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Taylor S. Coughlan
Published: 4 November 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 1055-1064; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10098

Abstract:
A study of a previously uncommented upon window reference of Vergil, Eclogues 1.55 through Aeneid 2.8-9 in Ovid, Fasti 2.635. The paper argues that the allusion to Ecl. 1.55 enriches our understanding of these lines on several levels. First, Ovid demonstrates his own appreciation of Vergilian intratextuality. Second, the allusion suggests a continuity between Tityrus’ pastoral locus amoenus, which Octavian was purported to have renewed, and the family cena that closes with a toast to Augustus as the pater of the Roman state. Lastly, the double reference to A. 2 and Ecl. 1 intertextually reinforces the calendrical turning away from the past and its dead to the living present initiated by the Caristia.
Vilius Bartninkas
Published: 3 September 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-12347312

Abstract:
This paper examines moral virtues and cult practice in Plato’s Laws. It explores the symposium and the chorus and their potential to provide a recognisable cultural setting, in which the Magnesian citizens can test their responses to pleasurable and painful experiences and thus train their moral virtues. The challenge to this reading is to explain what additional input to moral habituation is provided by the religious aspect of these institutions. This paper draws attention to the relationship between the people and the patron gods of the respective institutions. It argues that the cult practices are designed to reflect the virtuous character of the traditional gods, who serve as the ethical role models for the worshipers. In this way, the worship of the traditional gods not only facilitates moral progress by exemplifying the objective of virtuous life, but also gives an egalitarian version of the ideal of godlikeness to its citizens.
Published: 3 August 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-36; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10078

Abstract:
Rome’s campaign in Armenia in 69-67 BC is an exceptionally important chapter in military history, one which provides insights into the political arrangements, alliances, and strategies from both sides of the conflict. This article focuses on the culmination of this war, i.e. the battle of Tigranokerta, the comparison of armies, and the role of cavalry, in particular the cataphracts. In scholarly studies, the accounts of Sallust, Plutarch and some other sources on the encounter at Tigranokerta have become the starting point for numerous conclusions, often misleading, regarding the then military operation and the part played by the units of cataphracts. The evaluation of the source data leads to a re-assessment of the picture of the war in Armenia.
Mitchell H. Parks
Published: 27 July 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10080

Abstract:
Memorabilia 3.5, a conversation between Socrates and Pericles the Younger, not only engages with the topoi of the epitaphios logos, but even alludes to Thucydides’ version, attributed to Pericles, and to Plato’s version in the Menexenus, attributed to Aspasia. The allusions range from verbal echoes to Xenophon’s choice of Pericles the Younger, son of Pericles and Aspasia, as Socrates’ interlocutor. This chapter of the Memorabilia, which is central to the structure of the work as a whole, represents Xenophon’s contribution to and correction of the epitaphios as a genre.
Joop van Waarden
Published: 2 July 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10041

Abstract:
The programmatic opening letter 1.1 of Sidonius Apollinaris’ correspondence is clearly inspired by the opening letter of Pliny the Younger’s correspondence. This article, however, argues that it can only be fully understood when read against a combination of Pliny’s letters 1.1, 1.2, and 1.5. Plin. Ep. 1.2 raises the issue of editing and publishing speeches, which Sidonius explicitly applies to bringing out a letter collection, as well as the eminently important discussion of a literary canon in which Cicero plays a crucial role for both authors. In Sidonius’ opening letter, Cicero’s appearance is cloaked in a strangely farcical guise which, however, becomes transparent once read against the foil of Plin. Ep. 1.5. Cicero then appears as a symbol of non-conformist behaviour which is at the basis of Sidonius’ editorial project.
Francesco Grillo
Published: 21 June 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10077

