismantled for a lengthy conservation process. In early 2018, the hull was reassembled to be displayed for public. The site where the boat was found, and now displayed, has been listed as a heritage site under the Regulation of The Minister of Culture and Tourism No. 57 of 2010, but a management plan of it is still non-existent. Recommendations in this proposed management plan was amassed in accordance to international standards on site management plan. Data was collected from direct site observation, with the assistance of consultations to related references. This plan outlines objectives and strategy in managing the Punjulharjo site, and hopefully can serve as guidelines for the Regional Government of the District of Rembang as the manager of the site.
Muhamad Alnoza
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 267-286; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.591

Abstract:
Sriwijaya adalah kerajaan yang berkembang antara abad ke-7 sampai dengan 11 M. Prasasti menjadi tinggalan arkeologis sekaligus sumber tertulis yang dapat merekonstruksikan sejarah kebudayaan Sriwijaya. Prasasti Telaga Batu menjadi berbeda dengan prasasti lainnya, karena satu-satunya yang memiliki ornamen berbentuk mahluk hidup dan isinya yang paling panjang di antara yang lain. Ornamen yang terdapat pada Prasasti Telaga Batu adalah berbentuk ular berkepala tujuh. Kajian ini berusaha untuk menjawab makna figur ular berkepala tujuh tersebut dengan metode semiotika triadik Peirce. Makna tersebut dapat merekontruksi konsep dibalik pembuatan figur ular berkepala tujuh beserta alasan mengapa perlu dibuat figur tersebut digambarkan pada Prasasti Telaga Batu. Dalam menjawab pertanyaan tersebut digunakan rangkaian tahapan penelitian arkeologi, meliputi pengumpulan data, analisis data dan interpretasi. Figur ular pada Prasasti Telaga Batu pada akhirnya dapat dimaknai sebagai perwujudan pelindung Datu dan juga wujud sang Datu sebagai Buddha.
Nia Marniati Etie Fajari, Muhammad Wishnu Wibisono
Published: 13 November 2020
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 179-194; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i2.518

Abstract:
Preliminary studies in the karst hills of the Meratus Mountains in Kotabaru Regency found rock-shelters and caves that were indicated to have traces of prehistoric dwellings. One of them is Batu Cave which is in Batangkulur village, Kelumpang Barat district. This article discusses the results of excavations carried out in Batu Cave in 2018. The problems raised on proof of occupancy and how human life in the past in Batu Cave. Archaeological data were obtained from excavations by using test-pit at two different locations. The excavation findings analyses are quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative analysis was carried out to find out the quantity of findings. The qualitative analysis includes an initial classification, which divides archeological data according to the type, form and style. The results show that Batu Cave are cave dwelling with living activities that rely on the surrounding resources. Exploitation of environmental resources is seen in the use of several types of terrestrial fauna and water as one of the main food sources. Various types of tools were made using rocks, as well as bones and shells.
Agus Aris Munandar
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 1-22; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.522

Abstract:
This study discusses the interactions between Majapahit and other kingdoms from a contemporary time in Nusantara, Southeast Asia, India, and China and vice versa. The aim is to formulate the interaction between Majapahit and contemporary kingdoms and vice versa based on existing data. This is an ancient historical study that was conducted in three stages, namely: collecting data contained in written sources such as inscriptions, literary works, and Chinese Chronicles, and archaeological data. The second stage was a data analysis by linking data from written sources with other data, to look for elements that support each other, and always refer to the phenomenon of the study framework. The third stage included an interpretation to gain conclusions. According to the data analysis by examining Majapahit's contemporary regions and kingdoms, it turned out that the kingdom applied the basic concept of Tri Angga which refers to the macrocosm concept of Tri Loka. Majapahit's relationship with India is not as dynamic as that of China, instead, there is a view that India is religiously no longer a reference to Hinduism and Buddhism.
Andri Restiyadi
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 45-62; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.478

Abstract:
Lara Jonggrang is one of the temples in Java that attracts several researchers from various disciplines. The abundance of discussion about this temple does not necessarily close the possibility of new discussion or merely reinterpreting old problems through new approaches. One of the aims of this study is to reopen the old discourse about Lara Jonggrang Temple which is considered to have reached the final stage through research questions, What is the relation between the reliefs of the Rāmāyana story and the Kṛṣṇa story in Lara Jonggrang Temple and the transfer of power in the Ancient Mataram in 9th Century AD? Through a descriptive-analytical method, this study found several things that have been considered final have still kept a few surprises from new interpretations. Through this article, it is shown that Rakai Pikatan and Rakai Kayuwangi play a role as a milestone for the construction, inauguration, and carving of story reliefs in Lara Jonggrang Temple. In addition, the existence of the two reliefs is also related to the process of transfer of power in the Ancient Mataram in 9th Century AD.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 121-142; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.499

