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Jim Monday Banda, Essien Uc, Ebu M, Bigwan E Isa, Bot D Yakubu, Joshua Ia, Sheyin Z
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 05, pp 207-213; doi:10.26502/ami.93650058

Abstract:
Background: Globally, tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Nigeria has one of the largest burdens of TB and HIV/AIDS in the world. Most cases of TB in Nigeria are closely linked to HIV infections. Aim: In this study, the prevalence of TB among PLWHA was investigated. Methodology: One hundred and sixty three (163) sputum specimens were collected from patients attending COCIN Rehabilitation Center in Mangu Jos, Plateau State. The sputum specimens were stained by ZiehlNeelsen’s technique and examined microscopically for Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB). Results: Out of the 163 sputum specimens tested six were positive for AFB giving an overall prevalence of 3.7%. The prevalence of TB/HIV co-infection with respect to age group and gender revealed that patient within the age range of < 20 years had the highest prevalence of 14.3%, while male patients were found to have a prevalence of 4.9% compared to their female counterparts (1.7%). Regarding marital status, higher prevalence (9.1%) was recorded among patients who are married compared to the prevalence of 2.3% found among the singles. The prevalence in relation to occupation, showed that patients who engaged in farming had the highest prevalence of 5.2%, followed by those who identified as student (5.0%) and business (2.9%). However, no case of TB was recorded among patients who identified as civil servants and housewives. Conclusion: This study has established the link between TB and HIV infection in the study area. We therefore recommend that further studies be conducted in the entire Plateau State for possible intervention in terms of improve antiretroviral treatment coverage tuberculosis screening, treatment and prevention as a way of reducing active TB among people living with HIV.
Lixin Ma, Zhihui Liu, Hongwei Zhang, Weihai Ning, Yanming Qu, ChunJiang Yu
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 05, pp 214-231; doi:10.26502/ami.93650059

Abstract:
Background: Low-grade glioma (LGG) can behave aggressively, akin to glioblastoma, and prognostic classification is urgently needed. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is a key regulator of transcriptional expression during tumorigenesis and progression. This study aimed to identify transcriptome biomarkers with prognostic predictive value and define molecular subclassifications. Methods: We selected 21 m6A methylation-related genes for analysis of 529 LGG samples from TCGA LGG datasets and 1,152 brain tissues from the GTEx datasets. Through difference analysis, Protein-protein interactions (PPI) network, and spearman correlation analysis, gene expression and correlation were studied. Consensus cluster, gene ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes, and Genomes (KEGG) analysis were performed for classification and functional analysis. Lasso Cox regression algorithm and univariate and multivariate analyses were used for assessing risk factors. Results: The expression of m6A methylation-related genes between normal brain and LGG samples was significantly different. Consensus cluster analysis clearly divided LGG samples into two categories, with a p-value for the difference between prognosis close to 0. Through the lasso Cox regression algorithm and univariate and multivariate analyses, four genetic biomarkers (IGF2BP2, IGF2BP3, YTHDC1, and ALKBH3) were screened out, and the cumulative analysis of these effectively predicted patients’ prognosis. Conclusion: Consensus cluster analysis based on m6A methylation-related genes clearly divided LGG samples into two categories. Moreover, the cumulative analysis of four genetic biomarkers (IGF2BP2, IGF2BP3, YTHDC1, and ALKBH3) effectively predicted prognosis.
Alexis Lacout, Marie Mas, Pierre Yves Marcy, Christian Perronne
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 5, pp 151-153; doi:10.26502/ami.93650054