Abstract:
This article aims to investigate the identity of Socrates, the compiler of AP 14.1-64 (arithmetic problems and riddles). Leaving aside the traditional, but very uncertain, identification with Socrates the epigrammatist (D.L. 2.47), it is shown that the chronological conjecture by Carcopino 1926 (late 1st century BC-2nd century AD) no longer holds. A wider time frame is established (1st-4th centuries AD), although evidence from the (fairly) securely attributable poem (AP 14.1) seems to point to the mid-2nd century AD as the most plausible period of the poet’s activity. It is suggested that Socrates was a Pythagorising Middle Platonist associated with the philosopher Calvenus Taurus, even if his relationship with the Neo-Pythagorean and Middle Platonic traditions remains difficult to define precisely. The article also considers some of the relationships that have been shown to exist between diverging directions in Pythagoreanism (Delatte 1922), offering corrections for future attempts at Quellenforschung.
Maria Marcinkowska-Rosół, Sven Sellmer
Published: 18 June 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10076

Abstract:
One of the most widespread and natural ways of conceiving of the human mind in European culture is the image of the mind as a container for thoughts, images, memories, reasonings, etc. In this article, we explore the evidence of this metaphor in the Ancient Greek epic poems, Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey as well as Hesiod’s Theogony and Works and Days, and, for comparative purposes, the evidence of the analogous metaphor in the Ancient Indian epics, the Mahābhārata and the Rāmāyaṇa. We examine how the metaphor is used, what its functions are and what it implies for the conception of mind in both ancient traditions. Additionally, we offer a brief comparison with the image of the mind-container that emerges from the use of this metaphor in modern English.
Julián V. Méndez Dosuna
Published: 18 June 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10090

Anna A. Novokhatko
Published: 3 June 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 682-703; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10109

Abstract:
This article reviews recent studies on metaphor theories applied to the classical corpus and argues that approaches from cognitive linguistics are essential for the re-interpretation of Greek and Latin texts. Its main focus are two monographs, Andreas T. Zanker’s Metaphor in Homer and Tommaso Gazzarri’s Theory and Practice of Metaphors in Seneca’s Prose. The volume of collected papers on spatial metaphors in ancient texts edited by Fabian Horn and Ciliers Breytenbach proposes that the Lakoff-Johnson approach to cognitive metaphor is productive and that mappings from empirically accessible domains construct abstract concepts in spatial models of mental activity.
Joseph Andrew Smith
Published: 26 May 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-42; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10068

Abstract:
The iambic trimeters of Plautus are analyzed by syntactic boundaries and shown to be composed in a very narrow range of clause-measures using regular termini points in trimeters—line-end and the two caesuras. The five most frequently used syntactic measures account for half of trimeter composition. Plautus composed in modular units of syntax. This paper demonstrates: 1) the most frequent clause-type in Plautus’ trimeters is a trimeter in length, 2) the most frequent clause-type involving enjambment is exactly two trimeters in length, 3) certain clause-types appear with greater frequency in certain plays of Plautus, 4) clause-types can be shown to have distinctive, rhythmic cadences associated with each type. This modular method of clause composition must have been the product of its functional service to the playwright as he generated plays, to the actors who memorized them, and to the audience who heard discourse delivered in regular clause-packets.
Alison John
Published: 11 May 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10073

Abstract:
Mamertus Claudianus, a priest in Vienne in the mid-fifth century, has been identified by some scholars as a professional teacher of Latin rhetoric. This article contests this classification, arguing that Claudianus was an active member of learned Christian literary circles and leader of philosophical and theological ‘literary salons’. It demonstrates the importance of correctly identifying teachers in the prosopography and illustrates the potential of incorrect identifications to produce flawed and distorted historical reconstructions of the cultural transformations of the late antique west. A close reading of the sources for Claudianus, coupled with a firm understanding of the cultural and educational realities of late antique Gaul, sheds light on the evolution of an increasingly Christian intellectual culture among the Gallo-Roman litterati of the fifth century, and contributes to a better understanding of the transformation of educational practices in this period and after the ‘fall’ of Rome.
Marco Catrambone
Published: 19 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-32; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10071

