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Results in Journal Annual Research & Review in Biology: 1,616

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Victor Casimiro Piscoya, Cristiane Maria Gonçalves Crespo, , Julyane Silva Mendes Policarpo, Nayane Laisa de Lima Cavalcanti, Taiza Karla Alves Souza, Alex Souza Moraes, Moacyr Cunha Filho, Gabriel Carlos Moura Pessoa, Robson Carlos Pereira de Melo, et al.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i1030432

Abstract:
Through sustainable agriculture it is possible to explore the coffee culture in consortium with native forests in more rugged reliefs, as coffee is a permanent crop in addition to the climatic conditions offered by the swamps that favor its development. Given the above, the present work proposes, based on the acidity results, to quantify the need for correctives in the soil to obtain a better nutritional use offered by agroforestry cultivation of organic coffee in the shade with favorable results to increase productivity and, consequently, the farmer's profit. The research was carried out at the Várzea da Onça farm, in the Yaguara Ecological Complex, located in the municipality of Taquaritinga do Norte, Borborema plateau, in the Agreste Pernambuco mesoregion. Altitude, it is necessary to adopt appropriate management techniques that guarantee production, soil conservation and biodiversity, proposing soil correction to guarantee the ideal nutritional conditions for coffee growth. For this purpose, soil samples were collected in the Top (T), Hillside (E) and Pedimento (P) ranges at depths of 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm when planting shaded coffee and soil samples from Native Forest (MN) preserved and legally protected from the Brejo de Taquaritinga. Active, exchangeable and potential acidity were analyzed, as well as the sum of bases, the potential and effective cation exchange capacity, base saturation and aluminum saturation. The results obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and the means were tested at 5% by the Tukey test. A potential of the system was found with low to very low natural fertility, with a strongly acidic reaction. Thus, adequate soil management and correction techniques are necessary for the crop to absorb all the nutrients made available by the organic matter present on the surface, concluding that all slopes require liming, the slope of Hillside and Mata Nativa they also need plastering for the culture to develop properly.
Ahmed A. Elshikh, Mawahib E. M. ElNour, Hatil H. Elkamali, Ahmed S. Kabbashi
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 112-121; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930431

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study to detect Anti-giardia, antioxidant activities, cytotoxicity and evaluated the chemical constituent of ethanolic extracts of Abutilon pannosum and Cassia occidentalis. Study Design: Various standard methods were used to detect of bioactivity for ethanolic extracts of plants used in this study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in the laboratories of microbiology and parasitology and chemistry, the International University of Africa, Khartoum, Sudan, during May 2019. Methodology: The ethanolic extract of Abutilon pannosum and Cassia occidentalis was used as an anti-giardia and anti-oxidant in-vitro, and toxicity tests were performed using brine shrimp and MTT assay. Also, the compounds of the plants used were detected by the GCMS apparatus. Results: The ethanolic extracts of Abutilon pannosum showed high Anti-giardia activity (79%) in concentration (500 ppm) after 72 hours, whereas the activity of Cassia occidentalis extract showed (61%). The highest antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia occidentalis was (68.7%), while it was weak in Abutilon pannosum ethanolic extract (45%) by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The results of cytotoxicity revealed that the ethanolic extracts are highly toxic to brine shrimp, but are not toxic to normal cell line (MTT). Chromatographic analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GCMS) showed good separation of compounds. GCMS detected 22 and14 important compounds in Abutilon pannosum and Cassia occidentalis extracts respectively. The common compound in both plant extracts is n-Hexadecanoic acid. This acid was reported as an antioxidant. Conclusion: This study revealed that the biological activities of Abutilon pannosum extracts showed high activities of Anti-giardia and antioxidants. Non-cytotoxic in the normal cell line was shown. Cassia occidentalis showed high activity of Anti-giardia and weak activity antioxidant.
Mariam Traore, Adjaratou C. Coulibaly, Kadiatou T. Traore, Abdoul G. L. Boly, Esther W. L. M. B. Kabre, Noufou Ouedraogo, Martin Kiendrebeogo, Richard W. Sawadogo
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 104-111; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930430