Abstract:
We report therein the onset of three chronic diseases: Behçet's disease, fibromyalgia and rheumatoid arthritis in three sisters after tick bites. Only Behcet's disease was treated in our department. After failure of the initial treatment including colchicine and corticoids, the patient recovered within a prolonged antibiotic therapy time period of 18 months. A 23-year-old female patient was admitted to hospital in the Infectious Diseases Department as she presented with headache, diffuse inflammatory arthromyalgia, abdominal pain and cutaneous folliculitis, and for the umpteenth time for several past years, meningeal syndrome recurrence. The physical examination was unremarkable. The biological test assessment was normal, as were the ophthalmological and cerebral MRI examinations. The patient’s HLA B5 test was negative. The upper digestive fibroscopy shown digestive ulcerations. The diagnosis of Behçet's disease was made on the following: inflammatory arthralgias, digestive ulcerations, folliculitis lesions; recurrent bipolar aphthosis was found at patient’s interview. The patient was given prednisone 0.5 mg/kg/day and colchicine 1 mg/day. The evolution was characterized by an initial improvement of clinical symptoms followed by further iterative recurrence as soon as the corticosteroid doses were reduced. Upon resuming the interview with the patient’ s mother, clinical symptoms began at the age of 9 years old by the occurrence of a voluminous cutaneous erythema following multiple tick bites. One month later the patient presented with subacute lymphocytic meningitis, which was treated as tuberculosis meningitis without relevant bacteriological evidence. On the same day, the patient's two sisters were also bitten by ticks. A few weeks later on, one of them developed osteomyelitis of the tibia, which was operated on. The bacteriological examination result was negative, the histological examination showed non-specific osteomyelitis. Subsequently, she developed various multiple functional complaints that led to the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. Her other sister concomitantly developed seronegative rheumatoid arthritis. The diagnosis of chronic post-tick bite syndrome was suspected despite the negativity of the Lyme serology. The patient significantly improved thanks to high-dose of intravenous penicillin G, despite an initial exacerbation during the first month of treatment, which could be interpreted as confirmation of an infectious process (Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction). Corticosteroids and colchicine were discontinued ; the patient was given doxycycline for a total duration of 18 months. Antibiotic therapy was associated with hydroxychloroquine, the same way as reported for therapy of chronic Q fever and some types of Lyme disease [1]. In 2004, the patient was in complete remission of Behçet's disease. Ten years later, no recurrence has been observed.
Valère Lounnas, Alexis Lacout, Xavier Azalbert, Christian Perronne
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 5, pp 154-175; doi:10.26502/ami.93650055

Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the impact of study selection on the results of a recently published meta-analysis of the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin (AZI) in Covid-19 patients. Methods: 31 studies were reviewed looking for critical bias. Combined hazard ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for both treatments using a fixed effects size model and a random effects model. Quantitative analysis regarding the toxicity of the association HCQ plus AZI is made. Results: Meta-analyses performed on the 11 studies we deem critically unbiased show a mortality reduction of 55% for HCQ and 66% for HCQ plus AZI. For both treatments, our meta-analysis indicates a significant efficacy in reducing mortality in hospitalized Covid-19 patients.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 05, pp 182-206; doi:10.26502/ami.93650057

Abstract:
Ebola viral disease remains a great threat to the society due to the limited availability of licensed drugs or vaccines. As the pathogen belongs to Biosafety Level 4, it is extremely dangerous to design a vaccine using conventional techniques. Therefore, reverse vaccinology approach is used to select the suitable epitopes from the genomic sequence of the virus. Using several algorithms, specific epitopes were chosen and 3D structures were obtained. The HLA alleles vary in different population and hence those alleles that commonly occur in African and world population were selected. Homology models were built for those HLA alleles whose 3D structures were unavailable. Then selected 20 epitopes were docked with selected 8 HLAs and further, selected epitope NQDGLICGL was validated by molecular dynamics study.
Xuan Song, Xinyan Liu, Huairong Wang, Xiuyan Guo, Maopeng Yang, Daqiang Yang, Yahu Bai, Nana Zhang, Chunting Wang
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 1-10; doi:10.26502/ami.93650040

Abstract:
Background: Heat stroke is a life-threatening disease, but there is currently no biomarker to accurately assess prognosis. Objective: To study whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) is an effective biomarker for evaluating the prognosis for patients with heat stroke. Method: Clinical data for 61 patients with heat stroke were retrospectively collected and analyzed. PCT, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Score (MODS) were calculated within the first 24 hours of admission to the ICU. The ability of PCT, APACHE II score, and MODS score to predict prognosis was assessed using a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) analyses. Result: There was no statistical difference in the PCT value on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (PCT1) between the survivors and non-survivors (3.27 [95% CI 0.15-13.55] vs 0.45 [95% CI 0.13-2.04], p=0.369). ROC curve analysis showed that AUC of APACHE II score and MODS score were 0.932 (95% CI 0.861-1.000), p<0.001 and 0.857 (95% CI 0.744- 0.970), p<0.001, respectively. The AUC of PCT1 was 0.599 (95% CI 0.353-0.846), p=0.370. The dynamic trend of PCT was also not statistically different between the survivor and non-survivor group (p=0.138). Conclusion: PCT and its dynamic trend do not provide a good assessment of the prognosis for patients with heat stroke. An increase in PCT levels at ICU admission is not an indicator of bacterial infection, which should be confirmed by larger future studies.
Al-Haddadi W, Elshafie A, Al-Ansari A, Al-Mawly J, Al-Hatali R, Al-Habsi H
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 38-50; doi:10.26502/ami.93650043