Abstract:
This study was aimed at analyzing and interpreting the instructional media existing in the classical period of the Hindu - Buddhist kingdoms. The object of the study was inscriptions found on the Semeru Slope, inclduing Widodaren, Pasrujambe, and Gerba. This study employed a qualitative method with an archeological-historical framework. The data was collected through a literature review and in-situ research of the inscriptions. The collected data was analyzed using a structural analysis in the forms of transliteration of the contents and meaning written at the inscriptions. The study found that there is evidence of the use of instructional media in teaching process. This finding is also supported by the Nāgarakṛtâgama and Bujaņga Manik manuscripts which narrate educational and moral values as one of the characteristics of instructional media. In addition, the instructional media serve as a tool support the teaching and learning process at that time.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 79-100; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.508

Abstract:
Java was once the center of Hindu and Buddhist culture around the 4th until the 15th century AD. The number of archaeological remains from this period is infinite, both monumental remains such as temples and petirtaan (water shrines/ temple), and other remains such as yoni, linga, and statues. These remains are registered systematically by the Dutch East Indies government through its Archaeological Service (Oudheidkundig Dienst). unfortunately, most of them cannot be identified for their exact present locations. Some of the remains were later discovered unexpectedly at the time of construction or agricultural work activities. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the locations of archaeological remains as reported by the Dutch Archaeological Service in the region of Magelang using the Geographic Information System (GIS) approach. This study suggests that, during the period of the Dutch East Indies, Magelang region has a very high density of Hindu-Buddhist archaeological remains. The result of this study can be used for further surveys, re-inventory, as well as protection and preservation efforts.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 23-44; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.506

Abstract:
The evidence of prehistoric life in Aceh has been proven by the results of archeological research conducted by the North Sumatra Archaeological Institute. Until now, the research only focuses on the eastern coast and the central mountains of Aceh. The western coast of Aceh, which also has the potential to provide information, has never been studied. The western coast of Aceh is an area that has a wide karst landscape with many caves that might be used as a settlement in the past. One method used to predict such caves included a topographic map, a geological map, and a digital elevation model (DEM). The inventory results of caves on the western coast of Aceh were also used as preliminary data to obtain the distribution of caves and rock shelters. In this study, the area surveyed was Aceh Besar Regency. Three parameters of inhabited caves, i.e. morphology and genesis, environment, and archaeological content, were used to describe the potential of each cave. Of eleven caves and rock shelters, three caves are qualified as the past settlement and potential for further research, four caves are qualified as the past settlement but not potential for further research, and four caves are neither qualified as a settlement nor potential for further research.
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 63-78; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.477

Abstract:
Ganesha is the best-known deity after Trimurti in the Hindu pantheon. He is worshipped as the lord of beginnings and as the lord of removing obstacles. He is sculpted in various depictions. One of them, collected by the Prambanan Temple Museum, Yogyakarta, shows a snake and a mouse as his vahana (mount/vehicle). This image has never been found anywhere else. Therefore, this study was aimed to find out the mythological story behind that depiction and to investigate the past people’s understanding of it. This descriptive study employed an iconographic analysis to analyze the collected data. The analysis results indicate that Ganesha is revered as the protector of crop yield (the harvest deity).
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 40, pp 101-120; doi:10.30883/jba.v40i1.514

Abstract:
This paper discusses the makara found at Adan-Adan Temple, Kediri. So far, it is the largest makara in Indonesia and, in terms of iconography, has distinctive features. The data was collected through detailed observations both directly in the field or through photographs. This study employed a comparative analysis, i.e. comparing the collected data to the makaras from different periods (the Ancient Matarām, the Srīwijaya, and the Siŋhasāri). From these comparisons, it is known that the makara at Adan-Adan Temple has special characteristics, i.e. different depictions between the makara on the left and the right as can be seen from the figure of a mythical creature inside the makara’s mouth, from the sculpture on the front of the makara, and on the back of the makara. This particularity may be included as an art style of the Kaḍiri period (the transitional period of from Ancient Matarām to Siŋhasāri).
Martha Setyowati
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 201-220; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.468