Abstract:
This paper discusses problems of staging, address and word order in Greek tragedy to shed light on a controversial passage in Sophocles: Aj. 339-343. Ajax’s cry within, ἰὼ παῖ παῖ (339), has been alternatively taken to refer to Eurysaces (as suggested by Tecmessa) or to Teucer (whom Ajax mentions at 342-343). The paper argues for Teucer and responds to three arguments against this view: (1) παῖ is not only acceptable, but also effective to address one’s sibling; (2) the word order of 342, Τεῦκρον καλῶ, strictly implies ‘It’s Teucer I’m calling’ (not just: ‘I call on Teucer’), hence it cannot mark the move to a new addressee; (3) it is hardly possible for Ajax not to hear Tecmessa’s 340-341: short interactions across the skēnē door may occur, and the parallel scene at Euripides, Medea 1270a-1278 suggests that Ajax most likely hears Tecmessa’s words and corrects her wrong guess.
Alcorac Alonso Déniz
Published: 13 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10030

Abstract:
A lead tablet from Apollonia in Illyria exhibits the last strophe of a paean to Asclepios, that is transmitted in its entirety on inscriptions from four other cities. This article presents some alternative readings of the new fragmentary version and analyses its variants through the prism of the interaction between the local dialect of the Corinthian colony and the literary Doric of traditional choral lyric. Moreover, some linguistic discrepancies between the different versions of the hymn may have been conditioned by specific local characteristics of religious songs.
Matthew C. Farmer
Published: 12 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10069

Abstract:
At the premiere of Euripides’ Orestes in 408 BCE, the actor Hegelochos, playing the part of Orestes, made a small but destructive error in his performance: while attempting to deliver the line ‘after the storm I see once more a calm’, he said instead, ‘after the storm I see once more a weasel’. The comic poets Strattis, Sannyrion, and Aristophanes each present versions of this error in their plays; this paper contextualizes their treatment of Hegelochos within the portrayal of tragic actors in comedy generally, and argues that they portray Hegelochos’ mistake as an act of instantaneous tragic parody.
Graziano Ranocchia
Published: 8 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-34; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10023

Abstract:
Greek works On Ways of Life have been seen to consist in either collections of biographies or proper philosophical treatises. Recently, a unitary reading of this literary phenomenon has been advanced, but some fundamental evidence has escaped attention. This evidence, along with what remains of Epicurus and Chrysippus’ Peri biōn, suggests that in antiquity this label actually encompassed two essentially different genres: a mostly biographical one, which was cultivated by fourth/third-century BC Peripatetic philosophers and imperial writers, and a moral-philosophical one, which was first developed by Epicurus and Chrysippus and then cultivated by Academic and Peripatetic thinkers in the Hellenistic period and in later centuries.
Marco Vespa
Published: 8 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10034

Abstract:
The reconstruction of the culture of play and games in antiquity involves many problems of an exegetical nature, which are especially difficult to analyse because of the limited amount of encyclopaedic evidence that might provide adequate overviews and descriptions. Julius Pollux’s lexicon is an essential text in this regard. In the second half of the second century AD he wrote a synthesis of ancient knowledge, in which each notice was presented within very specific rhetorical and discursive constraints. This article focuses specifically on a passage (Poll. 9.100) in which two different names are given to the same face of the knucklebone. This passage presents an interpretative problem that has led some scholars to hypothesize a specific game rule. This paper shows how the answer to such an exegetical aporia can be solved by looking at the rhetorical specificities of the lexicographic genre and in particular at the discursive organization of the onomastic knowledge by Pollux.
S. Douglas Olson
Published: 8 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10040

Abstract:
Two generations ago, Robert Renehan published a series of articles expanding, refining, and correcting entries in the 9th edition of the monumental Liddell-Scott-Jones Greek-English Lexicon (1940) as supplemented by Barber and his fellow editors (1968). The following notes on the letter rho in the new Brill Dictionary of Ancient Greek are offered in a similar spirit.
Bradley Jordan
Published: 8 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-31; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10064

