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Alvi Rizqi Amaliyah, Arwin Diva Nafida, Berta Ivana Priladiantika, Bambang Tri Hartomo
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 67-73; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.2

Abstract:
Background: Composite resin is a dental filling material that has several mechanical properties, one of which is surface hardness. Surface hardness can increase due to several factors such as smoking habits. Filter cigarette is the second most common type of cigarette in Indonesia and electric cigaretteis the third most common type of cigarette in Indonesia. Both types of cigarettes can affect the surface hardness of the composite resin due to a decrease in the pH of saliva produced from cigarette smoke. Objective: This study aimed to determine the difference in surface hardness of thecomposite resin after exposure to filter cigarette smoke and electric cigarette. Methods: 27 samples of nanohybrid composite resin were divided into three groups. Group 1 as a control group was immersed in artificial saliva and was not exposed to cigarette smoke, group 2 wasthe group that was treated with filter cigarette smoke and group 3 was the group that was treated with electric cigarette. Furthermore, the groups were tested for surface hardness using a Vickers hardness tester. Results: The surface hardness test of the composite resin showed an increase in the control group and a decrease in the treatment group, with the highest decrease in the filter cigarette smoke treatment group. The results of the paired t-test and one-way ANOVA test showed that the p-value was >0.00 so there was no difference between the pre-test and post-test mean differences in each group and there was no difference between the mean of each group Conclusion: There was no difference before and after exposure to filter cigarette or electric cigarette smoke.
Sri Pandu Utami Pandu, Intan Batura Endo Mahata, Hiranti Syorga Harien
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 59-66; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.1

Abstract:
Background: Coronavirus, or SARS-CoV2, is one of the main pathogens that attack the human respiratory system. The coronavirus disease caused by SARS COV2 represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease of global public health concern. West Sumatra is in the top 10 provinces that contributed the most COVID-19 cases in Indonesia. 1st According to the official website of the Health Padang City Service on September 22, 2020, 2385 confirmed COVID-19 people, 1426 people recovered from COVID-19, and 53 people died.  The high incidence of positive cases of Covid-19 in Padang is due to a lack of public knowledge and adherence to government-mandated health practices. Dental care places have a risk of COVID-19 infection due to aerosols generated during procedures, handling of sharp objects, and the proximity of dentists to patients. Dentistry students must have an awareness of deep knowledge, a better understanding, and must be updated with the practice of adapting to identify possible COVID-19 infections. Objective: The aim is to increase awareness about COVID-19 among undergraduate dentistry students at the Baiturrahmah Faculty of Dentistry, Padang. Methods: This type of research is called descriptive research. The target population of this study was undergraduate dentistry students in 2017, 2018, and 2019, with a sample of 175 people. This research was conducted online in the city of Padang using Google Forms Media for distributing questionnaires. When the research was carried out in September 2020. Results:  The results showed that as many as 99.4% of respondents had good knowledge awareness about COVID-19, 0.6% awareness of bad knowledge, 97.7% of respondents got the first information about COVID-19 through the media, 56% of respondents got the latest Covid information via the internet, only 11.4% of respondents are taking Covid-19 courses, and 5.1% are still taking courses until now. The method of data analysis in this study used the SPSS program with univariate and bivariate analysis. The processed data is presented in table form. Conclusion: Students have awareness about COVID-19.
Caecilia Indarti, Siti Saerah, Djazuli Chalidiyanto
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 81-89; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.4

Abstract:
Background: Hospitals need to manage document systems well. Dr Ramelan Navy hospital  only 15% of the training materials have been documented. Knowledge of basic infection control programs only reached 57.2% and effective communication reached 56%. Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the factors causing the documentation of training materials under the standard, to determine solutions to improve the documentation of training materials to reach the standard and to develop an activity plan in overcoming the problem of documentation of training materials that have not reached the standard. Methods: This study uses the analytical observational method. The method used is the Problem Solving Cycle (PSC) approach. Data obtained through interviews, observations, and documentation in several departments and work units, then processed through a number of stages in overcoming the problem of documentation of training materials. Problems are solved by using a problem solving cycle approach with five stages of problem analysis, strategy design, development strategy, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and feedback. Solution of problems with the development of knowledge modules in hospital management information system. Results: The results at the strategy development stage of the development of the module named E-Knowledge was developed using the Sprint method with five stages of map, sketch, divide, prototype and test. Conclusion: E Knowledge increase knowledge and improve personnel performance.
Adi Ahmad Yusuf, Yanie Febby Martina Lefaan, Riani Setiadhi
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 103-108; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.7

Abstract:
Background:Uremic stomatitis is a rare oral manifestation of chronic and acute kidney disease. The incidence of uremic stomatitis is low, especially because process disease develops gradually over years and occurs in advanced renal failure. This disease is associated with high levels of blood urea. There are four forms of uremic stomatitis that have been identified, namely ulcerative, erythemopultaceous, hyperkeratotic and hemorrhagic. Usually the lesions were seen on buccal mucosa, dorsal or ventral surface of tongue, gingiva, lips and floor of mouth. Purpose: To discuss the challenges in treating uremic stomatitis patient with poor systemic condition. Case: A 73 year old male patient was referred from cardiology department to oral medicine department because there were painful lesions on lips, tongue, palate and buccal mucosa. He was a chronic kidney disease patient whose laboratory results showed high urea and creatinine values. Case management: The Patient was given oral hygiene instruction to clean his teeth and tongue with a gauze soaked in NaCl at least three times a day, compressing the lips and rinse with chlorine dioxide based mouthwash (Oxyfresh®, USA) three times a day. The improvement of oral lesions were not significant because the blood urea and creatinine value were still high. Conclusion: Management of uremic stomatitis needs multidisciplinary teamwork in order to achieve the kidney function and other comorbidities improvement as well as oral lesions to improve the quality of life. 
Istien Wardani, Dyah Ayu
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 90-95; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.5

Abstract:
Background: Cleft palate of the new-born infants with or without cleft lip, are recognized to be at risk of feeding difficulties, making it difficult to maintain adequate nutrition, and also interfere the speech function and the parents also their psychological growth. Purpose: Surgical closure of the cleft lip may be accomplished shortly after birth to relieve the parents’ anxiety as long as the general rules “ triple tens ” ( more than : 10 week of age, 10 pounds of body weight, 10 grams of haemoglobine ) that is frequently used in determining optimum timing for lip closure must be fulfilled. Case Report: Female baby at age 5 days, who was referred  to pediatric dentistry clinic dr. Ramelan Naval Hospital Surabaya with parents complaining that their baby was born with cleft lip and palate and could not drink breast milk, easily choked, so they had to depend on the sonde. Case management: A maxillary feeding plate (=MFP) was made to close the cleft palate and regenerate the function of chewing and swallowing so that the infant obtains good nourishment and gain body weight until the palatal cleft closure operation. Conclusion: After the closure, her mother and family are psychologically able to prepare comprehensive protection for the child so that they too feel comfortable and confident. Smile can represent 80% of communication. When children feel comfortable because they can freely smile, this smile can attract other people to make it easier to adapt and socialize. 
Paulus Budi Teguh, Oka Lestari, Chaterina Diyah Nanik
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 109-114; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.8

Abstract:
Background: Nylon thermoplastic has been widely used as denture base material because of its esthetic property, high flexibility, and flexural strength. It is very important to maintain the removable dentures’ cleanliness, which is frequently done with the chemical technique by immersing the denture in a solution. The composition of malic acid and citric acid from pineapple peel extract has antibacterial and antifungal properties, so it can be used not only as a denture cleanser but also affect the flexural strength of denture base material. Objective: To determine the effect of pineapple peel extract as a denture cleanser on the flexural strength of nylon thermoplastic denture base material. Method: This is experimental laboratory research with a post-test-only group design using 36 samples, namely 18 Valplast samples and 18 Lucitone FRS measuring 64mm X 10mm X 2.5mm divided into 4 groups (Valplast control, Valplast experiment, Lucitone FRS control, and Lucitone FRS experiment). The samples were treated by immersing them in sterile distilled water as control, and in 3.5% pineapple peel extract for 15 minutes 3 times a day for 10 days as treatment. Flexural strength measurement using Universal Testing Machine. The data obtained were analyzed by the One Way ANOVA test. Result: There was a decrease in flexural strength in the Valplast and Lucitone FRS groups immersed in 3.5% pineapple peel extract. Lucitone FRS groups had higher flexural strength than Valplast’s. Conclusion: There is a decrease in flexural strength of nylon thermoplastic denture base after being immersed in 3.5% pineapple peel extract. 
I Komang Evan Wijaksana, Made Talitha Suryaningsih Pinatih
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 96-102; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.6

