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Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 163-175; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.65

Abstract:
This article presents the creation of art – a poesy – in the context of the theory of communication. Multimeaning of the concept of communication supposes plenty of attitudes and considerations and complexity of definition. There exist two different schools of communication studies, one being the process school and the other being the semiotic school. The process school is cantered on the transmission of messages and understanding the effects of it. The semiotic school focuses on communication being a production and exchanging of meanings. It researches how messages and texts interact with people. Since the creation of art is considered as communiqué, so its conveying content relates with, a spiritual link a creator and a perceiver. The article discusses a poem as a communiqué, its place in the structure of the process and semiotic communication models. The article also discusses poesy as a message and its communicativeness, informativeness, and importance. O. Baliukonė’s poetry was taken to implement this aim. The fulfilled research demonstrated that O. Baliukonė actively communicates with a reader through her poems. Decoding is the same creative process as encoding; thus, in this article, attention is paid to the poet’s and also to a reader’s creation of the meaning of a message.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 141-149; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.63

Abstract:
Based on the insights of modern philosophers, particularly Zygmunt Bauman, the work examines how cultural memory can be affected by globalisation and what kind of challenges arise when collective truths are passed on from generation to generation. The sources selected for the analysis are modern dystopias that design possible versions of cultural response. Other subjects significant to the research include phenomena of modern culture that help to uncover the latest trends and the views on cultural heritage held by people of the 21st century. The article comes to the conclusion that the changes of cultural memory in a fluid modern world can be affected deeply by factors such as the ideology of consumerism and the insularity of a web community, but this is only a possibility. Western authors Aldous Huxley and Michel Houellebecq place a stronger emphasis on determinism, whereas Lithuanian writer Jaroslavas Melnikas highlights the possibility of freedom. Nevertheless, notably, all of these texts are projections that primarily encourage critical thinking and demonstrate the ambivalence of the current situation. Contemporary culture is likely at a turning point, but the results of the transformation are still unclear.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 40-53; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.56

Abstract:
Relative adjectives are immediate nominal explicators (nouns) that play a key role in meaningful structures in the Russian, Lithuanian, and German languages. This article investigates the semantic representation of a noun in an attribute group with relative adjectives comparatively using the Qualia structure and its modifications. The most commonly used 150 relative adjectives in the electronic corpora of the Russian written language were selected for analysis. They are compared with Lithuanian and German examples. Relative adjectives are classified as quality structures and are considered to imply objective constitutive properties (matter and origin), formal attributes (physical parameters, colour, time, and place) and telic attributes. Other correlating linguistic units, namely, genitive constructs and composites, are also analysed describing the expected realizations of Qualia structures in the noun group.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 67-84; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.58

Abstract:
The constant presence of animals in human life influences language. It is not only a rich animal and zoonotic lexis but also a way of perceiving animals, the attributes assigned to them and the behaviour observed. Through the prism of language, one can show the linguistic image of the world of a selected fragment of reality. The subject matter of this study is the linguistic image of the world based on personal insults with an animalistic component in German and Polish. The work is confrontational. The research corpus is constructed of personal zoonotic names collected from the dictionaries of both languages. The aim is to present the linguistic picture of the world based on the collected units and indicate, on this basis, the similarities and differences in the mentioned scope. Based on the analysis of the corpus, the appropriate conclusions are drawn about the perception of animals in both language cultures. Due to similar experiences in contact with animals, one can expect mainly similarities in this regard.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 11-24; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.54

Abstract:
The paper discusses source domains of smell related metaphorical collocations. The research is limited to metaphorical collocations with pleasant smell denoting words scent, fragrance, aroma, and perfume in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). The scope of the research is 2187 concordance lines (CL) containing metaphorical collocations with the words scent, fragrance, aroma, and perfume from 3580 CL containing any word phrase with the target words. The research is based on identification and description of the source domains of the collected metaphorical collocations with pleasant smell words, relating the source domains to underlying conceptual metaphors and determining the frequency distribution of the identified source domains. The following source domains were identified in the research: object, substance, physical force, and food. The analysis showed the frequency of source domains across all four groups forming smell related conceptual metaphors: object with 1833 instances of metaphorical collocations (84%), substance with 202 instances (9%), physical force with 130 instances (6%), and food with 22 instances (1%). The present study contributes to the development of cognitive semantics and its findings demonstrate which meanings are prevalent in human mentality when pleasant smell related metaphorical collocations are used.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 85-100; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.59

Abstract:
The paper approaches the dialect-exploratory discourse, which concerns the interpretation of sustainability of dialecticity in the city. The given research aims at the evaluation of the sustainability of dialecticity in the city by performing the analysis of the emic narrative, i. e. the narrative of an ordinary member of the language community. In the city zones, the natural horizontal language continuum is disturbed; hence, from the perspective of etic, or the researcher, the problem of the co-existence, competition, levelling, etc. of different regional variants arises. What regards the emic perspective and the methodological inventory allowing for its formation, it should be stressed that it concerns the identification of the dialecticity conditions, or conditions determining variability that includes dialects. The emic narrative, or in other words, the I think that ... narrative, when reconstructed based on the empirical material collected for the research in perceptual dialectology embracing three Lithuanian cities, gives a piece of proper information to model the here and now and, to some extent, the future dialecticity projections. When discussing the problem of sustainability of dialecticity, the author concentrates on the segments of the reconstructed emic narrative that cover the reflection of language behaviour, estimation of language environment and a priori language attitudes toward the use of dialect codes.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 230-239; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.70