Abstract:
The discovery of reinforced concrete became a major breakthrough in modern construction technology in the early 20th century. In five decades reinforced concrete has developed rapidly and was used in almost all parts of the world. Reinforced concrete was first introduced in Indonesia during the colonial period. The used of reinforced concrete increased along with the construction growth in the Dutch East Indies. The used of reinforced concrete between 1901 and 1942 can be seen from the buildings and infrastructure that still exist today. However the development of reinforced concrete in Indonesia during colonial period not widely explored yet. Because of that this study aims to provide an overview of the development of reinforced concrete used during the colonial period using archaeological data and supported by historical data. This research uses secondary data sources obtained through literature study. Based on this research it can be concluded that the development of the reinforced concrete used in the colonial period showed the progress of construction technology as well as economic and social conditions at that time.
Sandy Maulana Yusuf, Indah Nurafani Syarqiyah, Naufal Raffi Arrazaq
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 235-256; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.342

Abstract:
Prambanan Temple contains local wisdom values that have not been well informed to domestic visitors. This article aims to introduce Arloka Map, an alternative communication media in a form of physical tour-map containing local wisdom values of the Prambanan Temple Area and to test the effectiveness rate of the Arloka-Map. Observation, literature studies, and instrument test methods were used to collect basic data. To determine the success rate of the proposed strategy, pre- and post-tests were conducted to 50 domestic tourist respondents. The outcomes were then analyzed by using the SPSS application. Results showed that score for visitors that were using the Arloka-Map was higher than visitors who did not use it (i.e. 8.72 vs 4.44). It was concluded that the use of the Arloka-Map assist tourists to know the values of local wisdoms at the temple’s area.
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 159-182; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.331

Abstract:
The cities of the former Kedu Residency are part of cities in Java that have experienced growth and change over time. Although not a big cities in its time, the cities of the former Kedu Residency show an important role in the interior of Central Java. Its distinctive history in the 19th and 20th centuries formed a city center with an interesting city structure to study. This study aims to study the urban centers of the former Kedu Residency, namely the City of Magelang, Purworejo, Temanggung, Wonosobo, and Kebumen through urban morphology approach by observing the forms (morpho) of the city, such as urban tissue or city shaped, road tissue, land arrangements and buildings. The morphology analysis of the city in the urban centers of the former Kedu Residency shows the interesting facts, namely the development of the city, specifically the city center, from time to time while maintaining the basic characteristics of the traditional city morphology.
Lengkong Sanggar Ginaris
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 183-200; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.269

Abstract:
One of the remains of the colonial period in Indonesia is the Dutch cemetery. The Dutch cemetery have splendid tombs, western-style decorations and gravestone written in Dutch. Dutch cemeteries can be find in cities such as Surabaya. During colonial period, Surabaya had four Dutch cemeteries in Jembatan Merah, Krembangan, Peneleh and Kembang Kuning. The aim of this study is to determine factors behind the displacement of the Dutch cemetery in Surabaya. The data in this study are including not only historical data (maps of Surabaya in 1787, 1825, 1866, and 1934), but also archives. The remaining observable cemeteries are in Peneleh and Kembang Kuning, because the Dutch cemeteries at Jembatan Merah and Krembangan have been demolished. Data from the observation are then sorted and analyzed to determine the displacement pattern and the factors behind them. The results show that there have been three Dutch cemetery displacements in Surabaya, triggered by three factors: health, unstable ground condition, and land conversion into settlement.
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 221-234; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.464

Abstract:
The struggling in the ethical issues of submerged underwater sites and underwater cultural heritage have been undertaking in Indonesia for the last two decades. During these 20 years, commercial companies in collaboration with the National Shipwreck Committee recovered and salvaged substantial numbers of material cargoes. Unfortunately, the majority of these operations occurred without the involvement of archaeologists and lack of proper and controlled archaeological methods and excavation techniques. Since 2010, the Indonesian Government has declared a moratorium that temporarily stopped all commercial survey and salvage activities, and prohibits the sale of the artefacts. Nowadays, more than 190,000 artefacts raised by salvagers are currently stored at the National Shipwreck Committee warehouses near Jakarta, in Cileungsi, West Java, Indonesia. This study attempts to illustrate the disadvantages of the commercial salvage practices and the auction of salvaged artefacts. This research also discusses some recommendations to contribute to a more ethical system of protection and the long-term management of the Indonesian maritime cultural resources, including its existing collections from salvaged shipwreck sites that are stored at the National Shipwreck Committee warehouse today.
Rian Adetiya Pratiwi , Andi Gunawan, Aris Munandar
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 139-158; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.467

