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Results in Journal Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology: 133

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Kenn Beer, Tom Bowrey, Tom Beer
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.111001

Abstract:
The health community uses a harm reduction model that deals with harm reduction at four levels: conceptual, practical, policy, and programmatic. The road safety community has adopted the Safe System as their harm reduction model. The Safe System is underpinned by the key principles: people make mistakes, the human body has limited biomechanical tolerance, there is a shared responsibility for creating a safer system and we aspire for zero death and serious injury in transport. The interacting elements/levers to achieve these principles are road and roadsides (infrastructure), safe people, safe vehicles, and safe speeds. Using on-road collectors as a specific example, the relationship between the health-based harm reduction model and the Safe System reveals that the Safe System assumes the conceptual, practical and policy levels to be pre-determined, and thus restricts itself to the programmatic level of the health-based harm reduction model.
Kasra Karimi, Ardeshir Faghri
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 34-54; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.112004

Abstract:
Farm vehicles (FVs) are not primarily designed for road transportation purposes, but often need to share the roads with other motorists. The interference of these large, slow-moving vehicles with the regular traffic can lead to hazardous situations and cause severe crashes. Farm Vehicle Crashes (FVCs) are rare compared to the total number of road crashes, and hence, have been neglected by many. This has been reflected in various aspects including data collection, education, legislation, and prevention. The number of FVCs in the U.S. has been steady over the last decade. This paper conducts a literature review to put forth a better understanding of this safety issue from a transportation standpoint. The main goal of this study is to identify the characteristics of FVCs, the unique contributing factors in FVCs, and possible strategies to mitigate the issues involved. It appears that despite their lower frequency, the rate of severe injuries and fatalities in FVCs is significantly higher than the average for all crashes. The percentage of fatal crashes in FVCs can be nearly five times higher than average for all road crashes. Further, it is estimated that FVs are overrepresented in road crashes considering their low exposure on the roads. The crash contributing factors including time- dependent variables, weather and road surface conditions, location, road classification, manner of collision, and driver’s characteristics are discussed based on the result of multiple studies in different states of the U.S. Several unique characteristics of FVCs distinct them from non-farm vehicle crashes which can result from the characteristics of FVs, rural roads, and the nature of farming tasks. Improvements in lighting and marking, equipping farm vehicles with Rollover Protective Structure (ROPS) and seatbelts, educating the public and farmers, and roadway improvements are recommended as potential safety improvement strategies for mitigating the frequency and severity of FVCs.
Dickson Osei-Asibey, Joshua Ayarkwa, Alex Acheampong, Emmanuel Adinyira, Peter Amoah
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 66-88; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.112006

Abstract:
This study aims to examine the causes of accidents and hazards in the Ghanaian construction industry (GCI) from the perspectives of key stakeholders, and also the available legal regulations and provisions regarding remedies for redress in case of accidents. A qualitative research strategy with in-depth face-to-face interviews was adopted. Participants for the interview were seven of which are Contractors, Consultants, Construction Workers, and Suppliers/ Manufacturers using data saturation principle. The selection of interview participants was based onpurposive sampling, while data was analyzed using the content analysis technique. Five major causes of accidents and hazards that are critical for remedying were identified, including common law liabilities of the Employer who is the Contractor, with a duty to ensure that adequate provisions are made for the works to be carried out safely. The findings of the study provide adequate knowledge to the contractor and other stakeholders of the roles, duties,and responsibilities to ensure improved implementation of CHS practices. The study examined the legal basis and consequences for causes of accidents and hazards in the Construction Industry. Since large construction firms were considered in the current study, it is recommended that similar studies be conducted involving small and medium enterprises.
Kazuma Nogi, Yoshihiko Kuwahara, Takuji Ushimoto
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 12-26; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.111002

Abstract:
At a substation, the condition of an applied voltage is checked using a bulky contact-type electroscope. Although it is important to secure a safe working environment, it is a burden to workers. In addition, in an emergency investigation or at the time of an accident, an operator may erroneously recognize a power interruption and cause an electric shock. Therefore, it is desirable to develop technology that can easily distinguish the charged condition from a distance. In this research, the focus was on the slight vibration of the conductor owing to the Coulomb force generated when a high voltage was applied. A system for visualizing the charging state by detecting the vibration with radar and combining it with a stereo camera was developed. Its performance was then confirmed at an experimental site and substation. In addition, the effectiveness of a method that used independent component analysis to identify the harmonics of the power supply frequency and vibration resulting from the applied voltage was demonstrated.
Frank R. Tangherlini
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 27-33; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.112003

Abstract:
It is proposed that in addition to the current method of fighting wildfires that are based on firefighters on the ground, and airdrops, there is the need for a supplemental approach based on using catapults to hurl containers of water at the fires. This additional source of water would serve to extinguish wildfires more rapidly, and thereby reduce the devastation and loss of life they cause, and also reduce the huge amounts of CO2 they pour into the atmosphere that contributes significantly to global warming. Importantly, the use of catapults would result in much greater safety for firefighters on the ground, as well as those serving in the air.
Carolyne Kebut, Charles Mburu, Robert Kinyua
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 11, pp 55-65; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2021.112005

Abstract:
Fire safety is an essential aspect in each workplace; its efforts are geared to the preservation of life and protection of property. Petroleum dispensing stations handle highly flammable and combustible materials that ignite at any given time at a conducive condition. The government of Kenya has instituted various laws and legislation to alleviate the fire safety status of such workplaces which should be adhered to. The study aimed to assess the implementation of Fire Risk Reduction Rules in Kisumu County which will provide bases for the improvement of the available fire risk reduction rules and gauge the Fire safety status in petroleum dispensing stations. Research methods employed involved physical observation, interviews, and measurements. The study established that 27(90.3%) Branded petroleum dispensing stations and 11 (68.8%) of independent petroleum stations had implemented safe storage and handling of highly flammable petroleum products, none of the stations had fully implemented the provisions in the Fire risk reduction rules, however, branded petroleum dispensing had better performance in the implementation than the Independent Petroleum dispensing stations. In view of the findings, the study recommends beef up of capacity in the directorate of occupation safety and health personnel to enable workplace inspections and awareness creation and enforcement on implementation of the Fire risk reduction rules as well as improvement of the available rules to be more specific on nature of works in petroleum dispensing stations.
Nathaniel Stephens, Clint Pinion
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 69-80; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.103006