Abstract:
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart had to give way to The Bravo Boys music band. This is what the authors of the textbook entitled Ping Pong 1 and Ping Pong neu 2 have decided to do in the current edition of their book. So, they decided to replace its contents concerning the Composer himself and other representatives of classical music with the report from the concert of the BB. The article attempts to determine who, what characters from the real world populate in contemporary German textbooks, what cultural content it has and whether or not it conforms with the core curriculum standards of the Polish education system. To this end, selected German language textbooks have been analyzed along with the practice material offered by them. The authors of examined textbooks have almost completely abandoned depicting representatives of high culture, of German culture. They have been replaced with representatives of mass culture: mainly models, actors, athletes as well as politicians. Their common feature is the fact that they are universally known: the majority are celebrities while some of them are scandalists. The fact that these persons can be easily recognized seems to increase the students’ learning involvement, but it cannot constitute the only criterion of such selection. The article stresses the responsibility of textbook authors for the quality of cultural message addressed to children and teenagers.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 117-129; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.61

Abstract:
The subject matter of the article is different linguistic means of political conflict communication proper to the presidential discourse in Lithuania (2019). The research deals with the conflict communication of the three most popular candidates (according to sociological surveys) – G. Nausėda, S. Skvernelis, and I. Šimonytė. The political discourse of all three candidates is aimed at а positive self-representation; direct or indirect imputations of lack of sustained political commitment from the former president or their political opponents; accusation of pursuing their personal interests, or even making detrimental actions to the state and the society. The most prevalent meaning field in Nausėda’s discourse is welfare – detriment where THEY (former presidents, political parties and their representatives) are granted negative nominations, which are contrasted to positive nominations related to the latter candidate. The most prevailing meaning field in Skvernelis’s discourse is active and responsible state – inactive and irresponsible state which is expressed with the help of two sets of oppositions I – SHE (Grybauskaitė) and I – THEY (Parliamentary opposition and former political majority). The most popular meaning field in Šimonytė’s discourse is welfare – detriment, expressed with the help of I – THEY (members of the Lithuanian Farmers and Greens Union) opposition.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 55-66; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.57

Abstract:
The article focuses on the metaphorical conceptualisation of the #MeToo movement, which has spread virally as a hashtag used on social media in an attempt to demonstrate the widespread prevalence of sexual assault and harassment. The #MeToo movement as a social issue is looked at from the perspective of Critical Metaphor Analysis (CMA) (Charteris-Black 2005/2011, 2014, Musolff 2004, 2016, Koller 2014, De Landtsheer 2009, Hart 2010). CMA is a blend of Cognitive Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis that aims at identifying how metaphors are used to describe socially contested issues and how they reveal speakers’ hidden intentions and attitudes (Charteris-Black, 2014, p. 174). CMA is also concerned with the different functions metaphors may perform. A predicative function, being one of many, is most likely to explain how socially sensitive issues are communicated (Charteris-Black, 2014, pp. 204-207; Musolff, 2016, p. 4). In other words, it implies positive or negative attitudes expressed towards certain issues. Thus, the paper aims to study how the predicative function of metaphor manifests in the discourse of contemporary social concerns cross-linguistically and cross-culturally. In other words, the paper looks into how different attitudes towards the #MeToo movement are communicated via metaphors in Lithuanian and English media and how they shape prevailing public attitudes.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 214-229; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.69

Abstract:
In this article, the problems of dubbing, especially related to lip synchrony as one of the most challenging aspects of audiovisual translation, are scrutinised. Contrarily to the traditional focus on bilabials and open vowels, the object of this research is lip synchrony of both rounded and protruded vowels and diphthongs since lip rounding is a visibly marked feature, which cannot be neglected especially in close-ups. The study aims at determining the inaccuracies in lip synchrony of the mentioned phonemic group in the dubbed animated feature film Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs 2 from English to Lithuanian. Qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out by employing a comparative method. The research methodology is based on the theoretical insights and assumptions provided by Frederic Chaume (2004, 2006, 2012), Richard Barsam & Dave Monahan (2010), and Indrė Koverienė (2015). The research findings demonstrate the main issues of lip synchrony a translator might face while adapting a piece of audiovisual material for the target language audience. Also, it provides insights into the quality of the overall translation of the chosen film.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 150-162; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.64

Abstract:
The article provides comparative analysis of Apple Blossoms by Mykhailo Kotsiubynsky and The Apple Tree by John Galsworthy. Both authors explore human morality in a crisis of confrontation between sensuality and death, the beauty of life and the beauty of art. At the structural level, the works share an element of paratext, novelistic nature, polysemic images-landscapes, and methods of psychologization. Galsworthy engages the antinomy of the city – province, resorts to irony, and combines elements of impressionist writing with the traditions of realistic socio-psychological prose. In contrast, Kotsiubynsky systematically implements the impressionist fragmentary nature of the composition, symbolism of visual and auditory images, in-depth psychoanalysis, and the conventionality of the chronotope. The issues of short stories are diversified and aesthetic – as is distinct for modernist literature – implicitly in Kotsiubynsky’s work, and most explicitly through the connections with the Antiquity and English intertext in Galsworthy’s prose.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 244-249; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.72

Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 130-140; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.62

Abstract:
In her late novel, love, again (1996), Doris Lessing represents a penetrative insight of love, providing the widest perspective of love than in any of her previous work. The abundance and variety of plausible les affaires d’amour, which transgress the boundaries of gender, age, geography, and social status, make love, again Lessing’s most “loveful” novel. The narrative responds to this multiplicity accordingly. The essay explores the theme of romantic love of the central female character, Sarah Durham, who is at the centre of the narrative and whose emotional landscape is meticulously mapped. It also aims to unveil the ways Doris Lessing exploits a longstanding tradition of interpreting love in Western philosophy and culture – from Plato to contemporary theorists, including Alain Badiou. Special attention is paid to the interweaving of love and friendship in the relationship of woman and man as well as friendship’s “healing” power for unrequited love encapsulated in the character of Stephen Ellington-Smith. Also, by tracing the transformative impulse of love, the essay tries to bring light on the constructive (in the case of Sarah) and problematic (Stephen) consequences of love.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 190-201; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.67

Abstract:
The present article explores an excerpt depicting the scenario of the last days in the poem Das Jüngste Gericht (Eng. The Last Judgement), written by the first-named German female writer Frau Ava (circa 1060–1127). The study addresses the question of sources used in the depiction of the end times in the excerpt under consideration (lines 1–160). The study does not question the affinity between the scenes of the last days illustrated in the excerpt and the apocalyptic plot of the Latin texts of Pseudo-Beda (the turn of the 12th century) and Petrus Daminanus (1006–1072); however, it is assumed that Frau Ava may have drawn not only on the aforementioned Latin sources but also on the apocalyptic song Muspilli, written by an anonymous author circa 870. The analysis of the excerpt suggests that the apocalyptic narrative of Muspilli may have shaped the scene of the fifteenth day illustrated in the poem The Last Judgement. Moreover, Frau Ava, unlike Pseudo-Beda and Petrus Daminanus, does not refer to St. Jerome as a source of information but to wisten (Eng. wise men). As no evidence of other German apocalyptic texts referring to wise men, except for Muspilli, can be found, the study concludes that depicting the scenario of the last days in her poem, in addition to the Latin texts, Frau Ava used the song Muspilli as her source.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 25-39; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.55

Abstract:
The paper investigates how translation is conceptualised through metaphors employed in academic texts in English and Lithuanian focusing on translation problems. As established by previous research, metaphors are tools of rendering abstract thought in terms of more concrete experiences. The methodology of this investigation is based on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory and further development in metaphor research, the main principles of Metaphor Identification Procedure and metaphorical patterns. The results suggest that English tends to more frequently conceptualise translation as human and also as a dynamic activity, whereas Lithuanian opts for more static conceptualisation of translation in terms of object and material. Such tendencies might be linked, among other factors, to very different etymologies of the verb ‘translate’ and its derivatives in English and Lithuanian as well as other senses of the word.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 176-189; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.66

Abstract:
The paper presents a comparative analysis of some selected Latvian and Russian paremias, the bulk of which has been collected in the time period since the 1970s till nowadays in the south-eastern part of Latvia – Latgale, and studied in the context of Latvian proverbs included in folklore collections and phraseological dictionaries, as well as the archival materials of the Latvian Academy of Sciences and works by Latvian folklorists. The aim of the study is to analyse prototypical paremias from the Holy Scripture and trace the history of their existence and further development among the Latvians and the Russians in the Latgale region based on the qualitative data analysis. The conducted research allows concluding that similar worldview patterns of the Latvians and the Russians are to be searched for in Christianity. The analysed proverbs testify to the fact that culture is a unifying factor for different ethnic groups living in the same region.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 101-116; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.60

Abstract:
Due to the influence of the language of politics, the noun phrase, tłuste koty, has become established in modern Polish language. As the research material proves, the idiom fat cats has a negative connotation in the Polish language. Most often, it refers to rich people associated with business, as well as politicians and people in power, such as legislative, executive and judicial. The analysed texts provide many modifications of the expression under analysis, e.g., wypasione pisowskie tłuste koty, tłuste koty w sutannach, tłuste koty nadziane ośmiorniczkami, tłuste koty na złotych spadochronach, lejące krokodyle łzy podczas ucieczki z pogromu kociego na Wall Street, najtłustszy i wredny kot, okrąglutki, milutki, taki kotek tłuściutki. The most important function of modification is to express a critical opinion about people in the category of fatty cats. Through modifications, it is emphasized that the earnings of fatty cats are indecently high, often unreasonable and undeserved. Sharp social opposition causes financiers and politicians to avoid being responsible for their mistakes, for dishonesty. Fat cats are also accused of greed.
Published: 19 October 2020
Respectus Philologicus pp 202-213; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.38.43.68

