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Results in Journal IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA): 284

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Mutaz M. Hamdan, Magdi S. Mahmoud
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp235-260

Abstract:
The teleoperation system is often composed of a human operator, a local master manipulator, and a remote slave manipulator that are connected by a communication network. This paper proposes a survey on feedback control design for the bilateral teleoperation systems (BTSs) in nominal situations and in the presence of cyber-attacks. The main idea of the presented methods is to achieve the stability of a delayed bilateral teleoperation system in the presence of several kinds of cyber attacks. In this paper, a comprehensive survey on control systems for BTSs under cyber-attacks is discussed. Finally, we discuss the current and future problems in this field.
Habib Benbouhenni
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp224-234

Abstract:
The work presents the dual-rotor wind energy conversion system (DRWECS) with a direct driven doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG). The system consists of a dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT) with a DFIG, the grid side converter (GSC), and the machine side converter (MSC). To command the MSC, the direct power command (DPC) based on genetic algorithm (GA) and classical pulse width modulation (PWM) has been applied. To achieve the maximum power from the DRWT, the maximum powe point tracking (MPPT) technique has been used. The performed simulation studies confirmed the high performances of the DPC-GA contro method.
Thair Ali Salih, Mohammed Talal Ghazal, Zaid Ghanim Mohammed
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp161-169

Abstract:
Nowadays, the development of computer vision technology help to overcome track and identify humans within a location in the complex environment through mobile robots, which gives the motivation to presents a vision-based approach to a mobile security robot. The proposed system utilizes a wireless camera to detect the objects in the field of robot view. Principle component analysis (PCA) algorithm and filters are used to implement and demonstrate the process of the images. This gives the designed system the ability to recognize objects independently from current light conditions. Frame tracking in the images uses an attention system to get an estimate of the position of a person. This estimate helps the applied camera to identify objects with changing background lighting conditions such as a fire inside a building. By using this estimate, the applied camera could identify objects with changing background lighting conditions such as a fire inside premises. The system has been tested using the MATLAB environment, and the empirical performance explains the efficiency and strongness of the suggested device.
Samba Aime Herve, Yeremou Tamtsia Aurelien, Nneme Nneme Leandre
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp261-274

Abstract:
In this paper, the performance evaluation of industrial ethernet (EtherNet/IP, EtherCAT and PROFINET IRT) networks has been studied for choosing the right protocol in real-time fault detection based adaptive sliding mode observer in networked control systems (NCSs) under time network-induced delays, stochastic packet losses, access constraints and bounded disturbances. An adaptive sliding-mode observer based fault detection is presented. The dynamic hydroelectric power plant model is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method based on TrueTime and Matlab/ Simulink, corroborated our predictions that an ethernet for control automation technology (EtherCAT) protocol would be more appropriate to reduce the false alarm rate and increasing the efficiency of the remote control of industrial hydroelectric power plant.
Hachmia Faqihi, Khalid Benjelloun, Maarouf Saad, Mohammed Benbrahim, M. Nabil Kabbaj
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp192-206

Abstract:
One of the most efficient approaches to control a multiple degree-of-freedom robot manipulator is the virtual decomposition control (VDC). However, the use of the re- gressor technique in the conventionnal VDC to estimate the unknown and uncertaities parameters present some limitations. In this paper, a new control strategy of n-DoF robot manipulator, refering to reorganizing the equation of the VDC using the time delay estimation (TDE) have been investigated. In the proposed controller, the VDC equations are rearranged using the TDE for unknown dynamic estimations. Hence, the decoupling dynamic model for the manipulator is established. The stability of the overall system is proved based on Lyapunov theory. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is proved via case study performed on 7-DoF robot manipulator and com- pared to the conventionnal Regressor-based VDC according to some evalution criteria. The results carry out the validity and efficiency of the proposed time delay estimation- based virtual decomposition controller (TD-VDC) approach.
Ali Jebelli, Arezoo Mahabadi, Mustapha C. E. Yagoub
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp207-223

Abstract:
Designing and manufacturing a suitable body is one of the most effective factors in increasing the efficiency of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In fact, increasing the propulsive power of an AUV by reducing the frictional drag on its body and incre asing its maneuverability will positively affect key parts of the AUV’s hardware and software such as control system, sensors, AUV vision, batteries and thrusters. On the other hand, a suitable body should have features such as lightness, underwater vehicl e’s balance, high mechanical strength, and enough space for equipment. Therefore, the design and manufacture of the body requires a lot of analysis in terms of body material, aerodynamic calculations, etc., increases the overall cost. This paper aims to re duce the stress in the body of a Polytetrafluoroethylene ( PTFE ) underwater robot and to increase its operating depth without changing the body’s structure by using fuzzy logic to intelligently controlling the magnetic force generated by the repulsion betwe en the coil and the cylindrical magnet, which saves energy, reduces battery consumption, and increases system performance. The results show that the robot performance depth increases by more than 50% without changing the robot body structure.
Soumen Mondal, Ajoy Kumar Dutta
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp182-191

Abstract:
Laser engraving is the most non - traditional and efficient working method in the machining of materials of different geometry as compared to conventional methods. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of uArm swift pro robot operated laser engraving process on a wooden pitch board piece. However, the robot was connected with uArm Studio 1.1.22 software to perform laser engraving operation. For this purpose the effect of process parameters like spot diameter and depth of penetration were investigated with different working length of the robot end effector, measured from wooden pitch board base. Experimental observation method was used to investigate the formation of deep and light engraving pattern on the pitch board surface by measuring penetration depth and spot diameter in suitable condition. The result obtained from the experiment and statistical parameters showed a new dimension to find a suitable working length of the robot assisted laser nozzle where the laser penetration effect was clearly perceptible for the wooden material.
Milan Mihola, Zdenek Zeman, David Fojtik
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i3.pp170-181

