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Mohammad Ibrahim Al Mishlah Alghamdi, Ilhami Colak, Musaddak Maher Abdul Zahra, T. Bothichandar
Published: 21 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2544098

Abstract:
The exploitation of fossil fuels has fueled the modern world’s development since the industrial revolution. Other energy sources, such as wood, charcoal, and animal power, were displaced by these fuels, which were relatively easy to obtain, had low cost of production, and were easily transportable. The possibility of these fossil reserves being depleted in the medium term, combined with an increase in environmental awareness and the reality of environmental degradation, has changed the situation, reactivating the search for alternative fuels. Biofuels such as bioethanol, biomethanol, and biodiesel are among the alternative fuels gaining popularity due to their environmental benefits. This research investigates the behaviour of a diesel engine that runs on biodiesel (a fuel made from new and unrefined algae oil), ethanol (an essential raw nanomaterial that is readily available in India), and nanometal additives.
Keda Liu, Dianjian Zhang,
Published: 20 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4064983

Abstract:
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a bone and joint disease with pathological characteristics such as articular cartilage degeneration injury and synovial and subchondral bone reactive hyperplasia. Once cartilage is damaged, it is difficult to repair it by itself. Current clinical practice is mainly limited to symptomatic treatment, not changing the degenerative process of osteoarthritis. The important goal of nanomedicine is targeted delivery. Nanoparticles (NPs) can provide many unique potential functions for the targeted treatment of arthritis. This review summarizes the research progress of nanomaterials as a drug delivery system in the treatment of osteoarthritis from three aspects: (1) the etiology of OA and the current research status of applying nanoparticles to treat OA, (2) the construction of osteoarthritis models, and (3) the classification of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems.
, , Lanjuan Xu, Qing Cao, Shaohua Xing, Guangyi Liu, Xiaoheng Geng, Haiying Guo, Guojun Han, Jingyu Wang
Published: 18 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1650939

Abstract:
In order to reduce the mechanical sensitivity of cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX) and improve its energy density, spherical RDX/PMMA/NC composite particles were prepared by spray drying method, selecting polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA, hydrocarbon binder) with excellent mechanical properties and nitrocellulose (NC, energy-containing binder) with higher density as the desensitizing shell material, RDX as the core material. PMMA/NC composite particles of the same component were prepared by a simple solvent evaporation method at the same time. Structural characterizations and thermal stability of the composites were systematically studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. Moreover, the safety performance has been qualitatively tested and analyzed through impact sensitivity and friction sensitivity. The results show that the addition of NC/PMMA binder would not change the original crystal structure of RDX, and the RDX/NC/PMMA composites fabricated by spray drying presented spherical particles with uniform distribution and smooth surface. The Tp0 of RDX/NC/PMMA composite particles increased from 220.3°C to 228.2°C, improving the thermal decomposition performance. The H50 rose from 29.32 cm to 84.3 cm, and the probability of friction explosion decreased from 96% to 8%, significantly enhancing the safety performance. In short, the RDX/NC/PMMA composites prepared via the spray drying method and the improvement of their performance have positive significance for the development of explosives in pursuit of high energy and low sensitivity.
Abdullah Alqahtani
Published: 18 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4797686

Abstract:
CuO is a narrow band gap semiconductor with distinct features that render it indispensable in many industrial and technological applications such as environmental friendly catalysts for organic pollutant removal, sensors, photovoltaic, solar cells, batteries, and storage media among others. Engineering of its energy gap becomes imperative and necessary for tailoring its light absorption capacity to a desired level required for a particular application. Elemental doping mechanisms with accompanied lattice distortion symmetry breaking effectively enhance the optical property of this semiconductor and serve as a major route through which material design is achieved. This work develops an extreme learning machine intelligent predictive (ELM-IP) model and stepwise regression (SWR) based model for estimating energy gap of a doped CuO semiconductor. The developed ELM-IP-Sin model which employs sine activation function performs better than the ELM-IP-Sig model (that utilizes sigmoid activation function) and SWR model with a percentage improvement of 14.15% and 50.05%, respectively, using root mean square error (RMSE) metric, while the developed ELM-IP-Sig model outperforms the SWR-based model. The developed models further investigate the dependence of CuO energy gap on iron and cobalt impurity incorporation, and the obtained results agree well with measured values. The outstanding performance of the developed models is highly meritorious in tailoring the light response capacity of CuO semiconductor for photocatalytic and optoelectronics applications at a reduced cost while the experimental stress is circumvented.
Hala M. Abdelmigid, Maissa M. Morsi, , Amal Ahmed Alyamani, Noha Moslah Al Sufyani
Published: 15 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2204776

Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were extensively used in different fields worldwide. There is a continued increase in their productions to fulfill various uses. Biological and chemical AgNP syntheses were the most popular mechanisms in this field. Agrowastes are rich in proteins, phenolics, and flavonoids that could act as bioreductant agents in AgNP biological synthesis. The present study was aimed at synthesizing AgNPs via chemical and biological methods using trisodium citrate, pomegranate fruit peel, and coffee ground waste extracts. Moreover, silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy and characterized using zeta potential, size distribution mean, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Four pathogenic bacterial strains (Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and MRSA) were used to assess the antimicrobial effect of the synthesized AgNPs (2, 4, and 8 mg/ml). Results report the successful formation of silver nanoparticles chemically (AgNPs_Chem) and biologically by using pomegranate peel extract (AgNPs_PPE) and coffee ground waste extract (AgNPs_CE) due to the change of color to dark brown that is confirmed by UV-vis sharp absorption spectra at specific wavelengths. Characterization using SEM and XRD revealed their crystalline shape with a mean size of AgNPs _ Chem = 62.75 , AgNPs _ CE = 273.7 nm , and AgNPs _ PPE = 591.9 nm . AgNPs_Chem show higher negativity of zeta potential (−46.7 mV) than AgNPs_CE (−12.6 mV), followed by AgNPs_PPE (−7.98 mV), which had the least stability. All the synthesized AgNPs show antimicrobial potential on all selected strains. However, 8 mg/ml shows the most effective concentration and has more efficiency on K. pneumoniae than others. Overall, the results highlight that the use of agrowastes could be an ecofriendly way to synthesize AgNPs biologically that have the same antimicrobial effect as the chemically synthesized AgNPs.
S. Ananth, , , P. Maheandera Prabu, Varatharaju Perumal, G. Kalusuraman
Published: 14 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7725959

Abstract:
This research investigates the tribological behavior of gray cast iron against EN31 steel under lubricated conditions. The most typical lubricated sliding phenomena are the reduction of wear on both the sliding surfaces and any one of the critical surfaces. Static and hydrodynamic wear can be reduced based on fluid properties or the accessibility of fluid between the surfaces. The oil’s viscosity or content of the hydrocarbon and additives present in the oil plays a major role in controlling the wear of reciprocating surfaces. Therefore, this research work focused on metal-to-metal contact wear under the influence of lubricating oil (40 pride oil). The Taguchi method was used to select the sliding parameter combinations. Lubricated sliding resulted in a relatively reduced order of friction coefficient, attributable to better load distribution due to the formation of the lubricant film.
Do Thi Phuong Linh, Nguyen Trong Nghia, , Tran Le Truc Ha,
Published: 13 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7165504