Abstract:
Lampungnese are divided into two indigenous groups, namely Lampung Saibatin and Lampung Pepadun. These two groups are still divided based on their inhabited territories. The objectives of this study are to identify the characteristics and elements that form the traditional settlement landscape pattern of Lampungnese Pepadun community, and to analyze their traditional settlement landscape pattern. This research was conducted in Tiyuh (Kampung) Gedung Batin, Blambangan Umpu District, Way Kanan, Lampung. Data were collected from three important main sources, which are customary texts, traditional leaders interviews, and existing settlement artefacts. The collected data was analyzed using historical approach. The results shows that the constituent elements of the traditional Lampung Pepadun settlement consist of traditional buildings (houses, communal buildings (sesat), as well as places of worship), arable land, rivers, residential roads and burial land. Tiyuh Gedung Batin is arranged in a pattern that extends along the river flow with houses facing each other.
Daud Aris Tanudirjo , Jarwo Susetyo Edy Yuwono, Ari Mukti Wardoyo Adi
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 97-120; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.474

Abstract:
Liyangan archaeological site in the village of Purbasari, Residency Temanggung, Central Java, is an Old Mataram settlement predictably existed from around 8th to 10th century CE. In this site, which was buried by thick layers of pyroclastic materials of Gunung Sindoro eruption, various artefacts as well as stone structures are found including pavement, altars, retaining walls, water-temple, and remains of wooden structures. One of the most interesting aspect of this site is the orientation of the stone structures. Although the whole settlement was arranged to follow the sloping contour of the Mount Sindoro, most of the stone structures were oriented to southeast, which was not common for stone shrines built at the same period. This paper attempts to explain the reason for such an exceptional orientation using landscape archaeological approach. Our research demonstrates that the ten Liyangan stone structures were oriented to either Mount Merapi, Baka Hill, or the Prambanan temple. The orientation of the stone structures is believed as a reflection of the spatial map and the cosmology of the community lived in Liyangan centuries ago. It is suggested here that such an orientation represents the so-called “spiritual landscape”of the people.
Toetik Koesbardiati , Delta Bayu Murti
Published: 5 November 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 121-138; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i2.470

Abstract:
This paper focus on chewing betel quid habit that dominantly happen in the Asia to Pacific region. Betel quid leaves traces of reddish-brown colour on the teeth. It was identified that dental stain was very common on teeth of prehistoric skeletal remains, for example in Thailand and Vietnam. Several studies have shown that chewing betel nut can cause diseases in the teeth and oral cavity. The purpose of this study is to describe the relationship between betel nut chewing and the emergence of tooth pathology in teeth from the prehistoric population from Lewoleba and Liang Bua. Ten individuals were observed using the macroscopic method. The results showed that consumption of betel nut (based on dental stains) was followed by attrition, periodontitis and even antemortem tooth loss.
Dicky Caesario Wibowo
Published: 21 June 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 17-32; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.328

Abstract:
Due to its location in Gilimanuk Bay and its findings, Gilimanuk site stated for having fishers as subsistence strategy. This research uses pathological condition called enthesopathies as the primary data to induce fishing techniques as part of their daily activities. Identification enthesopathies follows procedure proposed by Hawkey & Merbs and Mariotti. Result shows only two specific techniques which can be identified through pathological condition. Those techniques are fishing with stick and spearing methods. Based on pathological conditions, early fisher’s community from Gilimanuk only developed shallow water fishing techniques. Absence of other fishing techniques indicates by artefacts and induced from enthesopathies might lead to early assumption about natural resources are widely available and easy to procure in surrounds environment.
Goenawan A. Sambodo, Maria Tri Widayati, Hery S. Purnawali
Published: 21 June 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 53-72; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.332

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to identify and analyze the efforts of the Kandang Kebo Community in handling new found inscriptions. The method used is descriptive-qualitative, combined with inductive reasoning. Structural analytic, especially Internal Criticism (transliteration, translation and interpretation) is also applied to analyse the new found inscription. Information for this study were collected from the members of Kandang Kebo community, stakeholders, and local community. Data collection were done by observation, literature study, interviews, and documentation. This study found that community which participate in maintaining cultural heritage objects is a provision in the Cultural Heritage Act no. 11 of 2010. Kandang Kebo as a society's community has been trying to apply this Act. The using of social media becomes one of the methods, with its quick and easy way; it makes new artifacts discovery easier to be known by others. Kandang Kebo then proceed this news to the office of BPCB. There are some inscriptions that are successfully saved and read by Kandang Kebo, followed by positive responses from the government.
Published: 21 June 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 33-52; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.334

