Refine Search

New Search

Advanced search

Results in Journal Open Journal of Animal Sciences: 406

(searched for: journal_id:(2334741))
Page of 41
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Michael Abera, Yesihak Yusuf Mummed, Mitiku Eshetu, Fabio Pilla, Zewdu Wondifraw
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 792-815; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.104052

Abstract:
This study aimed at assessing perception of Fogera cattle farmers on climate change and variability in selected districts of Awi zone. The zone was classified as lowland (2500 m.a.s.l) based on altitudinal variation from which a total of three districts one per cluster were selected through random sampling. 150 households were selected through systematic random sampling targeting Fogera cattle owners for primary data collection. Over 36 years (from 1983-2019) of meteorological data were taken from the National Meteorological Agency. Meteorological data result confirmed that climate was changing across all the agro-ecological zones. Both the mean annual maximum and minimum temperature was considerably increasing for all agro-ecological zones whereas the mean annual rainfall was decreasing which is consistent with the farmers’ perception. Meteorological data result also showed that the short rainy and dry season rainfall indicated high interannual variability at all agro-ecological zones. Survey result revealed that 97.13% of the farmers recognized climate change and variability impact in all agro-ecological zones. About 80.91% of Fogera cattle farmers reported the incidence of negative impacts of climate change and variability on cattle. Chi-square test values of survey results show that in all agro-ecological zones frequency of drought, duration of dry spell, wind, and floods were ever-increasing (p < 0.001). Moreover, about 84.48%, 65.3%, and 60.47% of farmers owning Fogera cattle in the lowland, midland, and highland, respectively perceived the prevalence of increasing (p < 0.001) cattle mortality. In response to climate change and variability, farmers were reducing number of livestock, diversification of livestock species, and replacing Fogera cattle with small ruminants as adaptation strategies. Thus, regular prediction of climate change and variability and designing pertinent response strategies is essential to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change for enhancing resilience capacity of the Fogera cattle farmers in the study areas.
Eloy Eduardo Salado, Martín Guillermo Maciel, Gustavo Bretschneider, Alejandra Cuatrin, Gerardo Antonio Gagliostro, Eduardo Salado Eloy, Guillermo Maciel Martín, Bretschneider Gustavo, Cuatrin Alejandra, Antonio Gagliostro Gerardo
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 10-32; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.101002

Abstract:
Fifty Holstein cows (2.6 ± 1.0 lactations) in early lactation (52.6 ± 16.4 days in milk) calved in autumn and producing 34.3 (±4.4) kg milk per cow·day-1 were randomly assigned for 27 weeks to one of two treatments (feeding systems) in 10 groups (pens) of 5 animals each (5 groups/treatment). The confined treatment was a total mixed ration (TMR_100) whereas the supplemented grazing system was defined by a partially mixed ration (PMR_75) with 75% TMR and 25% oat pasture (Avena sativa L.) during the autum-winter (Period I) and alfalfa pasture (Medicago sativa L.) plus concentrate (7.0 kg per cow·day-1) (P + C) during the next spring (Period II). Milk production was daily and individually recorded throughout the trial while the chemical composition of milk was measured on individual samples every 2 weeks. Live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) using a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded every 3 weeks after the morning milking. Simultaneously, blood samples were taken for determinations of glucose, urea, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, somatotrophin (GH) and somatomedin C (IGF-I). Total DM intake was measured using the difference method four times per repetition in the months of July, August, September and October. The experimental herd was inseminated at fixed time at the start of the service (May-July) and on the return with estrus detection. The diagnosis of pregnancy was made by transrectal ultrasonography at 30 and 60 days after the start of the service. The productive data were analyzed according to a model with repeated observations in time adjusted by covariate with 2 periods and using the animal as the experimental unit. Data of DM intake were analyzed using ANOVA for 2 treatments with 5 repetitions. Cows from the TMR_100 group produced more milk (kg·cow-1·day-1) during Period I (33.7 vs. 32.3) and Period II (28.8 vs. 27.8) (P ·cow-1·day-1) in Periods I (1.33 vs. 1.24) and II (1.10 vs. 0.92) and for milk protein (1.19 vs. 1.13 and 0.99 vs. 0.93). The lower energy intake of grazing cows (45.0 vs. 43.1 and 40.9 vs. 38.9 Mcal per cow·day-1 for TMR_100 vs. PMR_75 and TMR_100 vs. P + C) coupled to the extra energy cost associated with grazing activity would explain the difference in milk production. Milk protein content (%) resulted higher (P kg·cow-1·day-1) in the cows of the TMR_100 group in both periods (0.69 vs. 0.34 and 0.49 vs. -0.22) was consistent with the increase in the plasmatic levels of glucose and IGF-I and the reduction in the circulating levels of GH, but not with the lack of increases in plasma insulin concentration or decreases in circulating levels of NEFA, parameters that were not affected by treatments. Despite the positive effects of TMR_100 on parameters linked to energy balance, no significant differences were detected in any of the reproductive parameters evaluated and the final rate of pregnancy was 80.0 and 91.3% for the confined and grazing system with supplementation respectively. Free milk liters over feeding costs were higher in the grazing system with supplementation compared to the confined system (18.5 vs. 15.5 l, respectively). The results indicate that the grazing system with supplementation can be economically competitive compared to the confined system of milk production.
Zachary K. Smith, Peter T. Anderson, Bradley J. Johnson
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 237-253; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.102013