Abstract:
Gold nanoparticles capped by carboxymethyl chitosan (AuNPs/CM-chitosan) with particle sizes of 5.2–7.3 nm were successfully synthesized by the γ-irradiation of Au3+ solutions. Their characteristics were analysed by transmission electron microscope images, powder X-ray diffraction patterns, UV-visible spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectra. The antioxidant activity of AuNP/CM-chitosan was time dependent and much higher than that of ascorbic acid at the same concentration. On the other hand, the results of tail vein injection of AuNP/CM-chitosan in mice indicated that this product was not toxic to mice and that AuNPs were mainly distributed in liver tissue, at approximately 77.5%, 6 h after injection. The hepatoprotective activity of AuNP/CM-chitosan was also tested in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxic mice by oral administration at daily doses of 0.5–2 mg/head. The results indicated that compared to the control, supplementation with 2 mg of AuNPs/head strongly reduced the aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase indexes in the blood of the tested mice by approximately 66.5 and 69.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the MTT (3[4,5 dimetylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazol bromide) assay on a liver cancer cell line (HepG2) clearly confirmed strong anticancer activity on HepG2 cells treated with 0.05–0.5 mM AuNPs and the tested cells did not survive after treatment with 0.5 mM AuNPs, while the growth of the normal cell line (L929) has no significant effect at the same treated concentration of AuNPs. The AuNP/CM-chitosan in the present study was synthesized by the γ-irradiation method without using any toxic-reducing chemical and stabilized in a natural biocompatible polymer. The strong antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and anticancer effects of this product may be supported to be used in the biomedical field.
, Jiraroj T-Thienprasert, Jittiporn Ruangtong, Thitiradsadakorn Jaithon, ,
Published: 13 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5625199

Abstract:
Fungicides have been extensively used to control fungal diseases that affect several crops including ornamental crops. However, concerns have arisen due to a development of fungicide resistance and increasing incidences of fungicide toxicity effects on nontarget organisms. As zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity, this study is therefore aimed at synthesizing ZnO NPs from banana peels using a green chemistry method in a large scale and determines their physical properties including their inhibitory effects against a plant pathogen fungus causing anthracnose in orchids, Colletotrichum sp. Results from X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope indicated that the synthesized ZnO NPs were obtained without other crystalline impurities, and they were spherical in shape with the average diameter of 256 ± 40 nm , respectively. The absorption peak was found to be centered at ~370 nm with the optical band gap value approximately 2.8 eV. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of several functional groups on synthesized ZnO NPs. The total amount of synthesized ZnO NPs was obtained about 170 g for a synthesis reaction. By performing the antifungal activity assay, high doses of green synthesized ZnO NPs significantly inhibited growth of isolated Colletotrichum sp. (KUFC 021) on culture plates. Under greenhouse conditions, high doses of synthesized ZnO NPs also significantly reduced anthracnose symptoms on inoculated orchid leaves with the Colletotrichum sp. (KUFC 021).
, Yimin Meng, Su Xu, Haitao Yu, Xingang Hou
Published: 13 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9934118

Abstract:
As an economical, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient separation technology, membrane separation is a popular research topic in the field of separation. Organic polymer materials have attracted considerable attention in membrane separation because of their controllable preparation processes, simple modification method, and high toughness. Taking polysulfone (PSF) as the substrate of gas separation membrane, we prepared the mixed matrix membrane jointly by using the solution casting method and by adding graphene oxide (GO) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). On this basis, the permeability of the membrane for CO2 and N2 and the permeability coefficient of the mixed gas were studied. With the addition of CNTs and GO, the permeability of gas was significantly improved. At 0.2 MPa, permeability of CO2 increased from 553 Barrer to 975 Barrer, and permeability of N2 increased from 536 Barrer to 745 Barrer. The max ideal separation coefficient of CO2 and N2 is 1.94 at 0.1 MPa. Increasing of the content of carbon nanotubes can significantly improve the permeability coefficient of CO2, while the change of inlet side pressure has a great impact on the permeability coefficient of N2. At 0.1 MPa, when the ratio of CNTs to GO was 5 : 1, the ideal permeability coefficient of CO2/N2 was 1.94, whereas the ideal permeability coefficient of PSF membrane was 1.46. The above results of PSF/GO/CNT mixed matrix membrane lay a theoretical foundation for industrial application.
Francisco J. Cano, Orlando Castilleja-Escobedo, L. J. Espinoza-Pérez, Cecilia Reynosa-Martínez,
Published: 13 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4449890

Abstract:
The effect of yttria concentration (0-33.4 mol%), extraction rates (0.17, 0.33, 0.50, and 0.67 mm s-1), and the number of layers (up to four) on the phase content, surface defects, thickness, hardness, adhesion strength, and wear rate of yttria-stabilized zirconia coatings produced by sol-gel/dip-coating were studied for its use on thermolabile substrates. At 700°C, a metastable tetragonal phase ( t ″ ) was obtained even with 33.4 mol% yttria when heat treated for 24 hours; however, a fully cubic structure was attained by extending the heat treatment up to 48 hours as confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, it was necessary to use withdrawal speeds of at least 0.67 mm s-1 to produce defect-free coatings. Although the coatings were produced at low temperature, they showed 41% lower wear rate than steel and an adhesion strength of 30 MPa. Our work stresses the importance of the heat treatment history on the stabilization of the cubic phase in sol-gel YSZ coatings.
J. Francis Xavier, B. Ravi, D. Jayabalakrishnan, Chakaravarthy Ezilarasan, V. Jayaseelan, G. Elias
Published: 12 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2054399

Abstract:
Aircraft component manufacturing sector is looking for high precision machining in aircraft components. The present work explores the operability of green manufacturing of Nimonic C263 using dry turning. Nimonic C263 is tough to turn owing to its inherent quality like low conductivity and more work hardening. Therefore, in order to improve this machined surface/integrity, the controlling factors were optimized based on desirability approach for minimum of surface roughness and flank wear during turning of this alloy using CBN insert. L27 orthogonal array was chosen to carry out the experiment. The effects of controlling factors, such as cutting speed ( V ), feed rate ( S ), and cut penetration/depth of cut ( a p ) on the outputs, were also explored. The feed rate was a major impact to affect surface finish and flank wear. The average error percentage between the experimental and RSM models for surface finish was 4.76 percent and 2.79 percent for flank wear.
Prangsai Tiangtrong, Narong Chaihathep
Published: 8 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9997880

Abstract:
A massive interest has arisen in nanocapsule, and it is used in different fields. Carbon nanotubes and fullerene are the most commonly used nanomaterials due to their remarkable properties, such as optical, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. Especially in biomedical science, nanocapsules are highly recommended to be applied as carriers for drugs. From the Magic bullet theory, it is expected that the nanocapsules can deliver drugs to the target cells, which can reduce the side effects on the nontargeted cells. In this research, we design a new nanocapsule consisting of a finite-length single-wall carbon nanotube with two end caps which are hemispheres of C60 fullerene. By using elementary mechanics and mathematical modelling, we can determine the exact formulae and their numerical solutions of nonbonded interactions between the nanocapsules and the atoms Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Ni, Zn, and Pb which are assumed to be located in the middle of the nanocapsules. Therefore, the optimal lengths of the carbon nanotubes for each case of atoms are determined. This research is a guideline for studying the interaction between the drug and the nanocapsule in the drug delivery system.
, , Muhammad Wahab, Mohammed Ahmed, Gashaw Othman-Qadir, Basem H. Elesawy, Mayeen Uddin Khandaker, Mohammad Nazmul Islam, Talha Bin Emran
Published: 7 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1472096