Abstract:
This paper aims to show how local civic communities, nominally subject to the Seleucid dynasts, integrated Roman magistrates into an existing framework of authority during the late second and early first centuries BCE. I argue that as Roman magistrates played an increasingly significant role in the region, cities initially framed them in quasi-regal terms, which their interlocutors consciously accepted. Through a close reading of two Roman letters to the Cilician city of Mopsuestia, dated to 87 BCE (SEG 44.1227), and analysis of literary, epigraphic, and numismatic evidence for the final collapse of Seleucid authority in the early 60s BCE, I reveal that this was a locally driven process. Consequently, local agents played a critical role in both legitimising Roman hegemony in local contexts and encouraging Roman intervention within the region.
Andree Hahmann, Jan Maximilian Robitzsch
Published: 8 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume -1, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10042

Abstract:
Scholars typically distinguish at least two different Epicurean conceptions of truth: (1) an account that pertains to the truth of perceptions or impressions and (2) an account that pertains to the truth of opinions. This paper addresses the relationship between the truth of perceptions (and by extension: preconceptions and feelings), on the one hand, and the truth of opinions, on the other. It offers an account of what these determinations of truth amount to and how they interact with each other. In doing so, the paper rejects a propositional understanding of Epicurean truth. It instead argues that the Epicurean conception of truth can be explained by relying on images and their combination.
Rainer Jakobi
Published: 8 April 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 648-666; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10096

Abstract:
The Chronicle by Marcellinus was intended as a sequel to its predecessor Jerome but demonstrates marked differences concerning the underlying historiographic and narrative ideas. The text is distinctly orthodox and emphasizes both the history of salvation and pronounced panegyrics. In his praefatio, Marcellinus voices a clearly individual concept. The summa brevitas of the chronicle is substituted by long passages and the ‘chronological present tense’ by the tenses of historical narrative. Marcellinus carefully chooses ideologically striking (hitherto unnoticed) quotations both from classical authors and the Old Testament. These intertextual signals underline the author´s interpretation of the historical facts.
Garth Tissol
Published: 23 February 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-12347309

Abstract:
At Timaeus 86d2 Plato quotes a line and a third of iambic trimeter probably from an unknown tragedy, possibly from a comedy. Its context is Timaeus’ argument that one suffering from diseases of the soul is often considered willingly bad, but wrongly so: οὐχ ὡς νοσῶν ἀλλ’ ὡς ἑκὼν κακὸς κακῶς | δοξάζεται, ‘he is wrongly considered not as sick but as willingly bad’. This quotation has not to my knowledge been noted in scholarship. The prosaic vocabulary of the quotation is reminiscent of Euripides, whereas its theme links it to Deianeira’s remarks on the disease of eros in Sophocles’ Trachiniae. As transmitted in Parisinus A and printed in modern editions, the quotation is metrically defective, lacking the word κακῶς. I argue that it was lost by haplography and ought to be restored, as was proposed in the commentary of a sixteenth-century translator, Cornarius (1561).
Robert E. Hedrick
Published: 3 February 2021
Abstract:
Through close reading, I show that in Plato’s discussion of the lover (erastēs) and beloved (eromenos) at Phaedrus 250d-251c we can recognize an overlooked reference to the theories of the early atomist, Democritus. In particular, Plato borrows Democritus’ term for visual images/films, eidōla, while alluding to Empedocles’ similar theory of vision through effluences, aporroai. I also analyze the repeated stress on the adjective, enargēs, within the same context. Like eidōlon, the term enargēs would be picked up by later Hellenistic philosophers and become vital to their theories on criteria of truth and self-evidence, enargeia. By examining Plato’s usage of Democritus’ eidōla coupled with the adjective enargēs, first employed here in a philosophical context, we can not only better understand how Plato adapts contemporary scientific theories to suit his own philosophical principles, but also see how Democritus’ and Plato’s terminology would eventually influence Epicurus and the Stoa.
K. Scarlett Kingsley
Published: 28 January 2021
Abstract:
Fragment 15 of Hecataeus’ Genealogies describes the origins of wine through a dog’s birth of the root of the grapevine. Scholars have interpreted this as Hecataeus’ toleration of the supernatural or as a case of rationalizing generatio in utero heterogeneo. This article reinterprets the role of the dog’s relationship to wine and argues that Hecataeus is exploiting a linguistic ambiguity to critique a traditional narrative on a celestial dog’s activity on the vintage.
Wim Nijs
Published: 21 January 2021
Abstract:
Despite Lucretius’ observations about fertility and marriage at the end of book 4, the Epicurean view on procreation is to a great extent still uncharted territory, due to the shortage of textual evidence other than Lucretius. An important, but often neglected source of information can be found in the few remaining columns of the, unfortunately rather badly preserved, Herculaneum papyrus PHerc. 908/1390, conventionally known as the treatise On Procreation. This paper aims to draw attention to the Gynecological treatise of Soranus of Ephesus as a hitherto unnoticed textual parallel for col. 6-7 of our papyrus. Additionally, I will use these columns to shed some light on the background for Lucretius’ observations in DRN 4.1263-1277, where he discusses the importance of adopting the proper coital position during intercourse.
Published: 20 January 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 179-180; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-12347308