Abstract:
Background: Job demands, or time-based restraints perceived by employees, can have a direct impact on an employee’s level of safety citizenship and safety compliance. However, job control, or the perceived autonomy over the timing and methods of an employee’s work, can help employees manage those job demands. Objective: To assess the relationship between self-reported job control and self-reported safety citizenship. Method: A 34-item survey was used in a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between self-reported job control scores (JCS) and self-reported safety citizenship (SCS) among employees working at a construction company and distillery/bottling facility in the Midwestern region of the United States. Descriptive statistics (means and frequencies) and an ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) were performed on a saturated model. Results: The study had a 77% response rate. Results indicate a statistically significant association between JCS and SC exists when controlling for job position and sex [F (6, 145) = 40.03, p < 0.00001, adjusted R-square = 0.61]. Conclusion: Employees with low job control have lower levels of self-reported safety citizenship.
Besim Türker Özalp
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 53-67; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.102005

Abstract:
Objective: The paper aimed to present a layout of the kitchen for elderly Turkish women to assure their safety and comfort while executing their tasks in their kitchen. Background: It is appropriate to regard the domestic kitchen used by an elderly woman as her workplace, requiring application of the ergonomics principles such as environmental conditions, equipment design and workplace layout on the kitchen floor. The purpose is to enable them to perform activities in the kitchen comfortably, safely and without assistance. Ergonomic design takes into account the abilities and limitations due to aging and helps to create the best person-environment fit. Proper design can help all people in all age groups but is particularly important for elderly individuals. Safety, physical and social health must be taken into consideration to increase the quality of elderly Turkish women’s lives. Method: The general layout of the kitchen was designed considering the work triangle, to minimize the walking distance in regard of the work sequence. The required functional anthropometric data for elderly Turkish women were obtained by ratio scaling method using the raw data from previous work. Results: The design of cabinets, worktops, base units, storage areas and their lay-out with kitchen appliances were realized to ensure comfort and safety for the elderly Turkish women. A U-shaped kitchen is found appropriate allowing the elderly woman and her company working together. For the counter, the height of the worktop is found as 860 mm from the floor and a 20 mm thick and 620 mm wide granite block is chosen. Placement of wall cupboards is achieved by considering the vertical grip reach of elderly Turkish women (5%) and the height of each shelf from the floor is determined. Conclusion: The absence of housing standard definitions addressing accessibility of the elderly is an ongoing problem in Turkey. This work presents potential solutions to improve the living standards of the elderly Turkish women.
Takanori Ayabe, Masaki Tomita, Ichiro Takajo, Yuki Nakayama, Ryo Maeda, Manabu Okumura, Kunihide Nakamura
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 1-23; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.101001

Abstract:
Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) results in longer hospitalization, increased expenses, and poorer patient prognosis. The aim of this study is 1) to investigate the short-term outcome of MRSA outbreak and the prevention in our surgical ward, and 2) to evaluate the long-term outcome of a 7-year experience of infection control, and 3) to report the effectiveness of intervention of quality improvement by industry problem-solving method for the eradication of a new occurrence of MRSA patients. Methods: Between April 2009 and October 2019, we retrospectively studied the improvement activity for infection control and preventative measures in our surgical ward. The daily alcohol use for hand hygiene was measured (ml/patient/day) and the monthly number of occurrences of new MRAS patients was investigated. We used the industry problem-solving method as the Kaizen of infection control for the eradication of a new Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus occurrence in the surgical ward. Results: There was an inverse correlation between the increased amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and the decreased number of new MRSA patients. In the long-term outcome, the amount of alcohol use has gradually decreased and the MRSA patients have been occasionally observed; these facts should display the difficulty to maintain a strict infection control. By the use of the problem-solving method, there continued for 7 months no new MRSA patients between June 2018 and December 2018. However, once the amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene decreased below 40 ml/patient/day, three new MRSA patients were detected. It displayed an inverse correlation between the decreased amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and the increased number of new MRSA patients. Conclusion: The daily monitoring and measuring of the amount of alcohol use for hand hygiene and to know the current number of new occurrence of MRSA patients will become a meaningful tool. By performing the Kaizen with a problem-solving method, it will contribute to the multi-professional team to visualize the process of quality improvement for infection control.
Richard Skiba
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 42-52; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.102004

Abstract:
As hydrogen use as a fuel gains momentum and becomes a component of many nation’s economies, there is a growing need for identification of the skills and knowledge required by workers undertaking hydrogen related activities. This paper considers the activities in the industry and qualifies some of the core competencies required for the emerging workforce. The core competencies are considered specifically from the perspective of working with hydrogen rather than other gases, which in most cases have well developed competency standards, many of which can be applied to the hydrogen industry. The paper focuses on training as it is applicable at a vocational education and training sector level, such as technicians, trade workers and transportation workers, rather than the job roles that require degree or above level qualifications. For many decades, hydrogen has been used extensively in the process industries (e.g. refineries and ammonia synthesis) and experience has shown that it can be handled safely in industrial applications as long as appropriate standards, regulations and best practices are being followed [1]. Relevant training will contribute to the safe handling and use of hydrogen in its new applications. A number of general competency standards for work in hydrogen related activities are presented and these can be used to be integrated into existing vocational education and training frameworks.
David Nkurunziza
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 81-90; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.103007

Abstract:
Rwanda is undergoing rapid development in transportation through constructing new roads and upgrading existing ones. During implementation of these projects, many accidents for road workers, road users and environment issues are raised due to unsafe road construction management techniques. This existing problem was carried out within the City of Kigali for three ongoing road construction projects namely road Ruliba-Karama-Nyamirambo, Kigali Urban Road Upgrading Projects of Agatare and the Sonatube-Gahanga- Akagera road, in order to investigate about the road construction safety management techniques. From the findings, 64.28% results showed that the maintaining of health and safety policy in the road construction sites is applied and there exist different means of maintaining safety, such as the provision of PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) to the workers at the level of 57.14% as per the project managers; but from the field observations, it is alarming, and many workers do not wear as required. It was also found that 50% of accidents occurring in excavation works among all work performed during road construction are due to lack of adequate safety measures. The paper indicated that 85.71% of the concerned workers do conduct training and induction in their road safety construction sites, but on the other hand the level of accidents due to lack of safety recorded in the road construction sites is still high at the level of 78.57%. The mostly affected are unskilled laborers and this observation begs the question about the training and induction of workers in road safety and its effectiveness of on the concerned workers. The paper suggests some different safety measures to apply for providing safe road working environment according to the standard and gives some key recommendations for Rwanda.
Shi Xiong
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 24-31; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.101002