Abstract:
Nanotechnology recently emerged among the most exciting science-related innovations. Nanotechnology-produced metal nanoparticles got a lot of attention. This is emerging as a rapidly developing field due to its effective applications that targeted the manufacturing of new materials at the nanoscale level. There is considerable interest in the application of nanomaterials in many areas of industry including agrifood and biomedical products. In the agrifood area, nanomaterials have benefits in diverse areas which include fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, sensors, and quality stimulants, among other food processing, food packaging, and nutraceuticals to improve nutritional value. These applications in agriculture result in enhanced quality and crop yield, reduction in pollution caused by various chemicals, etc. In the pharmaceutical area, nanomaterials are claimed to ameliorate drug safety and efficacy, as well as bioavailability. They are utilized for targeting various drugs to a specific location in the body. However, there are also concerns that some nanoparticles may have adverse effects on human health. These include titanium dioxide, copper oxides, and other nanomaterials which lead to liver damage, skin damage, lung damage, and various other human health-related problems. This review is aimed at presenting a briefing on the state of the art in the application of nanotechnology in food and human nutrition and drug administration, consumer attitudes, and their challenges and opportunities with future perspectives.
, Temesgen Abeto Amibo, S. Venkatesa Prabhu, Abraham Getahun Ayalew
Published: 7 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7492532

Abstract:
Currently, many scholars are looking for renewable biomass sources for the isolation of nanomaterials that have a sustainable property and are ecofriendly. Thus, effectively synthesize and characterization enset fiber nanocellulose using acid hydrolysis with sonication is focus of study. Additionally, process optimization for isolation of nanocellulose (CNCs) from raw enset fiber using RSM-CCD and characterizations of obtained CNCs was explored. The quadratic model was selected, and optimized values for CNCs yield (77.69%) that were acquired to be H2SO4: 51.6 wt. %, reaction temperature: 47°C, and time: 66.5 min. Chemical composition analysis, XRD, FTIR, PSA, SEM, and TGA were used for characterizing CNCs. The particle size distribution of CNCs is 66 nm. It has a crystalline index of 80.91% and excellent thermal stability. FTIR and chemical composition result indicated the reduction and removal of lignin and hemicellulose components that are usually available in the raw enset fibers. The SEM analysis reveals the structure and arrangement of the fiber bundles inside the raw material to nanocellulose. This property shows its endowing as a possibly consistent load-bearing material. This study could be given a noteworthy thought for designing and emerging CNC isolation, optimization, and industrial application.
Abdullah A. Alyousef
Published: 7 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3484125

Abstract:
Discovering new antifungal drugs from natural products is a key target for the treatment of infections, such as candidiasis and other Candida-related infections. As current therapeutic drugs for the treatment of infections, such as candidiasis and other Candida-related infections, have adverse effects on human health, discovering new antifungal drugs from natural products is urgently needed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of the methanolic and sodium phosphate buffer extracts derived from various parts of Myrtus communis, a plant that is traditionally used in Saudi Arabia, against Candida albicans (ATCC 10213), Candida glabrata (ATCC 2001), Candida kefyr (ATCC 66028), Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), and Candida tropicalis (ATCC 750). A well diffusion assay was performed to assess the antifungal activity through the measurement of the zone of inhibition. Of the extracts, those extracted with methanol from the roots and leaves displayed strong inhibitory activity against Candida glabrata ( 23.5 ± 0.12 and 20.7 ± 0.22 , respectively), at 50 mg/ml, with 5 mg/ml fluconazole administered as the standard control. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for the M. communis root extract and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for the M. communis leaf extract against Candida glabrata. The results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging of the control and treated strains of Candida glabrata. Based on SEM, these extracts could alter the morphology and cause loss of cell integrity. The effect of M. communis root and leaf extracts on Candida cells was also determined by measuring the absorbance at 260 nm after treatment for 1 h at 37°C. Interestingly, the 260 nm absorbing material was higher in Candida glabrata than in the resistant strain, Candida parapsilosis (ATCC 22019). Based on our findings, the crude methanolic extract of M. communis roots and leaves exhibited good antifungal activity against the Candida glabrata strain. SEM results and estimation of the 260 nm absorbance material proved that the extract might act on the cell wall and cell membrane of Candida cells, further leading to cell death.
S. Rajeshkumar
Published: 6 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7527250

Abstract:
Nanoparticles are important advanced materials with numerous uses in a variety of fields. Novel antibacterial nanocomposites with synergistic capabilities can be created by combining metal nanoparticles with biopolymers of various functionalities. This research evaluates an antimicrobial and antioxidant-rich chitosan-based silver nanocomposite synthesized by using citrus lemon extract as a reducing and capping agent. UV-vis spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscope, elemental dispersive analysis, X-ray diffraction assay, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-near infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the chitosan-based silver nanocomposite (CS-Ag nanocomposite). The nanocomposite synthesized is used to demonstrate antioxidant and antimicrobial activity against fungal pathogens.
Bo Wang, Xinran Sun, Xu Guo, Hanxi Yi,
Published: 6 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2886450

Abstract:
The purpose of this experiment is to change the crystallization state of resveratrol and improve its solubility and dissolution in water by spray drying technology, so as to improve the feasibility of resveratrol in clinical application. The powder samples were spray-dried with different proportions of ethanol aqueous solution as dissolution medium. The powder samples were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry, and ultraviolet spectroscopy, and their dissolution characteristics were investigated. It was found that the solubility and dissolution rate of different groups of samples obtained by spray drying increased compared with resveratrol crystals, and 50% ethanol solution had the greatest solubilization effect. The experimental results show that this method has a positive effect on the solubility of resveratrol and can regulate its dissolution behavior.
, , , P. Sureshkumar, T. Jagadeesha, R. Suryanarayanan, Wubishet Degife Mammo
Published: 5 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2555525

Abstract:
Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid-state technique used to join Al-Zn-Mg alloys effectively compared with other conventional welding methods. Al-Zn-Mg alloy was processed for welding because they significantly demanded various engineering applications. A novel method of this research work is to characterize the unique mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg alloy reinforced with 1 to 3 wt% of nano silicon carbide (nano-SiC) particles developed by novel interlock friction-stir welding. The process parameters chosen for welding are rotational tool speed 1100 rpm, weld speed 25 mm/min, and triangular pin profile. The weld joint properties such as tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness were tested per ASTM standard. The microstructure of weld joints was studied with XRD and optical and scanning electron microscopy. The existence of silica particles in the weld joints and uniformed and homogeneous distribution of the particulates in the weld was verified by EDS analysis and microstructure. Al-Zn-Mg reinforced with nano-SiC joints has better static properties due to intensive softening in the stir region. Al-Zn-Mg with 3 wt% nano-SiC exhibits maximum tensile strength, yield strength, and nugget hardness of 191 MPa, 165 MPa, and 171 HV. Weld microstructures showed a pinning mechanism because nano-SiC particles were used as reinforcement during friction stir welding.
T. N. Suresh Kumar, T. Deepa, , Marabathina Maheedhar, Raja Kathiravan
Published: 4 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3175569