Abstract:
Background: Fibrous epulis was the most frequent non-plaque-induced gingival lesions categories from biopsied cases included hyperplastic lesions, malignancies and benign neoplasms.Because the lesion is nonspecific and histology is the foundation of a more precise diagnosis, dentists may have difficulty identifying fibrous epulis from other disorders. Furthermore, the recurrence rate is significant, thus long-term follow-up is required for fibrous epulis after therapy. Purpose: to report the therapy of fibrous epulis and the follow up after eight months. Case: A 30-year-old nonsmoker healthy man presented with a 3-month history of an enlarging mass on the anterior left mandible gingiva. A clinical diagnosis was fibrous epulis in generalized periodontitis stage III grade C. Case Management: After evaluation of initial therapy, complete excision with a surgical blade and curettage of the lesion were planned for the lesion therapy. Histopathology finding confirm the prior clinical diagnosis of fibrous epulis. Eight months following surgery, the gingiva around the region had a healthy and desirable shape with no signs of recurrence. The patient's surgical recovery was good. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this case study, complete excision and curettage of the fibrous epulis lesion are the preferred treatments because of its high recurrence rate. The histopathologic examination is crucial for determining the final diagnosis, and long-term follow-up is essential. 
Dewi Rosmalia, Minarni, Mhd Riza Marjoni
Published: 31 August 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 74-80; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i2.3

Abstract:
Background: One of the causes of dental caries is Streptococcus mutant bacteria which has the ability to change the sugar content of food waste into lactic acid as the initial process of caries. One of the efforts to overcome dental caries is to use natural ingredients such as nutmeg. Every part of nutmeg has active substances that are efficacious as antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory. Pulpam, seeds and fuli of nutmeg showed as potential extracts in inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus mutans. Objective: This study aimed to analyze methanol extracts from pericarpium, pulpam, fuli and nutmeg seeds against the growth of Streptococcus mutans bacteria that causes dental plaque. Methods: The research was conducted by diffusion method using BHI agar media and incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 24 hours. Results: The results of the calculation of the average diameter of the inhibition zones from the extract of fuli, seeds, pulpam and pericarpium of the nutmeg plant were 19.00 mm, 25.33 mm, 15.66 mm, 22.66 mm, and 21.83 mm, respectively. Data analysis using ANOVA (one way) showed that there were significant differences in all groups at p<0.05. The results of the LSD test showed that there were significant differences in all treatment groups. Conclusion: Methanol extract from fruit and fruit parts of nutmeg showed the ability to inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause dental plaque.
Febrian, Shindy Ollivia
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 51-57; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.8

Abstract:
Introduction: Tooth loss occurs mostly in the elderly, especially loss of occlusal support can cause disruption of the mastication process and the swallowing of food, so the chewing function is reduced and causes the elderly to prefer soft foods and foods that are easy to chew. The lack of fulfillment of all nutrients needed by the body as the risk of malnutrition in the elderly increases.Purpose: To evaluate the analysis of tooth loss in the elderly with mal-nutrition based on Mini Nutritional Assessment in Social House Tresna Werdha Kasih Sayang Ibu, Batusangkar. Materials and Methods: Cross-Sectional approach. The total number of the sample was 46 elderly. The Eichner index measured the tooth loss, besides the MNA questionnaire estimated the risk of malnutrition. Data analysis was done using Chi-square Results: 76.1% of the elderly have tooth loss (all of the occlusal support) and 69.7% of the elderly at risk of malnutrition. 85.7% of the elderly have tooth loss (all of the occlusal support) with risk malnutrition. The statistical result analyzed by using Chi-square obtained p-value <0.005. Conclusion: There is a risk of malnutrition in the elderly who experience tooth loss
Maharani Laillyza Apriasari, Juliyatin Putri Utami
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 77-81; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.4

Abstract:
Background: Herpangina is an acute infectious disease with self-limiting properties. While herpangina may heal without any treatment, it may be followed by various complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, cardiomyopathy, or even death. In 2018, there was a 10.07% prevalence rate of viral infection in Banjarmasin city, South Kalimantan. One of which was herpangina. Objective: To elucidate the management of herpangina. Case: Young female patient, 11 years old, complained of multiple ulcerations on the posterior side of her mouth with excruciating pain when swallowing. Ulceration had appeared for three days which was initially commenced by fever and cough. Case Management: The patient was prescribed methisoprinol syrup 250 mg four times a day, ibuprofen syrup 250 mg four times a day, mouthwash containing aloe vera extract to be applied thrice daily, and explicit instruction for bed rest. Conclusion: Dental practitioners must differentiate herpangina from other differential diagnoses thus enabling the acquirement of final diagnosis through clinical examination. This will significantly assist dental practitioners to provide precise clinical therapy for the patient with herpangina. 
Fadhila Zidni Ilma, Tecky Indriana, Agus Sumono
Published: 29 March 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 17-23; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i1.3

Abstract:
Background: In Indonesia, tooth extraction is the most common practice in dentistry. A successful indicator of tooth extraction is a perfect healing process. One of the parameters of a perfect healing process is epithelial formation. Based on previous research, arabica coffee fruit skin has proven potential to accelerate the wound healing process. The compounds in the arabica coffee fruit skin are mostly composed of flavonoids, tannins, and chlorogenic acid. Purpose: This research is proposed to understand the beneficial effect of arabica coffee fruit skin (Coffea arabica) towards the increase of epithelial thickness in post tooth extraction socket. Material andMethod: The type of this research was laboratory experimental in vivo with post-test only control group design using 24 Wistar rats as a sample. The sample was separated into two groups, control and intervention groups with 12 Wistar rats each. Treatment in both groups was given during 3, 5, and 7 days. Afterward, tissue processing undergoes with buccolingual cutting and HE coloring. Measurements are carried out with the ImageRaster software in the thickest and thinnest part of the epithelium that covers the tooth socket. Result: Epithelial thickness after tooth extraction increased significantly (p<0.05) in the intervention group compared to the control group. Conclusion: Arabica coffee fruit skin has the beneficial effect of increasing the epithelial thickness after tooth extraction.
Arya Adiningrat, Damian Abdul
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.1

Abstract:
Introduction: Low back pain is a pain sensation in spinal and paraspinal structure of lumbosacral region. The prevalence of low back pain event in several country show the significant percentage every year. Dentist is a high-risk profession related to musculoskeletal disorders particularly low back pain. Bad posture, static sitting position and repetition movement are several risks possibility for the occurrence of low back pain.Objective: This research is purposed to evaluate the prevalence overview of low back pain event among the dentist in Yogyakarta city. Methode: This research was designed by the descriptive observational approach using cross sectional research design. The samples were 76 dentists under the “Indonesian Dentist Association of Yogyakarta” region. The research was conducted through questionnaires utilization to measure the level of low back pain from the respondents to the no disabillity, minimal disabillity, moderate disabillity dan severe disability categories. Result: The result showed that among dentist population in Yogyakarta there were 37 dentists (49%) suffered low back pain with no disabillity, 35 dentists (46%) low back pain with minimal disabillity and 4 dentists (5%) low back pain with moderate disabillitywhile there were nodentist suffered from low back pain with severe disabillity (0%).Conclusion: The total prevalence of low back pain event among dentist in Yogyakarya city categorized by all the severity level was 39 dentists (or 51%) suffered from a low back pain of musculoskeletal disorder.
Yani Corvianindya Rahayu, Agustin Wulan Suci Dharmayanti, Anya Tania Larasati
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 88-93; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.6

Abstract:
Background: Periodontitis is periodontal tissue inflammation due to Porphyromonas gingivalis which invades the gingival tissue due to the activity of virulence factors. This causes the host immune system changes and increases MMP-8 production in periodontal tissue so resulting excessive tissue destruction. Cocoa pod rind containing proanthocyanidin compound as anti-inflammatory drugs is given to reduce MMP-8 and cure periodontitis. Objective: To examine the effect of proanthocyanidin extract of cocoa pod rind (Theobroma cacao L.) on decreasing MMP-8 expression in gingival tissue of periodontitis rats model. Materials and Methods: The samples used were 16 male Wistar rats divided into 2 groups, placebo gel for the control group and proanthocyanidins gel for the treatment group. ). Each group was induced by P.gingivalis bacteria every 3 days for 14 days and then smeared with placebo gel and proanthocyanidin gel for 7 and 14 days. Then all rats’ gingival tissue were taken and made preparations to be observed under a microscope and analyzed using immunoratio software. Result: There were differences in MMP-8 expression based on observation time (p<0.05). MMP-8 expression in the 7th day control group was lower than the 14th day and MMP-8 expression in the 7th day treatment group was higher than the 14th day. Conclusion: Proanthocyanidin of cocoa pod rind extract (Theobroma cacao L.) can reduce MMP-8 expression in gingival tissue of periodontitis rats model.
Rahmat Hidayat, Helmi Fatchurrahman
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 38-43; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.6