Abstract:
In Oman, mastitis is an important disease that affects the dairy animals, especially cows. In this study, bacteria and fungi from subclinical and clinical mastitis were identified using 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA, respectively, in 76 milk samples from 30 cows. The frequency of subclinical mastitis (75%) was higher than clinical mastitis (25%). Bacterial isolates were detected in 82% of the samples, out of which 12% showed mixed bacterial cultures. The most predominant isolated bacteria were environmental bacteria rather than minor and contagious bacteria from subclinical (53.6%, 42.8% and 3.6%, respectively) and clinical mastitis (62.5%, 25% and 12.5%, respectively). Antibiotic resistance profiles of the isolated bacteria for six commonly used antibiotics showed an increase in resistance compared to a previous study in 1991. Most isolated bacteria were resistance to AMP, while they were more sensitive for SXT and TE. Eleven percent of the isolated bacteria were resistance to four of the antibiotics tested or more. About half of the samples (47%) were positive for fungal growth. Most of those samples were positive for bacteria, which suggested that detected fungi may be opportunistic. However, 3% of the investigated samples were negative for bacterial growth, which may indicate pathogenic involvement in mastitis. In conclusion, the major association of mastitis with environmental bacteria and the detected multi-antibiotics resistance emphasized the need for using appropriate control protocols by allowing to investigate each case and determine whether antibiotic treatment is necessary and which antibiotics to be used.
Liliane K. Siransy, Dasse S. Romualde, Honoré Adou, Sekongo Yassongui, Patricia Kouacou, Sidonie Kouamenan, Richard Yeboah, Saydou Kaboré
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4; doi:10.26502/ami.93650046

Berness Falcao, Jyoti Vishwakarma, Helly Jadav, Sirisha L. Vavilala
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4; doi:10.26502/ami.93650047

A.J.M. Van De Sande, M.M. Koeneman, R. Van Baars, C.G. Gerestein, A.J. Kruse, F.J. Van Kemenade, H. J. Van Beekhuizen
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 95-109; doi:10.26502/ami.93650049

Abstract:
Objective In this retrospective case study, we determine the results, side effects and long-term outcome features of treatment with imiquimod 5% in women with recurrent or residual cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (rrCIN). Methods The study was set in three outpatient clinics of hospitals in the Netherlands. Women diagnosed with rrCIN and treated with imiquimod 5% intravaginally between 2010 and up to and including 2017 were included. Data were extracted from medical records. The main outcome measures were complete regression or partial regression of SIL (squamous intraepithelial lesions) (cytology) or CIN (histology), side effects and long-term outcome in terms of the need for further excisional treatment during the follow-up period. Outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics. Results The 18 studied women tolerated imiquimod well: all completed the treatment, with a temporary stop or dose reduction in two. The treatment was successful in 11 women overall (61%) of whom 8 women (80%) with high grade CIN (grades II-III). Of these 11 women, 4 women developed a recurrence of which 3 women were treated successfully with imiquimod or a LLETZ procedure. One woman died in the follow up without treatment of the CIN lesion. Of the remaining seven women with unsuccessful treatment, four patients underwent additional therapy. Two women underwent a hysterectomy, one woman underwent multiple procedures and the last woman underwent laser therapy and imiquimod, but died in the follow up. Of the remaining three out of those 7 women with unsuccessful treatment, two women refused further therapy and one woman required no further therapy since she cleared HPV and showed no dysplasia in the follow-up period. Conclusions In studied population, imiquimod treatment was well tolerated and associated with resolution or regression of SIL/CIN in 61% of women. We have started a randomized controlled trial to compare the efficacy of imiquimod with that of LLETZ in recurrent or residual CIN.
Mohamed A Eltahir, Amar M Ismail, Elhaj Nm Babiker, Mohammed Ka Karrar, Kawthar A Mohammed S Alih
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4; doi:10.26502/ami.93650052