Abstract:
Light metal alloys are extensively used in automotive, aerospace, aircraft, and military sectors since their lightweight leads to reduced energy consumption, increased fuel efficiency, and better environmental protection. In the present situation, nanomaterials are the potential candidate for weight saving in the structural application and can meet stringent government norms. Nanomaterial was heat-treated in the furnace to about a certain temperature and time and then normalized for strengthening. The heat-treated nanomaterial undergoes different forging processes, namely, hot forging and cold forging, using a certain capacity’s hydraulic press. Hence, in this work, an extensive study on the influence of the prestrain annealing, the corrosion rate on differently treated samples, and the effect of sensitization heat treatment on the nanomaterial was done.
Ponnusamy Packialakshmi, Perumal Gobinath, Kaliappillai Vijayakumar, Daoud Ali, Saud Alarifi, Ravindran Balasubramani, Pitchai Sangan,
Published: 4 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7241699

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). As isatin-containing compounds exhibit several remarkable biological activities, isatin derivatives were prepared to combat the global pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 that is gripping the world. Herein, the synthesis of novel isatin derivatives has been reported. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds were determined using cancer cell (MCF-7) and normal cell (MCF-10A and MRC-5) lines. In silico molecular docking experiments were conducted using AutoDock Vina. We have successfully predicted the binding energies and the number of hydrogen bonds present. We have also identified the residues involved in hydrogen bond formation. The target compounds were synthesized using Schiff base following cyclization and Knoevenagel condensation reactions. We have focused on the recyclable synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the extracts obtained from Dipteryx odorata. The extracts were used to reduce silver ions for the production of AgNPs. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited excellent catalytic activities during the synthesis of isatin derivatives in ethanol. The formation of the target isatin derivatives has been confirmed using the Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy, 13C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis techniques. Compound 3e was found to be the most active compound when tested against the MCF-7 cancer cell line ( I C 50 = 20.5 μ M ). The activity was comparable to the activities of standard doxorubicin and other compounds. In silico molecular docking experiments were conducted to study the spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 (PDB ID: 6LU7). Compound 3c exhibited high binding ability (−9.4 kcal/mol). The inhibition ability was studied using hydroxychloroquine as a standard. Results from docking studies revealed that the inhibition ability of compound 3c was higher than the inhibition abilities exhibited by other compounds. The synthesized compound 3e is a potential antiviral drug that can be used for treating the COVID-19 disease.
, Sathish Sawminathan, Thanigaivelan Arumugham, Maura Casales Díaz, ,
Published: 2 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8275987

Abstract:
This work reports nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) as a selective sensing probe to detect Fe3+ in water samples. NCD probes were synthesized via solvothermal method using nitrogen-rich melamine and triethanolamine as precursors. Properties of the resulting NCDs were studied using different characterization techniques, through which N-doping was confirmed. The quantum yield of obtained NCDs was measured to be 21%. When excited at 370 nm, the excellent blue emission property makes this probe adoptable for selectively sensing Fe3+ in practical water samples. The limit of detection (LOD) was identified as 216 nM with a good linear range between the concentrations of 0.2-2 μM. The obtained LOD is far less than the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits of Fe3+ in water. Interference studies reveal that the presence of other competing ions did not alter the sensing of Fe3+, even at the presence of 10 equivalents which indicates the high selectivity of NCDs towards Fe3+. The reversibility studies showed that adding a cheap and readily available EDTA ligand to the NCD results in fluorescence regeneration, leading to exceptional reusability for the detection of Fe3+. So, the synthesized NCDs can be used as a suitable probe for the selective determination of Fe3+ in real water samples.
Sepideh Bohlouli, Faezeh Jafarmadar Gharehbagh, Elaheh Dalir Abdolahinia, Maryam Kouhsoltani, Ghasem Ebrahimi, , Amir Imani, ,
Published: 1 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9980451

Abstract:
The reports show that rutin has good potentials as an anticancer agent; however, rutin has poor bioavailability due to its low aqueous solubility. The present study was aimed at preparing and evaluating physicochemical properties as well as the anticancer activities of rutin nanocrystals (RNs). RNs were prepared via the ultrasonication method. The prepared nanocrystals then were physicochemically characterized by the conventional techniques. The cytotoxic effect of RNs and free rutin on the HN5 head and neck squamous carcinoma cell line was assessed. The HGF1-PI1 cells as normal oral cells were treated by RNs. Cells were also exposed to rutin and RNs to determine their effects on the expression of caspase-8, caspase-9, Bcl-2, and Bax genes. The prepared RNs have a mean particle size of 75 ± 0.16 nm and quasispherical morphology. Rutin displayed no significant cytotoxic effect on HN5 cells to 2000 μM. However, RNs displayed a cytotoxic effect with IC50 of 30.51 μM and 27.34 μM in 24 and 48 h incubation times, respectively ( p < 0.05 ). RNs had cytotoxic effect 100 times more than rutin on HN5 cells. There was no significant cytotoxic effect on HGF1-PI1 treated by RNs in 24 and 48 h. The expression of Bcl-2 mRNA was significantly decreased in attendance of RNs compared to the control group ( p < 0.05 ). The increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was revealed within IC50 of RNs in 24 h. Our results confirm that the anticancer effect of RNs is significantly more than that of rutin. The activation of the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway of RNs occurred via modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These results suggest that RNs may be useful in the development of a cancer therapy protocol.
Nguyen Dinh Luyen, Tran Thanh Tam Toan, Ha Thuy Trang, Vo Thang Nguyen, Le Van Thanh Son, Tran Si Thanh, Nguyen Mau Thanh, Phan Tu Quy,
Published: 1 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8486962

Abstract:
In the present paper, the composite of zeolite imidazolate framework-11 (ZIF-11) and activated carbon derived from rice husks (RHAC) was synthesized. The obtained materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX-mapping, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. The final composite ZIF-11/RHAC exhibits an even dispersion of ZIF-11 particles on activated carbon matrix. Herein, an electrochemical sensor based on a ZIF-11/RHAC was developed for a rapid determination of triclosan (TCS). It was found that the oxidation of TCS is irreversible and involves the transfer of one electron. The linear range for TCS detection in the optimized experimental conditions was found to be 0.1-8 μM with the limit of detection of 0.076 μM. Finally, the proposed method was successfully employed to detect TCS in different personal care product samples with high accuracy, which was confirmed by a good agreement between these results and those obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Saka Abel, Jule Leta Tesfaye, Nagaraj Nagaprasad, R. Shanmugam, L. Priyanka Dwarampudi, Ramaswamy Krishnaraj
Published: 1 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4525770

Abstract:
This paper investigates the technique of biosynthesis of nanoparticles of zinc oxide from the extraction of moringa leaves. Many researchers recognize the use of this method of green culinary technique because it is cost-effective and has no negative impact on the environment; however, this paper focuses on the bacteria chosen for the green synthesis, which was not addressed by many of the researchers. The firmness and reduction of Zn ions in nanoparticles of zinc oxide were analyzed with a UV-visible spectroscope. Its results show that a wide bandgap was observed in the visible region at a wavelength of 350 nanometers. Extraction of moringa leaves serves as a promising agent for the balance of particle size. The result of medical value shows significant antibacterial activity in contrast to the type of pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. From the XRD results, there are no further peaks that correspond to impurities that are discovered, demonstrating the great purity of the provided results.
, Chunchubalarama Krishna, , KoppulaMidhun Kumar, K. J. N. Sai Nitesh, G. Bharathi Raja, Prabhu Paramasivam
Published: 1 October 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4741296