Abstract:
Introduction:Silica dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticle have long been used as a denture base coating. Thermoplastic nylon denture base material is prone to discoloration due to its amide bonds absorb water easily. Meanwhile, coffee contains chlorogenic and tanic acid, which can change the color of denture bases. Purpose: This study was to examine the effect SiO2 coating and duration of coffee immersion on discoloration of thermoplastic nylon denture base. Method: Samples consisted of 24 thermoplastic nylon in square-shaped (30 x 30 x 2 mm), divided into 4 groups (n = 6) which were control (without SiO2 coating) and treatment (with SiO2 coating) groups, which then were immersed in coffee solution for 15 and 30 days. Discoloration test was conducted using spectrophotometer by measuring the delta absorbance of light before and after coffee immersion. Result: The lowest delta absorbance was in the 15-day treatment group (0.019 ± 0.006) and the highest was in the 30-day control group (0.085 ± 0.028). Two-way ANOVA test showed that SiO2 coating and coffee immersion had an effect on discoloration of thermoplastic nylon (p <0.05). Post hoc LSD test showed that there were significant differences between the control and treatment group at 15 and 30 days of coffee immersion (p <0.05). Conclusion: SiO2 as a thermoplastic nylon denture base coating can reduce discoloration by coffee immersion for 15 and 30 days.There were no differences between 15 and 30 days of coffee immersion on thermoplastic nylon’s discoloration in the control and treatment groups.
Eriza Juniar, Yulie Emilda Akwan
Published: 29 March 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 45-51; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i1.7

Abstract:
Background: Antibacterial is a substance produced by a microorganism, which has the ability to inhibit growth or kill other microorganisms. Antibacterial activity is measured in vitro to determine the potency of an antibacterial agent in a solution, its concentration in body fluids or tissues, and the susceptibility of certain microorganisms to certain concentrations of drugs. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to find the power of extract ethanol Nannocholoropsis oculata as an alternative antibacterial causes of the growth of the caries which is Streptococcus mutans. Material and methods: extract ethanol. Nannocholoropsis oculate divided into three parts of concentration 1,5%, 2% and 2,5%, Chlorhexidine 0,12% as a control, culture bacteri Streptococcus mutans with McFarland 0.5 standart. The metode used in this study was One way analysis of varians (ANOVA), but first it had to be a homogenius test and a normalitas test. Result: The result of this study showed that no barrier power at concentration 1,5%, 2% and 2,5%. Conclucion: The result showed no inhibition in the three observed groups of 1.5%, 2%, and 2.5% of extract ethanol Nannochloropsis oculate. This meant that this article cannot prove the inhibition characteristic of Nannochloropsis oculate. This may be because the concentration of the extract Nannochloropsis oculata used in this study was too small. Henceforth, it is necessary to conduct research with a higher concentration of extract. On the other hand, the positive control group, using 0.12% Chlorhexidine solution, showed an inhibition characteristic while the negative control group, using 1 % of DMSO showed no inhibition.  
Linda Rochyani
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 44-50; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.7

Abstract:
Background: Enterococcus faecalisis the most common bacteria that cause failure to root canal treatment, which can become very resistant under biofilms. Moringaoleifera has antibacterial properties and may affect the multidrug-resistant bacteria. Purpose: This study aimed to observe the inhibition of Moringaoleifera leaf extract on the biofilm formation of bacteria Enterococcus faecalis. Method: This study was true experimental laboratory research with post-test only control group design and tested using biofilm method, divided into six groups, each group consisted of eight samples. The control groups were: K- (CMC 0,1%), K+ (ChKM), and four treatment groups were: P1 (Moringaoleifera 20%), P2 (Moringaoleifera 40%), P3 (Moringaoleifera 60%), P4 (Moringaoleifera 80%). Antibacterial inhibition was determined by the value of Optical Density in the ELISA Reader. Data analysis using Kruskal-wallis followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results: There were significant differences (p <0.05) seen from the percentage value of biofilm inhibition, on the K - (0 %) group compared with K+ (47,69%), P1(7,68%), P2 (21,13%), P3 (42,33%) and P4 (55,78%), as well on K + group (ChKM) compared with P4 group (Moringaoleifera 80%). Conclusion: Moringaoleiferaleaf extract has inhibition effect for the formation of bacteria Enterococcus faecalis biofilm and the effect is 80% greater than ChKM.
Rosada Sintya Dwi, Diah Tanjung, Shanty Chairani, Rini Bikarindrasari, Siti Rusdiana Puspa Dewi
Published: 29 March 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i1.4

Abstract:
Background: Cymbopogon nardus L. known as citronella grass is traditional medicinal plant that contains saponins, polyphenols, alkaloids, flavonoids, and essential oil. Based on the previous study, it is known that it has antibacterial properties. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine antibacterial activity of Cymbopogon nardus L. in inhibiting the growth of Enterococcus faecalis. Methods: The samples were Cymbopogon nardus L. extracts with concentration of 1%, 3%, 5%,7%, 9%, and 5% NaOCl as positive control. Antibacterial activity of citronella extract against E. faecalis was observed with the formation of inhibitory zone diameter in agar. Data were analyzed using SPSS with one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Result: The result showed that Cymbopogon nardus L. was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at concentration 1%,3%,5%,7% and 9%.There was a significant difference in antibacterial activity among all groups. It showed that concentration of 9% showed the highest zone of inhibition, but it was not as effective as NaOCl 5%. NaOCl showed the highest zone of inhibition. Conclusion: Cymbopogon nardus L. had antibacterial activity in inhibiting the growth of E. faecalis. The higher the concentration of citronella extract, the higher the antibacterial activity possessed.
Adni Muswita, Sri Pandu Utami
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 65-70; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.2

Abstract:
Background: The dentistry profession continuously presents information aimed at improving its discipline consistently and measurably to improve the oral health of patients. Specializes in any field that is known to be associated with higher productivity. The same is true for the health sector in general and specifically for dentistry where general practice is being matched by the search for demand for specialists. Purpose: This study aims to look at students' choices and reasons for pursuing a dental specialist at RSGM Baiturrahmah. Methods: This is a descriptive study consisting of 71 college students at RSGM Baiturrahmah. Subjects and methods: consisting of students filling out a questionnaire containing 4 questions, the research time was in October 2020 using a questionnaire. Statistical Analysis: The data analysis in this study used the SPSS program with descriptive analysis. Results: showed that the specialist that students were interested in was periodontics as much as 22.22% and the reasons for students to continue to specialize at most were having skills/talents in specialists as much as 38.03%.
Risyandi Anwar, Arlette Setiawan, Supriatno, Unang Supratman
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 21-28; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.4

Abstract:
The leaves of Altingia excelsa were found to strongly inhibit SP-C1 human tongue cancer cell lines. This study was focused on identifying the antiproliferative compound found in A. excelsa leaves and assessing its mechanism of action. The active compound was isolated using column chromatography and identified by the spectroscopic method and was also tested for its anti-proliferative properties and the cell cycle analysis in SP-C1 cells by flowcytometry analysis.This work resulted in the isolation of a flavonoid, which was identified to be kaempferol and quercetin. The compounds inhibited SP-C1 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 0.72 µg/mL and 0. 70 µg/mL for the 24 hours treatments, respectively. Furthermore, the flowcytometry analysis suggested that the compounds exerted its anticancer activities by inhibiting cell cycle. These results suggested that compounds found in A. excelsa providies a basis for its potential use in cancer disease management. 
Nur Tsurayya Priambodo, Hening Tuti Hendarti, Azimatul Kharimah
Published: 29 March 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i1.6