Abstract:
This study compares passages from four novels by the renowned Albanian author Ismail Kadare with their English translations: Prilli i thyer (Broken April, 1990 [1980]), Kronika në gur (Chronicle in Stone, 2007 [1971]), Vajza e Agamemnonit (The Daughter of Agamemnon, 2006 [2003]) and Pallati i ëndrrave (The Palace of Dreams, 2011 [1999]). It uses the linguistic analysis of style in the source and the target languages aiming to identify the modification of narrative perspectives during the translation process. The stylistic comparison of the original with translated versions demonstrates the shift from the internal perspective to the narratorial perspective of narration, which may be the result of the translator’s inclination to explain. In Kadare’s novels which have been translated from French, the tendency to make a clear borderline between narrative voices is evident. The translator’s lack of ability to pick out stylistic features indicating the internal perspective of the character impacts the mental representation produced by the reader of the translated text. The shift from the character’s to the narrator’s perspective influences not only the reader’s attitude towards the culture narrated in the text but also the way how the identity of the narrator is construted. Consequently, the imposed narratorial voice in the translated Kadare’s novels gives a different impression from the non-intrusive narration that the author managed to create in the communist regime.
Respectus Philologicus pp 218-224; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.52

Abstract:
On the 19th of September 2019 Vilnius University, Kaunas Faculty welcomed a world-class researcher, Professor of audiovisual translation at Universitat Jaume I (Spain) and Honorary Professor at University College London (UK) Frederic Chaume. During a five-day visit, he presented a series of lectures and workshops titled Multimodal Research in Audiovisual Translation: Translation Paradigm of AVT Products in 2019.
Respectus Philologicus pp 225-229; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.53

Abstract:
Spalio 11 dieną Vilniaus universiteto Kauno fakulteto Kalbų, literatūros ir vertimo studijų institute įvyko tarpdalykinė mokslinė Žanro konferencija. Renginio dalyves sveikino konferencijos sumanytoja ir mokslinio komiteto pirmininkė profesorė Gabija Bankauskaitė.
Respectus Philologicus pp 35-46; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.37.42.37

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to determine the duration of the pauses between paragraphs and sentences in reading language and their connection with the length and reading speed of said language units. The research material consists of 48 sound recordings (eight Lithuanian speakers read six texts representing different functional styles). The results show that all readers usually pause between paragraphs and the duration of those pauses depend on the reading speed: faster readers pause for approximately 400–1340 ms, while slower readers pause for 750–1800 ms. Pauses are the shortest after short paragraphs and they are 1.2 times longer after longer paragraphs. All the readers usually pause between sentences as well. Faster readers on average pause for 200–980 ms, slower readers pause for 340–1360 ms. The longer the sentence, the longer the pause after that sentence (up to 1.4 times). However, the pause can be the same duration after both long and medium length sentences.
Nataliia Kovalyk, Lesia Tymochko
Respectus Philologicus pp 91-103; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.41

Abstract:
This paper deals with the comparative analysis of the possibility to apply both linguo-cognitive and quantitative methods in the study of structure of mental units, e.g. concepts. The current research continues our overall and integrated study of English ecological discourse and is the next in a number of logical research series of this scientific challenge (Ковалик 2017; Ковалик, Тимочко 2018). The study object of this paper is WATER concept in English water management metadiscourse. The research is carried out on the basis of the original text of the EU Water Framework Directive 2000/60 / EC. The aim of the paper is not only to conduct a frame-based analysis of WATER concept using Svitlana Zhabotynska’s methodology of conceptual analysis (Жаботинська 1999) but also to analyse the concept occurrences in the researchable metadiscourse. In the present investigation, the conceptual structure of WATER concept is modelled through basic frame schemas and is considered as an open system. The research takes a new look at the application of linguo-cognitive and quantitative data analyses in the study of WATER concept in English water management metadiscourse.
Hans-Harry Drößiger
Respectus Philologicus pp 205-217; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.51

Abstract:
This review concerns the volume Metaphor Identification in Multiple Languages. MIPVU around the world, edited by Susan Nacey, Aletta G. Dorst, Tina Krennmayr and W. Gudrun Reijnierse, published by John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam & Philadelphia, 2019.
Respectus Philologicus pp 160-169; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.47

Abstract:
The present article sets out to examine the dictionary definition entries concerning the concept of climate. Both Polish and English dictionaries are included, as well as historical and contemporary entries. The data is composed of thirteen dictionary entries, published in the last two hundred years. The material is examined qualitatively. The results are presented in the form of a table, where one may find all the aspects of meanings identified in the definitions. A supplement data extracted from the English historical corpus is also provided. The results have revealed that semantic change did occur in both the Polish and the English language. However, the change is more visible in the Polish dictionaries. The subsidiary differences could influence the way the word is employed in certain contexts and thus, differentiate the employment of the same concept in the two languages. Nevertheless, the contemporary definitions are almost identical in both languages, in contrast to the historical ones.
Respectus Philologicus pp 47-61; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.38

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the significance of slang in educating well-rounded EFL learners. The study, first, uncovers the most salient features of slang, distinguishing it from jargon, argot, cant, etc. It also discusses the reasons why slang springs to life; the users of slang and functions it performs, as well as the word-formation processes employed in its creation.The paper further investigates the familiarity of Macedonian undergraduate students of English with currently relevant English and American slang, the main hypothesis being that they lack knowledge of slang due to insufficient exposure and instruction. The instruments used are a questionnaire and a quiz comprising 60 slang terms, intended to inspect informants’ knowledge of slang.The results obtained from this research confirm that slang is disregarded in EFL acquisition, and that no steady progress is made in the students’ knowledge of slang in the course of their university studies.
Respectus Philologicus pp 195-204; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.37.42.50