Abstract:
Oil palm shells (OPS) are mechanical waste that is utilized as coarse aggregates in lightweight concrete. These OPS have shape and strength like conventional aggregates yet the substantial made with these OPS invigorates a limit of 18 MPa. The characteristic strength which must be utilized in structures is seen to be around 25 MPa to 30 MPa. Considering the strength as one of the boundaries for design to be sturdy, the OPS are surface-covered with nanosilane compound. This nanosilane covering goes about as infill on the outside of the aggregates and holds the concrete paste as traditional cement. Operations are permeable in nature; their inner construction has permeable design which makes the aggregates frail. Nanosilane coatings go about as holding between the concrete stage and aggregate stage and hold the substantial solid. In the present examination, mechanical and underlying conduct of nanocovered oil palm shell lightweight concrete is contrasted with that of regular cement. Nanocovered oil palm shell lightweight substantial shows comparative strength as customary cement and decrease in nonsustainable wellspring of energy in oil palm shell lightweight concrete. Supplanting of customary cement with oil palm shell concrete addresses the modern waste which can be utilized for making concrete solid and solid. Morphology and material portrayal of oil palm shell and ordinary aggregates are investigated.
, , R. Suryanarayanan, , Prabhu Paramasivam
Published: 29 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9236530

Abstract:
Nowadays, titanium and alloy materials are encouraged for biomedical applications. Fabrication of the passive layer over the titanium materials is limited. Typically, a plain titanium sample is not suitable for bioimplant applications because the adhesion of biological elements like blood cells, tissues, and bones is poor. The use of surface-modified titanium resolves this issue. Surface modifications on titanium by electrochemical methods are simple and cost-effective. The addition of water to the ethylene-based electrolyte-enhanced the oxidation process to increase the length of the nanotubes. Surface morphological analysis shows that the length of the nanotubes has been increased, nanoindentation analysis delivers that increasing the length has been increased the hardness level, and corrosion analysis indicates that the length of nanotubes encouraged the corrosion resistance. Potentiodynamic polarization, Bode and Nyquist plots were models fit analyzed with equivalent electrical circuits. Sample cell viability was characterized with NIH-3T3 cells using an inverted microscopy analyzer.
, P. Maheandera Prabu, , , V. S. Karthikeyan,
Published: 28 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2726645

Abstract:
The present work carries out an experimental comparative analysis of the performance and emission of exhaust gases of the Otto cycle with four automotive times. The comparison was made between alternative fuels such as E10, E15, and E20, with both 90 and 95 octane each the commercialized fuel. The experimental tests were carried out with an engine load corresponding to 25% of the maximum load. After carrying out the tests, the following conclusions can be reached: on the performance and effective parameters of the engine, the obtained best indicator, and as expected, was the case E10 (90 octane). Also, the E15 (90 octane) showed a slight difference compared to the reference fuel E10 (90 octane). About emissions, it was found that these decrease as the concentration of ethanol in the fuel increases.
Bisrat Yihun Matebie, Belachew Zegale Tizazu, Aseel A. Kadhem, S. Venkatesa Prabhu
Published: 26 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/7133154

Abstract:
This study is aimed at utilizing brewery’s spent grain (BSG) byproduct for the synthesis of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) using acid hydrolysis and optimizing the hydrolysis parameters (hydrolysis time, temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and acid concentration). Alkali and bleaching treatment were done to remove hemicellulose and lignin from BSG. Optimization process was performed using central composite design (CCD) to obtain optimum value of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) yield. The maximum cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) yield of 43.24% was obtained at optimum hydrolysis conditions of 50°C, 51 wt% acid concentration, 41 min, and liquid-solid ratio of 19 ml/g. The raw brewery spent grain; alkali-treated fiber, bleached fiber, and obtained CNC were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), XRD, particle analyzer, FTIR, and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The characterization results indicated that the obtained cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) has rod-like whisker shape with crystallinity of 76.3% and an average particle size of 309.4 nm.
D. Chandra Lekha, R. Shanmugam, K. Madhuri, L. Priyanka Dwarampudi, Mahendran Bhaskaran, Deepak Kongara, Jule Leta Tesfaye, N. Nagaprasad, V. L. Nirmal Bhargavi, Ramaswamy Krishnaraj
Published: 25 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4401829

Abstract:
Silver nanoparticles in the range from 1 to 100 nm are widely used in industrial applications as catalysis, electronics, and photonics, and they have unique properties such as optical, electrical, and magnetic characteristics that can be used as antimicrobial, biosensor textile, cosmetics, composite fibers, and electronic components and to amend shelf life of food substances. The main objective of the present review was to focus on formulation methods of silver nanoparticles with recent advances and future aspects. Silver nanoparticle shows very high potential towards biological applications. Several physicals, chemical, and various biological techniques have been employed to synthesize and stabilize silver nanoparticles. For the manufacture of silver nanoparticles, multiple methods, including chemical simplification with different natural and inorganic decreasing agents, physicochemical reduction, electrochemical procedures, and radiolysis, are employed. Silver nanoparticles are the single most manufacturer-identified material that can be used in all nanotechnology products. They can be used in food packing polymers to enhance the shelf lifespan. The present review is aimed at different types of synthesis and details of silver nanoparticles used as drug delivery vehicles, antibacterial activity, toxicity, recent advances, and future aspects.
Bekele Bulcha, Jule Leta Tesfaye, Degefa Anatol, R. Shanmugam, L. Priyanka Dwarampudi, N. Nagaprasad, V. L. Nirmal Bhargavi, Ramaswamy Krishnaraj
Published: 22 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8617290

Abstract:
Ultraviolet radiation causes damages to the human body, such as skin ageing, skin cancer, and allergies throughout the world. Applying zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in sunscreen products (like cloths or textiles) to protect human skin by absorbing the ultraviolet radiations that emerged from the sun. The main aim of this study is to investigate both absorbance and transmittance characteristics of the untreated and treated cotton textiles. For ZnO NPs using hydrothermal methods, they were made from Zn(NO3)2·6H2O and NaOH at a constant annealing temperature of 300°C. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UV-vis spectroscopy were used to analyze the produced ZnO NPs. From the FT-IR result, ZnO NPs were observed in the region of 400-600 cm-1. Wurtzite hexagonal structure of ZnO NPs with the average crystal size 32 ± 49 nm was observed from XRD results. Flowers in the shape of synthesized ZnO NPs were observed from SEM images. The UV-vis penetration peaks were identified at 264 nm and 376 nm, with energy band gaps of 4.68 and 3.536 eV, respectively. When compared to bulk ZnO, the energy band gap of ZnO NPs was blue-shifted due to the impact of quantum confinement. The peaks in UV-vis absorption were caused by an electronic transition from the valiancy to the conduction bands. The high energy band shows high absorbance of the synthesis sample in the case of 264 nm. The ZnO NPs were manufactured and applied to 100% of raw cotton to impart sunscreen action to both untreated and treated cotton fabrics. The performance of treatment has been evaluated utilizing UV-vis spectroscopy through quantifying ultraviolet protective factors (UPF) and percentage of transmitted (%T) radiations. The treated cotton textiles have 61.50% UPF while 2.65% ultraviolet radiations were transmitted. In other words, untreated cotton textiles have 1.63% UPF while 74.56% ultraviolet radiation was transmitted. Therefore, the treated cotton textiles have excellent protection categories when compared to untreated cotton textiles.
, Pratiksha Meshram, Pravin R. Kshirsagar, Hariprasath Manoharan, Vineet Tirth, Venkatesa Prabhu Sundramurthy
Published: 20 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4927607