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Daniellia oliveri methanolic extract and its fractions in NMRI mice. Study Design: In vivo acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic assays. Place and Duration of Study: The work was carried out in the Department of Traditional Pharmacopoeia and Pharmacy (MEPHATRA / PH) of the Research Institute for Health Sciences (IRSS) Ouagadougou (Burkina- Faso) between December 2020 and February 2021. Methodology: The toxicity of the extracts was assessed according to OECD guideline 423 of 2001 at a single dose of 2000 mg / kg body weight. Analgesic effect was evaluated on the number of abdominal contortions induced by the intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid and the anti-inflammatory activity using the Carrageenan anti-edematous test was determined according to Winter. Results: The results of the acute oral toxicity study in mice showed no clinical signs of toxicity at dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. The lethal dose (LD50) value estimated to 5000 mg/kg. The extracts reduced edema from the first hour, then by the third hour and maximum inhibition was achieved by the fifth hour after the injection of carrageenan. Extract and methanolic fraction at different doses showed significant inhibition of abdominal contortions in mice in a dose dependent manner. At 200mg the analgesic effect of methanolic fraction and crude extract was 53.70±1.29% and 41.38±1.25% respectively. At 400 mg/kg, the methanolic fraction inhibited carragenaan-induced edema by 85.97±5.67%. Conclusion: Daniellia oliveri is an important source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds, justifying the use of this plant in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.
Yanjie Lv, Yajun Dou, Halizeremu Saidahemaiti, Xiangfeng He, Xiangxun Zhao, Wenhe Wang
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 94-103; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930429

Abstract:
Lilium is a perennial bulbous flower of Lily family Liliaceae, with high ornamental and economic value. However, Lily is vulnerable to virus infection, which seriously affects the yield and quality of Lily, and poses a great threat to the production, sales, especially export of Lily, and has caused huge economic losses to the related industries. Therefore, the research on lily virus removal methods and virus detection technology has important practical significance to improve the ornamental value and economic value of lily. In this study, the filaments of four susceptible lily varieties,' Valdisole' (A),'Adoration'(LA),' Ice Cube'(OT) and ‘Zantriana’ (O), were used as explants. The filaments of lily were divided into three parts, namely, top, middle, and base. In this paper, the virus detection of tissue culture seedlings induced by lily filaments was carried out by using DAS-ELISA and RT-PCR, and the removal effects of Cucumber mosaic virus,(CMV) and lily symptomless virus (LSV), two common viruses in lily, were explored, and the two detection technologies were compared. The results showed that the success rate of tissue culture seedlings induced by filament base was the highest, and CMV virus could be basically removed. RT-PCR detection is more sensitive than DAS-ELISA detection, but RT-PCR detection requires higher test conditions and technology. Therefore, appropriate virus detection methods can be selected according to actual conditions and severity.
, A. A. Akadri, T. O. Solaja, O. I. Odelola, C. C. Nwankpa
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 86-93; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930428

Abstract:
Aims: To highlight the pathogenesis of endometrial osseus metaplasia, its importance as a rare cause of infertility and the benefit of hysteroscopic evaluation of infertile women with risk factors for osseus metaplasia. Presentation of Case: A diagnosis of endometrial osseus metaplasia was confirmed histologically in three women undergoing diagnostic hysteroscopy as part of infertility evaluation. They all had chronic vaginal discharge and a preceding history of induced second trimester abortion. Two of the patients were referred for evaluation before in-vitro-fertilization (IVF). Hysteroscopy was done with a 30° telescope, initially using a 2-channel diagnostic sheath, which was later replaced with a 4-channel operating sheath for tissue retrieval. Discussion: Endometrial osseus metaplasia is a rare condition characterized by the presence of mature or immature bone in the endometrial cavity. Endometrial retention of embryonic tissue following an abortion is the commonest theory of etio-pathogenesis. It is an important cause of infertility and while other causes of infertility can be easily by-passed in an IVF cycle, endometrial factors may not be addressed by IVF alone, as a defective endometrium is a risk for failure. Although there is no consensus on routine hysteroscopy for women undergoing IVF, it is the mainstay of evaluation and treatment of women with endometrial osseus metaplasia. Conclusion: Only complete removal of metaplastic tissue would restore fertility, in patients with osseus metaplasia. Hysteroscopy done in infertile women with risk factors for endometrial osseus metaplasia may enhance early treatment and ultimately increase successful spontaneous and IVF pregnancy rates.
Martias, Bambang Hariyanto, Titin Purnama, Nofiarli, Deni Emilda, Hendri, Adha Fatmah Siregar, A. Kasno, Sri Yuliati, Desi Hernita, et al.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 75-85; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930427