Abstract:
The article presents a workshop on art evaluation addressed at university students of the humanities. The aims of the workshop involve defining the terms ‘art’ and ‘kitsch’, analysing the functions of art throughout the ages, understanding the difference between an educated and uneducated art viewer, the importance of a canon of masterpieces of art for preserving the cultural heritage of Europe, and the problem of personal expectations concerning art. Scholarly content is presented to the students via a workshop based on coaching methods developed by cognitive psychology. The choice of this mode of work allows students to express themselves freely, teaches them how to defend their own opinions, improves their ability to see different points of view, and develops creativity. The workshop begins with a preliminary survey to identify the issues the students need help. It consists of 4 sessions (1.5 hours each) and ends with an evaluation. The proposed workshop can be extended with additional modules, tailored to the participants’ specific needs.
Respectus Philologicus pp 127-136; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.44

Abstract:
One of the most popular themes in Latvian literature which has regularly arisen at different stages of its development since the 19th century is the idea of returning to the roots, the depiction of a mythological world scene when people lived according to the rhythms of nature, in full harmony with themselves and the world. Ancient times are depicted as a time when Latvians felt free living at their farms and followed the rules of the mythical time. This peculiar feature which we analyse on the basis of literary works, describes vividly the nation’s collective consciousness, desires, and needs. The need for emphasizing the idealised ancient times in the nation’s consciousness is related to the most significant transitional stages in the development of the country, which are characterised by the increased attention to the issues of national identity. During difficult stages in history, nosta lgia is a security mechanism which looks for stability in the past which we do not have in the present. The aim of the paper is to see how the nostalgic reflection on the idealized ancient times in the Latvian literature is related to the pivotal stages in the country’s history when special attention was paid to the national awareness and identity issues.
Respectus Philologicus pp 137-146; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.45

Abstract:
Oral and written storytelling traditions in Africa developed at the same time and influenced each other in many ways. In the twentieth century, the relation between the deeply rooted oral tradition and literary traditions intensified.We aim to reveal literary analysis tools that help to trace ways how oral narrative genres found reflection in African short fiction under analysis. A case study is based on two short stories by women writers, The Rain Came by Grace Ogot and The Lovers by Bessie Head. Images and symbols both, in oral and written traditions in Africa, as well as the way they evolved and extended in a literary genre of short fiction are considered within the framework of hermeneutics, reader reception theory and feminist literary criticism.The results obtained in the study prove that oral narrative genres interact with literary genres, though most importantly, women’s writing as a literary category and images embodied in the short stories play a decisive role and deviation from the images embodied in African oral tradition.
Respectus Philologicus pp 183-194; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.49

Abstract:
The author of the thesis uses Literary Ethics as a theoretical instrument and analyses the portrait of human dealing with turning-point in Vytautas Martinkus’s novel Simonija. The novel corresponds to the features of the turning-point literature marked in the dissertation of V. Katinienė: the thematic level emphasizes a change of historical (political) order and its existential problems; in thoughts, dreams, memories characters go back to the period of totalitarianism; the contrast between “homo sovieticus” and individuals of the free world is emphasized. The analysis of ethical conflicts in Simonija is presented, having in mind specific cultural context during the Soviet period and emphasizing the process of writing as a particular ethical situation and a way to reflect human’s experience. Vytautas Martinkus offers appropriate “snoumenizm” notion for summarizing human’s experience during the Soviet periodperiod. In essence, dehumanizing, painful experience of the Soviet era does not abandon human even in the period of freedom and forces him to go back to the past – physical presence in the world of restored independence does not free him from inner stagnation. In this paper, it is shown that Literary Ethics is asuitable theoretical instrument in order to analyze text about human’s experience at turning-point.
Respectus Philologicus pp 147-159; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.46

Abstract:
The present article investigates the most topical issues of the genre and translation of the multilingual film (also referred to as „polyglot film“). The definition of this type of film is based on the use of several different languages and their ‘collision’ in a feature film. In this sense, the multilingual film is a formal genre similar to, e.g., the musical, where, instead of a combination of movement and singing, a combination of several languages prevails. It is also denoted by reiterating combinations of actions and character constellations, specific patterns (odyssey, integraa The present article investigates the most topical issues of the genre and translation of the multilingual film (also referred to as “polyglot film”). The definition of this type of film is based on the use of several different languages and their “collision” in a feature film. In this sense, the multilingual film is a formal genre similar to, e.g., the musical where instead of a combination of movement and singing a combination of several languages prevails. It is also denoted by reiterating combinations of actions and character constellations, specific patterns (odyssey, integration, translation), aptitude to puns, search for internationally clear vocabulary. On the other hand, a question may be raised whether the creator of a film deliberately selects the tradition of multilingualism, whether a multilingual film is consciously intended. In this case, the concept of the genre is heavily debatable. The multilingual film was developed in the 1930s, after the completion of the epoch of silent film. Since the 1990s, the multilingual film has been employed to draw attention to the issues of migration and diasporas. In the context of audio-visual translation, the multilingual film is prominently challenging. When dubbing, the film is adapted to the language and culture of translation while eliminating multilingualism. When subtitling, multilingualism is preserved by keeping the original soundtrack, and different languages may be highlighted by employing subtitles of different types (differentiating by font, colour, etc.). When employing voice-over, synchrony and isochrony of various types are essential. tion, translation), aptitude to puns, search for internationally clear vocabulary. On the other hand, a question may be raised whether the creator of a film deliberately selects the tradition of multilingualism, whether a multilingual film is consciously intended. In this case, the concept of the genre is heavily debatable. Multilingual film was developed in the 1930s, after the completion of the epoch of silent film. Since the 1990s, multilingual film has been employed to draw attention to the issues of migration and diasporas. In the context of audio visual translation, multilingual film is prominently challenging. When dubbing, the film is adapted to the language and culture of translation while eliminating multilingualism. When subtitling, multilingualism is preserved by keeping the original soundtrack, and different languages may be highlighted by employing subtitles of different types (differentiating by font, colour, etc.). When employing voice-over, synchrony and isochrony of various types are essential.
Respectus Philologicus pp 62-77; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.39