Abstract:
This paper analyses the existing literature, and considered the new problems caused by the burning accident of thermal insulation materials attached to the steel structure in recent years. In the process of combustion, thermal insulation materials will drip and melt, producing a large amount of liquid fuel. The combustion of thermal insulation materials attached to steel (diameter longer than 0.2 m) can be regarded as large pool fire combustion, and a mathematical model is established to study the reverse thermal conduction behavior of the combustion of combustible materials attached to steel.
Wedad H. Al-Dahhan, Zeyad Fadhil, Muna Bufaroosha, Salam Mohammed, Ali Abd Ali, Emad Yousif
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 10, pp 33-41; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2020.102003

Abstract:
The occurrence of accidents can be only being restricted to workplaces as they can occur at homes. Therefore, people should be aware of potential risks at home so that accidents can be avoided. This article deeply touches some of the realistic home accidents by explaining and analyzing them to be as beacon for others to avoid their occurrence. This has a paramount importance to alert people to be careful and take proper actions to avoid accidents. In this research, we discussed the issue of flammable gases, their severity and the need for careful handling of them, especially in hot climates, in addition to the fire hazards resulting from them. And due to the importance of accidents resulting from high electrical loads and fires that can happen as a result of this, this topic was covered by reviewing household accidents resulting from poor wiring, additional loads and poor connections.
Chloé Bignon, Adel Badri
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 22-36; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.91003

Abstract:
Context and background: In France as in Québec, occupational health and safety (OHS) has become a national priority. While organizations in these two societies differ slightly, preventive measures are the same, and legislation requires that the chosen approach to improving OHS be reduced to writing, even in small and medium-sized enterprises. Prevention is managed through existing structures within companies and is documented by the employer. Such documentation is mandatory and allows the company to manage its risks and to monitor the hazards associated its activities. The principal document used for this purpose is known as the “Document unique” in France and the “Programme de prevention” in Québec. Motivation: The aim of this concise review of the literature is to compare the “Document unique” and the “Programme de prevention” and thereby help experts develop a universal document that combines the best features of the French and Québécois versions. Methods: Differences between these two documents are noted. Through comparative analysis, we explain how prevention, the regulatory context and the field of application are defined in each case. We then discuss the helpful features and the limitations inherent in both documents and conclude with a table of comparison. Results and conclusions: The advantages and inconveniences appear to be similar for both documents. There are nevertheless opportunities to combine the best features of the Document unique and the Programme de prévention in order to obtain an improved guide for the writing of a complete accident prevention and OHS policy appreciated by employers and employees alike.
Chenkai Zhu, Jingjing Li, Fanhao Ji, Xiaosu Yi, Chris Rudd, Xiaoling Liu
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 7-21; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.91002

Abstract:
Sandwich composites are increasingly used in high-performance application due to their high specific stiffness, strength and thermal insulation. The sandwich composites were developed using honeycomb and carbon fibre reinforced composite face sheet in this study. Expandable graphite (EG) weighting 5 wt% and 10 wt% were filled in honeycomb or coated on face sheet to improve the fireproof performance. The vertical burning test, cone calorimetry test, thermal insulation analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical test were taken into account. With the increase of EG in the sandwich composites, a significant improvement on flame retardancy with better thermal insulation, lower values of peak heat release rate and MAHRE were confirmed for sandwich composite with EG both coated and filled. In addition, the sandwich with EG coated on face sheet presented better fire resistivity and thermal insulation properties when compared to that with EG filled in honeycomb. However, more total smoke release was also observed for EG coated composites due to partial combustion of resin within sufficient heat and oxygen. Furthermore, no significant effect on the mechanical properties of composites was confirmed from both fireproof approaches.
Yueting Hu
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 93-111; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.93007

Abstract:
Through analyzing the problems of the Swiss Cheese Model theory and the Energy Theory, this paper combines the two kinds of theories after modifying them for the first time, and a new concise and practical model which has a simple structure and a clear hierarchy is thus put forward based on safety management practices and some related theories. The model not only eliminates the respective defects of the Swiss Cheese Model and the Energy Theory, but also reveals the internal and external causes of accidents. It especially has unique advantages both in analyzing the causes of accidents and in preventing accidents.
, Steven M. Thygerson
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 1-6; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.91001

Abstract:
Better Brick Nepal (BBN) works under the larger NGO, Global Fairness Initiatives, to promote the reliably sourced brick manufacturing by eliminating forced, bonded labor, and child labor, promoting workplace safety and health, providing fair wages, and preventing workplace harassment. The brick industry is regarded as the second largest source for air pollution after vehicle emissions in Kathmandu Valley. The brick kiln workers who live on the kiln premises in huts are highly exposed to both indoor and outdoor air pollution. This study reviewed the practices of BBN kilns that adhere to recommended standards for worker rights, health and safety. An NGO such as BBN is proving successful at eliminating inhumane work practices and in improving brick kiln worker health and safety.
Ting-Ya Hsieh, Mu-Chun Liao, Hsing-Wei Tai
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 113-136; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.94008

Abstract:
Mainland China and Taiwan have both completed revisions of their occupational safety and health laws during the last few years, and both address similar occupational safety and health areas, including such supervisory and management tasks as production safety management, hazardous chemical products, education & training, and accident prevention. This article provides a brief introduction to the supervisory organizations, legal frameworks, and legal responsibilities relating to health and safety in Mainland China and Taiwan, and summarizes the focal points of these most recent revisions of occupational safety and health laws in Mainland China and Taiwan. The article finally proposes some key guidelines concerning fields connected with occupational safety and health, and these guidelines may provide countries or companies planning to enter this market—the world’s largest manufacturing market—with response methods and guidance.
Selema M. Nwoye, Charles Oyegun, John N. Ugbebor
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 83-92; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.93006

Jingying Li, Qimeng Liu, Huichan Chai, Zhigang Xie
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 145-156; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.94010

Abstract:
According to the hydrogeological conditions, dynamic characteristics of tectonic deformation and geometric features, the fault structures in the Panxie mining area were divided into seven types respectively were horst, graben, graben-horst combination, forward (reverse) thrust structure, imbricate thrust structure, strike-slip structure, and others. Meanwhile, the q-structural styles boxplot had been constructed to analyze the water abundance of the karst formation aquifer. It has been verified via the practical drilling core data. The final results were that the water-rich characteristics of the deep karst water controlled by the seven structural styles were different. The water abundance of graben-horst combination structure was strongest; the next was the horst in deep which was stronger than the graben. Then, the imbricate thrust structure, strike-slip fault, and other structural styles had low water abundance in deep karst aquifer. The results can be aimed at different structural styles to guide the prevention and control of karst water hazards on the floor of Group A coal mining.
Mansour Hadji Hosseinlou, Ehsan Abbasi
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 37-60; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.92004