Alexis Lacout, Marie Mas, Michel Franck, Véronique Perronne, Julie Pajaud, Pierre Yves Marcy, Christian Perronne
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 5, pp 139-150; doi:10.26502/ami.93650053

, Mohammed Akram, Uzma Rasheed, Maira Hassan, Zehra Iqbal, Basmah Fayaz, Huzaifa Hayat, Ayesha Ather, Hamzah Hussain, Erum Syyed
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 110-120; doi:10.26502/ami.93650050

Abstract:
Background & Objectives: COVID-19 is a global pandemic, also affecting Pakistan with its first case reported on 26th February 2020. Since then, it has been a total of 217,809 positive cases and 4473 deaths in Pakistan so far. Deranged liver function enzymes levels are prominently detected extra-pulmonary clinical manifestation of COVID-19 reported by at least one-half of the patients. Our study aimed to evaluate these derangements in our population. Methods: A retrospective, observational study was conducted to include all the admitted patients having COVID-19 positive, and evaluated those for derangements of liver function enzymes (n=77). The statistical analysis was conducted to compare those derangements amongst the disease severity, prognostic markers, and death. Results: Out of the 77 patients, 55 were admitted in the ward, 22 were in ICU, 61 of them recovered, while 16 deaths reported. The most deranged liver enzyme was found out to be Gamma-glutamyl transferase (51.94%), followed by Aspartate transferase (41.55%), Alanine transferase (28.57%), and Alkaline phosphatase (14.28%). Total bilirubin was deranged in only 10 patients, however, direct bilirubin was above the normal range in 33 patients, while indirect component in only 4 patients. Increased direct bilirubin, Aspartate aminotransferase, and Gamma-glutamyl transferase were associated with increased mortality, increased ICU admissions, increased neutrophils, lymphocytopenia, leukocytosis, and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio>3, while Alanine aminotransferase and Alkaline phosphatase were not associated with the above factors. Conclusion: The deranged values of liver function enzymes in COVID-19 are correlated with an increased number of ICU admissions, mortalities as well as prognostic markers.
Kawthar A. Mohammedsalih, Altahir A. G. Khalil, Ahmed M .Musa, Mogtaba A. Ahmed, Amar B Elhussein
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 11-25; doi:10.26502/ami.93650041

Abstract:
Background: Tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB). Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the best-studied class of PRRs, and they recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) from various microorganisms. Objectives: This study aimed to determine and measure cellular TLR2 and TLR4 in active TB, latent TB and healthy individuals. Also aimed to define correlation between gene expression and present of TLR4 and TLR2 in study volunteers. Materials & Methods: This Multi-site, prospective unmatched age and sex case-control, hospital and community-based study. 244 Consented volunteersor patients diagnosed as active tuberculosis, diagnosed latent TBI and a community controls volunteers with negative both TST and INF γ release assay were enrolled. Three-color Flow cytometry using Heparinized blood to study surface expression of TLR4 (CD284) and TLR2 (CD282), by Mean channel fluorescence intensity (MFI). EDTA blood was used for mRNA expression of both receptors using Quantitative RT-PCR. Results: TLR2, TLR4 cell surface expression by Flow cytometry was decreased in all study volunteers with no significance differences (p.value 0.24).mRNA expression of TLR2 were increased in active TB compared to Latent TBI and healthy individuals,while mRNA TLR4 decreased in active TB and showed increased pattern in latent and low level of expression in healthy volunteers, associated with no significant difference in the expression of TLR-2 mRNA between patients and close contacts with LTBI (p. value 0.045), compared with significance correlation between cellular TLR2 and expression and BCG status (p. value 0.00) respectively. There was highly significance correlation between TST indurations and level of both TLR2 and TLR4 (p. value 0.00). Also there was significant correlation between mRNA expression of TLR2 and disease types (p value 0.01). Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in TLR2and TLR4,in active Tb Patients Showed three alleles,group one were heterozygous allele, homozygous wild type in group two, while homozygous mutant present in group three with statistical significant with disease stages, (P.value 0.02), while LTBI volunteers had only homozygous mutant present and group two had undetermined alleles, and four of them develop active TB infection, while healthy controls had similar alleles. Conclusion: Up-regulation of TLR-2 and TLR-4 due to SNPs may be involved in the process of tuberculosis infection in Sudanese individuals.
Xuan Song, Gangbing Song, Xinyan Liu, Huairong Wang, Xiuyan Guo, Maopeng Yang, Daqiang Yang, Yahu Bai, Ziwei Liu, Nana Zhang
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 26-37; doi:10.26502/ami.93650042