Abstract:
Manganese (Mn) is one of the essential micronutrients that plays a crucial role in plants' growth and development and is also considered a limiting factor for crop production. This study aimed to determine the critical level of Mn in soil and leaves for improving the quality of mangosteen fruit. The research was conducted in 2015 in several mangosteen production centers, including West Sumatra (Simalanggang and Banja Laweh), West Java (Karacak and Barengkok), Bali (Belimbing and Selamadeg). A well-maintained of fifteen to twenty years old mangosteen plants were used with uniform soil fertility. Purposive random sampling is conducted in each location to select ten plants from each site. Soil samples are taken from under the plant canopy around 0-30 cm in depth at the four cardinal directions. The terminal leaves that collected from the middle part of the plant canopy are used as the leaf samples. Physiological ripe fruits are taken after ripening with index 3-4. The parameters observed consist of (1) soil pH of H2O, Ca, Mg, Mn-available, (2) levels of Mn, Ca, Mg, and K in the leaves, (3) fruit quality (fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit skin thickness, aryl weight, seed weight). The results showed the Mn content in the soil ranged from 18.89 to 33.63 ppm. Available Mn is negatively affected by pH, Ca, and Mg exchangeability. Soil Mn is linearly related to leaf Mn with R2 0.76. The critical values of Mn in leaf and soil for mangosteen plants in Indonesia were 425 ppm and 22 to 24 ppm, respectively.
Maria Do Socorro Miranda De Sousa, Jhulie Emille Veloso Dos Santos, Dori Edson Nava, Roberto Antonio Zucchi,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 60-74; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930426

Abstract:
Fruit-bearing plants in the Brazilian Amazon are mainly attacked by species of Anastrepha, of which about half are endemic to the region. However, tritrophic relations (fly/plant/parasitoid) have only been established for some 25% of the species of Anastrepha in the region. At present, 11 species of hymenopterous parasitoids (Braconidae and Figitidae) have been recorded in the Brazilian Amazon. Parasitoids in general, especially those of the family Braconidae, stand out as the most effective natural enemies of fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha. Doryctobracon areolatus is the most abundant parasitoid and it is associated with the largest number of Anastrepha species in the region. Some fruiting species, for example Bellucia grossularioides (L.) Triana and Geissospermum argenteum Woodson, have been studied aiming at biological control of fruit flies, because they act as reservoirs or multipliers of fruit fly parasitoids. Although research has advanced significantly in the past 20 years, there is a shortage of studies in nearly all states in the region, due to the huge area of the Brazilian Amazon.
P. Suchiang
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 47-59; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930423

Abstract:
This review article focuses on the effect of pesticides on reproductive functions, haematological and biochemical changes in catfishes. Pesticides are chemical substances that are released into the environment to control the populations of harmful pests. Pesticide exposure leads to toxicity in aquatic organisms, including fishes which are particularly sensitive to pesticides. The acute and sublethal concentrations of pesticides in the aquatic environment result in different lethal alterations, including changes in reproductive functions, histology, haematology, proteins, glucose, lipids, enzymes, etc. Pesticides act as endocrine disruptor compounds and have the potential to impair reproductive function in catfishes. Alterations in haematological and biochemical parameters are used as efficient biomarkers in assessing the toxicity of pesticides in fishes.
Yudi Widodo, Ruly Krisdiana, Nila Prasetiaswati, Kartika Noerwijati, Arief Harsono, Didik Sucahyono, Tinuk S. Wahyuni, Titik Sundari, , Martias, et al.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930422

Abstract:
A varietal testing had been undertaken in Pematangsiantar regency, North Sumatra province, Indonesia in 2015-2016. The objective of the study was to determine the preference of cassava growers to the introduced varieties compared to the existing cassava varieties. Twelve cassava varities (UB1/2, UB1472, Adira1, Malang4, Cecekijo, Farsem, Gajah, Ketan Jabung, Caspro, Malaysia, Adira4, and Cikaret) were tested using a Randomized Block Design with four replications. The data were taken on aboveground characters and underground characters such as root number, root diameter, root length, root weight, and starch content based on factory criteria (A = 22%, B = 18%, C = 14% and D = 10% starch content). Results of the study indicated that Malang-4 had the highest root yield (49,830 kg ha-1) followed by Farsem variety (41,690 kg ha-1), and Malaysia Local variety (41,030 kg ha-1). The bitter taste of Malang 4 was an appropriate character to be developed as starch processing of cassava. Starch content is very important indigenous criteria for farmers and traders to know fairly about pricing in relation with starch content. The higher starch content coincided with higher root yield of Malang-4 is very interesting and will benefit the factory. There was no difference in factory price of cassava from farmers, although the starch content indicated different levels (B =18%, C=14% or D =10%). The Malang-4 could be introduced to the local goverment for being grown in a larger areas in the North Sumatera province.
, Mauricélia Ferreira Almeida, Adriana De Sousa Freitas, Andressa Layane Ferreira Linhares, Bianca Pinheiro Da Costa Neiva, Brunna Tavares Da Silva Brito Sousa, Jeferson Pereira da Silva, Kaio Lucena Vidal, Felipe Ferreira da Silva, Gabriel Alves Santos, et al.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 31-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930421