Abstract:
The field study that was organized by the committee of Premodern Java Summer Programme in 2016 targeted several museums in East Java, especially in Mojokerto-Penataran area. That field study was intended to provide an understanding about the development of cultural arts during the end of Hindu-Buddhist period of Majapahit Kingdom. This paper is discussing about one of the objects that was being observed during that Summer Programme. The object of discussion is the lion-headed figure, stored in Museum Penataran. During the Summer Programme, some participants have predicted that the statue is Lord Vishnu in his Narasimha form. That prediction was mainly based on the statue's head which resemble a lion's head. Through several studies, such as the description of the statue, the literature study of iconography, and analysis about the special iconographic character, this paper concluded that this figure is a manifestation of Ganesha, named Simha-Ganapati. The worship of Simha-Ganapati has a purpose not only to bring strength and courage, but also to provide confidence in facing problems by destroying all forms of negative thoughts.
Sri Indrahti , Siti Maziyah, Alamsyah Alamsyah, Yanuar Yoga Prasetyawan
Published: 21 June 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 73-91; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.327

Abstract:
The article describes the culinary imp lic ation of offerings and d hanyang in 5 (five) villages in Jepara in the form of traditional ceremonies of Jembul Tulakan, Hari Jadi Kota Jepara, Sedekah Laut, Perang Obor, and Pesta Baratan. Only three out of five ceremonies were present ing culinary offerings as a representation of the dhanyang presence. The objective of this study is to reveal the existence of culinary offerings and d hanyang both by their food types and the intended dh anyang. This study was using a qualitative method which includes the collection of primary and secondary sources through literature study, observation, participants, structured interviews, indepth interviews, and Focus Group Discussion. The approaches which were used are anthropological and hermeneutical approaches. The study reveals a symbolic meaning from the presence of various culinaries presented to dhanyang and wishes expressed implicitly or explicitly in the ceremony. The wishes include the requests of safety, kindness, protection, etc. Recently, these wishes have shifted which caused by better knowledge, belief, and social experience of the performers towards their religion. Public belief in the power of d hanyang still exists even though it is not dominant.
Ashwin Prayudi , Rusyad Adi Suriyanto
Published: 21 June 2019
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 39, pp 1-16; doi:10.30883/jba.v39i1.337

Abstract:
Gunungwingko is an archaeological site located in Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta Province. This site was used from 0 AD to 17th century. In 1978 excavation, there were 19 isolated teeth found in excavation box T.P. Geo. IV from 170 – 220 cm in depth. The objective of this research is to identify Minimum Number Individual (MNI), and also their influences to health status and cultural point of view. The method being used for this research is bioarchaeological method with macroscopic analysis. We concluded that the MNI is four individuals based on four third left maxillary molars. Dental diseases such as dental attrition, dental caries, enamel hypoplasia, chipped tooth, and buccal pit can be observed in some of the teeth. Moreover, cultural influences also can be found in some of the teeth in form of dental modification (pangur) and betel chewing. One of the teeth showed evidence of multiple dental modification which possibly happened because of adulthood ceremonial and matrimonial/death ceremonial.
Heny Budi Setyorini, Hery Priswanto, Ahmad Surya Ramadhan, Heri Priswanto
Published: 30 November 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 172-191; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.238

Abstract:
Metal salvage and theft activities have eliminated most shipwrecks at Nusa Island, and exposed shipwrecks in Gosong Gili, Bawean Island. In order to give recommendations for its conservation efforts, this study aims to identify the remaining shipwrecks or exposed shipwrecks at Nusa Island and Gosong Gili, and the types of corals and fishes in it. This study aims to prove that shipwrecks or exposed shipwrecks is not only having historical and economical value, but also ecological value for the survival of coral reef ecosystem. This is a descriptive-explorative research, data were gathered by underwater survey using GPS Map Sounder, and SCUBA diving. Shipwrecks at Nusa Island is only 30% left in fragmented form of mast, machine, boiler, propeller, ivory vessel, and bricks in the bow area. While the exposed shipwrecks at Gosong Gili is only 20% left in fragmented form boilers, machine, and ivory vessel that might be a cultural heritage according to the UU RI Number 11 of 2010 on Cultural Heritage. At Nusa Island, the corals are consisted of Poritidae and Acroporidae families, and various species reef fishes. While at Gosong Gili, there are more coral families including Merulinidae, Poritidae and Acroporidae, but their reef fishes species are fewer than Nusa island.
Lengkong Sanggar Ginaris
Published: 30 November 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 154-171; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.282