Abstract:
Objective: Early diagnosis, accurate assessment of the prognosis are essential for the effective treatment of sepsis patients. To investigate the predictive value of procalcitonin clearance (PCTc) for prognostic evaluation of the patients with sepsis. Material and Methods: Clinical data of 138 patients with sepsis and septic shockwere retrospectively collected. Procalcitonin (PCT) was collected for 4 consecutive days after sepsis diagnosis and PCTc was calculated. Results: The overall 28-day mortality rate was 23.2% (32/138). The PCTc in the survival group was significantly higher than that in the death group after 48 hours [57.51 (36.06 to 70.73)% vs. 6.6 (-35.33 to 43.93)%, P < 0.001], as well as after 72 hours of treatment [77.47 (59.84 to 86.31)% vs. 22.30 (-62.38 to 63.44)%, P < 0.001]. ROC curve analysis indicated that the area under the curve of 48-hour PCTc (PCTc-48) was 0.811, 95% CI (0.724, 0.898), P < 0.001, while 72-hour PCTc (PCTc-72) was 0.818, 95% CI (0.734, 0.902), P < 0.001. In addition, we found that the difference between the prognosis of sepsis caused by different infection sites was statistically significant (P < 0.001), Sepsis patients with pulmonary infection showed the worst prognosis compared with urinary tract infection and abdominal infection. Conclusion: PCTc can be an important indicator to evaluate the prognosis in patients with sepsis. PCTc and infection site are risk factors for the prognosis in patients with sepsis.
Lucy Obonyo Nyang’Au, Evans Amukoye, Stanley Kangethe, Jackson Onyuka
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 57-65; doi:10.26502/ami.93650045

Abstract:
The introduction of GeneXpert MTB/RIF assay has impacted positively in tuberculosis diagnosis, providing a rapid way of identifying tuberculosis patients in high burden, low income countries. However Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) detection in previously treated patients, which may be due to old deoxyribonucleic acid or active disease, still remains a diagnostic dilemma for diagnosis of tuberculosis. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among consenting patients with signs and symptoms of tuberculosis attending Bahati comprehensive care centers. A total of three hundred and forty six patients were sampled and their sputa collected, subsequently laboratory analysis was carried out for detection and culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Seventy seven (22%) sputa had Mycobacterium tuberculosis detected on Xpert MTB/RIF assay sputa from these patients with bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis were subjected to culture on Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) media. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Xpert MTB/RIF assay with no isolation of growth on culture indicated a false positive tuberculosis diagnosis. Out of 77 isolates subjected for culture a total of 0(0%) and 5(7.5%); P=0.484, isoniazid preventive therapy and non- isoniazid preventive therapy patients had false positive tuberculosis cases, while 0(0%) and 5(25%); P=0.001 new and retreatment patient’s had false positive tuberculosis. Our study concluded that there was no significant association between isoniazid preventive therapy and tuberculosis false positivity but there was significant association between patient treatment status and tuberculosis false positivity. Previously treated tuberculosis patients were significantly associated with false positivity, this call for clinicians to exercise caution when interpreting results from previously treated tuberculosis patients.
Harish C Gugnani, Harbans S Randhawa
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 51-56; doi:10.26502/ami.93650044

Abstract:
Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are defined as infections acquired through laboratory or laboratory-related activities. Whether the infected host remains asymptomatic or becomes symptomatic with overt illness depends on many unpredictable factors. A variety of microorganisms, viz. bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, fungi and parasites cause LAIs. These infections are a hazard in personnel engaged in clinical research laboratories. An intensive search of literature through several search engines revealed that dimorphic fungi, viz. Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum are responsible for the maximum number of laboratory-acquired (LA) mycoses. Coccidioidomycosis caused by C. immiitis and dermatophytosis caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes are the commonest laboratory acquired (LA) fungal infections. The aim of this study is to give an update of the present state of our knowledge on LA fungal infections and suggest preventive measures.
Jim M. Banda, Deborah Cletus, Zakka Sheyin, Surajudeen A. Junaid, Baba John, Sani Sd Mohammed, James G. Damen
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 4, pp 121-130; doi:10.26502/ami.93650051