Abstract:
In the current-generation wireless systems, there is a huge requirement on integrating big data which can able to predict the market trends of all application systems. Therefore, the proposed method emphasizes on the integration of nanosensors with big data analysis which will be used in healthcare applications. Also, safety precautions are considered when this nanosensor is integrated where depth and reflection of signals are also observed using different time samples. In addition, to analyze the effect of nanosensors, six fundamental scenarios that provide good impact on real-time applications are also deliberated. Moreover, for proving the adeptness of the proposed method, the results are equipped in both online and offline analyses for investigating error measurement, sensitivity, and permeability parameters. Since nanosensors are introduced, the efficiency of the projected technique is increased by implementing media access control (MAC) protocol with recurrent neural network (RNN). Further, after observing the simulation results, it is proved that the proposed method is more effective for an average percentile of 67% when compared to the existing methods.
, Nassira Ouslimani, Dalila Bousba, , , Hammouche Aksas
Published: 20 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-31; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4972770

Abstract:
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged worldwide because of their remarkable properties enlarging their field of applications. Functionalization of CNTs is a convenient strategy to tackle low dispersion and solubilization of CNTs in many solvents or polymers. It can be done by covalent or noncovalent surface functionalization that is briefly discussed regarding the current literature. Endohedral and exohedral are conventional methods based on covalent and van der Waals bonding forces that are created through CNT functionalization by various materials. In this paper, a review of new approaches and mechanisms of functionalization of CNTs is proposed, including amidation, fluorination, bromination, chlorination, hydrogenation, and electrophilic addition. Our analysis is supported by several characterization methods highlighting recent improvements hence extending the range of applicability of CNTs.
, M. Varsha Shree, P. Sureshkumar, T. Jagadeesha, , , Prabhu Paramasivam
Published: 18 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5840645

Abstract:
Composite materials with carbon nanotube and graphene attachments have been regarded as promising prospects. Carbon nanocomposites have gained considerable interest in different fields including biomedical applications due to its exceptional structural dimensions and outstanding mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and chemical characteristics. The significant advances made in carbon nanocomposite over past years along with the discovery of new nanocomposite processing technologies to improvise the functional impact of nanotube and graphene composites by providing proper methods of synthesis and improving the production of diverse composite based on carbon nanomaterials are discussed. Carbon nanocomposites are applied in various fields such as aviation, batteries, chemical industry, fuel cell, optics, power generation, space, solar hydrogen, sensors, and thermoelectric devices. The recent design, fabrication, characteristics, and applications of carbon nanocomposites such as active carbon, carbon black, graphene, nanodiamonds, and carbon nanotubes are explained in detail in this research. It is found that unlike traditional fiber composites, Van der Waals force interfacial compounds have an important effect on the mechanical performance of carbon nanomaterial-based composites.
Chunbei Wu, Chuxin Zhou, Yuanyuan Chen, Zhigang Peng, Jun Yang, Yuanming Zhang
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4835596

Abstract:
A Bi-BiOBr/BiPO4 heterojunction structure was successfully synthesized via a two-step solvothermal method with ethylene glycol as a reducer. Little BiPO4 irregular polyhedrons and little metal Bi spherical nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of BiOBr nanosheets with intimate contact and formed a heterojunction structure between BiPO4 and BiOBr. It was found that Bi-BiOBr/BiPO4 had a significant improvement in photocatalytic performance for RhB degradation compared to bare BiOBr and BiPO4. The photocatalytic degradation rate constant of 0.2-Bi/BiOBr/BiPO4 was 1.44 h-1, which was 3.8 times and 14.2 times more than that of bare BiOBr and BiPO4, respectively. This is attributed to the formation of a ternary heterojunction, which benefits the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, with the introduction of metal Bi, the SPR effect of metal Bi can effectively improve the absorption ability of Bi-BiOBr/BiPO4 photocatalyst, resulting in enhanced photoactivity. In this work, the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation was studied by using the photochemical technique and the capture experiment of active species, and it was revealed that h+ and ⋅O2- played a major role in the photocatalytic process.
Bulcha Bekele, Anatol Degefa, Fikadu Tesgera, Leta Tesfaye Jule, R. Shanmugam, L. Priyanka Dwarampudi, N. Nagaprasad, Krishnaraj Ramasamy
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/9210817

Abstract:
Comparison of green and chemical precipitation method syntheses of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) was performed, and antimicrobial properties were investigated. Avocado, mango, and papaya fruit extracts were carried out for the green synthesising methods, while the chemical precipitation method was chosen from chemical synthesis methods. Zinc nitrate was used as a salt precursor, whereas leaf extract was served as a reducing agent for green synthesising methods. In addition, sodium hydroxide, polyvinyl alcohol, and potassium hydroxide were used as reducing agents in the case of chemical precipitation synthesis methods. ZnO NPs were characterised by characterizing techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial activities of prepared nanoparticles were evaluated on Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). The particle sizes of the prepared samples which were evaluated by the Scherrer equation were in the range of 11-21 nm for green synthesis, while 30-40 nm for chemical precipitation synthesis methods. Small agglomerations were observed from SEM results of prepared ZnO NPs from both methods. Prepared ZnO NPs were showed strong antimicrobial properties. From the result, the inhibition zone was in the range of 15-24 mm for the green route and 7–15 mm for chemical precipitation methods, where the standard drugs have 25 mm of the zone of inhibition. A green synthesised method of preparing ZnO NPs gives promising antimicrobial properties compared to chemical synthesis and is also eco-friendly and safe compared to the chemical synthesis.
Vinh Bao Ngoc, Nguyen Manh Hung, Phuong Thu Pham
Published: 17 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/5801913

Abstract:
The Vietnam’s agricultural sector had to challenge with its course and learned lessons of further development. Novel policy might be adopted to encourage the private investments and sectors in agriculture. Furthermore, an introduction of new models such as climate-smart or green agriculture and application of modern technology increased productivity at the same time and creating jobs for millions of agricultural workers and reversing the massive rural-urban migration flux. Vietnam’s agricultural sector needs to maintain the reform momentum, particularly liberalization policy, and to boost up agricultural potential. Obstacles such as land limitation policy must be removed to enable large-scale production and encourage private investment in the agricultural sector. To avoid being trapped by its own success, Vietnam is now shifting the old development paradigm that focuses too much on the quantity to the quality of the agricultural production. The government makes major efforts to achieve at the same time agricultural growth, better livelihood of the farmer, and the development of the rural areas. However, Vietnam still needs to prepare a “transition strategy” to overcome the impact of the technological progress on the traditional agricultural workers.
Da Lu, Xueqing Wu, Wei Wang, Chenghao Ma, , Shuqin Wu
Published: 15 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3762490

Abstract:
Nanoparticles play a vital role in bone tissue repair engineering, especially iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs), which have magnetic properties, semiconductor properties, and nontoxicity at the same time, and their applications in biomedicine have received widespread attention. This review summarizes the excellent performance of IONPs in enhancing scaffold functions, promoting stem cell differentiation, and labeling positioning, in order to understand the research progress and future development trends of IONPs in bone tissue repair engineering, as well as the security issues. Firstly, IONPs can affect the expression of genes and proteins to accelerate the process of biomineralization under a magnetic field. Then, the composite of IONPs and polymers can synthesize a scaffold which can promote the attachment, proliferation, and bone differentiation of stem cells. Furthermore, IONPs can also mark the location of drugs in the body to follow up the process of bone repair. Therefore, extensive research on the manufacturing and application range of IONPs is of great significance to bone tissue repair engineering.
Nhi Phuong Thi Nguyen, Hue Thi Nguyen, , Long Thai Hoang
Published: 15 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2202677

