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Results in Journal Respectus Philologicus: 375

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Respectus Philologicus pp 62-77; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.39

Abstract:
The aim of the research was to investigate how native speakers of Russian, which is a highly complex inflectional language, cope with the acquisition of the similar by structure and complexity Lithuanian language. The subjects were adults of different age and education who learned Lithuanian in Belarus. I analyse errors related to the acquisition of noun case. The errors are divided into formal (acquisition of endings) and conceptual ones (choice of the appropriate case). I shortly compare my results with the results of similar research conducted in Lithuania where the subjects were native speakers of different languages.The results of the study show that similar errors are typical for native speakers of different languages irrespective of their morphological complexity. A complex inflectional system of a native language is not necessarily beneficial, but it seems to give some advantages for the acquisition of semantic (not syntactic) cases.
Joanna Kowalczyk
Respectus Philologicus pp 104-113; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.42

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the description of modifying reality through non-verbal speech acts. The subject of the study are non-verbal signs referring to the category of legal communication. This study included acts of legal communication that are expressed or can be expressed using various forms of silence. The first aim of the study was to determine whether silence can be classified as a speech act in the strict sense. The secondary aim was to determine the usefulness of silence in legal communication. The methodological basis of the analysis was the assumptions of pragmatism in the approach of W. James and the concept of performative acts of speech by J. L. Austin.
Respectus Philologicus pp 195-204; doi:10.15388/respectus.2019.37.42.50

Abstract:
The article presents a workshop on art evaluation addressed at university students of the humanities. The aims of the workshop involve defining the terms ‘art’ and ‘kitsch’, analysing the functions of art throughout the ages, understanding the difference between an educated and uneducated art viewer, the importance of a canon of masterpieces of art for preserving the cultural heritage of Europe, and the problem of personal expectations concerning art. Scholarly content is presented to the students via a workshop based on coaching methods developed by cognitive psychology. The choice of this mode of work allows students to express themselves freely, teaches them how to defend their own opinions, improves their ability to see different points of view, and develops creativity. The workshop begins with a preliminary survey to identify the issues the students need help. It consists of 4 sessions (1.5 hours each) and ends with an evaluation. The proposed workshop can be extended with additional modules, tailored to the participants’ specific needs.
Respectus Philologicus pp 127-136; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.44

Abstract:
One of the most popular themes in Latvian literature which has regularly arisen at different stages of its development since the 19th century is the idea of returning to the roots, the depiction of a mythological world scene when people lived according to the rhythms of nature, in full harmony with themselves and the world. Ancient times are depicted as a time when Latvians felt free living at their farms and followed the rules of the mythical time. This peculiar feature which we analyse on the basis of literary works, describes vividly the nation’s collective consciousness, desires, and needs. The need for emphasizing the idealised ancient times in the nation’s consciousness is related to the most significant transitional stages in the development of the country, which are characterised by the increased attention to the issues of national identity. During difficult stages in history, nosta lgia is a security mechanism which looks for stability in the past which we do not have in the present. The aim of the paper is to see how the nostalgic reflection on the idealized ancient times in the Latvian literature is related to the pivotal stages in the country’s history when special attention was paid to the national awareness and identity issues.
Respectus Philologicus pp 137-146; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.45

Abstract:
Oral and written storytelling traditions in Africa developed at the same time and influenced each other in many ways. In the twentieth century, the relation between the deeply rooted oral tradition and literary traditions intensified.We aim to reveal literary analysis tools that help to trace ways how oral narrative genres found reflection in African short fiction under analysis. A case study is based on two short stories by women writers, The Rain Came by Grace Ogot and The Lovers by Bessie Head. Images and symbols both, in oral and written traditions in Africa, as well as the way they evolved and extended in a literary genre of short fiction are considered within the framework of hermeneutics, reader reception theory and feminist literary criticism.The results obtained in the study prove that oral narrative genres interact with literary genres, though most importantly, women’s writing as a literary category and images embodied in the short stories play a decisive role and deviation from the images embodied in African oral tradition.
Respectus Philologicus pp 183-194; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.49

Abstract:
The author of the thesis uses Literary Ethics as a theoretical instrument and analyses the portrait of human dealing with turning-point in Vytautas Martinkus’s novel Simonija. The novel corresponds to the features of the turning-point literature marked in the dissertation of V. Katinienė: the thematic level emphasizes a change of historical (political) order and its existential problems; in thoughts, dreams, memories characters go back to the period of totalitarianism; the contrast between “homo sovieticus” and individuals of the free world is emphasized. The analysis of ethical conflicts in Simonija is presented, having in mind specific cultural context during the Soviet period and emphasizing the process of writing as a particular ethical situation and a way to reflect human’s experience. Vytautas Martinkus offers appropriate “snoumenizm” notion for summarizing human’s experience during the Soviet periodperiod. In essence, dehumanizing, painful experience of the Soviet era does not abandon human even in the period of freedom and forces him to go back to the past – physical presence in the world of restored independence does not free him from inner stagnation. In this paper, it is shown that Literary Ethics is asuitable theoretical instrument in order to analyze text about human’s experience at turning-point.
Respectus Philologicus pp 147-159; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.46