Abstract:
Aims: Evaluate the insecticidal effect of the aqueous extract of neem leaves on the control of Costalimaita ferruginea in eucalyptus. Place and Duration of Study: Entomology Laboratory of the Center for Agricultural Sciences (CCA) of the State University of the Tocantina Region of Maranhão (UEMASUL) between November 2016 and July 2017. Methodology: Neem aqueous extract solutions were tested at concentrations of 40, 60 and 80%, and the control group treated with mineral water. Leaves of eucalyptus seedlings were immersed in each concentration and individualized in Petri dishes together with the insects. The design was completely randomized with four treatments and ten repetitions, each repetition consisting of a Petri dish with an insect and a eucalyptus leaf. The evaluations were carried out daily, analyzing the mortality of adults, and the leaves were replaced by others submitted to the same treatment and procedure described above. Results: In the evaluations of 12, 60, 72 and 84 hours there was no significant difference. 36 hours after the implementation of the experiment, the 60% neem concentration resulted in 100% mortality of specimens. Conclusion: The 60% neem concentration is the most efficient due to its rapid effect on C. ferruginea mortality and economy of raw material for production.
, Adib Faleh, Amir Al-Haj Sakur, Wassim Abdelwahed
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 11-20; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930419

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to extract carotenoids from apricot fruits using a food solvent (ethanol) and a non-food solvent (propanol). In addition, it aims to study the effect of different extraction conditions, i.e., the extraction temperature (20-40-60)°C and the extraction times (4-8-12) hours, on the carotenoids yield in order to improve and develop extraction methods. The extracted carotenoids were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the studied carotenoids are α-carotene and β-carotene. It was found that β-carotene constitutes about 80% of the total carotenoids in apricots. The results indicated that the extraction yield using ethanol was low compared to the extraction yield using propanol. Propanol is the most suitable solvent for carotenoids extraction in comparison with ethanol. The temperature also had a significant effect on the extraction yield; at 20°C the extraction yield was very low, and 60°C was the optimum temperature for the extraction of carotene. The extraction yield significantly increased with time in the first hours of extraction, and there was no significant effect from increasing the extraction time for a period of 6-8 hours. Moreover, the pretreatment of fruits by freezing accelerated the extraction process and increased the extraction yield. The optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids were determined in the conditions of food extraction; the optimum conditions for extracting carotenoids are: extraction at 60°C for three hours with pretreatment by freezing as the extraction rate reached up to 6.36 mg/100 g using ethanol as a food solvent.
, Eszter Horváth, Péter Ficzere
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 21-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930420

Abstract:
Cranioplasty is a surgery used to repair a bone defect in the skull caused by an injury. It involves lifting the scalp and restoring the contour of the skull with an implant usually manufactured by additive manufacturing. The cranial implant is a sensitive topic; thus, it must be manufactured to the highest standards. Medical implants are growing significantly due to industrial digitalization and the rapid development of industrial software. With the help of computed Tomography (CT) equipment, a spatial, rotating model of the patient's current state can be obtained quickly, even in minutes where the replacement part of the deficiency can be perfectly designed. Although this requires considerable routine, computational capacity, and time, but taking advantage of the latest software presented in our manuscript, the development time of the implant can be up to 50 times shorter with significant improvements in suitability and adaptability. Subsequently, we can produce more accurate implants with more accessible and faster manufacturing with our developed method. The development steps and methods of designing an implant are described in our article.
M. R. Umar
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 120-131; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830417

Abstract:
This study was carried out to identify the Ethnobotanical uses of flora and fauna species in Kainji Lake National Park New-Bussa Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria. The study objectives were to document knowledge and generate data on identification and uses of Plant species and animal species in Borgu and Zugurma sector of the park. Ethnobotanical surveys based on interviews from the park ranges, plant taxonomist and zoologist staff of the park and Botanical survey was carried out based on sample plots. A stratified random sampling was used to select sample sites within the two sector of the Park, based on flora and fauna sub-classification. A total Ten (10) plots of 100m x 100m strips were demarcated within the two sectors. In each plot a total of four (4) 20m x 20m sub-plots were randomly selected for identification of Flora and Fauna resources in both the two sector of the park. Results from Flora resources shows a total of 45 plants species belonging to 21 families were selected.in both the two sector. Family- Leguminosae and Combretaceace were the dominant family in terms of number of species represented. The species are multipurpose and are exploited to satisfy different subsistence needs. Bark and Leaf are the most commonly used Flora parts for medicinal in KLNP. Results from Fauna resources shows that Family-Bovidea and Felidae are the most dominate in the Mammal species, Family-Pythonidea is dominate in Reptile species, Birth has different family and species. Alestidae and Cyprinidae are the dominates in fish found in KLNP while Family-Mochokidae and Bagridae are the most dominates in the fresh-water fish species in Kainji Lake (Northern Nigeria).
Martias, Titin Purnama, Riska, Affandi, Sri Yuliati, Nini Marta, Tri Budiyanti, Deni Emilda, Dewi Fatria, Hendri, et al.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i930418