Abstract:
One of the sugar industries in Java is PG Purworejo, which was built in 1910. Near the PG Purworejo emplacement, there are settlements for factory employees. Although there have been many archeological studies about sugar mills, but deeper study of the existence of employee settlements still few. This study aims to reconstruct the PG Purworejo emplacement settlement from 1910 to 1930. The data used in this research is in the form of all material objects or physical data left from PG Purworejo and other related data such as old archives and photos. Data that has been collected and selected, then will be decrypted, processed to be identified and then interpreted based on the theoretical framework. Altough the remains of PG Purworejo's emplacement settlements is low, but the settlement layout can still be traced based on old photo data. The results of this study show that the emplacement settlement of PG Purworejo uses the concept of industrial settlements, where employee settlements are built near industrial sites. In addition to the concept of industrial cities, the concept of colonial settlements was also applied which was marked by the separation between European workers' settlement blocks and indigenous workers.
Kayato Hardani
Published: 30 November 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 116-135; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.258

Abstract:
Proper names in general use as the individual differentiator within the community as well as the identity. Parent in giving name on their newly born baby is often based on some motivation. Proper names can be analyzed linguistically because it contains elements of the sign that serves referential as well as vocative. The proper names is a part of the human being itself, so that in every interaction within society, someone always conscious of his own identity for his own interests, the other person and society as his place of life and interaction. Diachronically the development of language, including the use of the name itself can be traced back its presence through written inscriptions in the form of inscriptions. The writing of the proper name in Poh inscription is explicitly only as a list of attendees (witnesses) who attended the inauguration ceremony. Starting from this point can be found the use of the name of the old Javanese period. This study aims to understand the construction and meaning in the proper name found in the Poh Inscription using an identity perspective. The method used in this study is descriptive qualitative which begins with observing and analyzing proper names using Sanskrit language elements.
Published: 30 November 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 136-153; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.253

Abstract:
Klaten is a region in Surakarta residency in 18-20th century during Colonial era. It held an important role in the economy of Surakarta region during that period. Klaten became area with the highest plantation productivity in Surakarta. Several plantation companies were established in Klaten, including sugar industries, indigo plantations, and tobacco plantations. Today, several plantation infrastructures can be observed, and its historical background can be traced well, but researches about Klaten Colonial industries are seldom. There are operating tobacco plantations in Klaten Regency, located in Kebonarum and Gayamprit. Plantation area in Kebonarum and Gayamprit is used as research material. Survey and historical approach are used in this research. This project aims to explore the important role of Colonial plantations in rural societies, through archaeological environment phenomenon and its history. The existence of plantations in Klaten rural areas was able to offer social change to the societies in Colonial era.
Published: 30 November 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 100-115; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i2.267

Abstract:
The development of archaeology paradigm from processual to postprocessual, influence the archaeologists thought about landscape. Sometimes, the landscape in archaeology is arduous understood because overlapping with other studies. Actually, this problem can be solved if we analyze the development of archaeology paradigm which associated with landscape study. This article attempts to discuss the ambiguity of landscape in archaeology with case study on the megalithic complex in Jambi Highland. Based on the data, it is known that: landscape in procesual study just explain the association between megalithic with burial-jars, mountains, settlements, and natural resources around it. The result which obtained in this perspective, was an explanation of megalithic function based on the relationship between sites and environment. Conversely in post-processual, attempts to interpret about megalithic complex in Jambi Higland based on individual (including researcher perception) or community perceptions. The result obtained in postprocessual, can answer questions about the unevenness of megalithic orientation and the difference of megalithic locations.
I Wayan Ardika, I Ketut Setiawan, Ign Tara Wiguna, I Wayan Srijaya
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 1-16; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.231