Abstract:
Background: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is an inflammation of the oral mucosa in the form of a single or more ulcer that occurs repeatedly. One of the predisposing factors that contribute to the onset of RAS is depression. Depression is a mood that is not happy or sadness that is experienced as part of the pattern of life. Objective: Discuss multidisciplinary management in cases of 65-year-old women with large multiple ulcers with depression-triggering factors. Case: Women aged 65 years complained of recurrent canker sores. The frequency of RAS increased by 10 years due to economic and household problems. It has been treated with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs but does not heal. Does not have a history of systemic diseases. Case Management: Do investigations are complete peripheral blood examination, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Refer patients to the psychiatric specialist. Multidisciplinary treatment is performed by a psychiatric specialist. Treatment of oral mucosa with topical anti-inflammatory steroid drugs. Conclusions: in accordance with the treatment that has been given, this case has recovered after day 14. So it can be concluded that proper multidisciplinary management and elimination of triggering factors are the main roles to prevent recurrence and reduce the frequency of recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Niluh Ringga Woroprobosari, Nurul Rezki Utami, Eko Hadianto
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 16-20; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.3

Abstract:
Introduction: Forensic odontology is a branch of dentistry that has disciplines learn about the examination of evidence derived from teeth, and how to deal with the evidence for legal concerns. Purpose: The aim of the study was to describe biological age estimates by using Kvaal method in Semarang, and the difference between biological and chronological age by using the Kvaal method in Semarang. This study was descriptive with crosssectional design. Materials and Methods: One of the methods in determining the estimated age by using teeth is the Kvaal method. Kvaal method determines the estimated age based on the pulp size using radiography. Result: The results showed the difference between biological and chronological age was ±4,57 years. This result is lower than Kvaal’s previous study result which was ±9,5 years. Conclusion: Based in the findings above, it can be concluded that the difference of chronological and biological age using Kvaal method in Semarang was ±4,57 years within 15-60 years old individuals in Semarang.
Atiek Driana Rahmawati, Eggi Arguni, Iwa Sutardjo, Dibyo Pramono
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 9-15; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.2

Abstract:
Introduction: Bad oral habit is an intraoral abnormal habit, if it continues until school-age children, it needs more attention because of its effects on craniofacial growth. It can be caused by pathological conditions, anxiety, or psychological disorder. The school-age period is a new environment. Children adjust to some conditions that may cause problems but if they cannot, resulting in psychological tension. Girls have a higher level of anxiety than boys. The boys tend to against the advice of their parents, including stopping doing bad oral habits. Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether there was a correlation between age, gender, and bad oral habit of 7-9-year-old children. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study has been done in Karangjati elementary school. The 107 children were examined their oral cavity to observe clinical symptoms that might be lead to bad oral habits. Their parents were asked to fill out the questionnaire to determine whether there were bad oral habits. The data were analyzed by the chi-square. Result: Oral habits were present in 67 from107 children (62.62%) and mostly in 8 years old group (26.17%); more occurred in males (36.45%) than females (26.17%). The highest prevalence was nail-biting (28.97%), followed by lip sucking (23.36%), lip biting (23.36%), thumb/finger sucking (20.5%), bruxism (13.08%) and mouth breathing (8.41%). Chi-square test showed that p-value=0,037 and 0.038 for the correlation between age, gender, and bad oral habit, respectively. Conclusion: There were correlations between age, gender, and bad oral habits of 7-9-year-old children.
Sri Pandu Utami, Deby Anzules, Hamdy Lisfrizal
Published: 29 March 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 52-57; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i1.8

Abstract:
Background: Tooth extraction is an important measure in determining oral health status because it generally reflects untreated periodontal tissue disease and caries. Tooth extraction can also be used as a measure of people's knowledge and motivation in maintaining their teeth. The higher the revocation rate, the lower the community's knowledge and motivation. Purpose: The aim of this study is to see the main reasons for tooth extraction in children who are in the pedodontics  of the RSGM Baiturrahmah. Material and Methods: This type of research is quantitative with analytic descriptive methods. The target population of this study were students of coass Lab Paedodonti RSGM Baiturrahmah in October-December 2019, with a sample of 76 people. The research was conducted at the Paedodonti Lab RSGM Baiturrahmah  in October-December 2019 using a questionnaire. Data analysis using SPSS program with chi square analysis. Results: The distribution of reasons for deciduous tooth extraction is presented, it is found that most of the reasons for extracting deciduous teeth in primary school children are physiological mobility, as many as 53 people (69.7%). In addition, there were 19 people (25%) of the reasons for removal because of excessive retention of 1 person (1.3%), and because of the request of patients / parents as many as 3 people (3.9%). Conclusion: The main reason for the extraction of deciduous teeth in elementary school children at the Lab Paedodonti RSGM Baiturrahmah, was physiological mobility, with the teeth that were often extracted were the mandibular incisors in the 7 year age group.
Bayu Vava Violeta, Bambang Tri Hartomo
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 102-109; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.8

Abstract:
Background: The failure of intra-alveolar tooth extraction in cases of tooth extraction with complications is generally resolved by performing transalveolar tooth extraction. The open method of tooth extraction involves surgery by cutting the tooth or bone. Flap creation and partial removal of alveolar bone, refinement of alveolar bone, curettage, and suturing are the principles of this extraction method. The planning of the stages of the transalveolar extraction method must be made as carefully as possible to avoid complications of tooth extraction. Tooth extraction treatment in dental practice can be carried out due to various causes, including caries. Pulp polyps or also known as chronic hyperplastic pulpitis is another form of irreversible pulpitis in the chronically inflamed pulp so that the pulp tissue appears to the occlusal surface. Treatment in cases of pulp polyps varies widely depending on the remaining tooth crown wall. The usual treatments for polyps pulp patients are root canal treatment (RCT), pulpotomy to extraction. The transalveolar extraction method is performed by first taking a portion of the bone supporting the tooth. Objective: Knowing the treatment management of polyp pulp extraction with transalveolar surgery methods, indications and contraindications for transalveolar surgery and knowing the correct medical selection in cases of transalveolar surgical extraction of teeth with polyp pulp. Discussion: Chronic hyperplastic pulpitis or pulp polyp is a pathological condition that attacks vital pulp tissue so that it experiences a chronic inflammation as a defense response from the body to the pulp tissue against bacterial infection. The term use of the term chronic hyperplastic pulpitis occurs due to granulation of the pulp tissue covered with epithelial tissue due to chronic infection. The management of cases of pulp polyps for which restoration is no longer possible is to remove them. Extraction is the last step that can be done if restoration measures do not eliminate the source of infection. The transalveolar extraction procedure of the teeth located in the mandible is preceded by asepsis and anesthesia and removal of the polypoid tissue. Conclusion: In several cases of brittle teeth, extraction by intraalveolar method often failed so that it needs to be extracted by transalveolar method. Management of extraction with polyp pulp includes removal of the polypoid tissue first before extraction. The administration of medical therapy with the antibiotic amoxicillin 500 mg for 5 days, paracetamol for 5 days and dexamethasone for 3 days can control the patient's pain and help the healing process quickly.
Diana Soesilo, Aprilia, Moh. Basroni Rizal
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 71-76; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.3

Abstract:
Background: Calcium is a material that is mostly contained in the Anadara-granose shell. Beta-TCP can be obtained from the hydrothermal process from the Anadara-granose shell. Beta-TCP has a chemical composition that approximates the structure of bones and teeth. Objective:The microencapsulation technique aims to increase stability, reduce side effects and toxic effects of drugs, and prolong the release of ingredients. The encapsulation process is an attempt to inhibit the dissolution speed of Calcium to prevent tunnel defects. Methods: Anadara-granose shell powder was subjected to hydrothermal processing for 18 hours and sintering for 3 hours. The beta-TCP powder was dissolved with aquadest using a magnetic stirrer until it was homogeneous, Na-alginate was dissolved in aquadest until it was homogeneous with a magnetic stirrer then the two solutions were mixed and the CaCl2 solution was dropped. The sample was divided into 3 groups; Pure Beta-TCP(K-); 7 hours stirring (P1); 8 hours stirring (P2). After completion of the stirrer, the samples were centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 6 minutes, then freeze-dried for 12 hours. The level test was carried out using complexometry comparing the pure Beta-TCP group with the Beta-TCP stirrer encapsulation process for 7 hours and 8 hours. Results: The data showed that the average calcium level in K(-) group with pure Beta-TCP was 8.63%, the P1 Beta-TCP group with 7 hours stirrer 2.86%, and the P2 Beta-TCP group with 8 hours stirrer 2.12%. Conclusion: In the Anadara-granosa shell nanoencapsulation process, the calcium level gradually decreased with the longer duration of stirring time
Debby Rosalina, Aprilia
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 58-64; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.1