Abstract:
Yellow sap contamination (YSC) is one of the mangosteen quality constrain in Indonesia. Calcium is the prominent nutrient that influence the incidence of yellow sap contamination. A research with objective to observe the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca availability in soil as well as plant tissue was done in ten locations in West Sumatra, Lampung and West Java provinces. Purposive random sampling method was used to determine the site locations. The plant and soil samples were collected from 10 sites and ten tree per sites. Correlation analysis was used to measure the relationship between incidence YSC and Ca content in fruit endocarp, mesocarp, peel, soil and leaf. The result showed that there was a variation of incidence YSC in site location with range of 8.7%−54.04%; 4.0−51.6%; and 17.7−78.6% for percentage of YSC in fruit flesh, segmentation and peel, respectively. Ca content in soil, endocarp, mesocarp and leaf were given significantly negative correlation toward incidence YSC in fruit flesh and segmentation. Ca content in leaf part correlates significantly to Ca availability in soil, endocarp and mesocarp. Ca content in leaf in the range of 1.40- 1.70% indicates YSC less than 10%.
Marius Guillaume Sinha, Gilles Habib Todjro Cacaï, Jerome Anani Houngue, Serge Sètondji Houédjissin, Thiéris Dassoudo Sossou, Corneille Ahanhanzo
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 108-119; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830416

Abstract:
Background: Monovarietal cultivation of cotton plant allowed the genetic erosion for traditional cotton varieties that proceed essential traits mainly involved in cotton genetic breeding. These varieties need to be preserved for future used. This study aims to evaluate the effect of gibberellic acid on cotton seed germination and the effect of Benzylaminopurin (BAP), Kinetin (KIN), α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and activated charcoal (CA) on cotton seedlings growth obtained from different type of explants. Methodology: The seeds of three improved varieties (KET782, ANG956, OKP768) and five local varieties (Q62, Q64, Q85, Q88, Q92) were germinated with different concentration of gibberellic acid (GA3). Different explants were collected from the germinated plantlets and cultivated in different culture media containing plants growth regulators and activated charcoal in different concentration. Results: We found that Gibberellic Acid activity on cotton seeds germination significantly varied according to the variety and GA3 concentration in the medium. 63.33% germination rate in OKP768 was obtained on the medium containing 0.5 mg/L of GA3 while the medium with 1 mg/l of GA3 gave the highest seed germination in Q85 (75%), Q64 (69.17%), and ANG956 (40.83%). The plantlets regeneration rate varied within the explants in different varieties used. 100%of axillary nodes were regenerated in Q62; Q85 and Q92 varieties while 60% were regenerated with the zygotic embryos in ANG956, and OKP768. Moreover, the medium supplemented with GA3 (1mg/l) + NAA (1 mg/l) induced the greatest number of roots (2.75 roots/plantlet) in the ANG956 and OKP768 varieties. With activated charcoal (10 g/l), ANG956 and OKP768 varieties achieved better performance with respective roots length average of 3.4 cm/plantlet and 2.1 cm/plantlet. The activated charcoal at 10 g/l highly influenced the length of roots with an average of 7.7cm in ANG956 variety. Implication: The protocol established during this study will be useful for in vitro regeneration and conservation for cotton local varieties.
Nabila Widya Anugraheni,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 98-107; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830415

Abstract:
Background and Objective: The existence of a tofu waste treatment plant in residential areas and reports from the public about the unpleasant odor in several wells made residents worried about the impact of the intrusion of tofu waste treatment plant waste. This study aims to assess the impact of possible intrusion of waste from tofu waste treatment plants into residents' wells. Methods: This type of research is descriptive with a survey method. Samples from the research site were analyzed in the laboratory by the titration method based on the value of chemical oxygen demand, compared with Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 82 Th. 2001 concerning water quality management and water pollution control. Results: The results of the measurement of the chemical oxygen demand value of the Bajak river were 51.8 mg/L (starting point) and 238 mg/L (end point). The value of chemical oxygen demand in resident wells is as follows: resident well 1 of 12.2 mg/L, resident well 2 of 9.12 mg/L, resident well 3 of 3.05 mg/L, residential well 4 mg/L of 33.05 mg/L. L, resident well 5 is 3.05 mg/L, resident well 6 is 15.2 mg/L, resident well 7 is 27.4 mg/L and resident well 8 is 3.05 mg/L. Conclusion: The value of chemical oxygen demand in the Bajak river exceeds the quality standard, while the value of chemical oxygen demand in resident wells shows that the farther from the tofu waste treatment plant, the smaller the concentration value of chemical oxygen demand.
M. Aluko, , A. F. Kehinde- Fadare
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 90-97; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830414