Abstract:
In this article, the role of speed and volume of traffic on occurrence of accidents on urban highways is investigated using Fuzzy models and the accident data of Tehran urban highways is used as case study. To fuzzify the variables in scatter diagram, the notion of statistical percentiles is used for assigning the linguistic terms. To produce rules in each model, one or more variables are deemed effectively in occurrence of accidents. The evaluated number of accidents by developed models is compared with the number of observed accidents. The results of comparison represent the accuracy of each model. The model with the highest value of R2 is the best model and the variables deemed effective for that model are those which do play a role in occurrence of accidents. Comparing the effect of elements of traffic volume indicates that after the average speed, volume of light non-passenger car vehicles is more effective on occurrence of accidents on urban highways than volume of heavy vehicles and passenger cars. After that the part of volume of heavy vehicles is more prominent than volume of passenger cars in the likelihood of more severe accident. The opposite is true for no injury accidents. After prioritization of variables in terms of influence on occurrence of accidents, the authors employed the models best fitting the data with the highest value of goodness of fit to do the sensitivity analyse. Sensitivity analyse specifies the effect rate of each variable on likelihood of accidents.
Jesse Trawick, Jeremy Slagley, Robert Eninger
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 61-81; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.92005

Abstract:
In-ear dosimetry and noise exposure feedback were used to modify worker attitude and behavior regarding hearing protection use. The study specifically addressed whether providing in-ear noise exposure data to workers resulted in a reduction in average noise dose rate equivalent continuous levels. Nineteen combat arms instructors (impulse noise group) and heavy equipment operators (continuous noise group) working for the United States Air Force volunteered to participate in a six-month field study using in-ear dosimeters to collect daily noise level data. Participants served as their own control group, receiving periodic noise exposure feedback reports in the latter half of the study only. The control and feedback phase noise exposure data were examined using analysis of variance for differences that could be indicative of more effective hearing protection device use. Additionally, a 7-point Likert survey was used to monitor worker attitude towards hearing protection use, and worker medical histories were examined for evidence of previous hearing loss. Overall, this research found a significant reduction in noise dose rate equivalent continuous level (-2.5 dB with p = 0.019) for the continuous noise group following periodic noise exposure feedback on in-ear noise levels. This effect was not detected at the individual level due to limited samples. No effect was detected in the impulse noise population, likely due to limitations of dosimeter technology in response to impulse noise. No correlation between worker attitudes towards hearing protection and noise dose rate equivalent continuous level was detected for either group (continuous p = 0.249; impulse p = 0.478). While workers reported that in-ear dosimeters and noise exposure feedback helped them control their exposures, few reported using immediate feedback functions to control noise exposures within a work shift. These results indicate that in-ear dosimetry and noise exposure feedback could provide an effective tool to reduce worker noise exposures over time. However, advances in dosimeter technology are necessary before it can be evaluated for impulse noise. Additionally, further research is necessary to understand the link between worker attitude and hearing protection device use.
Sadia Sattar, Pabitra Chandra Das, Sajjad Hossain, Kazi Sarower, M. Burhan Uddin
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 137-144; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.94009

Abstract:
This was a survey-based study and conducted to analyze the findings of questionnaires about the consumer opinion towards the quality of few selected spices powder (turmeric, coriander, chili, cumin and mixed spices) available in Bangladesh, the health effect of low-quality spices powder and the preventive measures as well. From the survey, it was found that on average 90.70% people believed that the spices powders are not of good quality. Study on the types of adulterants added in the spices powder according to consumers’ suspect revealed that addition of low-grade raw spice with high grade was at the top position which was followed by brick dust and sand. Based on consumers’ opinion, cancer, chronic nephritis and high blood pressure were the top possible diseases which may associate due to consumption of adulterated spices powder. Implication of Bangladesh Standards and Testing Institution (BSTI) standards, enforcing law and imposing punishment and social motivation of food consumers could be the best preventive measures according to the people’s opinion. Finally, this study revealed that the people suspect that the quality of spices powder in Bangladesh is not up to the mark and expect necessary actions against adulteration if found in spices powder.
Y. Mizutani, Y. Mochizuki, K. Nishitani, M. Okoshi
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 09, pp 157-167; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2019.94011

Abstract:
Japan is a country with many disasters such as earthquakes and heavy rains. Disasters cannot be prevented, however, efforts to reduce secondary damage was performed by the nation. Sleeping without beds in a shelter has a high prevalence of economy class syndrome. Due to the living environment of shelter, cots were introduced to each local government. As a result, cots were able to prevent hypothermia and freezing death. Shelters in cold regions use powerful heating devices, which lowers humidity and increases the risk of fire. Cardboard beds were made from paper so that, the user was not completely convinced of the fire risk. In this study, we investigated the combustion behavior and effects of flame-retardants on cardboard by combustion test and thermal analysis. Phosphorus-Nitrogen flame-retardant was possible to suppress the combustion which emitted a large amount of carbon monoxide.
, , Manabu Okumura, Shigeko Shimizu, Eiko Uchida, Yukari Miura, Koichiro Itai, Kunihide Nakamura
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 08, pp 107-136; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2018.84007

Abstract:
Background: It is an important study to investigate incident reports submitted by multidisciplinaries in the Special Functioning Hospitals of Japan. We clarify the characteristics of the incidents and evaluate the outcomes obtained from a polygonal analysis. Material and Methods: We collected 1638 incident reports submitted by multidisciplinaries for one year from April, 2016 to March, 2017. The incidents were retrospectively analyzed byprofile, levels, distribution, and ratios. Results: The majority of incidents (94.7%, 1551/1638) were distributed between the levels 0 to 3a, on the other hand, the incidents of a level higher than 3b occupied 5.3%. The reports from nurses were 75.3% (1234/1638) and those from doctors were 12.8% (209/1638). The level 3b totalled 30.6% (64/209) of the doctor-reported incidents. In contrast, the level 2 totalled 33.8% (417/1234) of the nurse-reported incidents. The levels of the doctor-incidents were comparatively higher than those of the nurse-incidents. The profiles of the incidents were categorized as drug administration (n = 439, 26.8%), nursing care (n = 399, 24.4%), drain and tube (n = 258, 15.8%), medical treatment and care (n = 199, 12.1%), medical examination (n = 141, 8.6%), medical equipment (n = 99, 6.0%), giving instructions (n = 66, 4.0%) and blood transfusion (n = 12, 0.7%). Conclusions: It is important for multidisciplinaries to report incidents because they can learn novel experiences from the incidents for preventing a recurrence. By proper utilizing of the incident-reporting system, it could be aneffective tool that helps the medical staff build a strong patient safety culture, and a safer workday would improvetheir quality of healthcare.
Jill M. Voorhees, Brian Fletcher, Michael E. Barnes
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 08, pp 98-105; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2018.83006