Abstract:
Background: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the bacteria that can form biofilms that can cause persistent endodontic infections. Biofilm is the unity of microbial cell surface surrounded by a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The ethanol extracts of Casuarina equisetifolia leaves are known to have potentially bioactive compounds as antibacterials such as flavonoids, saponins, tannins, phenols, and alkaloids. Objective: To determine the power antibiofilm ethanol extracts of Casuarina equisetifolia leaves at multiple concentrations of the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis. Methods: This study is an experimental research design post-test only control group design. The sample divided into 5 groups consisted of positive control Enterococcus faecalis in media Trypticase Soy Broth(TSB)+DMSO 1%, and 4 treatment groups of ethanol extracts of Casuarina equisetifolia leaves a concentration of 0,5%, 1%, 1,5%, and 2%. Biofilmis made using Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 bacteria were cultured on TSB media were incubated for 1x24 hours. 0,1 ml of the bacteria Enterococcus faecalis with a concentration of 106 put on a plate micro titter then done using crystal violet staining. Biofilm-checked by measuring optical density (OD) values ​​using the ELISA reader. Data analysis used Kruskal-Wallis followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results: The ethanol extracts Casuarina equisetifolia leaves on the growth of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria indicate the presence of power antibiofilm. The results mean % mortality of bacteria (p<0.05) were significant in all groups that have the power antibiofilm effectiveness as against the growth of bacteria Enterococcus faecalis. Conclusion: The ethanol extracts Casuarina equisetifolia leave have antibiofilm power against bacterial growth Enterococcus faecalis. 
Savira Aulia Rachim, Atik Kurniawati, Pudji Astuti
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 94-100; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.7

Abstract:
Background:The prevalence of periodontal disease ranks second in dental and oral diseases after caries. Periodontitis is inflammation with bacteria infecting the host and involving all parts of the periodontal tissue. If this condition is left untreated, it can lead to fibrosis and irreversible damage. Various types of periodontitis therapy have not been able to provide optimal results in healing periodontitis and that therapy can cause side effects. Because of this background, the researchers wanted to carry out research on alternative treatments for periodontitis with purple leaves as an anti-inflammatory with an indicator of an increase in the number of fibroblast cells in inflamed areas. The use of purple leaves has been used since ancient times for the treatment of wounds and inflammation. Objective: To determine the effect of purple leaf extract (EDU) on increasing the number of fibroblast cells in the gingiva of Wistar rats infected by Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg). Methods: 30 Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups, namely the normal group (KN), the control group Pg induced (K +) and the treatment group using EDU 2.5% (P1), EDU5% (P2), EDU10% (P3 ). All groups were induced by Pg except KN. EDU administration once a day for 7 days. On the 7th day the rats were decaputed and their gingivae were taken to make preparations and HE staining was carried out. Results readings in 3 different viewpoints were averaged and analyzed by one-way ANOVA.Results: The results showed that the K + group, 2.5% EDU, 5% EDU and 10% EDU groups increased the number of fibroblast significantly when compared to the Pg group (p < 0.05).Conclusion: EDU can increase the number of fibroblasts in Pg-induced mice
Sulistiawati, Bambang Nuryadi, Akhyar Dyni Zakyah, Atikah Suci Vidyasari
Published: 29 March 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i1.1

Abstract:
Background: Streptococcus sanguinis is one of the most dominant bacteria in early colonization of plaque formation. Robusta coffee beans (Coffea canephora) was reported to have antibacterial properties because it contained compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of Semendo coffee beans extract to inhibit the bacterial growth of S. sanguinis. Material and method:This study was an in vitro experimental laboratory. This study used Robusta coffee beans origins from South Sumatera called Semendo coffee beans. The treatment group used Semendo coffee beans extract with concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%. The positive control used 0,2% chlorhexidine gluconate and the negative control used sterile distilled water. The antibacterial potency test was used dilution method to MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MBC (Minimum Bactericidal Concentration) test, and disk diffusion method to inhibitory zone test. Result: The result showed that the MIC of Semendo coffee beans against S. sanguinis couldn't be determined because it was blocked by the color of the extract while MBC was 5%. The average diameter of the inhibition zone formed on 2.5% Semendo coffee beans extract was 12,0±0,4082 mm and bigger along with higher concentration. These results suggested that the extract of Semendo coffee had an antibacterial effect against the growth of S. sanguinis on 2,5%-40%.
Cristiani Nadya Pramasari, Nydia Hanan, Portuna Putra Kambaya, Andre Kusuma Ruslim
Published: 29 March 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 30-38; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i1.5

Abstract:
Background: The Covid-19 is a viral infection caused by the novel coronavirus and interpersonal transmission occurs mainly via respiratory droplets and contact transmission. In some countries, the recommendations of the dental associations are to interrupt elective dental treatments, so only emergency or urgent cases are allowed. However, many patients are not aware of whether or not to attend their appointments at the dental clinic. Most of the patients are anxious but some patients feel calm to seek dental treatment. Purpose: This research is to find out the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on anxiety levels and patient’s visit in Dental and Oral Clinic, A.W. Sjahranie General Hospital Samarinda. Materials andMethod: This research was designed by the descriptive observational approach using a cross-sectional research design. The samples were new patients of child and adult who visited Dental and Oral Clinic, A.W. Sjahranie General Hospital Samarinda. The research was conducted through questionnaires to measure anxiety levels about Covid-19 pandemic conditions and the average anxiety level of patients associated with "stay at home" recommendation and their impact on dental care success. Result: The questionnaires were answered by 55 patients (23 male/42% and 32 female/58%) who visited the Dental and Oral Clinic, A.W. Sjahranie General Hospital Samarinda. The average level of patient anxiety for Covid-19 pandemic conditions is 4.87 for male patients and 4.42 for female patients. The level of anxiety about the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on dental care is about the same in both men and women. Conclusion: Male patients are more anxious than women about the Covid-19 pandemic. But both showed similar anxiety about how pandemic conditions could affect their dental care.
Istien Wardani, Annisa Listya
Published: 14 February 2020
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 29-37; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i1.5

Abstract:
Introduction: Root canal infection is largely a continuation of the caries process that is not treated and develops so that it involves the root canal. Sterilization is a part of multivisit root canal treatment and important for the success of root canal treatment. The Anchovy (Stolephorus insularis) contains protein, vitamins (A, B1, C), and minerals (Fe, Ca, K, F). Calcium fluoride (CaF2) contained in anchovies can inhibit bacteria that cannot be removed by chemo-mechanical processes such as instrumentation and irrigation Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial ability of anchovy extract (Stolephorus insularis) to P. aeruginosa. Materials and Methods: This study was a laboratory experimental research which with post test only control group design. Diffusion method were applied with 2 controls: positive control using ChKM solution, negative control using 1% DMSO and 3 concentrations of jengki anchovy extract (Stolephorus insularis) 18%, 24%, and 30% as treatment groups, where each group consisted of 5 samples. Antimicrobial was assessed by measuring the diameter of the clear zone around the discs contained the anchovy extract (Stolephorus insularis). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test. Result: The results from this study showed clear zone around the discs of the anchovy extract (Stolephorus insularis). The more concentration of the extract showed the more antimicrobial zone diameter. The average inhibitory zone at 18% concentration was 6.03 mm, 24% 7.59 mm, 30% 8.69 mm, positive control of ChKM solution 31.43 mm for negative control DMSO 1% 6.03 mm. The largest diameter of the clear zone is at a concentration of 30%. Conclusion: The results obtained showed that the inhibition zone of the Stolephorus insularis extract concentration of 30% had the largest average among the other concentrations of 8.69 mm.
Aris Aji Kurniawan, Dian Noviyanti Agus Imam, Helmi Hirawan
Published: 12 August 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 14, pp 82-87; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v14i2.5

Abstract:
Background: Heat-cured acrylic resin is one of the most widely used denture base materials. However, the residual monomer can reduce its mechanical properties, which affect physical properties such as surface roughness, resulting in high porosity—the results in the growth of fungal colonies. One way to improve these properties is to add a reinforcement material such as nano-hydroxyapatite (HAp) from the Anadara granosa shell. Nano-hydroxyapatite has a large surface area to act as a filler because of its strong bonding capacity and a smoother surface, and a higher density to improve mechanical properties. Purpose: This study aims to determine HAp powder's effect from the Anadara granosa shells on the surface roughness of heat-cured acrylic resin. Methods: This type of research used an experimental laboratory, research design posttest-only control group design. Twenty-four samples were used and divided into three groups: the acrylic resin group with 1%, 3% blood cockles shell HAp, and acrylic resin without HAp with simple random sampling. Results: The results showed that the lowest mean value of surface roughness was in a group with the addition of 3% HAp, at 1.696 ± 0.25058 µm. One-Way ANOVA test on roughness showed a significant difference between groups with p = 0.000 (p <0.05). Conclusion: This study concludes that there is an effect of HAp on the roughness of heat-cured acrylic resin.
Yayun Siti Rochmah, Anindita Dyah Palupi, Aulia Noviana, Shofwatin Ni’Mah
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 27-32; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.5