Abstract:
The design of the arms of industrial robots and manipulators is a demanding process both in ter ms of expertise and in terms of the time required. For these reasons, algorithms have been created, with the help of which it is possible to design cross - sections of individual arms of robots and manipulators not only from the point of view of maximum allo wed deflection but also from the point of view of minimizing cross - sectional dimensions or minimizing the weight of arms. These algorithms were subsequently used in the development of the software tool RobotArmDesign, with the help of which it is possible to simplify and shorten the arm design process significantly. This tool also has a connection to the SolidWorks CAD system and its simulation tools through its API interface, making it possible to refine robot arms designs while maintaining significantly s horter design times than would be the case with commonly used procedures. This tool's capabilities were demonstrated in the design of a robot arm with an angular structure and five degrees of freedom.
Karim H. Erian, Pedro H. Regalado, James M. Conrad
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp123-132

Abstract:
This paper discusses a novel algorithm for solving a missing data problem in the machine learning pre-processing stage. A model built to help lenders evaluate home loans based on numerous factors by learning from available user data, is adopted in this paper as an example. If one of the factors is missing for a person in the dataset, the currently used methods delete the whole entry therefore reducing the size of the dataset and affecting the machine learning model accuracy. The novel algorithm aims to avoid losing entries for missing factors by breaking the dataset into multiple subsets, building a different machine learning model for each subset, then combining the models into one machine learning model. In this manner, the model makes use of all available data and only neglects the missing values. Overall, the new algorithm improved the prediction accuracy by 5% from 93% accuracy to 98% in the home loan example.
Waleed Khalid Al-Azzawi
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp144-148

Abstract:
Stepper motors are broadly utilized in actual systems, which are marked by non-linear parameters such as internal, external noises and uncertainties from wireless network. As well, a suitable controller is required when the problem is to track the target signal. In this paper, robust controller based on model reference are investigated to wireless control and optimize position and time in stepper motors. The core impression to build a robust controller is to use a model reference control system. Furthermore, simulations are implemented to control stepper motor position and time in two cases: first, when the wireless network without any delay and packet dropout. Second, uncertain equations when the wireless network with time delays and packet dropout. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed controller has achieved and enhanced the performance in tracking and robustness.
Nira Mawangi Sarif, Rafidah Ngadengon, Herdawatie Abdul Kadir, Mohd Hafiz A. Jalil, Khalid Abidi
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp104-113

Abstract:
Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) are underwater robotic devices intended to explore hostiles territories in underwater domain. AUVs research gaining popularity among underwater research community because of its extensive applications and challenges to overcome unpredictable ocean behavior. The aim of this paper is to design discrete time terminal sliding mode control (DTSMC) reaching law-based employed to NPS AUV II purposely to improve the dynamic response of the closed loop system. This is accomplished by introducing a nonlinear component to sliding surface design in which the system state accelerated, and chattering effect is suppressed. The nonlinear component consist of fractional power is to ensure steeper slope of the sliding surface in the vicinity of the equilibrium point which lead to quicker convergence speed. Thus, the chattering effect in the control action suppressed as the convergence of the system state accelerated. The stability of the control system is proven by using Sarpturk analysis and the performance of the DTSMC is demonstrated through simulation study. The performance of DTSMC is benchmarked with DSMC and PID controller
Ahmed Hassan, Rao M. Asif, , Zuhaib Nishtar, Mohammed K. A. Kaabar, Khan Afsar
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp75-90

Abstract:
Water plays a significant role among other existing natural resources. The daily demand for water supplies is increasingly on the rise as the population grows. To minimize the consumption of water in irrigation, several proposals were suggested. The currently existing system known as the automated irrigation system for effective water resource use with the prediction of the weather (AISWP) functions with a single farm that lacks the reliability in the precision of weather forecasting. So, a robot-based irrigation system has been proposed to improve the performance of the system. To minimize the water usage for crops, an automated irrigation system has been developed which irrigates the field in acres. An additional characteristic of the system has also been given for the soil pH measurement to allow the use of fertilizers accordingly. The solar-powered robot is managed wirelessly by a designated application. The robot is attached with various sensors and with a highresolution camera that tests crop conditions and senses the soil state. The application has been created to provide information about the soil’s condition such as temperature level, humidity level, water level, and level of nutrients to the PC/Laptop with the real-time values via the GSM module.
Yunfei Fang, Shengzhi Du, Larbi Boubchir, Karim Djouani
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp133-143

Abstract:
Small unmanned aerial vehicles applications had erupted in many fields including conservation management. Automatic object detection methods for such aerial imagery were in high demand to facilitate more efficient and economical wildlife management and research. This paper aimed to detect hoofed animals in aerial images taken from a quad-rotor in Southern Africa. Objects captured in this way were small both in absolute pixels and from an object-to-image ratio point of view, which were not perfectly suit for general purposed object detectors. We proposed a method based on the iconic Faster region-based convolutional neural networks (R-CNN) framework with atrous convolution layers in order to retain the spatial resolution of the feature map to detect small objects. A good choice of anchors was of prime importance in detecting small objects. The performance of the proposed Faster R-CNN with atrous convolutional filters in the backbone network was proven to be outstanding in our scenario by comparing to other object detection architectures.
Manjunath K. E., Yogeen S. Honnavar, Rakesh Pritmani, Sethuraman K.
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp114-122