Abstract:
The aim of the research was to investigate how native speakers of Russian, which is a highly complex inflectional language, cope with the acquisition of the similar by structure and complexity Lithuanian language. The subjects were adults of different age and education who learned Lithuanian in Belarus. I analyse errors related to the acquisition of noun case. The errors are divided into formal (acquisition of endings) and conceptual ones (choice of the appropriate case). I shortly compare my results with the results of similar research conducted in Lithuania where the subjects were native speakers of different languages.The results of the study show that similar errors are typical for native speakers of different languages irrespective of their morphological complexity. A complex inflectional system of a native language is not necessarily beneficial, but it seems to give some advantages for the acquisition of semantic (not syntactic) cases.
Joanna Kowalczyk
Respectus Philologicus pp 104-113; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.42

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the description of modifying reality through non-verbal speech acts. The subject of the study are non-verbal signs referring to the category of legal communication. This study included acts of legal communication that are expressed or can be expressed using various forms of silence. The first aim of the study was to determine whether silence can be classified as a speech act in the strict sense. The secondary aim was to determine the usefulness of silence in legal communication. The methodological basis of the analysis was the assumptions of pragmatism in the approach of W. James and the concept of performative acts of speech by J. L. Austin.
Respectus Philologicus pp 170-182; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.48

Abstract:
The article attempts to delineate adequate ways of thinking about the spatiality of the city in literature. It examines two semiotic approaches to the problematic of the city, namely Jurij Lotman’s semiotics of culture and Algirdas Julius Greimas’ urban semiotics, and their applicability to the analysis of its literary representation. Lotman’s concept of semiosphere is invoked to outline the complex, two-way relationship between consciousness and the city. Highlighting the communicative and autocommunication processes of culture helps to establish a link with Greimas’ interpretive and generative methodological approaches. Both Greimas and Lotman treat the city as a virtual reality concentrating on the ideological, symbolical and philosophical aspects of it. Their theories regard language primarily as an acoustic phenomenon (as speech), and consequently tend to disregard its visual (e. g. graphic) features. The article considers possible combinations of the different branches of semiotics. The special attention is focused on demonstrating the importance of the (inter)medial aspects of the literary representation. A case study of the photo-essay helps to expose similarities and differences of the semiotic and the intermedial approaches. The article demonstrates how recognizing specific (inter)medial aspects of the text allows regarding the literary city as a topological object.
Respectus Philologicus pp 114-126; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.43

Abstract:
In this article, the case of eighteen-year-old Jacob Hunt, the main character of Jodi Picoult’s book entitled House Rules (W naszym domu in Polish translation) is discussed. Jacob is an example of a literary character with features similar to those of people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). He suffers from Asperger syndrome, which belongs to ASD (autism spectrum disorder). That is why he finds it difficult to develop communication skills, which translates into disturbed communication. The disturbances involve difficulties in acquiring and applying social rules as well as having specific narrow interests. The author of this article points out the linguistic, as well as non-linguistic behaviour of the protagonist, which are specific for autism spectrum disorder. She also draws attention to the role that popular literature plays in creating the image of people with ASD and in popularizing information about this disorder.
Respectus Philologicus pp 22-34; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.37.42.36

Abstract:
In political cultures of a number of countries, the creation of a politician’s media image is based on the fundamental principle of his/her work being formulated as the achievement of the goal of ensuring a nation’s well-being and a country’s development. The present article demonstrates concrete similarities and differences discernible in the construction of a politician’s media image in the Russian, Lithuanian and Serbian media discourses from a rhetorical perspective. The methodological basis of the investigation is provided by the ideas of the new rhetoric and Ch. Perelman and L. Olbrechts-Tyteca’s assumption concerning the fact that the speaker’s ideas are accepted (or not accepted) by the audience not depending on the degree of the strictness of logical propositions and conclusions, but rather on the fact of whether the hearers have adhered to the grounds given by the speaker. Consequently, a researcher analysing the ways text influences the consciousness of those receiving it may identify shared truths and value judgements. On the basis of the analysis of contextual argumentation used for the creation of the media image of the candidates for the post of mayor in the three media discourses, an attempt to establish shared truths and values as well as certain regularities in the process of media image creation characteristic of the Russian, Lithuanian and Serbian media discourses has been made.
Respectus Philologicus pp 78-90; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.40