Abstract:
Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), common occurrence in pregnancy usually results in maternal and fetal complications. Bacterial infection is often missed in pregnancy because urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity is not part of the approved laboratory tests for women attending antenatal clinic (ANC)s in Nigeria. This study was a cross-sectional, laboratory-based study involving 136 first-, second-, and third trimester, consecutive pregnant women attending ANC at the Plateau State Specialist Hospital Jos, who gave informed consent and submitted urine samples for the determination of prevalence of ASB using Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) agar by the standard loop technique and microscopy. Demographic data was obtained by administering structured questionnaire to the study participants. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 21and p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Out of 136 urine samples examined 10.3% were positive for ASB. Of the total ASB isolates, 71.4% was Escherichia coli, the most prevalent uropathogen, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (14.3%) while others were 14.2%. Age group 24-28 years had the highest prevalence 5.1% followed by 19-23 years age group with 2.2%. The lowest prevalence was age groups 29-33 and 34-50 years with prevalence of 1.5% each. In respect to trimesters, second and third trimester recorded the highest with 4.4% each while the first trimester had 1.5%. Based on the antibiogram, Ciprofloxacin and Sparfloxacin were found to be most effective antibiotics against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. This study revealed high prevalence of ASB among antenatal women in the population studied. Further study with larger sample size covering the entire state is advocated to discover the possibility of making bacterial microscopy, culture and sensitivity part of antenatal care for the purpose of early diagnosis and proper management of pregnant women in plateau state.
Miao Qing, Li Zhen, Liu Yongge, Wang Yan, Ren Yixin, Guan Hui, Xu Wei, Jiang Nannan, Huang Huijie, Hou Xiaoling, et al.
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650030

Ramsha Saleem, Pillai Anjana
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650029

Cai Xiaotang, Zhou Wei, Yu Dan, Xie Yongmei, Wang Zhiing, Zhou Hui
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650026

Ling Liu, Yang Li, Xilin Xiong, Chi Zhang, Ianpei Fang
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650025

Jian Liu, Qi Gao, Dan Li, Yu Feng, Wenhua Ning, Anqing Dong, Jingyi Li, Wenjun Xu, Deli Xin
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650027

Boaz Cairo, George Msema Bwire, Kennedy Daniel Mwambete
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650033

Elisa Claeys, Kurt Vermeire
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650036

Takele Tesgera Hurisa, Huaijie Jia, Guohua Chen, Fang Yong Xiang, Xiao-Bing He, Xia Oxia Wang, Zhizhong Jing
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650024

Michelo Simuyandi, Roma Chilengi, Sean B Connor, Joseph B. Voeglein, Natasha M. Laban, Katayi Mwila-Kazimbaya, Caroline C. Chisenga, John Mwaba, David A. Sack, Subhra Chakraborty
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650039

Abstract:
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli (ETEC) is an important cause for diarrheal disease in children and travelers globally. Epidemiological data on the distribution of strains of ETEC and associated colonization factors (CFs) is important for evaluation of candidate vaccines. We used conventional PCR and quantitative PCR to screen for toxins and CFs using DNA extracted from stool samples which tested positive for ETEC using the Luminex GPP panel collected from children presenting with moderate to severe diarrhea at selected health facilities in Lusaka. 49/106 (46.2%) were positive for at least one toxin (i.e. LT/STh/STp), ST was 18 (17%) [STh 16(15%) and STp 2 (~2%)], and LT 16(15%). The most frequent CF detected was CS6 with 6/49 (12.2%), followed by CS2, CS3 and CS7 with 2/49 (4.1%) each. CS6 was common across all toxin combinations (LT only, STh only and a combination of LT/STh) while CS2, CS3, CS7 were identified in both LT and LT/STh strains respectively. The mean age of children with detected toxin or CFs was 15.4 months (95% CI: 12.2, 18.7). Our results offer an insight into relevant CFs in ETEC diarrhea in Zambia and that Luminex™ platform is not as specific as ordinary and quantitative PCR for ETEC detection.
John C. Vitucci, Mark Pulse, Jerry Simecka
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650038

Fortune Journals
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650023

Cristabel Robles Hidalgo, Krishna Thakore, Anjana Pillai
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650028

Zahra Rafat, Seyed Jamal Hashemi, Seyed Farshad Hashemi, Roshanak Daie Ghazvini, Behrad Roohi, Kazem Ahmadikia, Heidar Bakhshi
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650032

Victor S. Cortese, Jon T. Seeger, Che Trejo, Thomas H. Short
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650037