Abstract:
The objective of this work is to develop methodologies to detect, and report the noncompliant images with respect to indian space research organisation (ISRO) recruitment requirements. The recruitment software hosted at U. R. rao satellite centre (URSC) is responsible for handling recruitment activities of ISRO. Large number of online applications are received for each post advertised. In many cases, it is observed that the candidates are uploading either wrong or non-compliant images of the required documents. By non-compliant images, we mean images which do not have faces or there is not enough clarity in the faces present in the images uploaded. In this work, we attempt to address two specific problems namely: 1) To recognise image uploaded to recruitment portal contains a human face or not. This is addressed using a face detection algorithm. 2) To check whether images uploaded by two or more applications are same or not. This is achieved by using machine learning (ML) algorithms to generate similarity score between two images, and then identify the duplicate images. Screening of valid applications becomes very challenging as the verification of such images using a manual process is very time consuming and requires large human efforts. Hence, we propose novel ML techniques to determine duplicate and non-face images in the applications received by the recruitment portal.
Ammar N. Abbas, Muhammad Asad Irshad
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp149-160

Abstract:
Robotic arms are considered as a cantilever beam fixed at one end and due to the length-to-weight ratio, it has a significant vibration-induced that needs to be controlled to achieve accurate position, speed control and to increase its efficiency. In this project, a discretized Timoshenko beam model is used to discuss the dynamics of the system. Further, to implement the control on the hardware an experimental setup is fabricated to observe the open-loop and closed-loop responses of the beam made of low-density polyethylene. An accelerometer as a feedback sensor is attached at one end of the flexible beam while another end is fixed at the moving cart having DC motor as an actuator. Simulink is used as the programming tool to perform all of the experimentation. Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) tuning is performed. Following that open-loop responses of the deflection of the beam parallel to the motion are observed with different input waveforms. By applying a proportional control scheme, another experiment is performed to demonstrate the disturbance rejection with an accelerometer as a feedback sensor, while ignoring position control. Finally, a PD and P based parallel control scheme is proposed to obtain simultaneously both position control and vibration reduction.
Maincer Dihya, Mansour Moufid, Boudjedir Chemseddine, Bounabi Moussaab
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i2.pp91-103

Abstract:
Fault detection in robotic manipulators is necessary for their monitoring and represents an effective support to use them as independent systems. This present study investigates an enhanced method for representation of the faultless system behavior in a robot manipulator based on a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural network learning model which produces the same behavior as the real dynamic manipulator. The study was based on generation of residue by contrasting the actual output of the manipulator with those of the neural network; Then, a time delay control (TDC) is applied to compensate the fault, in which a typical sliding mode command is used to delete the time delay estimate produced by the belated signal in order to obtain strong performances. The results of the simulations performed on a model of the SCARA arm manipulator, showed a good trajectory tracking and fast convergence speed in the presence of faults on the sensors. In addition, the command is completely model independent, for both TDC and MLP neural network, which represents a major advantage of the proposed command.
Amgad Muneer, Zhan Dairabayev
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp68-74

Abstract:
Wall painting is a repetitive, stressful, and hazardous process that makes it an ideal automation case. In the automotive industry, painting had been automated but not yet for the construction industry. However, there is a strong need for a mobile robot that can move to paint residential interior walls. In this study, we aim to design and implement an automatic painting mobile robot. The conceptual design of the proposed wall painting robot consisting paint mechanism with a spray gun and ultrasonic sensor. The spray gun is attached to a pulley mechanism that has linear motion. The ultrasonic sensor is used to detect the spray gun when it reached a certain limit. The DC motor rotates clockwise and counterclockwise based on the ultrasonic sensor condition made. The experimental results indicate that the robot was able to paint the walls smoothly vertically, and horizontally. The spraying gun structure's speed is at a tolerable speed of 0.07 m/s, which could be increased, but to provide high-quality painting without any gaps, the current speed was selected as the most suitable, without any harm to the working process.
Chiebuka T. Nnodim, Micheal O. Arowolo, Blessing D. Agboola, Roseline O. Ogundokun, Moses K. Abiodun
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp24-31

Abstract:
Presently, the move towards a more complex and multidisciplinary system development is increasingly important in order to understand and strengthen engineering approaches for the systems in the engineering field. This will lead to the effective and successful management of these systems. The scientific developments in computer engineering, simulation and modeling, electromechanical motion tools, power electronics, computers and informatics, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), microprocessors, and distributed system platforms (DSPs) have brought new challenges to industry and academia. Important aspects of designing advanced mechatronic products include modeling, simulation, analysis, virtual prototyping, and visualization. Competition on a global market includes the adaptation of new technology to produce better, cheaper, and smarter, scalable, multifunctional goods. Since the application area for developing such systems is very broad, including, for example, automotive, aeronautics, robotics or consumer products, and much more, there is also the need for flexible and adaptable methods to develop such systems. These dynamic interdisciplinary systems are called mechatronic systems, which refer to a system that possess synergistic integration of Software, electronic, and mechanical systems. To approach the complexity inherent in the aspects of the discipline, different methods and techniques of development and integration are coming from the disciplines involved. This paper will provide a brief review of the history, current developments and the future trends of mechatronics in general view.
, Saurabh Chaudhury
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp51-58

Abstract:
A multiplier circuit is one of the most important functional blocks of many nano-electronic, control and automation applications. In this work, an energy-efficient multiplier is reported based on a 3:2 compressor. The multiplier has been designed in three different parts. In the first part, a partial product (PP) generator is used. In the second part, the partial products are reduced which is termed as PPP (partial product processing). Whereas in the third step final addition is performed. PPs are produced by using AND gates. The PPP is designed in two-phase. In the first phase, the Wallace tree logarithm has been used to reduce the PPs. Whereas, in the second phase the PPs are reduced by using energy-efficient half adder and 3:2 compressor. At last, in the third step, by using a carry-save adder final addition has been computed. The performance analysis of the designed multiplier is evaluated and compared with other multiplier circuits. The multiplier shows performance improvements by 20.55%-46% for the power supply variation from 1.2 V to 0.6 V. All the simulations and analyses have been carried out by using the Synopsys EDA tool.
Guozhong Dai, Jiajing Xu, Shujin Li, Xiongwei Li, Guicai Shi, Weicheng Shi
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp59-67