Abstract:
Modern media has led to changes in the scope, intensity and effectiveness of communication. The Internet medium, which offers almost unlimited dialogue and polylogue possibilities, has become an attractive place for provocation to be born and function. The provocative narrative not only inspires these processes, but also becomes as a result of such a genre modification. This article analyzes a provocative discourse, the Lithuanian version of the global movement MeToo, which promotes the publication of cases of sexual harassment: testimonies of women who have been sexually harassed, publications in the media discussing the issue, interviews with discourse participants, another type of comments. The MeToo discourse is characterized by a rhetorical aspect: the concept of provocation as an effective communication strategy is explored; the relationship of the provocative narrative to the genre category is discussed; characteristic rhetorical elements – invention, disposition, elocution – have been distinguished.
Respectus Philologicus pp 11-21; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.37.42.35

Abstract:
The subject of interest in this chapter is the concepts of creating apposition groups that appear in the literature on the subject, e.g. zbawiciel Jesus, dziewica Maryja, matka jego, słudze Bryjidzie. Opposing theories on this topic indicated on the one hand that apposition was an element added to the parent unit, and on the other hand, that apposition was the effect of transforming the deep structure into surface constructs. These approaches were, usually intuitive, reflected by language courts describing the title expressions since the beginning of the 19th century. In this study, they were traced and proved the dominance of opinions about the syntactic starting point in the derivative of apposition. In addition, other aspects of the characteristics of the groups of positions are discussed, placing them in the basic dichotomy of the derivation of positions.
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 171–176-171–176; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.32

Abstract:
The journal provides a platform for different theoretical and thematic approaches to the following humanitarian research fields: linguistic researches, issues of literary narratives and contexts, influence of advertising discourse, theory and practice of translation, audiovisual research.
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 146–157-146–157; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.30

Abstract:
Research demonstrates that there are over 6,000 languages in the world and countries believe that their national interest should come first, and in this case the national language(s) must be prioritized. However, it became imperative for people, let alone countries, to use a language they can understand for trade (economy) and socio-political or cultural relations. This raised a number of problems including the fact that colonial masters’ language was upheld to the detriment of their once “slaves” language which they called a dialect. With the advent of democracy and improvement in international bilateral and multilateral relations, linguistic rights were recognized as part and parcel of other human rights, and subsequently, a win-win approach became reasonably what countries would expect in international co-operation. Today the reality is that English serves as a lingua franca in trade and co-operation but this is to some extent abusive to people’s democratic and linguistic rights. The study is predominantly qualitative although a survey is also used to balance the findings. Further research is recommended in the future especially on the same or similar topics in any other BRICS country.
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 123-135; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.28

Abstract:
At the end of July 1885, Nikodem Erazm Iwanowski, the landlord of a small manor in Samogitia, brought his son to Warsaw for studies, and spent two years there. He maintained correspondence with Eliza Orzeszkowa, became acquainted with the poetess Maria Konopnicka, himself wrote poetry and prose, and painted. However, in his letters, he wrote that, being a newcomer from the province, he felt somewhat clumsy and uncomfortable. This confession encouraged the author of the present paper to review the cultural press of Warsaw published during the 1880s. The aim of the review was to investigate in which context Lithuanians/Samogitians were mentioned and how depicted, and to determine whether the fiction published in the aforementioned press contained satirical characters associated with Lithuania/Samogitia. The investigation revealed a number of publications about Lithuania/Samogitia – for example, descriptions of travels and places. Here we can find stereotypical pictures of Lithuanians and Samogitians. The investigation also revealed the presence of fiction containing satirical, comical depictions of Lithuanians or Samogitians. Here, two plotlines may be identified: characters in a foreign land, and characters in a large city
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 177–180-177–180; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.33

Abstract:
The journal provides a platform for different theoretical and thematic approaches to the following humanitarian research fields: linguistic researches, issues of literary narratives and contexts, influence of advertising discourse, theory and practice of translation, audiovisual research.
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 110-122; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.27

Abstract:
The reflection of the homeland, the Lithuanian nation, the native land is very important in Antanas Vaičiulaitis’ creative work and personal correspondence. Letters, written 1924–1992 reveal a creative being, closely related to the formation of the image of Lithuania, its embodiment and the preservation of the memory of the motherland. The image of the homeland is often conveyed by the symbolism of a lost paradise, accompanied by the feelings of a tragic denouement. The construct of homeland as a paradise began to emerge in the writer’s early childhood, in letters it is portrayed as a mythical Eden. Through the mother, the space of home and the nature surrounding it, the metaphor of the motherland-fortress was formed. By comparing the homeland with his beloved mother, Antanas Vaičiulaitis conveyed the great pain, caused by the Lithuanian occupation. The letters’ image of homeland-paradise is associated with the ideals of patriotism, holiness of childhood and family, faith and also motives of loss and return, conveyed by the symbols of the tree and the bird. In the writer’s correspondence, through the personal context, complex emotional states reveal the cultural memory of the nation.
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 99-109; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.26