Abstract:
Inscription is a written record which contains regulation or law and should be obeyed by officers or functionaries and community in general. Sapatha or curse was normally written at the end of the inscription which states the punishment for those who objected the regulations or laws. People punished morally if they objected the regulations or law include seven times to be reincarnated and surfering in all their lives. Sapatha or curse was seen as a discourse in relation of power and knowledge of the kings who reigned in the Old Balinese period. This article explores the sapatha or curse in Old Balinese inscriptions dated from the IX up to XIV century. The aim of this article is to describe the relationship of power and knowledge, as well as discipline and punishment in ancient Bali. Data was gained through documentary studies and interpreted hermeneutically. Theories of ideology, knowledge and power, as well as discipline and punishment will be applied in this article.
Intan Maulida Al Barroh
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 79-96; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.247

Abstract:
Rural cultural heritages have great potential to develop, thus they need to be conserved. Conservation Village Model is a community program in forest conservation area that is combined and implemented in cultural heritage field and be called Cultural Heritage Village Model. This research contributes to the development of conceptual framework for cultural heritage conservation with the community engagement basis in the rural area. This research is literature research that focuses on the concept and framework of Cultural Heritage Village Model. The research stage began from collecting literatures. Analysis method used in this research is a qualitative method. This article will integrate data about Conservation Village Model and cultural heritage conservation. The result of this research is the emergence of Cultural Heritage Village Model concept including its vision and mission, basic principles, village model criteria, activity stages, activity focus, and Cultural Heritage Village Model succeed criteria.
Henki Riko Pratama
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 59-78; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.240

Abstract:
USAT Liberty Shipwreck is one of the underwater archaeological remains that attracts a considerable number of underwater tourism enthusiasts both locally and internationally. Despite of its popularity, the historical background of the Liberty Shipwreck remains unrevealed as well as its deposition process. This article aims to discuss the process of archaeological data formation on the wrecksite of Liberty Ships in Tulamben Waters along with the causing factors that affecting its current condition. This research used qualitative methods with inductive reasoning to explain the process of archaeological formation data. The results of this research indicate that there are two main factors affecting the process of the shipwreck formation which are; the behavioral process and the transformation process. The behavioral process occurs when the ship was still in its cultural system until it was deposited on the seafloor, this consisted of several stages: procurement, manufacture, use, abandonment and decay. Once deposited in the waters of Tulamben Beach, the Liberty Ship was affected by C-transform and N-transform factors. The main C-transform factors were the looting and diving activities, while N-transform factor consisted of the eruption of Mount Agung, the dynamics of Tulamben seashore and the process that occur under the waters.
Berkala Arkeologi
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.254

Berkala Arkeologi
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 97-99; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.256

Berkala Arkeologi
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.257

Berkala Arkeologi
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.255

Wuri Handoko, Syahruddin Mansyur
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 17-38; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.246

Abstract:
The sultanate of Tidore is not only an area of Islamic influence residing in Tidore Island, as it is widely understood all along. Tidore Sultanate, is actually one of the centers of Islamic power that has a broad influence to other areas in the Maluku Islands and in Papua. Tidore with Ternate, is the most developed region, as both are able to expand influence and control other areas. This study is a literature study, through historical data and archaeological data from previous studies, to explain the development of the Tidore Sultanate as a center of power and influence in the Tidore power periphery region. The results of the study explain, based on historical data and archaeological evidence, Tidore developed as a center of power with the character of a sultanate city, and has a broad influence to other areas both in the Maluku Islands and in Papua which is the periferinya territory or the territory of Tidore Sultanate.
Irfanuddin Wahid Marzuki
Published: 29 June 2018
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 38, pp 39-58; doi:10.30883/jba.v38i1.236

Abstract:
Gorontalo is the biggest city and the forerunner of the present Gorontalo Province. Gorontalo has been existing since traditional era, Islamic kingdoms, colonial, and up to the present. During the traditional and kingdom era, Gorontalo was the small kingdom included in Ternate area. In fact, it witnessed the changes of power during colonial era when it was excluded from Manado regency. It remained the same even until independence time, Gorontalo became the area of North Sulawesi Province until in the year 2000 became its own province. The purpose of this research is to reveal the morphological development of the city respectivelly from traditional to colonial era in addition to find out the background factor of the morphological development. This research used urban archaeology whose main studies are urban components, including urban planning as well as city life as the inseperable component. This research underwent the following steps, collecting data, analysis and interpreting data resulted in a conclusion. The data collections includes primary data and secondary one (archive, text, maps, and other literacy sources). The result suggested that during traditional era the morphological city of Gorontalo was simple, and the settlement was spreading in small groups and doesn not have a regular urban planning component. The starting point as a city with regular spatial components began during the reign of Sultan Botutihe. Subsequent developments in the colonial period of the city center moved to the south referring to the rule of law of indies.
M.Hum Gunadi Kasnowihardjo
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 36, pp 161-172; doi:10.24832/berkalaarkeologi.v36i2.234