Abstract:
"In Future Issues (in alphabetical order)" published on 20 Jan 2021 by Brill.
Jaap Mansfeld
Published: 12 January 2021
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 200-237; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10082

Abstract:
The question (once again) is in what cognitively acceptable way the Alētheia and Doxa sections of the epic should be connected, that is to say in what way Parmenides himself may have envisaged the relation between ontological Truth and mistaken human Opinions. An important distinction is found to obtain between the common run of humankind, ignorant and helpless, and an enlightened human elite. The views of this elite serve as an intermediate between the cognitive condition of humanity in general and the arcane knowledge and ontology of the Alētheia section and help to attenuate the dualism by bridging the gap between ignorance and absolute Truth. There is a significant and crucial interplay between the two sections which works both ways, forward from the Alētheia to the Doxa section and backwards from the Doxa to the Alētheia section. Defining characteristics of the elements per se and of their compounds in the Doxa section are reflections of defining properties of Being in the Alētheia section. Conversely, recognition of these elemental characteristics may point the way back to properties of Being. The argument of the epic from fr. B1 to fr. B19 DK is strictly organized by means of reiterated theses and type-scenes, which lend an overarching unity to the poem. This technique itself is not new, but the contents of these reiterated motifs (such as the mention of humans, of the distinction between Being and not-Being, of name-giving, or of defining properties and characteristics) are original. The reiterated motifs which secure the proofs of the main thesis function as hidden persuaders. The story of the extraordinary journey of the anonymous author to the dwelling of his nameless goddess and the revelation he receives from her have been carefully authenticated and stage-managed to provide divine backing for the stunning doctrines put forward and are also aimed at convincing the audience.
Nicolò D’Alconzo
Published: 12 January 2021
Abstract:
This article considers the Lucianic Erôtes a receptor of Greek novels and focusses on Chariton’s Callirhoe as hypotext. It argues that Chariton’s construction of Callirhoe as a double of Aphrodite, and the plot that this predicament generates, are central to the presentation of the statue of Aphrodite in the Erôtes. This is revealed by consistent verbal echoes and by the re-enactment of memorable scenes in the novel. The Erôtes emerges as an important document for the early reception of Greek novels, and its author as an attentive reader of them.
N . Bryant Kirkland
Published: 4 January 2021
Abstract:
This paper examines aspects of Dionysius of Halicarnassus’s reception of Herodotus, including his use of ethnographic polarity and his assessment of Herodotean scope and unity, to argue that Dionysius’s adulation of Herodotus is related to his own articulation of nascent Roman imperialism. In particular, Dionysius’s response to Herodotus’s variegated but monolithic narrative is connected to a rhetoric of empire germane to his own interests as a critic and historian. I first recall some contours of Dionysius’s admiration of Herodotus and the consistency of purpose expressed across Dionysius’s corpus, before analyzing his ethnographic spin on Roman history. Later, Dionysius’s use in On Demosthenes of a speech by Xerxes is read as reinforcing some of the imperial themes of his own work, including the emphasis on a global rhetoric that replays the Greek repulse of a barbarian foe.
Francesco Camagni
Published: 10 December 2020
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 891-912; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10018