Abstract:
Finite element method is an efficient numerical calculation method based on information technology, which can be used to solve complex equations in various problems. At present, the finite element method is mainly used to deal with seepage problems in dams, while there is less study on seepage in landfill. In this paper, finite element method is used to analyze the seepage of cut-off wall of a landfill in Jiangsu Province, and the movement of landfill leachate in cut-off wall under different conditions is simulated. The simulation results show that The cut-off wall can effectively slow down the seepage velocity of leachate; Under different conditions, the maximum gradient of the cut-off wall are 18.68 and 13.84 respectively, which conforms to Chinese national standard. Therefore, the design of cut-off wall is safe and reasonable, and filtration erosion will not occur; This simulation method combined with information technology can provide new solutions and ideas for other projects to verify safety and rationality.
Adnan Rafi Al Tahtawi, Erick Andika, Wildan Nurfauzan Harjanto
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp1-9

Abstract:
This paper presents a pair of portable wireless nodes for a smart agricultural system to control and monitor the agricultural parameters based on Internet of Things (IoT). This system utilizes low-cost wireless communication through an nRF24L01 module between the sensor node and the controller node. The sensor node is placed on the agricultural area with a Li-Ion battery as a power supply, while the controller node is placed at the control and monitoring station. On the sensor node, there is a YL-69 soil moisture sensor and DS18B20 temperature sensor, while in the controller node there is a relay that can set watering on/off condition. In the controller node, there is also an ESP8266 WiFi module that serves to send data to the internet cloud for user monitoring. Both hardware nodes are built in small and portable size. The experimental result shows that the sensor node can transmit soil moisture and temperature data via RF wireless communication to the controller node. Watering is done automatically based on the condition of sensor values. In addition, this system can also be monitored through a website interface, so the users can easily find out the condition of their plant as long as there is internet access.
Sateesh K. Vavilala, Vinopraba Thirumavalavan
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp10-23

Abstract:
This paper proposes a fractional order controller (FOC) for the level control problem of the coupled tank system, using the desired time domain specifications. The coupled tank system is used in the chemical industries for the storage and mixing of liquids. The FOC is designed analytically using the direct synthesis method. In the direct synthesis method, the Bode's ideal loop transfer function is chosen as the desired transfer function. Bode's loop transfer function has the advantages like robustness to system gain variations, constant phase and very high gain margin. Performance of the proposed controller is compared with the state of the art literature. Simulation results showed that the proposed controller has the least peak overshoot. The robust performance of the proposed controller is also the best. Robust stability of the system with the proposed controller is verified, and the system is found to be robustly stable.
Rahman Atiqur
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp41-50

Abstract:
The ideas of shrewd urban communities have consistently been a fantasy. There have been headways produced using the recent years to make a shrewd city dream to reality with the advancement of innovation, smart gadgets are getting increasingly normal in regular daily existence. In this paper a radio frequency identification (RFID) based smart parking system using Internet of Things (IoT) innovation is actualized. The ultrasonic sensors are set before the parking spots and speaker is utilized for sign. On the off chance that the parking space is vacant, at that point light emitting diode (LED) will squint and the parking opening is full LED will be OFF. At the point when vehicle is left the RFID will peruse the data and cut the particular sum and by utilizing IoT location will be sent through short message service (SMS) to proprietor using global system for mobile communications (GSM) and global positioning system (GPS) advancements.
U. I. Bature, N. M. Tahir, A. K. Abubakar, A. Makama
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 10; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v10i1.pp32-40

Abstract:
Objects can easily be remotely sensed, monitored and controlled when home is automated using the Internet of Things (IoT); this will give room for direct integration of the real world into computerized systems. Energy consumption is defined as the degree of the amount of power expended by a given load in an electric circuit. Nowadays, inefficient techniques used in monitoring and control of power consuming devices has contributed immensely in the high rate of power consumption in our homes, institutions, business places, and marketplaces. The design and implementation of an IoT-based home automation, energy management and smart security system has been proposed in this paper. The components used in the development of the system unit include an ESP8266 Wi-Fi component and the universal Arduino imbedded controller. The proposed scheme is aimed at assisting and supporting an efficient usage of power, and by doing so, power consumption as well as the risk of fire outbreaks will be greatly reduced to the barest minimal. The capability of remotely monitoring and controlling both electrical and electronic appliances via a web application is the main feature of the proposed scheme. The scheme provides better efficiency and accuracy as well as economic benefits.
Nasir Ahmed Alawaad
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 281-291; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp281-291

Abstract:
Steam turbine is viewed as a standout among hotspots for control age in the most recent decades, its elements examination end up being dynamically more basic. For this investigation, the model chose is of turbine speed control framework. The purpose behind this is that model is regularly experienced in refineries in a type of steam turbine that utilization hydraulic governor to control the speed of the turbine. To suit plan prerequisites, a mathematical model for the turbine was determined in light of transfer function and state space definition. There are two sorts of controllers for steam turbines which are traditional and modern controllers. Internal mode control with proportional integral derivative (IMC-PID) and linear quadratic controller (LQR) are classical type. Fuzzy logic controller (FLC) and intelligent optimization techniques like, ant colony algorithm (ACOA) and genetic algorithm (GA) are modern type. The proposed work centers on classical verses modern controllers. Results got demonstrate that embracing such a controller (GA) improves the design requirements and transient stability. The system control was actualized in simulation utilizing MATLAB/Simulink.
Wander M. Martins, Antonio J. Dantas Filho, Leandro D. De Jesus, Adler D. De Souza, ,
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 233-243; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp233-243