Abstract:
Lately, the decline in the understanding of Pancasila and Bhinneka Tunggal Ika as the identity and ideology of the Indonesian nation has become a central issue that we must solve together. Diversity in ethnicity, religion, race, and customs owned by the Indonesian nation has been perceived and understood since thousands of years ago, diversities which were starting to be joined together during the Majapahit era. Mpu Tantular in his infamous Kakawin Sutasoma has written “bhinnekatunggalikatan hanadharma mangrwa”, an idea about unity in diversity. From then on, this idea has grown into nationalism spirit, which eventually became a tremendous force to repel the Dutch colonialist. Therefore these diversities must be maintained and preserved. Through a study about the past, archaeology has a role in protecting and preserving the cultural diversity to unify the nation. Akhir-akhir ini, menurunnya pemahaman tentang jatidiri dan ideologi bangsa seperti Pancasila dan Bhineka Tunggal Ika menjadi isu sentral bangsa Indonesia yang harus kita selesaikan bersama. Kebhinekaan suku, agama, ras, dan adat istiadat yang dimiliki Bangsa Indonesia telah dirasakan dan difahami sejak ribuan tahun yang lalu, yang akhirnya mengkristal pada masa Majapahit. Oleh Mpu Tantular dalam Kakawin Sutasoma pupuh 139 bait ke 5 ditulis “bhinneka tunggal ika tan hana dharma mangrwa”, suatu ide tentang kesatuan dalam keberagaman. Akhirnya, kebhinekaan yang dikemas dalam wadah nasionalisme merupakan kekuatan yang luar biasa sehingga mampu mengusir penjajah Belanda. Oleh karena itu, kebhinekaan dan keragaman harus tetap dijaga dan dilestarikan. Melalui kajian sisa-sisa rangka dan budaya manusia masa lalu, arkeologi ikut berperan dalam menjaga dan melestarikan kebhinekaan budaya sebagai pemersatu bangsa.
Laila Abdul Jalil
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 37, pp 195-207; doi:10.24832/berkalaarkeologi.v37i2.214

Abstract:
Moluccas Islands which is rich of spices has become an appeal for the foreign trades to come make a trades of spices. The first foreign traders who visited the Moluccas Island are muslim Arab traders. The entry of Islam into Jaillolo is marked by the existence of ancient gravestone in the Village of Galala and Gam Lamo. This paper aims to describe the process of entry through the variatons of ancient gravestone in Jailolo. This preliminary study used descriptive method of analysis. Kepulauan Maluku yang kaya akan rempah-rempah telah menjadi daya tarik bagi para pedagang asing untuk datang dan berdagang rempah-rempah. Pedagang asing yang pertama mendatangi Kepulauan Maluku adalah pedagang Arab muslim. Masuknya Islam ke Jailolo ditandai dengan keberadaan nisan-nisan kuno di Desa Galala dan Gam Lamo. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proses masuknya Islam melalui variasi nisan kuno di Jailolo. Penelitian awal mengenai peninggalan arkeologi Islam di Jailolo ini menggunakan metode deskriptif analisis.
Laila Abdul Jalil
Published: 26 December 2017
Berkala Arkeologi, Volume 37, pp 195-207; doi:10.30883/jba.v37i2.214

Abstract:
Moluccas Islands which is rich of spices has become an appeal for the foreign trades to come make a trades of spices. The first foreign traders who visited the Moluccas Island are muslim Arab traders. The entry of Islam into Jaillolo is marked by the existence of ancient gravestone in the Village of Galala and Gam Lamo. This paper aims to describe the process of entry through the variatons of ancient gravestone in Jailolo. This preliminary study used descriptive method of analysis.Kepulauan Maluku yang kaya akan rempah-rempah telah menjadi daya tarik bagi para pedagang asing untuk datang dan berdagang rempah-rempah. Pedagang asing yang pertama mendatangi Kepulauan Maluku adalah pedagang Arab muslim. Masuknya Islam ke Jailolo ditandai dengan keberadaan nisan-nisan kuno di Desa Galala dan Gam Lamo. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui proses masuknya Islam melalui variasi nisan kuno di Jailolo. Penelitian awal mengenai peninggalan arkeologi Islam di Jailolo ini menggunakan metode deskriptif analisis.
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