Sirio Fiorino, Maddalena Zippi, Claudia Benini, Angelo Luca De Quarto, Michele Masetti
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 3; doi:10.26502/ami.93650035

Abstract:
Background/Objectives: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a disease with a poor prognosis. Hepatitis B (HBV)/Hepatitis C (HCV) viruses are hepatotropic pathogens with pro-carcinogenic properties able to attack also the pancreas. Although several trials, mainly carried out in the USA and in the Eastern Countries, strongly suggested that HBV/HCV exert a role in PAC development, no study on this topic was still performed in Italy. Through this present work, we aimed to assess HBV antigens/antibodies and anti-HCV antibodies prevalence in a small cohort of Italian patients with PAC, irrespective of the other risk factors for PAC development, like smoking, alcohol drinking, and diabetes. Methods: This pivotal-retrospective-study was led both at Surgery Unit of Maggiore Hospital, (Bologna) and at Unit of Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy of Sandro Pertini Hospital, (Rome). Data concerning age, sex, pancreatic cancer localization (head, body, tail) and serum HBV/HCV profiles of subjects with a histological/radiological/biochemical diagnosis of PAC were collected from files concerning pancreatectomy and endoscopic-retrograde-cholangiopancreatography (ERCPs). Results: It was found that 4 patients were HBsAg positive and 28 were HBsAb/HBcAb-positive, with a prevalence equal to 1% and 7.5%, respectively. Sixteen patients were HCV positive, with a prevalence equal to 4.3%. Conclusions: Our observational study describes, for the first time in our Country, HBsAg, HBsAb/HBcAb and HCV prevalence in a small-sized cohort of patients suffering from PAC. Despite no definitive conclusions on the association between HBV/HCV infection and PAC may be drawn, our research could represent the basis for additional epidemiological/histological nationwide trials in Italy.
Justin Yamanuha, Misty Watters
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 2, pp 01-09; doi:10.26502/ami.93650017

Abstract:
Stabilization of Visual Field With Intravitreal Triamcinolone in Cancer-Associated Retinopathy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature, Archives of Mic
Jorge Aponte, Juan David Vera, Aldair Chaar, Daniel Martin, Forero Yency
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 2, pp 18-35; doi:10.26502/ami.93650019

Simon Dembe Kasango, Stephen Lutoti, Izale Wewedru, Emmanuel Aboce, Denish Calmax Angol
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 2, pp 42-52; doi:10.26502/ami.93650021

João Marcelino, Manuel Branco Ferreira, Fátima Cabral Duarte, Marta Neto, Ana Célia Costa
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 2, pp 53-57; doi:10.26502/ami.93650022

Yishu Tang, Peiyang Song, Huiting Su
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 2, pp 10-17; doi:10.26502/ami.93650018

Abstract:
The Gene Mutation and Drug Resistant of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Patients of Chongqing, Archives of Microbiology & Immunology
Anslem O. Ajugwo Kemajou S. Tchounga
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 41-49; doi:10.26502/ami.9365006

Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 79-88; doi:10.26502/ami.93650011

Abstract:
Glucose Modifies the Immune Interaction Between Mononuclear and Human Colon Carcinoma Cells, Archives of Microbiology & Immunology
Paolo Ruggero Errante Afonso Caricati-Neto
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 89-97; doi:10.26502/ami.93650012

Abstract:
Emerging A New Strategy for the Antitumor Immunotherapy: Pharmacological Modulation of the Ca2+/Camp Signaling Interaction, Archives of Microbio
Yeliz Tanriverdi Cayci
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 73-78; doi:10.26502/ami.93650010

Wen-Liang Yu Wen-Ching Wang
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 108-111; doi:10.26502/ami.93650014

Abstract:
Ileum Perforation With Aspergillosis and Subsequent Cytomegalovirus Ileitis Bleeding in A Patient Recovery From Dengue Fever, Archives of Microbiology & Im
Richard Hastings,
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 112-126; doi:10.26502/ami.93650015

Bhushan Shrikhande, Meena Mishra, Mohiuddin Qazi, , Chandrashekhar Unakal, Geeta Kurhade, Rajendra Surpam, Vyankatesh Katkar
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 127-132; doi:10.26502/ami.93650016

Alemayehu Reta
Archives of Microbiology & Immunology, Volume 1, pp 65-72; doi:10.26502/ami.9365009

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