Abstract:
Power transmission lines are of great importance for the operation of all sectors of society, such as commerce, industry and public agencies. To ensure reliability and availability of power supply, regular and occasional inspections are conducted, mostly using patrol with binoculars, helicopters or truck cranes. Research is being developed using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) to make this activity autonomous, faster, safer, and less costly. The present work aims to analyze research related to the autonomous control of the UAV along the transmission lines through a systematic review of the literature (SRL), apply a viable solution and to verify the possible lacuna in this state of the art. Improvements in safety, computational process and energy efficiency with low-cost were identified. The results presented can help the research community to perform the working this state of art, from the suggestions of autonomous tracking of transmission lines.
Tamanna E Kaonain, Mohd Azizi Abdul Rahman, Mohd Hatta Mohammed Ariff, Kuheli Mondal
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 300-310; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp300-310

Abstract:
In human-robot interaction, the use of collaborative robots or cobots in many industries is of major importance to researchers in human-robot interaction (HRI). The interaction between human robot carries several challenges, the greatest being the risk of human injury. In addition to reducing the proximity between robots and humans, increased difficulty of human-robot encounters raises the likelihood of accidents only. This paper proposes a virtual collaborative robot in the simulated non-industrial workspace. The safety during human-robot interaction using simulation software was investigated by measuring the risks for planning and control. A reactive robot controller was formulated to minimize the risk during human-robot interaction. A Gazebo software is used in this article, written in Python language, to replicate complex environments that a robot can face. This paper also investigated the robot’s speed. It can be reduced before a collision with a human about to happen, and it minimized the risk of the collision or reduced the damage of the risk. After the successful simulation, this can be applied to the real robot in a practical domestic environment.
Chi Nguyen Van
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 271-280; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp271-280

Abstract:
This paper presents the active suspension system (ASS) control method using the adaptive cascade control scheme. The control scheme is implemented by two control loops, the inner control loop and outer control loop are designed respectively. The inner control loop uses the pole assignment method in order to move the poles of the original system to desired poles respect to the required performance of the suspension system. To design the controller in the inner loop, the model without the noise caused by the road profile and velocity of the car is used. The outer control loop then designed with an adaptive mechanism calculates the active control force to compensate for the vibrations caused by the road profile and velocity of the car. The control force is determined by the error between states of the reference model and states of suspension systems, the reference model is the model of closed-loop with inner control loop without the noise. The simulation results implemented by using the practice date of the road profile show that the capability of oscillation decrease for ASS is quite efficient
Hitesh Mohapatra
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 251-255; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp251-255

Abstract:
In this paper, an offline drone instrumentalized ambulance (ODIA) mechanism has been discussed. The rapid increase in the urban population directly influences every sector of society. The sectors are maybe food, health care, education, transportation, etc. Normally, it has been observed that when any accidents happen on the urban road or any remote places then, the availability of immediate medical help is very rare. It is not because of the unaware or unavailability of medical facilities rather it happens because of overcrowding on the urban road and geographical odd-isolation of places. Hence, here an ODIA concept has been discussed which uses offline maps and offline first-aid medical videos through which immediate medical help can be made available at the patient end. This model helps to save the life of an accident victim by providing immediate medical attention. The key strength of ODIA is, it is independent of internet service that is why it is more suitable for harsh and hostile environments.
Freddy Artadima Silaban, Setiyo Budiyanto, Lukman Medriavin Silalahi
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 292-299; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp292-299

Abstract:
The development of technology and industry development in the 4.0 era is very fast along with these developments in the control of production results such as medicine, food, and safety must be faster and more accurate. To face free trade and global economic competition, every company is required to produce products that have good quality by the standards. By using an experimental method which is the development of this study aims to make a conductive material detector (metal detector) for the pharmaceutical industry, the food industry, and security as compared to using conductive material sensors that are integrated with the Arduino microcontroller. Application testing is carried out to find out whether the Blynk application on an android smartphone with Blynk on a Debian server that has been made previously runs well or not and the alarm system testing uses a buzzer and LED to detect conductive material passing through. Conductive sensor test results showed that the instrument can detect 6 conductivity materials such as stainless steel, aluminum, steel, zinc, copper, and tin. The average response time to detect conductive material is 3 seconds, the average ADC value of the conductive material is 0.55. The test results also successfully send information and data to the Blynk application so that it can be monitored online.
Ata Jahangir Moshayedi, Mahyar Gheibollahi, Liefa Liao
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 256-270; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp256-270

Abstract:
In the last decade, because of the unique specification of vertical fliers, scientists and researchers had a special focus on them. The particular abilities of these fliers can be mentioned such as: high maneuver ability, low expenses, decrease in radar identifier and low threat for the human life. They also have no limitation in dimension. Moreover, because of some applications like photography, topography, news coverage, study of power lines and aerology analysis, they can be notable for using. These fliers also are significantly important because of monitoring in urban regions, agricultural harvest and spray poison, illegal imports, exports administration and fire distinction in order to control the fire. Besides, seek and rescue missing people and also natural disasters can be pre-determined which causes stimulus investigators to act and put different topics in front of them. One of these fields is using meta-heuristic algorithms with the capability of using in control systems. The PID controller as a classic model has some limitations, but by optimization of special index through meta-heuristic algorithms, it has shown acceptable results. In this study, first, the history of vertical fliers and quadrotor are investigated. Then, after a review of overused methods, the quadrotor control has been done. Afterward, the cinematic and dynamic of quadrotor is presented. Next by designing of PID controller, PID index optimization by nature inspired algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithms (GA), and firefly algorithms (FA) have been studied. Dynamic system, controller and mentioned optimization methods of PID controller index have also been implemented in MATLAB software. Also, with due attention to the comparison criteria the PID-PSO controller has shown the best performance. Next, by applying challenging routes, the stability of controller in the simulation is evaluated. Then, making quadrotor is done in practice along with introducing the used implementation of PID-PSO controller results on the real robot, and its stability is evaluated practically.
, Adedayo S. Akinade, Kingsley C. Obianefo
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i4.pp244-250