Abstract:
Background: The number of cleft lips or palatal cases is still very high in Indonesia, the growth of cleft lips or palatal cases was 1: 700. This prevalence varies for each region in Indonesia. The condition and composition of saliva in children affect the condition of dental caries, including protein statherin, histatin -1, and calcium minerals. Statherin has the strongest interaction with calcium hydroxyapatite, Histatin-1 has an antimicrobe and antifungal effect and calcium is an imported mineral component The purpose of this study was to analyze the children's saliva of cleft lips with or without cleft palatal non- syndromic against the risk of caries. Material and Method: This study used an Observational Analytic method with a Post Test Only Control Group Design. Saliva samples were taken by the pipetting method, saliva samples were taken from 20 children with cleft lips with or without palate and 20 normal children, aged 3-17 years, with good general health. Analysis levels of Statherin, Histatin-1, and Calcium minerals used the ELISA Method. Statistical analysis used ANOVA. Result and Discussion: The results showed that the average level of statherin for children with a cleft lip was 0.65 µg / ml, whereas for normal children was 1.1 µg / ml, the results of the analysis of histatin-1 salivary protein showed an average of 0.86 ± 0.50 at cleft children and 1.01 ± 0.71 for normal children, mean calcium levels in saliva for cleft children is 1.09 ± 0.09 mmol / L and normal children were 1.34 ± 0.13 mmol / L. ANOVA analysis for the three salivary components were found to be p = 0.001, which means that there were significant differences between the average levels of statherin, histatin-1, and calcium in cleft lips children with or without cleft palate and normal children. Conclusion: The levels of statherin, histatin-1, and salivary calcium can be early diagnostic risk dental caries in children with cleft lips/palate nonsyndromic, to optimize management of preventing dental caries on clefts cases.
Amiyatun Naini, Clarissa Astiasari, Muhammad Nurul Amin
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 33-41; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.6

Abstract:
Background: The prevalence of tooth extraction was 7.29% according to RISKESDAS 2018. Post-tooth extraction will cause injury and bone resorption. Scaffold material combination of hydroxyapatite gypsum puger (HAGP) and aloe vera (AV) can be used for preservation of extraction socket. Objective: To analyze fibroblast and type 1 collagen cells in the extraction socket after being induction by a combination of hydroxyapatite gypsum puger scaffold and aloe vera. Materials and Methods: Making a combination of gypsum puger hydroxyapatite scaffold and aloe vera, divided into four groups, namely negative control, aloe vera scaffold, HAGP scaffold, and HAGP+AV scaffold. Extraction of the mandibular 1st molar in Wistar rats, the application on the extraction socket was waited for 3, 5, 7, and 14 days. Preparation of preparations using Hemaktocillin Eosin staining method. Results: LSD test on the HAGP+AV scaffold group between days 3 and 5, days 3 and 7, days 3 and 14, days 5 and 7, days 5 and 14, days 7, and 14 were obtained (p=0.000), this shows a significant difference between the treatment groups. The results of type 1 collagen in the HAGP+AV scaffold group between days 3 and 14 were obtained (p=0.005) showing a significant difference. Each group on day 14 showed the highest number of fibroblast and type 1 collagen cells. Conclusion: The combination of HAGP+AV+gelatin scaffold can increase fibroblast cells and type 1 collagen after tooth extraction. The socket healing process is getting faster on day 14.
Rienda 'Afifah Khairunnnisa, Sinar Yani, Cristiani Nadya Pramasari
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 21-26; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.4

Abstract:
Background: Tumour is an uncontrolled swelling of tissue. Tumour caused by uncontrolled proliferation abnormal tissue and cell. Based on the nature of the tumour, there are two types of tumours, that is benign tumour and malignant tumour. The malignant tumour can cause death while benign tumour only aggravate the surrounding tissue.The high incidence of tumors in various countries, including Indonesia, rarely finds research on the prevalence of oral tumors, especially in East Kalimantan, especially the capital city of Samarinda. Objective: This research is to find out the incidence of oral cavity tumour at RSUD Abdoel Wahab Sjahranie periode 2016-2020 . Method: Used was a descriptive observational method retrieving secondary data in the form of medical records. The sampling method used in this research was the purposive sampling method. Results: the profile of patients with oral cavity tumour at Regional General Hospital Abdoel Wahab Sjahranie 2016-2020 are as follows the age group with the highest incidence is 46-55 years: 32 patients (24,8%), The highest incidence by gender were women: 78 patients (60.5%) and man: 51 patients (39,5%). Most of the tumour were found in the mandible: 65 patients (50,4%). Conclusion: The prevalence of oral cavity tumour is higher in female patients than male patients.
Kharinna Widowati, Isidora Karsini S, Aulia Dwi Maharani
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.1

Abstract:
Background: The oral mucosa soft tissue can develop white, red lesions, vesiculobullous lesions, and ulcerated lesions as a result of systemic disease. The age of patients with systemic diseases affects the profile of oral soft tissue abnormalities. In developed countries, roughly 60% of young people with systemic diseases have at least one oral lesion. Hypertension is one of the systemic diseases that can cause clinical manifestation in oral soft tissue mucosa. Objective: To discover the profile of soft tissue abnormalities of the oral cavity in youth with a normal blood pressure and hypertension in the Karangpilang district. Methods: The type of this research is analytical observational. The method is that blood pressure is measured in each sample, then grouped into 2 (normal blood pressure group and hypertension group). Furthermore, each group was examined with an intra-oral examination that will be carried out to determine the condition of the soft tissue of the oral cavity in each sample. Processing and analyzing the research data using the Spearmen Correlation Test method. Result: There is a strong positive relationship between the systolic pressure and the number of soft tissue abnormalities in the oral cavity. Conclusion: The oral cavity's soft tissues are frequently obtained during examinations of patients with elevated blood pressure.  
Ariyati Retno Pratiwi, Linda Risalatul Muyasaroh
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 48-59; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.8

Abstract:
Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is common painful mucosal condition affecting the 5%-60% world’s population and become the third largest oral disease in Indonesia. Despite their high prevalence, RAS treatment is currently still dominated by the use of chemicals that scientifically have adverse side effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approach using herbal product with no side effects. This literature review summarizes the potential of kersen leaf extract (Muntingia calabura L.), its dosage forms, and the possibility using nanotechnology that can speed up the drug delivery process. Objective: to determine the possibility effect of nanoparticle cherry leaf extract in gel form on decreasing number of macrophages and stimulating collagen in stomatitis. Methods: literature search using the PRISMA method with Science Direct, PubMed, Scielo, NCBI, Research gate, and Google Scholar databases of 1107 articles with keywords “Muntingia calabura L. leaves extract”, “nanogel”, “flavonoid”, “quercetin”, “fisetin”, “macrophage”, “collagen”, “soft tissue healing process” and “recurrent aphthous stomatitis”. The results of the literature selection found 22 articles. Results: flavonoids in cherry leaf extract can reduce the number of macrophages and increase collagen stimulation. The mechanism of action begins by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibiting macrophage migration and adhesion, stimulating the production of growth factors by macrophages for collagen synthesis, and decreasing collagenase. Nano gel form may increase retention time and drug penetration. Conclusion: Nanogel based cherry leaf extract may reduce the number of macrophages and stimulating collagen in minor RAS.
Dayu Annesti Viana, Sri Pandu Utami
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 13-20; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.3

Abstract:
Background: Knowledge Parents are considered to have the to teach their children basic things about maintaining a healthy body. The implantation of oral health behavior should start at an early age and start from the family environment. Childhood is the beginning of behavior formation, therefore parents are expected to be able to educate their children to behave properly to maintain healthy teeth and mouth. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the oral health behavior of parents to determine the oral health status of children in the pedodontics department of the Baiturrahmah University Dental Hospital. Methods: This research type is quantitative with analytic survey method with cross sectional research design. The population was pediatric patients who took care at the Paedodonti Department of the Baiturrahmah Hospital in July 2020. Result: The results showed that the educational status, tooth brushing behavior, eating sweet eating behavior, the habit of bringing children to the dentist and complaints in the oral cavity of the parents gave a picture. Predictions for their children about oral health. Conclusion: Parents' behavior will have an effect on their children because indirectly the habits of parents will be imitated and made an example for their children.
Theodora Adhisty Dwiarie, Nanan Nur’Aeny, Nelly Nainggolan
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 6-12; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.2