Abstract:
The present article investigates the most topical issues of the genre and translation of the multilingual film (also referred to as „polyglot film“). The definition of this type of film is based on the use of several different languages and their ‘collision’ in a feature film. In this sense, the multilingual film is a formal genre similar to, e.g., the musical, where, instead of a combination of movement and singing, a combination of several languages prevails. It is also denoted by reiterating combinations of actions and character constellations, specific patterns (odyssey, integraa The present article investigates the most topical issues of the genre and translation of the multilingual film (also referred to as “polyglot film”). The definition of this type of film is based on the use of several different languages and their “collision” in a feature film. In this sense, the multilingual film is a formal genre similar to, e.g., the musical where instead of a combination of movement and singing a combination of several languages prevails. It is also denoted by reiterating combinations of actions and character constellations, specific patterns (odyssey, integration, translation), aptitude to puns, search for internationally clear vocabulary. On the other hand, a question may be raised whether the creator of a film deliberately selects the tradition of multilingualism, whether a multilingual film is consciously intended. In this case, the concept of the genre is heavily debatable. The multilingual film was developed in the 1930s, after the completion of the epoch of silent film. Since the 1990s, the multilingual film has been employed to draw attention to the issues of migration and diasporas. In the context of audio-visual translation, the multilingual film is prominently challenging. When dubbing, the film is adapted to the language and culture of translation while eliminating multilingualism. When subtitling, multilingualism is preserved by keeping the original soundtrack, and different languages may be highlighted by employing subtitles of different types (differentiating by font, colour, etc.). When employing voice-over, synchrony and isochrony of various types are essential. tion, translation), aptitude to puns, search for internationally clear vocabulary. On the other hand, a question may be raised whether the creator of a film deliberately selects the tradition of multilingualism, whether a multilingual film is consciously intended. In this case, the concept of the genre is heavily debatable. Multilingual film was developed in the 1930s, after the completion of the epoch of silent film. Since the 1990s, multilingual film has been employed to draw attention to the issues of migration and diasporas. In the context of audio visual translation, multilingual film is prominently challenging. When dubbing, the film is adapted to the language and culture of translation while eliminating multilingualism. When subtitling, multilingualism is preserved by keeping the original soundtrack, and different languages may be highlighted by employing subtitles of different types (differentiating by font, colour, etc.). When employing voice-over, synchrony and isochrony of various types are essential.
Respectus Philologicus pp 47-61; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.38

Abstract:
The aim of this paper is to raise awareness of the significance of slang in educating well-rounded EFL learners. The study, first, uncovers the most salient features of slang, distinguishing it from jargon, argot, cant, etc. It also discusses the reasons why slang springs to life; the users of slang and functions it performs, as well as the word-formation processes employed in its creation.The paper further investigates the familiarity of Macedonian undergraduate students of English with currently relevant English and American slang, the main hypothesis being that they lack knowledge of slang due to insufficient exposure and instruction. The instruments used are a questionnaire and a quiz comprising 60 slang terms, intended to inspect informants’ knowledge of slang.The results obtained from this research confirm that slang is disregarded in EFL acquisition, and that no steady progress is made in the students’ knowledge of slang in the course of their university studies.
Respectus Philologicus pp 218-224; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.52

Abstract:
On the 19th of September 2019 Vilnius University, Kaunas Faculty welcomed a world-class researcher, Professor of audiovisual translation at Universitat Jaume I (Spain) and Honorary Professor at University College London (UK) Frederic Chaume. During a five-day visit, he presented a series of lectures and workshops titled Multimodal Research in Audiovisual Translation: Translation Paradigm of AVT Products in 2019.
Respectus Philologicus pp 225-229; doi:10.15388/respectus.2020.37.42.53

Abstract:
Spalio 11 dieną Vilniaus universiteto Kauno fakulteto Kalbų, literatūros ir vertimo studijų institute įvyko tarpdalykinė mokslinė Žanro konferencija. Renginio dalyves sveikino konferencijos sumanytoja ir mokslinio komiteto pirmininkė profesorė Gabija Bankauskaitė.
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