Abstract:
This work developed a cost-effective framework for agriculturists to regularly monitor their crops against intruding rodents and other security concerns using modern drone technology through configuration and deployment of an autonomous UAV which also functions as a remotely piloted vehicle. This was done by configuring a quadcopter capable of causing a disturbance when a rodent is observed through an inbuilt alarm system whose sound is amplified to be loud enough to cause the animals to leave the farm area. A framework for real-time image and live video transmission from the farm to a designated remote base station was developed. This was achieved through programming codes that configured the drone to operate an intelligent alarm and object tracking systems which enables a live feed from the UAV using Arduino IDE and Mission Planner for autonomous flight control. The requisite algorithms were developed using the framework of tracking, learning and detection (TLD) in the OpenCV software. The drone movement is equally controlled remotely over a Wi-Fi network using an ESP8266 Wi-Fi module for redirection and controlling of the drone movement to monitor specific locations.
Javier Dario Sanjuan De Caro, Mohammad Rahman, Ivan Rulik
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 153-159; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp153-159

Abstract:
Dobot is a hybrid robot that combines features from parallel and serial robots. Because of this characteristic, the robot excels for is reliability, allowing its implementation in diverse applications. Therefore, researchers have studied its kinematics to improve its capabilities. However, to the extent of our knowledge, no analysis has been reported taking into consideration the closed-loop configuration of Dobot. Thus, this article presents the complete analytical solution for the forward kinematics of Dobot, considering each link. The results are expected to be utilized in the development of a dynamical model that contemplates the dynamics of each element of the robot.
Khongsak Srasrisom, Pramot Srinoi, Seksan Chaijit, Fasai Wiwatwongwana
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 178-189; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp178-189

Abstract:
The application of robot simulation tools for modelling, analysis and improvement of existing industrial manufacturing cells is presented with reference to the development and implementation of the digital factory concept. A real case study of aerosol can packaging and palletizing cell scenario in the metal can manufacturing industry for containing food and products is used as a reference in this paper. For studying manual aerosol can packaging and palletizing conditions of the worker, a detailed time and motion analysis of workers is carried out. On the basis of cycle time analysis results, an alternative to the manual operation, a more sophisticated automated packaging and palletizing system is suggested. A proposed system which uses a robotic manipulator including automated production machine and devices are also developed and tested. The viability of the suggested system is checked through simulation and cycle time analysis. A fuzzy logic software, MATLAB is employed in order to analyse the actual system’s behaviour in terms of productivity, and utilization of the available facilities. The 3D simulation software, DELMIA V6 is additionally employed to perform a detailed design phase of the manufacturing cell. From the simulation results, this gives a rough approximation that the production of one robotized manipulator, and automated packaging and palletizing cell is equal to the production of about 4.3 manual packaging and palletizing cells. These results have shown the need for change to automation in the aerosol can packaging and palletizing system.
Ezeofor Chukwunazo Joseph, Georgewill Oyengiye Moses
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 196-210; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp196-210

Abstract:
Tethered underwater robot (TUR) for underwater vessel anchor release is presented. In off-shore oil and gas enviromnment, there has been series of reported cases on stuck vessel anchors after mooring operations and divers are sent to release these anchors for the vessels to be in motion. The use of divers to perform such function is very risky because of human limitation and some divers have been reported dead on the process due to high pressure underwater or being attacked by underwater wide animals. This has caused very serious panic to the vessel owners and hence, this work is aimed to develop TUR that would be used by the vessel operators instead of divers to release the stuck anchor without loss. The underwater robot system comprises of three basic sections namely graphical user control interface (GUCI) that would be installed in the operator’s laptop, the WiFi LAN router for network connection, and TUR system hardware and software. Each of these sections was strictly designed. Various high-level programming languages were employed to design the GUCI and code the interface buttons, robot controller program codes etc. The implementation carried out and the prototype system tested in the University of Port Harcourt’s swimming pool of 6m depth for validation. The robot performed extremely good in swimming and release of constructed anchor underwater.
Ahmed J. Abougarair, Ali S. Elmolihi
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 160-170; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp160-170

Abstract:
Robots have been used in many applications in the past few decades. Moreover, due to high nonlinearity behavior of these systems, an optimal and robust control design approaches have been considered to stabilize and improve their performance and robustness. The uncertainties of the time delay on the output states of the mobile robot system have a significant influence on the system nominal performance. As a result, the work becomes here to address the influence of these uncertainties on the robot system performance. In order to achieve this objective, the nonlinear controller via sliding mode control (SMC) is designed by selecting a suitable sliding surface dynamics in which the considered robot displacement and tilt angle are sliding on. The lyapunov function is considered here to accomplish the design of the sliding control signals for robot stabilization. Furthermore, the stability of the considered system is guaranteed due to convergence of the lyapunov functions into zero when the state trajectories tend to desired set points. In addition, we consider the trajectory tracking and stabilization of TWBMR system using parallel double loop PID controllers whose controllers gains are tuning via linear quadratic regulator (LQR) approach. Finally, to demonstrate the effectiveness of SMC and PID-LQR design methods, the comparison is carried out when the nominal and uncertain conditions.
Kanagasabai Lenin
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 190-195; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp190-195

Abstract:
In this work, air cloud (AC) algorithm is used to solve the optimal reactive power problem. Clouds shape in numerous ways. Convective clouds are created when moist air is warmed and expand into floating. Air raises haulage water vapour and within it expands and gets cooled as it goes. As the temperature and pressure of the air diminish, its saturation point – the equilibrium level of evaporation and condensation – is reduced. Every x is one cloud droplet, and qualitative characteristic of one cloud is explained by the three digital character (Ex, En, He), droplets number n, where Ex (Expected value), En (Entropy) and He (Hyper entropy) of one cloud determine centre position of cloud, cover range of cloud and thickness of cloud equally. Projected AC algorithm has been tested in standard IEEE 14, 57, 300 bus systems and simulations results show the better performance of the proposed algorithm in reducing the real power loss.
Angel Gil, , Eladio Dapena, Rafael Rivas
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 220-232; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp220-232