Abstract:
The article compares the following two texts: the latest dairy fragments of Alfonsas Nyka-Niliūnas (2014) and the essay book “Levels of Life” by Julian Barnes. Both writers aim to reveal personal experiences through cultural texts: the relationship with the Other enables us to identify ourselves and helps to describe our inner world. The article focuses on how the memory is created and what is the most important in culture for both writers. Several meaningful aspects are emphasized by both writers: they both raise existential questions, search for possible answers in culture, as well as search for links with a particular place and focus on art. The study has revealed that that culture, especially classic European culture, is an essential support that allows us to reflect our being. Special attention is paid to French culture, which could be perceived as a benchmark for the European mentality. Although the books refer to different cultural sources, they both focus on a great respect of the art of the word as capable of preserving memory.
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 181–183-181–183; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.34

Abstract:
The journal provides a platform for different theoretical and thematic approaches to the following humanitarian research fields: linguistic researches, issues of literary narratives and contexts, influence of advertising discourse, theory and practice of translation, audiovisual research.
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 136–145-136–145; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.29

Abstract:
In this paper, I propose to examine the question of journeys, borders, and translation in Theodoros Angelopoulos’ Trilogy of Borders: The Suspended Step of the Stork (1991), Ulysses’ Gaze (1995) and Eternity and a Day (1998), winner of the Palme d’Or at the Cannes Film Festival. It is my aim to contribute, in a small way, to the ongoing discussion about the role of translation in creating understanding, using as a case in point the work of a major contemporary poet of the screen who created his own aesthetics of the journey and whose films are vehicles of discovery, taking the viewer across many borders, on a fabulous – but often unsettling and perilous – voyage which challenges long-held assumptions about self, others, and translation. I suggest there is a plausible link between translation and liminality, a concept introduced in anthropology by Arnold van Gennep in the beginning of the 20th century and later brought to the fore by Victor Turner. I contend that, since in translation there is a tension between the (permanent) source text and the potentially unlimited number of translations, insights from anthropology can shed light on this complex relationship which resembles, in more ways than one, that between liminal experiences and the establishment of permanent structures (which are, usually, born in liminality).
Hans-Harry Drößiger
Published: 17 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 158–170-158–170; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.31

Abstract:
The following review concerns the volume Corps et traduction, corps en traduction [Body and Translation, Body in Translation] edited by Solange Hibbs, Adriana Şerban and Nathalie Vincent-Arnaud, published in 2018 by Lambert-Lucas Publishing House in Limoges, France.
Published: 16 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 47-59; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.22

Abstract:
This article analyses 127 suffixal adverbs from Lithuanian slang and non-standard dictionary (Kaunas, 2012). The suffixal adverbs of Lithuanian slang have not been researched systematically according to grammatical classification. This research is based on the morphological analysis. The suffixal adverbs are divided into groups: every group includes some subgroups. First, the most productive derivatives groups are analyzed, then the less productive groups are involved. In each subgroup are described derivatives of individual suffixes; where necessary, due consideration is given to the underlying structure and various morphological properties. Every subgroup has a small description of the accentuation and the pronunciation or the root vocalism.
Published: 16 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 60-72; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.23

Abstract:
The aim of this article is to discuss the formation of toponyms derived from various kinds of appellatives originating from personal names of the southern part of Lithuania – South Highlands (Lith. Pietų Aukštaitija). This is one of the semantic groups of toponyms, differentiating in specificity and meaning from the base words (toponyms consist of appellative personal names). Research into toponyms of appellative personal names reveals how proper names reflect the worldview of the residents of the aforementioned region. The material for the article was collected from the geoinformation data base of Lithuanian toponyms (LVvGDB). To explain the origin of toponyms with reference to the base words, the dictionary of Lithuanian surnames (Lith. LPŽe), the dictionary of the Lithuanian language (Lith. LKŽe), geoinformation data base of Lithuanian toponyms (LVvGDB) were employed. Focusing on word-formation under the structural-grammatical classification of hydronyms developed by Aleksandras Vanagas, the toponyms of each group are divided into primary and secondary. Ethnonyms are classified as primary, derivatives, composites and compounds.
Published: 16 October 2019
Respectus Philologicus pp 73-83; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.36.41.24

Abstract:
The paper highlights the peculiarities of the artistic modifications of urban existence in the English literature of the interwar period. We have analysed such novels as Death of a Hero by Richard Aldington, Antic Hay by Aldous Huxley, and Mrs. Dalloway by Virginia Woolf, in which in the light of M. Heidegger’s analytic of Dasein, we investigated the ways of the main characters’ awareness of their own possibilities in a city. The article follows through the correlation between the heroes’ existence and urban reality, in which it is projected. We have discovered that in the novels Death of a Hero and Antic Hay urban discourse is characterised by eschatological markers, in which the semantics of the heroes’ loss of spiritual values and beliefs is expressed. Because of the lack of understanding of the world, George Winterbourne and Theodore Gumbrill are not capable to perceive true nature of their own selves and achieve maturity. This leads to self-alienation and dissolving in the ‘they’, which is a manifestation of falling into average everydayness. The mode of pr ojection of oneself into the future is illustrated by the image of Mrs. Dalloway from the eponymous novel by Virginia Woolf, in which the horizon of existence is revealed as a free choice in the face of finitude. The study demonstrates how differently characters can perceive the city in the face of a choice between true and untrue existence, between themselves and others, between freedom and dependence.
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