Abstract:
Background: Mucositis, a painful condition common in patients undergoing chemotherapy, can decrease the patient's quality of life. Treatment of mucositis by dentists supports the improvement of general health conditions and the patient's quality of life. This case report aims to discuss a case of a patient with mucositis after undergoing chemotherapy treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Case: 21 years old female diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, referred to the oral medicine department from internal medicine, complained of pain in oral mucosa and lockjaw in the last three days after chemotherapy treatment with methotrexate. Internal medicine prescribes ceftriaxone intravenous (IV), dexamethasone IV, chlorhexidine gargle, and nystatin. Intraoral examination showed erosive lesions in the tongue, labial, and buccal mucosa and was diagnosed as oral mucositis grade 3 according to the World Health Organization scale. Her quality-of-life score is 46 according to The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G) and 58 according to Oropharyngeal Mucositis Quality of Life (OMQoL). Case management: She was treated with magic mouthwash containing diphenhydramine HCL, sucralfate, and aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide. Chlorhexidine and nystatin were advised to stop. The patient was instructed to keep her oral hygiene by gargling with sodium chloride and povidone-iodine after eating. Five days after the therapy, her condition improved (grade 1), and there was an increase in the FACT-G and OMQoL scores to 54 and 93. Conclusion: Mucositis can cause pain in the patient. A dentist can help diagnose and provide appropriate treatment to reduce the patient's complaints and improve the patient's quality of life.
Fika Faradillah Drakel, Tenny Setiani Dewi
Published: 28 February 2022
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 16, pp 42-47; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v16i1.7

Abstract:
Background: Steven Johnson Syndrome (SJS) is an acute mucocutaneous syndrome that predominantly involve the skin and mucous membranes. SJS is an immune-mediated disease that have been associated with erythema multiforme (EM). The most common triggers are viruses, food allergies, autoimmune reactions and medicine. The medicines that most commonly cause SJS are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antibiotics, antifungals, and anticonvulsants. Case: A 32-year-old man was consulted from the Dermatology Department with a diagnosis of drug induce SJS and was given cetirizine and dexamethasone. The patient presented to the Oral Medicine Department complaining of mouth pain, dysphagia, ulcers, oedema and haemorrhagic of the lips, difficult eating, drinking and speaking. Extra-oral examination found that the surface of the lips was covered with a white layer, bloody and crusted, and erythematous rash on his neck, arm, abdomen, palms and feet, with a diameter of 2-6 mm. Intra-oral examination found multiple ulcers and erosive lesions that spread on the tongue, palate, buccal and labial mucosa. This condition established as an oral lesion related to SJS. Case Management: The management of the oral lesion was given corticosteroid mouthwash, 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate, lip compress with 0.9% NaCl and 1% hydrocortisone ointment. Conclusion: Steroid mouthwash to suppress inflammation as well as a combination of 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate antiseptic drug suppresses the infection process and complications that continue in the oral cavity and 0.9% NaCl solution as a moist wound healing. This therapy plays an important role in the healing process of oral lesions in patients with SJS.
Fani Pangabdian, Yongki Hadinata Wijaya, Dwi Acti Widyanita
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 86-91; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.5

Abstract:
Background: The ideal restoration material should have endurance, compatible with tooth structure and visible surrounding tissues and must be able to restore the lost tissue. There are various restoration materials such as Compomer and Bioactive Composite Resin. Microleakage is one of the failure in surface sealent, and this may increase the risk of secondary caries. Purpose: The aim of this study was to prove and compare the differences of microleakage between Compomer and Bioactive Composite Resin in class I restoration. Material and Method: Maxilla’s first premolar teeth with class I cavities (diameter: 3mm, depth: 3mm) divided into two groups with 10 samples each group. Group I: Compomer (Dentsply), Group II: Bioactive Composite Resin (Activa Pulpdent USA). All group were immersed in 1% methylene blue solution for 24 hours, rinsed in running water, and section mesial-distal using carborundum disc. Afterward, section were assessed for dye penetration that represent the mickroleakage using scoring method under digital microscope. Finally data were collected and statistically analyzed. Result: There were significant differences between each group (p<0.05). Microleakage in restoration with Bioactive Composite Resin (1.7) shows smaller values than Compomer restoration (4.4). Conclusion: This research show that there is differentiation of microleakage between Compomer and Bioactive Composite Resin. In Bioactive Composite Resin found the smallest microleakage.
Sri Pandu Utami Pandu, Febri Liza, Hamdy Lisfrizal
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 92-99; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.6

Abstract:
Background: The improvement of oral health should be started as early as possible, because in toddlers and preschool children is an important factor for further regulation. dentition. In addition, it also affects the children's ability to speak and their mastery. Efforts to develop the prevention and management of dental caries continue in many countries. Currently, the prevention and management of dental caries has shown positive and dynamic aspects. However, the problem of dental caries still shows a high prevalence, especially in developing countries. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of early childhood caries on quality of life children aged 3 - 5 years based on characteristics in pedodontics, RSGM Baiturrahmah. Material and Methods: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of early childhood caries on the quality of life of children aged 3-5 years based on the characteristics of the pedodontics in Baiturrahmah Hospital. This type of research is quantitative with validity and reliability testing followed by quantitative methods with cross sectional research design. The population was pediatric patients who visited Paedodonti RSGM Baiturrahmah from January to February 2020. Sampling in this study used a total sampling method. In this research, Data collection was carried out by means of researchers giving questionnaires to respondents through the Google Form application. The research was conducted by using a questionnaire or questionnaire method, it is necessary to test the validity. Test the Pearson correlation using the product moment the principle of correlating or linking between each item score or question with the total score obtained from the respondent's answer or questionnaire. Results: Based on the “correlations” output, it is known that the calculated r value (Pearson correlation value for all of question with total score is > 0,218). all of question is valid. Conclusion: the conclusion of this study caries has an impact on early childhood development on the quality of life of children aged 3-5 years in paedodontics RSGM Baiturrahmah.
Meta Maulida Damayanti, Yuniarti, Caecielia Makaginsar, Siska Nia Irasanti
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 58-63; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.1

Abstract:
Background: To maintain oral health, the body needs good nutrition. The relationship between nutritional status and oral health conditions is very complex, influenced by many factors, both internal and external. Inadequate nutrition can increase the risk of oral disease. Purpose: To analyze the association between malnutrition and oral diseases. Methods: This study used the cross-sectional analytic observational design. Data were collected from the Manarul Huda Islamic Boarding School in Bandung, which 38 participants were selected based on criteria. Body mass index perform to asses nutritional status, while oral disease was collected through form data. Analysis’s data using chi-square and SPSS 23 version. Results: Classification of body mass index the highest in undernutrition group (47.4%) and oral disease the highest for tooth staining (52.6%), there was no significant association between malnutrition and oral disease with p value >0.05. Conclusion: Early analysis of nutritional assessment reduced oral disease. Further assessment will be needed to determine the long-term oral health effect of malnutrition. 
Sari Dewiyani, Selfina Muthia Sari
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 64-69; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.2

Abstract:
Background: In the case of reinfection after endodontic treatment, Enterococcus faecalis is a bacterium that is commonly found in root canals. Irrigation was carried out to eliminate Enterococcus faecalis from the root canal. Chlorhexidine 2% irrigating agent was effective in reducing the growth of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria and fungi, but it could not dissolve tissue. Gambir extract (UncariagambirRoxb) has antioxidant and antibacterial with phenolic content in the form of catechins. Purpose: Describe the antibacterial comparison of  gambier extract (Uncaria gambir Roxb) and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis bacteria. Material and Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental research. Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 is a microbiological sample. Extract of gambier (UncariagambirRoxb) with concentrations of 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3%. 2% chlorhexidine solution and a paper disc to measure the inhibition zone were placed on a petri dish containing Mueller-Hinton agar medium, and incubated 1x24 hours. Gambier extract was made by maceration and rotavapor methods. Results: Gambier extract (UncariagambirRoxb) and 2% chlorhexidine affected the growth inhibition of Enterococcus faecalis bacteria by forming a clear zone around the paper disc in each petri dish. Concentration of 3% is the largest value of the inhibition zone formed in the extract of gambeir (UncariagambirRoxb), while chlorhexidine 2% shows the largest inhibition zone, this can be seen from the average inhibition zone formed of 17.20 mm.Conclussion: There are differences in the antibacterial of gambier extract (UncariagambirRoxb) and 2% chlorhexidine against Enterococcus faecalis bacteria.
Adisty Restu Poetri, Helmi Fathurrahman, Anggun Amanda Saveria
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 77-85; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.4