Abstract:
Inorganic fertilizer application and the quantity required by the crop for optimum production led agronomists to introduced varying measures in crop production. A study to investigate the effects of single and split NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer application on muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) production was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Ekiti State University. A 4 × 2 factorial experiment laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design in three replicates with four varying rates (0, 167, 333 and 500 kg ha-1) of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer applications and two-mode of applications (single and split) serves as the treatments. Data collected include the number of leaves and branches, vine length, number of fruits, fruit length and width, fruit weight, fruit flesh thickness (fruit pulp width), number of seeds fruit-1 and seed weight. Collected data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), and treatment means separated with Duncan Multiple Range Test at 5% level of probability. The split application at 333 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer produced a significantly higher number of leaves (90), leaf area (109.58 cm2) and vine length (110.77 cm) at 10 WAS than other applied fertilizer rates. The split application of 500 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer produced a higher fruit yield (12.64 t ha-1) than 12.09 t ha-1 from the single application which was not significantly different from the 333 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer. The results indicated that the split application of NPK fertilizer is a better fertilizer application approach than a single application for muskmelon production.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 82-89; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830413

Abstract:
The species functional structuration (specifically in terms of species richness and average intensity of interspecific competition) is widely varying among species communities and this point is now very well documented in literature. But, what about the species functional structuration within the different feeding guilds that coexist in a same local community – in particular the primary and the secondary feeding guilds? Are there significant differences – or not – between them in this respect? This rather fundamental issue does not seem having been addressed yet, at least using appropriate investigative tools. However, a series of recently published case studies, precisely implementing such an adequate investigative approach, now deserves full consideration in this regard and makes the subject of the present review. Substantially, it results from this preliminary survey of the question that marked differences in the patterns of species functional structuration clearly singularize the secondary from the primary feeding guilds, within a same local community. More precisely, a consistent trend seems to arise, highlighting both: (i) a markedly greater species richness and, yet somewhat unexpectedly, (ii) a significantly reduced intensity in interspecific competition within secondary feeding guild as compared to primary. The point is discussed and interpreted as being the consequence of the fact that secondary feeders (typically carnivores) have obviously evolve quite more diversified feeding behaviors than did the primary feeders (typically herbivores).
Florence A. Undiyaundeye, Effiom B. Ekeng, Godwin M. Ubi
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 70-81; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830412

Abstract:
Multivariate analytical study was carried out for the blood pressure (BP) indicators and body mass indices (BMI) for the aged in Calabar South Local Government area of Cross River State, Nigeria using the systolic, diastolic and pulse rate and for weight over the square of heights as indices for stress related disorders. The research focuses on multivariate analysis using principal component analysis, factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha statistics, biplot analysis, matrix plot, linear trend model and Turkey’s multiple comparative statistics between age, blood pressure and body mass index among the aged of 60 – 90 years. The study evaluated one hundred and twenty aged people separated into six groups based on age. Appropriate equipment and tools were used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rates. The body mass index was determined using weight over square of height (kg/m2). The data generated was analyzed using multivariate statistical analysis of Minitab v17 statistical software. The results revealed that all six age brackets evaluated for the aged showed 66- 70 and 81 -85 yrs showed pre –obese conditions while the other four age brackets showed obese class 1 hypertension respectively. The results further showed that five principal components accounted for 100 percent of total variations in BMI and BP for the aged in the study area with principal component one (PC1) with eigen value of 0.398 contributing 56.90% to the observed total variation. The principal loading variable for this component was obtained from pulse rate (0.470). A trend linear model of Yt = 23.94 + 1.233 x t was obtained for the trend analysis indicating the high dependence of the BMI and BP (Y) on age (t). The results of Cronbach’s alpha statistics revealed a high level of low precision and high standard errors among all variables evaluated showing less than 70 percent. The Turkey’s multiple comparative analysis revealed high level of inconsistency among the variables as we compared one variable to another. The counselor’s intervention strategy focuses on the creation of awareness on the need for a regular and routine blood pressure check - up for the aged, the need to create awareness on the potential risk factors that predisposes aged to increased blood pressure and pulse rates, the need for urgent guidance and counseling program for the aged on the dangers of drug abuse, smoking and poor dieting and the need for government safety nets intervention program for the aged to reduce increasing stress related disorders which is highly prevalence among the aged in the area.
Koua Clément N’Gouan, , Oi Edia Edia
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 59-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830411