Abstract:
This article describes an emotional model for a general-purpose robot operating in a multi-robot system with emergent behavior. The model considers four basic emotions: anger, rejection, sadness and joy, plus a neutral emotional state, which affect the behavior of the robot, both individually and collectively. The emotional state of each robot in the system is constructed through the conjunction of a series of factors related to their individual and collective actions, which are: safety, load, acting and interaction, which serve as input to an emotional process that results in an index of satisfaction of the robot that establishes the emotional state in which it is in a certain moment. The emotional state of a robot influences its interactions with the other robots and with the environment, that is, it determines its emergent behavior in the system. This paper presents the design of this model, and establishes some considerations for its implementation.
Hosam Alamleh, Ali Abdullah S. Alqahtani
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 211-219; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp211-219

Abstract:
Mobile devices can sense different types of radio signals. For example, broadcast signals. These broadcasted signals allow the device to establish a connection to the access point broadcasting it. Moreover, mobile devices can record different physical layer measurements. These measurements are an indication of the service quality at the point they were collected. These measurements data can be aggregated to form physical layer measurement maps. These maps are useful for several applications such as location fixing, navigation, access control, and evaluating network coverage and performance. Crowdsourcing can be an efficient way to create such maps. However, users in a crowdsourcing application tend to have different devices with different capabilities, which might impact the overall accuracy of the generated maps. In this paper, we propose a method to build physical layer measurements maps by crowdsourcing physical layer measurements, GPS locations, from participating mobile devices. The proposed system gives different weights to each data point provided by the participating devices based on the data source’s trustworthiness. Our tests showed that the different models of mobile devices return GPS location with different location accuracies. Consequently, when building the physical layer measurements maps our algorithm assigns a higher weight to data points coming from devices with higher GPS location accuracy. This allows accommodating a wide range of mobile devices with different capabilities in crowdsourcing applications. An experiment and a simulation were performed to test the proposed method. The results showed improvement in crowdsourced map accuracy when the proposed method is implemented.
Hany Ibrahim Shousha, Abdelsamie B. Kotb
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 171-177; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i3.pp171-177

Abstract:
As there is no system driven especially for the two-phase induction motor fed from unbalanced two-phase supply yet, so we start for derivation the system equations for the said motor to be generally used even for the balanced or unbalanced two-phase supply. In this paper, we will derive a system equation starting from the sequence equivalent circuit for the forward and backwards equivalent circuits, then we will re-arrange the equations with some mathematical assumptions which will lead us to the new system equations. first for the voltage equations then for the current equations and finally for both power and torque equations. Moreover, we will put an example which will cover all cases with specific values and relations charts.
Yi-Chang Wu, Jih-Wei Lee, Huan-Chun Wang
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 84-93; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp84-93

Abstract:
As an initial trial and in response to a lack of technological applications in government agencies, we have developed three multifunctional robots in accordance with the work environment and the nature of our tasks. Search site monitoring robot is fitted with a panoramic camera and large wheels for walk-around search site monitoring. Suspect guarding robot follows and guards a suspect by tracking an augmented reality marker worn by the suspect and identifying the human body through an infrared thermal camera. For the evidence identification robot, You Only Look Once (YOLO) is utilized to identify some specific evidence on search site and is equipped with a carrier and a high-torque motor for evidence transportation; it is set to issue warnings and emails to relevant personnel on specific emergencies. We have performed multiple experiments and tests to confirm the robots’ effectiveness, verifying their applicability of technological task support in government agencies.
Aistis Augustaitis, Vytautas Jurėnas
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 113-122; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp113-122

Abstract:
Trunk type robots (TTRs) are exclusive. These robots can provide a high level of maneuverability and have a potential in medicine or high risk zones. TTRs are determined as a long serial linkage of similar segments. They are usually connected using tendons or small actuators. A spherical actuator is the most appreciable option. The motion of real spherical actuator (RSA) can be easily obtained applying an inverse piezoelectric effect. It has three independent spinning axes. These axes are perpendicular to each other despite the history of excitation. Kinematics and dynamics of RSA almost have no basics regardless of mentioned features. This situation can be explained according to common disadvantages of other SAs: sophisticated structure and complex control. The structures and abilities of TTRs are reviewed in the first section of this article. At the beginning of the fourth section the kinematics of piezoelectric TTR with two different RSAs is introduced. Its results of inverse dynamics using Euler-Lagrange equations are presented at the end of the fourth section. Similar results are derived using an analytical-potential method in the fifth section. It is quite accurate and effective option to determine inverse dynamics of the TTR employing an analytical-potential method.
, Shuangshuang Fan, Christopher K.H. Chin, Shuhong Chai, Neil Bose
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 94-112; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp94-112

Abstract:
Particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based algorithms are suitable for path planning of the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) due to their high computational efficiency. However, such algorithms may produce sub-optimal paths or require higher computational load to produce an optimal path. This paper proposed a new approach that improves the ability of PSO-based algorithms to search for the optimal path while maintaining a low computational requirement. By hybridizing with differential evolution (DE), the proposed algorithms carry out the DE operator selectively to improve the search ability. The algorithms were applied in an offline AUV path planner to generate a near-optimal path that safely guides the AUV through an environment with a priori known obstacles and time-invariant non-uniform currents. The algorithm performances were benchmarked against other algorithms in an offline path planner because if the proposed algorithms can provide better computational efficiency to demonstrate the minimum capability of a path planner, then they will outperform the tested algorithms in a realistic scenario. Through Monte Carlo simulations and Kruskal-Wallis test, SDEAPSO (selective DE-hybridized PSO with adaptive factor) and SDEQPSO (selective DE-hybridized Quantum-behaved PSO) were found to be capable of generating feasible AUV path with higher efficiency than other algorithms tested, as indicated by their lower computational requirement and excellent path quality.
Myeong In Seo, Woo Jin Jang, Junhwan Ha, Kyongtae Park, Dong Hwan Kim
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 123-134; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp123-134