Abstract:
Background: Mobile tooth is a problem that often occurs and result in tooth loss. It caused by disease or periodontal tissue’s injury. Splint is a device that is made to stabilize or tighten mobile tooth due to a trauma or disease. It works by distribute the occlusion pressure to reduce tooth mobility. Removable partial denture frame is one treatment for missing teeth and permanent splints. Objective: The aim of this treatment is to explained effect of periodontal splints for edentulous patient. Case: First case: A woman complained mobile teeth on the incisors. Intraoral examination showed remaining teeth couldn’t be abutment. Second case: A woman complained mobile teeth on the incisors. Intraoral examination showed remaining teeth could be abutment. Case management: First case: Patient was given initial therapy and continued with rehabilitative therapy by removable partial denture metal frame. Second case: Patient was given initial therapy splinting using fiber reinforced composite. A week post treatment patient felt comfortable. Conclusion: It can be concluded periodontal splinting reduced teeth mobility and prevent further damage to the periodontal tissue og Edentulous patient.
Puji Kurnia
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 107-111; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.8

Abstract:
Background: Injury in the primary teeth and their supporting structures is one of the most common dental health problems observed in children. Injuries in children occurred from an external forces which classified in to dental emergency treatment in pediatric growth and development. A child is perceived to be in a dynamic state of growth, both mentally and physically. Curiosity about surrounding environment and urging to explore may lead to dental injuries. A vital pulpectomy and continued selection of an appropriate restoration after a traumatic injury can mentain the primary tooth in its arch until the time of exfoliation. Purpose: Reported the management of complicated crown fractures in the upper left primary teeth. Case Report: This report presented a 2 years old boy with complicated crown fracture on the upper left primary teeth. The parents gave the history of trauma related to front region of the jaw and they wanted to restore the involved tooth without getting extraction. After an intra oral examinations, it was observed that crown was fracture with vital dental condition. Case Management: After removing the fractured fragment, a vital pulpectomy was conducted in three visit periods at the remaining upper left primary teeth with final glass ionomer cement restoration using strip crowns. Conclusion: The importance of reconstruction on anterior primary teeth after traumatic injury provides both functional and aesthetic restorations for the child, what reflects on masticatory efficiency, increased self-steam and also phonetic improvements.
Lita Agustia, Aulia Dwi Maharani, Syamsulina Revianti, Kezia Sepdwiningtyas Santoso
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 70-76; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.3

Abstract:
Background: Children with autism have difficulty controlling the movement of tongue that food often cannot perfectly swallowed . Parents play a very important role in maintaining dental and oral hygiene for children with autism. The behavior of children with autism is strongly influenced by the parent’s level of education. Objective: to determine the correlation between parent’s level of education and the level of oral hygiene in children with autism (measured by OHI-S). Methods: This type of research is analytic observational, with a cross sectional approach. Simple random sampling technique was performed. The total sample was 23 students of Mutiara Hati Surabaya Autism Special School. OH Index form by WHO was used to collect the data of dental hygiene and a questionnaire form by RISKESDAS was used to collect data of parent’s level of education. Results: There is a significant correlation between the parent’s level of education and OHI-S in children with autism (<0.05) ,R = -0.49 means the correlation is sufficient. The lower the level of dental and oral hygiene the higher the level of education of their parents. Conclusion: There is a correlation between the parent’s level of education and dental and oral hygiene in children with autism at Mutiara Hati Special School.
Erma Sofiani, Astri Bilqis Azizah
Published: 20 November 2021
Journal: Denta
Denta, Volume 15, pp 100-106; https://doi.org/10.30649/denta.v15i2.7

Abstract:
Background: The failure of root canal treatment is non-hermetic obturation. It could be prevented with the use of sealer material. The sealer with an excellent bond to the dentin is epoxy resin and glass ionomer cement sealer. Eucalyptus oil is a natural substance that could dissolve gutta-percha because it has an antimicrobial effect and is biocompatible. Objective: To determine the effect of softening with Cajuput Oil on root canal filling with epoxy resin and glass ionomer cement sealers. Methods: The design of this study was pure laboratory experimental, 24 samples of single root canal block, each block was prepared with step back technique and obturation with lateral condensation. The samples were treated differently by the type of sealer used and incubation time. Group of treatment will be dripped with 0.1 ml of cajuput oil for 5 minutes. Compressive loading was performed apico-coronally by Universal testing machine using cylindrical stainless-steel plunger speed of 2 mm/min until softening occurred. The data were processed using a one-way ANOVA and Post-Hoc Tukey test with a significance level of 95% (p <0,05). Results: There was a significant effect of epoxy bisphenol resin sealer and Glass Ionomer Cement sealer in softening gutta-percha using cajuput oil. The epoxy resin sealer, which was incubated for 22 days after contact with cajuput oil for 5 minutes, had a higher softening value than others. Conclusion: Sealer epoxy bisphenol resin is easier to remove than the Glass Ionomer Cement sealer with cajuput oil solvent at 22 days after incubation.
, Enjel Arjuna Susru Wardana, Syamsulina Revianti
Published: 5 July 2019
Journal: Denta
Abstract:
Background: The denture base made of acrylic resin has a porosity and water absorbtion characteristic to cause the deposition of food waste, that problem was known to cause a growth of Candida albicans microorganisms. This problem can be solved by providing a coating (Surface coating) made of natural polymer (cellulose acrtate) of sea seagrass (Enhalus acoroides) mixed with hydrocoloid material so as to provide protection properties. Such protective properties can inhibit the bonding between the residual monomer results of acrylic resins and microorganisms. Objective: To analyze and compare the number of Candida albicans colonies on the acrylic resin plate that has surface coating and no surface coating. Method: Using post test only group design, using 12 samples divided into 2 groups. Group 1 is the control group (Heat cured acrylic plate contaminated with Candida albicans). Group 2 : Treatment group (Heat cured acrylic plate with surface coating made from seagrass Enhalus acoroides then contaminated with Cndida albicans). Calculating the number of colonies from Candida albicans was done by calculating the turbidity of SDB media (Saboraud Dextrose Broth) using UV-VIS Specrofotometer with 560 λ wave. Data analysis using an Independent T-Test. Results : Acrylic resin plates with surface coating showed significant differences in the number of Candida albicans colonies. The average results in the control group obtained an average number of colonies of 1,58 CFU/ml, while in the treatment group as much as 1,42 CFU/ml.Conclusion : The results show that surface coating can decrease the amount of Candida albicans colonies because it can close the microporosity, prevent a water absorption, and prevent the formation of the pellicle.
Eriza Juniar
Published: 5 July 2019
Journal: Denta
Abstract:
Background: Tooth transposition is a rare and severe positional anomaly that may create many orthodontic problems from both esthetic and functional points of view. In this case report, the orthodontic management of distoversion upper central incisor and transposition of the upper right canine and lateral incisor. The patient was treated with a fixed appliance for 4 months. At this moment the central incisor has already corrected, lateral incisor has also erupted and aligned. Patient management should be continued with phase two treatment to correct the transposition of canine.Keywords: Distoversion, tooth transposition, orthodontic management.Correspondence : Departement of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry, University of Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.
Published: 29 April 2019
Journal: Denta
Abstract:
Background : A common objective of anterior restorative dentistry is to establish anterior guidance between the maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth to disclude the posterior teeth during protrusive mandibular movement. Fracture anterior teeth leads to psychological trauma, along with functional and esthetic debilitations. Healthy anterior teeth play an important role of protecting the posterior teeth during excursive mandibular movement. The contour and shape of the labial surface are important for esthetic purpose; the palatal surface morphology is critical for harmonious function. Premature contact in palatal surface restoration is considered as contributing factor to temporomandibular disorder (TMD) symptoms. Purpose : Improve aesthetics and function of the patient's anterior teeth. Case : Male, 17 years old with poor aesthetic because of fracture anterior teeth 4 years ago. Case Management : Root canal treatment, treatment of root resorption, fiber post, custom post, indirect veener, zirconia crown and enameloplasty. Result : Better aesthetic and get the optimum function of his teeth. Keyword: Aesthetic treatment, anterior fracture, zirconia crown, indirect venner Correspondence: Sinta Puspita, Department of Conservative, Faculty of Dentistry, Hang Tuah University, Universitas Hang Tuah, Arif Rahman Hakim 150 Surabaya, Phone 031-5945864, 5912191, Email: [email protected]
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