Abstract:
Aims: This study was to establish the feeding habits of silky shark Carcharhinus falciformis in waters off Côte d’Ivoire. Study design: All stomachs of the specimens were collected using a standard method and analysed at laboratory. Place and Duration of Study: The study of the diet of C. falciformis was carried out at the laboratory of the Oceanological Research Centre (ORC) between April 2019 and August 2020. Methodology: To carry out this study, measurements and extractions of the stomachs of silky sharks were performed using a tape measure and dissection kit. Diet was described using the Index of Relative Importance (%IRI). The food overlap between sexes, size groups and marine seasons were analysed using the Morisita index. Results: A total of 265 specimens ranging in size from 79 to 254 cm total length were used. Of the stomachs examined, 163 individuals had food contents (61.51%), whilst 102 were empty (38.49%). The results indicated that silky shark has epipelagic and mesobathypelagic feeding habits, preying upon a wide number of prey taxa (33 species) but with a diet dominated by teleost fishes, especially Thunnus albacares (60.62%IRI) and Katsuwonus pelamis (33.18%IRI). The Morisita index and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient showed similarity of the diet between sexes (Cλ > 0.60; Rs = 0.776 and p = 0.001 and marine seasons (Cλ > 0.60; Rs = 0.658 and p = 0.001). The juveniles and adults did not show any overlap. The Amundsen graphical (Fig. 3) analysis suggested that silky shark displays specialist feeding behaviour in this area. Conclusion: Diet consisted mainly of T. albacares and K. pelamis, the proportions of which varied according to size and marine seasons. Carcharhinus falciformis is considered to be a specialist predator.
Victoria N. Ebegbulem, Ofonime N. Ekwere
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 53-58; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830410

Abstract:
This study determined the haemoglobin polymorphism, haematology and morphometric characteristics of Muscovy ducks. A total of 80 adult Muscovy ducks (40 per sex) respectively were used for the study which lasted 60 days. Blood samples of the ducks were collected and analysed for haemoglobin type and haematological traits while body weight (BWT) and body parts such as body girth (BG), wing length (WL), keel length (KL), shank length (SL), body length (BL), thigh length (TL) and Body circumference (BC) were taken and subjected to one –way ANOVA. Drakes exhibited significantly (P<0.05) higher values in body girth, body length and thigh length than the ducks. Average values recorded were BWT (2040 g), BC (30.43cm), KL (25.75cm), BL (25.78cm) and TL (4.85cm). Haemoglobin types found among the ducks were Hb AA, AB and BB, males being predominantly of Hb BB and females of Hb AA. Gene frequencies of 0.5435 and 0.4565 were recorded for alleles A and B respectively among the ducks. Genotype frequencies were AA (39.14%), AB (30.43%) and BB (30.43%). Some average haematological values recorded were Packed Cell Volume (PCV) (29.86%), Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate (ESR) (7.34mm/hr), Haemoglobin Concentration (HBC) (11.93g/dl), Red Blood Cell Counts (RBC) (2.4 × 106/L) and White Blood Cell (WBC) (1.98 × 103/L). Results of body morphometry from this research could serve as an important basis for characterization, conservation and improvement of this duck breed in the study location. The establishment of the haemoglobin types of ducks in Calabar is a precursor to the determination of its relationship(s) with economic traits in the birds. Haematological values recorded in this study showed that the ducks were in normal condition of health and growth.
Robet Asnawi, Ratna W. Arief, Slameto, Reny D. Tambunan, Martias, , Fitriani
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 42-52; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830409

Abstract:
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) productivity in Indonesia is leveling off. The study aims to determine the effect of the Jejer Manten double rows modified planting system on the growth, productivity, and economic feasibility of the rice farming system. The study was conducted in Lampung Province, Indonesia from 2016 to 2018. The study was arranged using a split-plot design with 3 replications. The treatment consisted of two factors namely: planting system (S1 = Jajar Tegel, S2 = Jajar Legowo double rows 2:1, and S3 = Jejer Manten double rows modification) and rice varieties (V1 = Ciherang; V2 = Inpari 10).The results of the study showed that the Jejer Manten planting system produced higher growth and productivity than Jajar Tegel and Jajar Legowo planting system. During the three years of research, the application of the Jejer Manten planting system increased productivity by 6.04-32.27% compared to Jajar Tegel and 13.78-28.92% compared to the Jajar Legowo planting system. Economically, based on the analysis of marginal benefit-cost ratio (MBCR), the application of the Jejer Manten planting system was more feasible than the Jajar Tegel planting system (MBCR = 6.32) and Jajar Legowo planting system (MBCR = 8.18). Based on these results, it is recommended to apply the Jejer Manten planting system as a new technology to increase rice production and support of food self-sufficiency program of Indonesia.
, Umar Aliyu Umar, Mujitapha Lawal, Sani Muhammad Yahaya, Muhammad Salisu Inuwa
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 27-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830408