Abstract:
Gold-copper film electrode prepared in situ on carbon paste solid disk substrate (Au–CuF/CPE) was studied as a working electrode. The factors influencing mercury stripping peak currents, such as C Au III (0.20 mg/L), C Cu II (0.05 mg/L), type of acids and their concentration (HClO4, 0.005 M), deposition potential (-800 mV) for Au–CuF/CPE, deposition time (180 s), and interferents, were investigated and optimized. The method has a low limit of detection of 0.13 μg/L and is not affected significantly by the examined ions/substance. It was applied to detect the concentration of Hg in real water samples and is promising for practical usage.
Bayisa Meka Chufa, , Teketel Yohannes Anshebo
Published: 15 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1309961

Abstract:
Today, the issue of the environment is the concern of scientists worldwide. Aside from developed countries, developing countries are revolutionizing their economy from agriculture to industries, aggravating the discharge of pollutants. Textile industries are the main sources of pollutant dyes such as methylene blue (MB). In this study, a simple and green synthesis method was used to manufacture a nanostructure heterogeneous photocatalyst, rGO-Bi2S3, for the degradation of MB. Bi2S3 and rGO were synthesized separately using Vernonia amygdalina (VA) plant extract. rGO-Bi2S3 was synthesized using a single-step refluxed hydrothermal method. The products were characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-Vis, DTA, TGA, and visual techniques. The comparative degradability degree of the dye under visible light irradiation with and without the presence of the catalyst was studied. The performance test results showed 99% degradation of MB in the presence and 7% in the absence of the catalyst under the same condition for the duration of 25 minutes. The durability and reusability tests for the catalyst were also studied for five cycles. The maximum decrease in the degradation capacity of the catalyst for the duration of 25 minutes was 0.5%. Hence, rGO-Bi2S3 is found to be the ideal material for the degradation of MB, for environmental protection.
, Ahmed M. E. Abdalla, Manisha Neupane, , AymanE Kricha, Guang Yang
Published: 15 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6050795

Abstract:
Conventional treatment possibilities for one of the most common diseases among men, i.e., prostate cancer has several side effects. Gene-based therapy such as siRNA, CRISPR/Cas9, pDNA, and miRNA have emerged as an alternative, combating posttherapy side effects and drug resistance. Magnetic nanoparticles have been appropriately modified and functionalized to efficiently deliver the gene therapy-based active compounds to prostate tumor cells. The main purpose of this review article is to highlight the strategies currently being utilized for the treatment of prostate cancer using magnetic nanoparticles for delivery of genetic material using both the passive and active (ligand-based) targeting. It further discusses the challenges in efficient delivery of therapeutics to tumor sites and their remedial approaches. Finally, it provides a glimpse of future advances for tumor-specific modifications of magnetic nanoparticles to combat prostate cancer.
Ayşe Baran, Mehmet Fırat Baran, , Sevgi Irtegun Kandemir, Mahbuba Valiyeva, Sevil Mehraliyeva, Rovshan Khalilov,
Published: 14 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2270472

Abstract:
Recycling wastes and providing their use in useful fields attract attention every day. In our study, with the extract prepared from the parts of the Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) plant that is not suitable for human consumption, silver nanoparticles were easily synthesized in an ec-friendly, energy-free way. Characterization of the obtained nanoparticles was done with a UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis.), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and zeta potential analysis data. In these data, it was determined that AgNPs have a maximum absorbance at 458.8 nm wavelength, a crystal nanosize of 28.78 nm, and a spherical appearance. The zeta potential of (-) 16.9 mV indicates that silver nanoparticles exhibit a stable structure. Particles show antimicrobial effects on pathogenic species at concentrations of 0.03-0.25 μg/ml, and it was determined by using the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) microdilution method. By examining their cytotoxic effects on U118, CaCo-2, and Skov-3 cancer cell lines and healthy HDF cell lines by the MTT method, concentrations of inhibitive effects on survival were determined.
Tuan Nguyen Quoc, , Huong Ngo Thi Thuy, , Chau Tran Thi Minh, , Thao Thanh Le
Published: 11 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8053120

Abstract:
This study proposed a sequential redox process to partially degrade tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) within a reactor to a great extent. After 72 hours in an anoxic environment, 20 ppm of TBBPA could be effectively degraded by sulfurized zerovalent iron nanoparticles (S-nZVI) at concentrations of 2 g L-1 and 4 g L-1. Biphenol A (BPA) together with tri-, di-, and monobromobisphenol A was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) suggesting that TBBPA was debrominated by S-nZVI in a stepwise manner. Following the S-nZVI treatment, a persulfate-advanced oxidation process (PS-AOP) system with persulfate concentrations varied from 5 to 20 mM was incorporated to degrade the final debrominated byproduct, BPA, for 2 hours. The two-stage anoxic/oxic reactions at the same reactor with initial conditions (0.037 mM TBBPA, 4 g L-1 of S-nZVI, pH 6 in anoxic stage, 20 mM of PS in the latter oxic stage) were investigated. The sulfurized layer played an important role in such a system and hypothetically contributes to increasing electron transfer from Fe0 core as well as hydrophobicity of the NP surface. It was demonstrated that the S-nZVI/PS-AOP system could effectively remediate TBBPA and BPA and consequently provide a promising strategy to remedy brominated organic pollutants in the environment.
Jin Xu, Xuecheng Sun, Xiaodong Sun, Ye Lu
Published: 9 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/4145010

Abstract:
In this paper, a capillary coated with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) nanoparticles (PGMA NPs) was prepared and applied to construct a capillary electrophoresis (CE) enantioseparation system with glucosyl-β-cyclodextrin (Glu-β-CD) as a chiral selector. The PGMA NP coating can be easily introduced through a simple ring-opening reaction. Two basic drugs were used as models to evaluate the separation performance of the PGMA coating. Under the optimal conditions selected, the separation of the two enantiomers was obtained.
Published: 6 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8082522

Abstract:
The molten salt approach was used to convert CuAl2O4 nanoparticles to CuO nanorods in this study. Molten hydroxide (NaOH) synthesis was chosen over molten salts (NaCl/KCl) for removing aluminium oxide from copper aluminate at low temperatures. The molten salt process is environmentally beneficial. Polymeric precursors were used to make nanosized copper aluminates. Alginic acid polymer is used to gel aqueous solutions of copper acetate and aluminium nitrate, yielding precursor after further heating. The precursor provides 14 nm nanosized copper aluminates after being heated at 900°C for 5 hours. XRD, FTIR, SEM, and TEM were used to characterize the nanosized copper aluminate powder. Solid state mixing and solution technique were used to investigate molten hydroxide treatment of spinel CuAl2O4. The products of the reaction were identified using XRD. FTIR and SEM are also used to analyze the sample. Using UV-DRS absorbance spectrum analysis, the optical characteristics of CuAl2O4 and CuO nanorods were examined. Using the Tauc plot method, the band gaps of CuAl2O4 and CuO were calculated to be 4.3 and 3.93 eV.
, , , Abdellah Hadaoui, Abdelaziz Koumina
Published: 6 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3190877