Abstract:
Formalin treatments are frequently used to control water molds during hatchery incubation of salmonid eggs, creating potential occupational safety and health issues. This investigation evaluated the use of a novel technique to enclose the air gap from formalin treatment tubes to 16-tray vertical-flow incubation stacks. Standard formalin treatments of 1667 mg/L for 15-minutes were administered to one, three, or five stacks, both with, and without air gap enclosures. Enclosing the air gap did not significantly reduce aerosolized formaldehyde levels. Even during the treatment of five incubation stacks when formalin amounts were the greatest, mean (SE) peak airborne formaldehyde levels were 1.6 (0.2) mg/L and 1.5 (0.2) mg/L, either with or without air gap enclosure, respectively. The failure of air gap enclosure indicates other techniques are required to decrease aerosolized formaldehyde during formalin treatments of fish eggs in vertical-flow incubators.
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 08, pp 35-48; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2018.82004

Abstract:
Background: Sitting to perform desk-based work is considered to be a habit. To test this hypothesis, desk-based workers volunteered to be part of a yearlong pilot study utilising an e-health intervention designed to interrupt prolonged workplace sitting with movement breaks. Methods: Participants in a passive-prompt group had to engage with an e-health software programme on an hourly basis during work hours, while participants in an active-prompt group were allowed to postpone the prompt each hour. Daily adherence data and self-reported sitting habit strength were measured every 13 weeks for one year. A mixed design ANOVA was used to determine significant differences at the p < 0.05 level. Results: Passive-prompt participants reported significant improvements in reducing sitting habit strength over time, compared to active-prompt participants who actually reported increased sitting habit strength. Conclusions: This study provided preliminary evidence that changing desk-based workers’ sitting habits might be more difficult than previously estimated and that passive-based interventions could be one solution.
Vo Thi Anh, Tran Dai Nghiep, Trinh Van Giap
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 08, pp 13-19; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2018.81002

Abstract:
The Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) films dyed with different colors such as methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), methyl red (MR) and crystal violet (CV) were investigated. The dyed PVA films were irradiated by with Co60 γ-source in dose range of 1 - 150 kGy. The optical density change in these films at pre and post irradiation was studied by spectrophotometer. The gamma dose response curves of the dyed PVA films were described by saturated exponential function of the energy transfer model with high correlative coefficient. The color sensitivities on the dyed PVA films irradiated by source were different. The PVA films dyed with MB had the highest sensitivity.
Paul Perkins, Alex Jamieson, Geordie Ferguson, Wayne Spratford, Allan Hahn
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 08, pp 49-97; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2018.83005

Abstract:
Design methods were employed over a 5-year period to develop boxing gloves capable of substantially buffering impact forces delivered to an opponent, thereby permitting safer boxing. Multiple concepts were explored, with sophistication of prototypes gradually increasing. The protypes underwent both quantitative laboratory testing and qualitative evaluation in the field. The laboratory testing methods were evolved over time to enhance test reliability and ecological validity. Feedback from the laboratory and field trials was highly instrumental in guiding the process of glove development. It was eventually found that, compared to standard boxing gloves, pneumatic gloves with sealed bladders were effective in reducing peak impact forces and peak rates of force development when impact magnitudes were low to moderate but not when they were high. By contrast, pneumatic gloves incorporating a bladder enabling air exchange with the external environment were protective across the entire range of impact magnitudes likely to be encountered in boxing. These gloves are configured differently from standard gloves in terms of the positioning of the fist relative to the glove padding, but now have close visual resemblance to standard gloves. The aesthetics of the gloves have proven critical to their acceptance. Wearer comfort is also vital and, although we extensively pursued the concept of thumbless gloves, we finally deemed it necessary to include separate thumb compartments to accommodate user advice. There is scope for further glove refinement, but recent experience indicates that the latest version is currently sufficient for use in modified boxing programs that emphasise safety, with such targeted contextual sufficiency realising a fundamental aim commonly associated with projects employing the design approach. Small batches of the gloves have recently been manufactured to cater for modified boxing programs.
Sidum Adumene, Samson Nitonye
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 08, pp 21-34; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2018.82003

Abstract:
In ship and offshore operations, machinery systems have associated operational hazard because of the prevailing harsh environment. Therefore, the need for an overall evaluation of the associated risk and failures of these systems, such as the marine steam boiler, is crucial to the industry. The concept of probability risk model is used to model the failure mode considering the overall risk associated with the system as a whole. The rate of occurrence of the failure that described the basic events as represented by the fault tree was developed to model the marine steam system. This specific event was implemented and evaluated to estimate the failure frequencies of the overall systems, based on the available failure rate in core literatures. A risk model which is hazard severity weight with its failure frequencies, and the time of operation was applied in the analysis. The probability of failure of the boiler system was estimated at 0.323225 at 35,040 operating hours with hazard severity weight of catastrophic if it occurs. The associated failure frequency calculated for the period is 1.114 × 10-5. The over failure frequency of the marine steam system for the period of consideration is conditioned on the pre-defined minimum cut sets of the top event. This therefore agreed with the fact that the basic events with their failure frequencies will lead to the catastrophic failure of the entire system within the period if the maintenance plan is not proactive.
Emma Maano Nghitanwa
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 08, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2018.81001