Abstract:
This study introduces the control method of duct cleaning robot that enables real-time position tracking and self-driving over L-shaped and T-shaped duct sections. The developed robot has three legs and is designed to flexibly respond to duct sizes. The position of the robot inside the duct is identified using the UWB communication module and the location estimation algorithm. Although UWB communication has relatively large distance error within the metal, the positional error was reduced by introducing appropriate filters to estimate the robot position accurately. TCP/IP communication allows commands to be sent between the PC and the robot and to receive live images of the camera attached to the robot. Using Haar-like and classifiers, the robot can recognize the type of duct that is difficult to overcome, such as L-shaped and T-shaped duct, and it moves successfully inside the duct according to the corresponding moving algorithms.
Hishantkumar Rashmikantbhai Patel, Yashavant Patel
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 135-142; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp135-142

Abstract:
Parallel Manipulators (PMs) are family members of modern manipulators based on the closed loop structural architecture. 3-PRS (prismatic, revolute, spherical) manipulator with 3DOF is investigated for its machining capability on prismatic surfaces as it possesses greater structural stiffness, higher pay load caring capacity, more precision compare to serial manipulators as well as less accumulation of errors at joints within a constrained workspace. The said manipulator can be utilized in various fields of application such as precise manufacturing, medical surgery, space technology and many more. In this paper, the primary focus on usage of parallel manipulator in industrial applications such as drilling and grooving on inclined work part surface. Inverse kinematic solutions are used for drilling, square and round profiles on inclined surface using parallel manipulator.
, Kamel Guedri, Mowffaq Oreijah, Shadi Munshi, Sufyan Azam
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 143-152; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp143-152

Abstract:
The motivation behind this project is that firefighter's death. Many firefighters are struggling to perform their duty which causes much death while on a mission and the circumstances related to each incident. Firefighters are our heroes and our sense of security in times of trouble. They put themselves on dangerous situations to protect us. At present, the world is moving toward the use of technologies software and hardware. This paper proposed a smart firefighting device system (LAHEEB) which designed to detect the source of fire, extinguish it, and increase the knowledge about fire behavior from incident area. This device can extinguish different types of fire A, B, C, D, F/K, electric and metal fire without spreading in the shortest time. This device will reduce the risk of injury for firefighters and possible victims and decrease the monetary losses which increase considerably as fire duration increases. LAHEEB device is consists of two parts. The first part is called the mid-cap which presented the body of the device that has most of the components such as sensors, relays, battery, servo motor, liquid tank, push-button, and Arduino. The second part is called the bottom-cap which presented the moving part of the device that has the significant components of LAHEEB such as servo motor, sprayer, and thermal camera. It also makes use of liquid-tank and spray mechanism for extinguishing the fire. The spraying nozzle is mounted on a servo motor to cover maximum area. Liquid-extinguisher is pumped from the main tank to the nose with the help of a pump. The whole system is programmed using an Arduino DUE board which forms the brain of the system.
Abdel-Azim S. Abdel-Salam, Ibrahim N. Jleta
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 73-83; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp73-83

Abstract:
The dynamic model of the robot manipulator contain from equations, these equations are nonlinear and contained from variations parameters due to variations in load, friction, and disturbance. The conventional computed torque (PD and PID) controllers are not highly suitable for nonlinear, complex, time-variant systems with delay. In this paper, the fuzzy logic controllers (FLC) has been used because it is efficient tools for control of nonlinear and uncertain parameters systems. This paper aims to design a fuzzy logic controller for position control of a PUMA 560 robot manipulator. Based on simulation results we conclude that the performance of the fuzzy logic controller in term of position tracking error in case of disturbance or load is better than the conventional computed torque (PD-CTC and PID-CTC) controllers.
, Karel Horák, Ondřej Boštík
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 63-72; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i2.pp63-72

Abstract:
This paper is approaching a problem of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) algorithms focused specifically on processing of data from a heterogeneous set of sensors concurrently. Sensors are considered to be different in a sense of measured physical quantity and so the problem of effective data-fusion is discussed. A special extension of the standard probabilistic approach to SLAM algorithms is presented. This extension is composed of two parts. Firstly is presented general perspective multiple-sensors based SLAM and then thee archetypical special cases are discuses. One archetype provisionally designated as "partially collective mapping" has been analyzed also in a practical perspective because it implies a promising options for implicit map-level data-fusion.
, Sara Ali, A. B. Kotb
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 42-45; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i1.pp42-45

Abstract:
Compared to single phase operation, a good utilization of machine material is achieved by supplying the two-phase stator windings from a controlled supply. It is necessary to start from the known equivalent circuits of both forward and backward components to obtain the relations between the sequence and the phase voltage values. In this method of control, the torque expression is driven in a simple form and the torque speed characteristic are computed and plotted for different values of the time-phase angle. The operation of 2-phase motor from single phase supply carried out by connecting one stator phase directly to the voltages source, with exciting the second stator phase through the phase shifting element. In this method, the starting and the maximum torque values can be controlled by changing the stator field from a pulsating of (0°) to a pure rotating field at (90°).
IAES International Journal of Robotics and Automation (IJRA), Volume 9, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.11591/ijra.v9i1.pp1-5

Abstract:
This paper presents an Enhanced Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (ETLBO) algorithm for solving reactive power flow problem. Teaching-learning process is an iterative process where in the continuous interaction takes place for the transfer of knowledge. Movements of trial solutions will investigate the internally final stages. Up gradation of the algorithm has been done through by adding weight in the learner values. Projected ETLBO algorithm has been tested in standard IEEE 57,118 bus systems and power loss has been reduced efficiently.
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