Abstract:
We report, in this work, our study of the thermal conductivity of high-viscosity nanofluids based on glycerol. Three nanofluids have been prepared with different thermal contrasts, by suspending graphene flakes, copper oxides, or silica nanoparticles in pure glycerol. The nanofluids were thermally characterized at room temperature with the 3ω technique, with low amplitudes of the temperature oscillations. A significant enhancement of the thermal conductivity is found in both the glycerol/copper oxide and the glycerol/graphene flake nanofluids. Our results question the role played by the Brownian motion in the microscopic mechanisms of the thermal conductivity of high-viscosity glycerol-based nanofluids. A similar behavior of the thermal conductivity as a function of the nanoparticle volume fraction was found for all three glycerol-based nanofluids presently investigated. These results could be explained on the basis of fractal aggregation in the nanofluids.
Dinesh Kumar, Gurpreet Singh Sokhal, , Alibek Issakhov, Babak Mosavati
Published: 4 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8901541

Abstract:
This research manuscript addresses the study of the performance of a flat tube having a 90° bend under the flow of three different nanofluids such as copper oxide, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and aluminum oxide/water nanofluids at different inlet fluid temperatures and Reynolds numbers. The performance of the flat tube is analyzed under the Reynolds number between 5000 and 11000 and a fluid inlet temperature range of 35°C–50°C. The results obtained in this study show that the heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in volume concentration as well as Reynolds number. The maximum heat transfer coefficient is obtained using multiwalled carbon nanotubes followed by copper oxide and then aluminum oxide. This study also illustrates that the friction factor increases with the increase in volume concentration and decrease in Reynolds number. The results of the numerical study have been validated with the help of an experimental study. The study has proved that the use of nanofluids instead of the conventional fluid can lead to reducing the size of the tube for the same amount of heat transfer which can prove the reduction of the size in heat transfer equipment. Furthermore, it is also observed in this study that the presence of the 90° bend in the flat tube improved the heat transfer performance due to the increased turbulence at the bent section of the tube.
Junyao Wang, Xingyu Chen, Huan Liu, Gongchen Sun, Yunpeng Li, Tianhong Lang, Rui Wang, Bowen Cui
Published: 1 September 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/1280338

Abstract:
In this paper, a novel method for manufacturing flexible microfluidic chips without bonding process is proposed, which combines 3D printing technology and material dissolution technology. The manufacturing process of the microfluidic chip is as follows: a soluble HIPS mold with a preset shape is manufactured by 3D printing and placed in a molten PDMS solution for solidification. Soak in the limonene material to dissolve the mold and form a microchannel in the cured PDMS. Experimental studies have shown that the temperature and concentration of the limonene solution have an important effect on the dissolution rate. A 0.62 cm3 HIPS mold has the fastest dissolution rate at 100°C and 50% concentration. The proposed method provided a new idea for fabricating flexible microfluidic chip. Compared to bonding process, it has the characteristics of not relying on complicated processing conditions and low manufacturing cost.
Saka Abel, Leta Tesfaye Jule, Fikadu Belay, R. Shanmugam, L. Priyanka Dwarampudi, N. Nagaprasad, Ramaswamy Krishnaraj
Published: 27 August 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3039761

Abstract:
Nanotechnology from titanium dioxide has been deposited, and its application in desalination and water treatment has been investigated by using sol-gel methods. Homogeneously dispersed sphere shapes of titanium dioxide nanoparticles were observed from scanning electron microscope micrographs and decrease in size as aging time increases from 40 min to 60 min. SEM micrographs of highly transparent nanopowders show that they are detected in the visible region from UV/visible and that their red shift around maximum wavelength increases with increasing aging time due to an increase in water quality. The energy band gap of the generated nanosheet has narrowed as the aging time has increased, which is related to the red shift of the absorption spectrum edge in the sheet. The structural behaviors of deposited nanoparticles have also been investigated, which confirms the existence of anatase as well as rutile levels in the liquid phase. The findings of the PL allowed us to determine the total strength of the intensity. This shows that applying photodegradation by a solar absorber could play a vital role in desalination and water treatment.
Faiza Anum, , Sumera Javad, Sumera Iqbal, Arifa Tahir, Zeeshan Javed, , , , , et al.
Published: 26 August 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/2992335

Abstract:
Medicinal plants are composed of a rich pool of biomolecules and have been increasingly recognized for their antimicrobial properties; however, increasing concerns have been put on the bioavailability features. Thus, this study is aimed at exploring the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Chenopodium album L. leaf extract and assessing the antifungal activity against Aspergillus terreus Thom. Plant extract was prepared in methanol to synthetize silver nanoparticles, which were then characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), UV-Visible spectroscopy, and particle size analysis. UV-Visible analysis indicated maximum absorption at 378 nm, and an average particle size was observed as 25.6 nm. Oval to hexagonal shape was observed by SEM. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, and 3.5%) was addressed against A. terreus biomass. At 3.5%, silver nanoparticles revealed to be highly effective, leading to 92% retardation in fungus growth. In next phase, various organic fractions, viz., chloroform, n-butanol, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate, were obtained from plant methanol extract, and the corresponding silver nanoparticles were prepared. These fractions were also assessed for antifungal activity, and n-hexane fraction led to 64% inhibition in A. terreus biomass. Following gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 18 compounds were identified, namely, 1,3-cyclopentadiene-5-(1 methylethylidene and o-xylene), ethyl benzene, octadecane, nonane, decane, 2-methylheptane, n-hexadecane, 2-methylheptane, and eicosane, along with carbonyl compounds (4,4-dimethyl-3-hexanone) and phenols, like stearic acid, propionic acid hydrazide, and 2,4-di-T-butylphenol. These findings proved that C. album silver nanoparticles are highly effective against A. terreus.
, , , M. Meignanamoorthy, G. T. Sudha, S. Karunakaran, Murugesan Bharani
Published: 25 August 2021
Journal of Nanomaterials, Volume 2021, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3913601

Abstract:
Copper (Cu) metal matrix composite (MMC) was developed with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) as reinforcement by using powder metallurgy (PM) technique. The composition of the composites is Cu, Cu-4 wt% MWCNT, Cu-8 wt% MWCNT, and Cu-12 wt% MWCNT. The Cu and MWCNTs were blended for 6 hours in a ball mill and compacted at a 6 ton pressure to form green compacts using a 10 ton hydraulic press. Using a tubular furnace, the heat was applied at 900°C for 1.5 hours to impart strength and integrity to the green compacts. Milled composite blends were studied to analyze its characterization through SEM and EDAX analysis. Characterization studies such as SEM and EDAX confirm the presence and even dispersion of Cu and MWCNT constituents. The relative density, hardness, and ultimate compressive strength have been studied, and a remarkable improvement in properties has been obtained by the inclusion of MWCNTs. The composites reinforced by 8 and 12 wt% MWCNT were recorded with low thermal conductivity than the Cu composite reinforced by 4 wt% MWCNT. A wear study was analyzed using Taguchi technique for determining the effect caused by the wear test parameters and MWCNT content on wear rate. The optimized parameter that contributes minimum wear rate was identified as 12 wt% MWCNT content, 10 N applied load, 2 m/s sliding velocity, and 500 m sliding distance. Based on the obtained results, it could be understood that the produced composites can be utilized for various applications like relay contact springs and switchgear, rotor bars, and bus bars.
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