Abstract:
Background: Construction industry is regarded as dangerous industry with more occupational injuries and accidents. Documents related to Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) should be utilised and kept in the construction sites to show that the construction sites are applying to national and international OHS legislation requirements. Objective: To review the documents to determine the presence of OHS related documents utilized on the construction sites in OHS provision. Methods: A quantitative, descriptive study was conducted among ten construction sites in Windhoek, Namibia to investigate the availability of OHS related documents in the study sites. Data were collected with the document review checklist. Data were analysed using SPSS software program. Results: The study found that many construction sites did not have OHS related documents which show poor compliance towards OHS national and international legislation requirement in OHS provision. Conclusion: The study concluded that absence of OHS related documents on the construction sites is negatively affecting the implementation of OHS on the construction sites It was recommended that employers should ensure that OHS program is developed at workplaces and OHS related documents should be available for utilization in all workplaces according to the legislative requirements.
Kyu Jin Han, Se Jin In
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.71001

Abstract:
The flash point of flammable liquid mixture is very important parameter to characterize the ignition and explosion hazards. Flash points at 101.3 kPa were measured for several binary systems containing p-xylene, including {methanol + p-xylene}, {ethanol + p-xylene}, and {2-propanol and p-xylene}. Experimental measurements were performed using a SETA closed cup flash point tester. The measured flash points were compared with the predicted values calculated using the following activity coefficient models: Wilson, Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL), and UNIversal QUAsi-Chemical (UNIQUAC). The results from the NRTL model provided the best comparison to the experimentally determined values.
Yasushi Iwatani, Hiroyuki Torikai
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 87-95; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.73008

Abstract:
One of the central problems in fire safety science and technology is to reduce damage caused by both fires and fire-fighting processes. This paper provides a potential solution to the problem, and it derives from decentralization of fire-fighting agents. In particular, this paper investigates fire extinguishing performance when a fire-fighting agent is supplied to a fire from one direction with one extinguisher and from two directions with two extinguishers. The two methods are called the centralized supply and the decentralized supply, respectively, in this paper. It is demonstrated that the decentralized supply reduces damage caused by both fires and fire-fighting processes. This follows from the facts that fire extinguishment by the decentralized supply is more certain than the centralized supply, and that the decentralized supply requires less total amount of a fire-fighting agent than the centralized supply for fire extinguishment.
Emma Maano Nghitanwa, Lindiwe Zungu
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 113-127; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.73011

Abstract:
Construction industry remains the dangerous industry in the world, due to the nature of work and the working environment which exposes workers to different types of hazards and occupational accidents. Construction workers are also at risk of developing occupational related health conditions due to the exposure to occupational hazards. A cross-sectional, quantitative, descriptive study was conducted to collect the data regarding occupational health and safety status in the construction industry. Data was collected with questionnaires developed based on the literatures and the World Health Organization Healthy workplace model. The study found out that the provision of occupational health and safety in the Windhoek construction industry is in poor status. Furthermore, construction work is mainly for male, young workers aged between 18 to 29 years. The mean age is 31.48 years. The study results also indicated that occupational hazards are prevalent in the construction industry. Nevertheless, most participants indicated that occupational accidents are not common in the construction sites. The study recommended the development of practical guidelines to improve the occupational health and safety status in the construction industry. The recommended guidelines should be implemented in all construction sites.
, Genji Shinpuku, , Sayoko Nakamura, Etsuko Yokoyama, Shigeko Shimizu, Manabu Okumura, Koichiro Itai, Isao Tsuneyoshi, Hideo Takeshima, et al.
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 22-41; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.71003

Abstract:
Background: We investigated the changes in consciousness of operating team staffs and the influences on the operating time after the implementation of the surgical safety checklist (SSC) using a questionnaire survey. Materials and Methods: 206 operating team staffs (148 surgeons, 20 anesthesiologists, 38 nurses) replied to the questionnaire survey, and the changes in consciousness were checked before and after the implementation of the SSC. We retrospectively investigated the operating time from medical and anesthesia records at the point 2 months before (pre-implementation (pre-I): n = 656) and 2 months after (post-implementation (post-I): n = 650) the implementation. We compared the scheduled operating time, the actual operating time, and the ratio between the two groups. Results: We received replies from 156 operating team staffs, i.e., the recovery rate was 75.7% (156/206). The operating team staffs were interested in 9 items, which included the self-introduction of members, patient referral, surgical procedure, scheduled operating time, predicted blood loss, important matters in the operation, timing of antibiotics, and important matters in anesthesia, and preparation of required materials and equipment. In the multidisciplinary teamwork, they had increased the consciousness of responsibility and communication. There was no significant difference in the scheduled operating time (post-I: 186.9 ± 131.9; pre-I: 184.8 ± 127.8 minutes) and the actual operating time (post-I: 170.8 ± 148.1 minutes; the pre-I: 174.6 ± 147.3 minutes). However, regarding the ratio of the actual operating time to the scheduled operating time, there was a significant difference (the post-I: 0.90 ± 0.43; the pre-I: 0.95 ± 0.45). Use of the SSC significantly decreased the actual operating time. Conclusion: The outcomes of the implementation of SSC resulted in changes in the safety consciousness of the operating team staffs such as their increased responsibility and communication. The improved multidisciplinary teamwork might make them realize a smooth operating progression to shorten the actual operating time.
, Wedad H. Al-Dahhan, Ali Alzuhairi, Kabrena E. Rodda, Emad Yousif
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 69-75; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.71006

Abstract:
Scientists at universities across Iraq are actively working to report actual incidents and accidents occurring in their laboratories, as well as structural improvements made to improve safety and security, to raise awareness and encourage openness, leading to widespread adoption of robust Chemical Safety and Security (CSS) practices. This manuscript highlights the importance of periodic maintenance on fume cupboards, and is the fourth in a series of five case studies describing laboratory incidents, accidents, and laboratory improvements. In this study, we describe a situation in which the ventilation capacity of the fume cupboard in the undergraduate chemistry laboratories at Al-Nahrain University had decreased to an unacceptable level. The CSS Committee investigated and found the ducting system had been blocked by plastic sheets and dead birds. All the ducts have since been cleaned, and four extra ventilation fans have been installed to further increase ventilation capacity. By openly sharing what happened along with the lessons learned from the accident, we hope to minimize the possibility of another researcher being injured in a similar incident in the future.
Daoliang Zhao, Batyr Yegenmammedov, Peichen Liu, Meiting Zhang
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 42-57; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.71004