Abstract:
Beef cattle producers in the North America have a variety of production and marketing options and must choose the best production system for their situation. This review describes considerations involved in choosing between feeding cattle conventionally versus feeding them in programs that prohibit the use of certain technologies. Data from peer-reviewed journals, extension publications, nutritional consultants, governmental organizations, and feed companies were used to construct this review. Most cattle in North America are fed in conventional production systems. Conventional beef production systems typically use steroidal implants, ionophores, and beta-adrenergic agonists to improve animal productivity; as well as feed grade and injectable antimicrobials to control, treat or prevent disease and improve animal health. These technologies have been shown to lower the cost of production, allowing for beef to be competitive in the global protein market. Some consumers have expressed a preference for beef produced without these technologies. These “All-natural” (AN) cattle may bring a premium price in the market. The economic impact of differing productions systems can be described in relation to 1) cost of production, 2) operating costs of the feedlot, 3) price paid for feeder calves, and 4) price received for fed cattle. Conventional production provides the most favorable outcome for factors 1, 2, and 3, while AN production provides the most favorable outcome for item 4. There are also industry wide and societal aspects related to differing beef production systems related to health and safety of beef, land use, and cost of production allowing for a greater share of the global protein market. Technologies used in conventional production are critical tools to North American beef production. Differences in efficiencies between each type of non-conventional production systems must be re-captured in added premiums when cattle are marketed and sold. Premiums for AN cattle are enticing, but the true differences in the cost of production between the AN and conventional cattle must be evaluated in order for a producer to make the correct decision for their operation.
Simon Patrick Baenyi, Joseph Owino Junga, Christian Keambou Tiambo, Ahadi Bwihangane Birindwa, Katcho Karume, Getinet Mekuriaw Tarekegn, Joel Winyo Ochieng
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 735-749; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.104048

Abstract:
Goats are one of the oldest domesticated animal species widely distributed in the world playing an important role in the food production system in Sub-Saharan African Region (SSAR). Due to their multiple uses (milk production, meat, fiber and hides) and adaptation aptitudes to ecological conditions, goats produce and contribute positively to farmers’ socio-economy status in various production systems. This review aimed at giving a summary overview on the goat’s production systems characteristics, the genetic diversity and the candidate genes affecting reproductive and milk production performances in goat breeds in SSAR. It has been observed that traditional livestock production system with communal grazing system is the most used in goat keeping in SSAR. The geographical locations play an important role in the relationships between goat’s distributions in the region. At the same time, goats might have been differentiated and isolated one to others due to the wide geographic range, the diversify climate and the topography in the region. Among the six worldwide known haplogroups of goat (A, B, C, D, G and F), haplogroup A is the most representative in SSAR. However, haplogroup G and B can be found in some goat populations in some countries in east (Kenya and Ethiopia) and south parts of Africa. This review reveals that little is known on the candidate genes associated with prolificacy and milk production traits in indigenous goat breeds in the region. That observation suggests the importance of assessing candidate genes associated with economic traits in the populations of goat in SSAR.
T. R. Netshirovha, D. O. Umesiobi, M. B. Matabane, M. L. Mphaphathi, C. M. Pilane, S. R. Thomas, P. Sebothoma, A. T. Kanengoni, T. L. Nedambale
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 502-513; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103031