Abstract:
Originally, Ancient Greek employed the letter digamma ( ϝ) to represent the /w/ sound. Over time, this sound disappeared, alongside the digamma that denoted it. However, to transcribe those archaic, dialectal, or foreign words that still retained this sound, lexicographers employed other letters, whose sound was close enough to /w/. Among these, there is the letter gamma (γ), attested mostly but not only in the Lexicon of Hesychius. Given what we know about the sound of gamma, it is difficult to explain this use. The most straightforward hypothesis suggests that the scribes who copied these words misread the capital digamma (Ϝ) as gamma (Γ). Presenting new and old evidence of gamma used to denote digamma in Ancient Greek literary and documentary papyri, lexicography, and medieval manuscripts, this paper refutes this hypothesis, and demonstrates that a peculiar evolution in the pronunciation of gamma in Post-Classical Greek triggered a systematic use of this letter to denote the sound once represented by the digamma.
Stefano Acerbo
Published: 10 December 2020
Abstract:
The reference to Pelops emerging from the cauldron in verses 25-27 of Pindar O. 1 is one of the most enigmatic passages in the ode. Scholars have regarded it as an allusion to the tale of a cannibalistic banquet or as a new story invented by Pindar himself, but both of these interpretations fail to satisfy. Many of the problems caused by this passage derive from the evidence used to reconstruct pre-Pindaric traditions. A second boiling to restore Pelops, preserved only in a scholium to O. 1, is an ad hoc interpretation of the annotator. Based on evidence provided by Apollodorus the mythographer, a different version of this episode may be inferred, whereby the cauldron evokes mythical representations, involving rejuvenation and immortality, which can fully account for the enigmatic passage of O. 1.
Olga L. Akhunova
Published: 4 December 2020
Abstract:
This paper is an attempt to clarify a number of difficult places in Pindar’s description of the Gorgons’ lament in Pythian 12, which have given rise to inconsistent interpretations and remain insufficiently clear (δυσπενθέϊ σὺν καµάτῳ, 10; εὐπαράου Μεδοίσας, 16; τὸν … ἐκ καρπαλιµᾶν γενύων χριµφθέντα … γόον, 20-21). The central contention is that these details are directly relevant to the technical aspects of aulos-playing (the strain which is required to produce the sound, the position and movement of the mouth, the ‘good-quality’ cheeks) and provide clues to intriguing details of the myth that Pindar tells in Pythian 12.
Miriam Valdés Guía
Published: 2 December 2020
Mnemosyne, Volume 74, pp 913-934; https://doi.org/10.1163/1568525x-bja10045

Abstract:
In Attica, Pallas was a giant apparently related to the sanctuary of Athena at Pallene. Pallene recalled the eponymous Chalcidian region and thus echoed the myth of the Gigantomachy. In some versions, Athena performed the Pyrrhic dance after defeating the giants. In other versions, however, Pallas was also a Titan, the father of Athena and another young woman. This maiden was the alter ego of the goddess and died at the hands of Athena in an hoplomachia. In this paper, I explore the possibility that some representations of a female Pyrrhic dance relating to Athena on red-figure vases may reflect a ritual in fifth-century Athens. This ritual was presumably associated with the Pallenian sanctuary where the Gigantomachy was evoked and a mimêsis of the goddess in arms seems to have taken place.
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