Abstract:
Building EXODUS software is used to calculate the evacuation times and simulate the evacuation behavior. The results and laws are compared with those from a 2D Cellular Automaton (CA) random evacuation model developed by our group. EXODUS simulation is more reasonable than the CA simulation in the case of evacuation from a simple room, but CA model is more reasonable in the case of evacuation in a long corridor after bottlenecks. As far as the evacuation from a simple room with a single exit is concerned, there is a critical value of exit width. The value of exit width should be bigger than the critical value in order to ensure a dilute pedestrian flow, but the value doesn’t need to be too big. The bigger the original occupant density, the longer the evacuation time is. They can be fitted as a linear relationship. The principle of taking the shortest route is not always useful. If the distribution of occupant density is not uniform at each building part, balancing the use efficiency of each exit should be the main principle in order to improve evacuation efficiency. All the above laws can be obtained both from EXODUS and the CA model.
Bing Wu, Luyao Kou, Qi Ma
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 77-85; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.72007

Abstract:
Accident analysis contributes much to improve the safety management of enterprises. The Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) is an accident analysis method popularly used overseas. Based on HFACS analysis method, this paper presents a new accident analysis method combining HFACS with Accident Causality Diagram. On the basis of the clear description of basic events’ causal relationship in the accident, the new approach applies HFACS to evaluate the basic events leading to accident, which overcomes the deficiency of HFACS that the ultimate analysis result is not clear enough to understand due to the lack of the association between basic events and the events at other levels in the accident. The new method is used to analyze the collision accident of two vehicles in mining area. It can be concluded that HFACS based on Accident Causality Diagram is feasible and it helps to find out the main reasons that lead to accident and thus to take proper measures to prevent the occurrence of similar accidents.
Ryo Takahashi, Hiroyuki Torikai, Akihiko Ito
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 96-105; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.73009

Abstract:
The height of the pool fire depends on the amount of heat feedback from the flame to the fuel. In order to predict flame height in a partial gravity environment, we investigated the heat feedback amount of a small pool flame experimentally under normal to partial gravity conditions; using the drop tower at Hirosaki University in Japan to obtain arbitrary partial gravity condition, which varied from 1 G to 0.55 G. We performed the measurement of the flame shape with a digital camera. Based on the experiment result, we expected the amount of fuel vapor from the amount of heat feedback of the pool flame calculated and to establish the prediction formula of the flame height in the partial gravity environment.
Shingo Kuwana, Hidekazu Tamizu, ,
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 11-21; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.71002

Abstract:
The purpose of this study is to reveal the flame spreading mechanism of tsunami fire. But the mechanism of tsunami fire is so complex that we couldn’t assess qualitatively. So the basic research on tsunami fire is needed. As a first step, we did flame spread experiment on only liquid fuel and liquid fuel/water layer under static liquid fuel. We measured flame spread rate. As a result, fuel thickness is in range of 5 - 15 mm, and flame spread rate over only liquid fuel is faster than liquid fuel/water layer’s at same fuel thickness. To reveal the gap of the flame spread rate at same liquid fuel thickness, we visualized current distribution by PIV and thermal boundary layer by shadowgraph method. By these results, we revealed that the thermal characteristic length is longer and the current characteristic depth of liquid fuel/water is deeper than that of liquid only fuel.
, Thorsten Facius
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 58-68; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.71005

Abstract:
In the scope of COST Action TU1101 a field study of the use of bicycle helmets was carried out and different seating positions of the human body on the cycle were analyzed from photos to identify the vertical vision limit due to the helmet geometry of the cyclists when riding a bicycle. It could be interesting to know if different helmet postures will influence the resulting head impact and head injury situation and which influence parameters are responsible for the decision of the cyclist to use or not to use a helmet. For the study helmet users are compared with non-helmet users, distinguished for different bicycle types. For this purpose a total of 1565 cyclists with and without helmets were photographed and relevant geometrical values such as the angle between seat and handle bar, the decline of the torso or the head posture and the angle of the vertical vision limit were established from the photo analysis. A significant variation of the sitting posture of the cyclist could be seen in field which is influenced by the bicycle type and the age group of the cyclist riding the bike. Even the helmet users showed slight differences in the head posture compared to non-helmet users.
Mohd Saidin Misnan, Wan Faida Wan Azmi, Sarajul Fikri Mohamed, Zuhaili Mohamad Ramly, Zakaria Mohd Yusof, NorAzam Othman
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 106-112; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.73010

Abstract:
The current and growing construction industry in the country has led to increasing of accidents related to construction workers. In an attempt to decrease accidents on site, the design safety concept is the most suitable measures to date. Though the impact is evident and potential benefits of its implementation are apparent, widespread application of this intervention in the Malaysia’s construction industry is currently lacking especially in the academic sector. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the integration of safety and health to the current curricula focusing on the engineering programmes and their perceptions towards design safety concept and its implementation. The types of design disciplines included in the research study were limited to academicians. A total of 72 respondents received via questionnaire and the responses were scored on a 5-point Likert Scale to express their level of agreement. The results show that the graduates are not equipped with adequate knowledge of safety and health legislation and regulations through the current curricula and disagree that the content of the programmes is adequate. Although majority agree on the positive effect of design safety towards accidents on site, there is still minority who believe that the concept has no significant effect towards site safety. However, this paper concludes that there is no major impediment from the academic sector on the implementation and integration of design safety concept to the undergraduate curricula. The implementation of design safety should be in a well organized structure for effective results towards zeroaccident as well as increases the designers’ value in the construction industry.
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 07, pp 129-160; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2017.74012

Abstract:
This paper reviews the literature on resilience engineering as a safety management approach. Preferred Reporting Items for Reporting Systematic Reviews guidelines were used to search, select and evaluate 46 published works. The terms organisational resilience and resilience engineering are clarified, and functionalist and interpretive research frameworks used to analyze articles. This review suggests there is no universally agreed definition of resilience engineering; but it involves a collective aspect, is multifactorial, multilevel and multidimensional; associated with four key principles (anticipation, response, learning and monitoring) and successful outcomes. The gap between work as imagined and work as performed is an important aspect. Studies on resilience engineering have predominantly involved qualitative investigations; with data collected through site observations, safety audits and surveys. Eight research gaps were identified, and suggestions made on how these gaps can be addressed through empirical research.
, Giselle Talavera-Aguirre, J. Nieves Serratos-Perez, , Jorge Luis Garcia-Alcaraz
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 06, pp 143-155; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2016.64011