Abstract:
Kolbroek pigs have numerous advantages as an indigenous breed including its contributions to food security. However, there are numerous concerns over the current feed regime that compromises its growth performance and carcass quality. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance traits, attainment of puberty, backfat thickness (BFT), and carcass traits when boar fed diets supplemented with 10% (standard diet), 13% and 16% crude protein. Fifteen pigs per protein diets were individually housed and fed ad-libitum for eight weeks in a complete randomised design. Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured on a weekly basis. At the end of the trial, all boars were slaughtered and carcass quality parameters measured. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were calculated between growth performance parameters. Our data revealed that there was an increase in final body weight, ADG, ADFI accompanied by decreases in BFT and the age of attainment of puberty. There was also a positive correlation between ADFI and ADG (r = 0.78) accompanied by a low positive correlation between ADG and BFT (r = 0.12) with a high negative correlation between FCR and ADG (r = -0.94). The water holding capacity (WHC), dressing percentage and marbling mass appeared to decrease while the eye muscle area increased with protein supplementation of the diet. There were also increases in the lungs, liver, small plus large intestines and stomach with no changes in the pancreas and heart tissues. Accompanying these was observations that the meat colour lightness improved accompanied by a decline in meat redness and yellowness. In conclusion, supplementation of boar diet with increasing crude protein improved the carcass quality and growth performance of Kolbroek boars.
Tyler A. Vogel, Joseph M. Neary, Zachary K. Smith, Bradley J. Johnson
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 414-430; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103026

T. L. Harris, J. E. Hergenreder, A. D. Hosford, C. K. Larson, B. J. Johnson
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 431-446; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103027

C. M. Pilane, T. R. Netshirovha, M. M. Tshabalala
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 560-571; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103036

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
N. A. Galla, Z. Nampija, V. Lutwama, S. Mayanja, F. Grant, G. Kyalo, M. Kiggundu, E. Zziwa, J. Nambi-Kasozi
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 608-617; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.103039

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
France Gina Djoumessi Tobou, Fernand Tendonkeng, Emile Miégoué, Bertine Marie Noel Noumbissi, David Fokom Wauffo, Hervé Mube Kuitche, Dayan Ebile Agwah
Open Journal of Animal Sciences, Volume 10, pp 750-760; doi:10.4236/ojas.2020.104049

Abstract:
The reduced efficiency of antibiotic growth promoters in livestock, and the unavoidable residual effects on livestock products such as egg, meat and milk have pushed researchers to rush towards the use of phytobiotics in animal feed. This study was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Dschang to evaluate the Effect of Cucurma longa powder as feed additive on hemato-serological parameters in Guinea pigs. A total of 120 three weeks old Guinea pigs (60 males and 60 females), with an average weight of 150 ± 20 g were used. The animals were randomly distributed into four treatments in a completely randomized design with 30 animals per treatment (15 males and 15 females). Four experimental treatments were used by adding 0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1% C. longa in the diet corresponding to R0, R0.25%, R0.5% and R1% respectively. At the 8th week of age, 12 Guinea pigs (6 males and 6 females) per treatment were fasted for 12 hours and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Blood was rapidly collected from the jugular vein for the evaluation of haematological and biochemical parameters. Results revealed that the inclusion of Curcuma longa at 0.25% significantly (p Curcuma longa powder at 0.25% as feed additive positively regulates blood serum parameters of Guinea pigs.
Page of 41
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top