Abstract:
The main objective of this research was to build a database on anthropometric features from a sample of students enrolled in the Industrial Design program at the Universidad Autonoma de Ciudad Juarez (UACJ), to contrast anthropometric data with other Mexican regions, and to generate predictive models of the participants’ body dimensions. A set of 36 body dimensions were measured based on international standards. Two anthropometric kits Rosscraft model Centurion were used for measurements. 140 students, 70 male and 70 female, enrolled in the Industrial Design program at the UACJ were measured. The values of mean, standard deviation, and percentiles were calculated. Besides, 26 predictive models of body segments were developed using simple linear regression. Body weight and stature of students in Northern Mexico are significant larger than people from other Mexican regions. We now hold anthropometric data of 36 body dimensions and 26 predictive models of body segments.
, Selcuk Alp
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 06, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2016.61001

Abstract:
An average of 80 thousand occupational accidents occurs each year in Turkey and 1500 workers are lost their lives. In accordance to “policy of preventive approach”, many legal arrangements have been made in Turkey. In this context, weight to issues such as risk assessment and preventive OHS services is given; however, employee training, employee participation, labour inspect, and periodic checks in working areas such as maintenance and audit have not been achieved. The level of implementation of legal arrangements was inadequate. Research was carried out to determine the significance rate of the factors that cause accidents in 5 sectors with the highest number of occupational accidents in Turkey. Questionnaires administered to experienced safety specialists were reviewed by analyzing with the fuzzy TOPSIS method. According to the results, especially in the construction and coal mining sectors and all sectors in general, employee training, employee participation and periodic maintenance in the workplace are more important accident prevention factors than risk assessment and preventive OH & S services. It is seen that for the prevention of accidents, all measures should be implemented by systematic and by a multidisciplinary approach.
Lorenzo Chierici, Gian Luigi Fiorini, Stefano La Rovere, Paolo Vestrucci
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 06, pp 35-54; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2016.62004

Abstract:
The Defense in Depth (DiD) is a classical defensive concept currently applied to a variety of technical fields, including nuclear (where this concept is widely applied) and chemical industry, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), transport, and many others. It deals with slowdown of the progression of an “attack” against a “target” by using multiple and independent levels of protection (or lines of defense), designed to compensate for the failure of one or more defenses, ensuring that the risks are kept acceptable. Concerning the current practices for the DiD implementation and the rationale for its evolution, there is a shared recognition that the reinforcement of DiD is the key to improve the safety of future installations for all types of technologies and industries. Within this context, the results of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) play a key role in the demonstration of both the robustness of the design and safety, supporting the verification that the DiD principles are correctly implemented. A key issue, still open, is related to the link that must be put in place to provide the DiD probabilistic success criteria through PSA insights. After an analysis of DiD evolution in time and DiD application to different industrial fields, this paper deals with the key issue, still open, relevant to the link that must be put in place to provide the DiD probabilistic success criteria through PSA insights. Practical proposals outlined point out the open questions.
Ali Abd Ali, Naser Shaalan, Wedad Al-Dahhan,
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 06, pp 77-80; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2016.64007

Abstract:
Hydrofluoric acid has been one of the important chemicals in the industry. In Iraq, there is a considerable consumption of it in petrochemicals and detergents industry. However, so far, there is no genuine evaluation for the hazards and any prospective procedures to minimise the risk of it. In this regard, we show here some accidents took place in some industrial amenities in Iraq and other Arabic countries. In addition, there is an elaborated description of the degree of risk, safety practices, and some feasible treatments for hydrofluoric acid burns and inhalations.
, Jacob Quintel, Grad Zivkovic
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 06, pp 11-24; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2016.61002

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to design and analyze cost-effective and high energy absorbing buffer systems for high speed roadways. Unlike conventional crash cushions, the proposed buffer design is based on the assembly of a series of cylindrical hollow tubes (cells) with thorough slots around the cells. The idea is that during the collisions, the kinetic energy of the errant vehicles will be absorbed by the progressive deformation of the cells, hence minimizing damage to the vehicle and allowing a comfortable ride down deceleration of the vehicle’s occupants. As the cell was the fundamental unit of the buffer design, three cells with different geometry were studied to understand the underlying deformation of the individual cells. Nonlinear quasi-static tests using three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) simulation and experimental techniques were performed to evaluate the deformation and energy absorption capacity of the cells. Simulation results matched closely with experimental ones with relatively small errors. Based on the experimental results of single cells, a number of potential buffer systems were designed for 80 and 100 km/h speed roadways. Results indicate that the buffers with larger diameter cells are favorable to be used in high speed zones as they reduce the overall size of buffers and contain less number of cells, while being able to absorb the required amount of impact energy. Consequently, they are found to result in a reduced cost associated with materials and fabrication. All the buffer designs were relatively shorter than commercially available buffers used in roadways. In addition, due to their reduced and compact size, the designed buffers can potentially be used in a space limited and hazardous road environment to reduce the vehicle crash with the fixed objects.
Ahmad Bahoo Toroody, Mohammad Mahdi Abaiee, Reza Gholamnia, Mohammad Bahoo Torody, Nastaran Hekmat Nejad
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 06, pp 25-34; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2016.61003

Abstract:
Human error plays a pivotal rule in all aspects of engineering activities such as operation, maintenance, design, inspection and installation. Industries are faced up to various significant human errors and consequently irrecoverable loss each year, but still there is a lack of heeds to qualify as well as quantify such errors. This paper tries to estimate the probability of failure in lifting of light structures in sea by considering human errors. To do this, a strong qualifying tool such as Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) is applied to develop high risk accident scenario by considering non-linear socio-technical interaction in system. Afterwards, human error probability is calculated for each activity using the Success Likelihood Index Method (SLIM) based on resonance that is carried out in FRAM network. Then Event Tree (ET) is conducted to assess consequences. The present study is aimed to interpret the importance of attentions to qualitative methods in implementing quantitative risk analyses to consider human error in calculation. The final outcome depicts that considering human error in the process of risk assessment will result in more accuracy and reliability in final Risk Probability Number (RPN). The developed methodology has been applied to a case study of an offshore installation.
Tao Jiang, Ping Yu, Yu Liu, Jiajia Zhang, Shuyong Zhen
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology, Volume 06, pp 70-75; doi:10.4236/ojsst.2016.63006

Abstract:
In order to solve the deficiencies of the prior detection method on QDQ2-1 type water electrolysis hydrogen equipment, the key state parameters of hydrogen plant, such as hydrogen storage pressure, the operating voltage and the temperature of the tank, can be monitored in remote online by making full use of modern communications technology and data collection [1]. Once the hydrogen plant is abnormal, the alarm can be issued in time. The multi-point real-time automatic monitoring [2] mode can be realized in the hydrogen production process. The safe operation of hydrogen production work can be greatly improved by the advanced monitoring mode.
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