Abstract:
Objective: A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the human host factors that contribute to the perpetuation of schistosomiasis transmission in endemic communities of Wudil, Kano State, Nigeria. Methods: Information was derived from structured questionnaires supplemented with oral interviews, on perception of the community on the cause of urogenital schistosomiasis, using self-reported macrohaematuria, as the disease proxy, water-use practices, riverside urination and defaecation, and the choice for treatment of schistosome infection. Results: Out of 139 study participants, the perceived causes of gross haematuria by the respondents were Excessive Salt Intake (41.73%); Scorching Sun (20.86%); Unknown (17.27%); Infection (10.07%); Supernatural Force (5.86%) and Water Contact (4.32%). The respondents with self-reported terminal haematuria were 49.64%; riverine water contact 75.54% and riverside contamination 65.41%. Of the 72.46% of the respondents with gross haematuria who attempted for medication only 8.0% visited health facilities, while majority relied on traditional herbalists (39.13%) and roadside medicine stores (20.29%) for treatment. There was a strong association between riverine water contact and terminal haematuria (Odds Ratio: 6.09, 95% CI, 2.825-13.131, P<0.0001; Relative Risk: 2.737, 95% CI, 1.664-4.502, P<0.0001). Conclusion: Exposure to contaminated water as a result of socioeconomic activities, riverside, poor perception on the cause of the disease and lack of adherence to orthodox treatment of positive cases are the key promoters of schistosomiasis transmission in the study area. Excessive salt intake and scorching sun are the major perceived causes of haematuria among the study participants. This underpins the need for health education and other efficacious interventions for community awareness on the disease etiology which is central to effective elimination campaign.
E. A. Ivon, F. O. Sanusi-Jadesola, N. E. Edu, C. O. Anyanwu, G. M. Ubi, Edodi Iyam Odum
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830406

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: The study measured the impact of crude oil fractions and its derivatives like kerosene on the early life and sub-adults growth of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus in terms of mild, acute and chronic toxicity effect. It also examines the effect of indiscriminate spillage of crude oil derivatives on aquatic organisms. Materials and Methods: Blood profiles such as Red Blood Cell count (RBC), White Blood Cell count (WBC), Blood Differentials, Hemoglobin, (HB), and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) of the treated fishes and control were estimated after exposure of the fish to the kerosene pollutant. Behavioral changes in fish exposed to8.0ml/l, 16.0ml/l, 25.0ml/l and 50.0ml/l of kerosene pollutant varied from erratic swimming, moribund movement, jumping and lack of balance. Results: At concentration 8.0ml/L, mean total mortality was observed within 72hours of exposure. The lethal concentration (LC50) was 8.0ml/L and highest mean mortality observed with 80% kerosene pollutant. PCV of the exposed fish was 26% when compared to the control 27%, HB was 8.9 gdl as against 9.0 gdl in the control. Total WBC was 640 x 109/L as against 1280 x 109/L in control. RBC reading was 2.1 compared to 5.3 mm3 of the control. Lymphocyte was 80%, Neutrophil was 4% and monocyte 16% compared to 62%, 8% and 30% in control respectively. There was decrease in white blood cells counts for 8.0, 16.0, 25.0 and 50.0ml/L groups (p<0.05) compared to the control. Conclusion: The study concludes that it is necessary to ensure the safety of aquatic life forms especially fishes, by minimizing aquatic pollution with kerosene to sustain fish food quality, availability and security.
N. Chukwuma Lilian, B. Enweani Ifeoma, V. Udeogu Chidozie, Okwelogu Izunna Somadinna, O. Arua Chukwuemeka, C. Ukandu Vivian, C. Asogwa George
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 124-132; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730405

Abstract:
Air borne fungi are transmitted through the air which can cause respiratory infections in human leading to allergies, asthma and diseases of the respiratory tract. The study is to determine the prevalence of fungi isolates in Enugu and Nsukka indoor prison environments and the possible effects on the respiratory tracts of the prison inmates. Institutions that accommodate large number of people such as Prisons, schools and hospitals are prone to airborne diseases due to overcrowded and unhygienic environment. The study was carried out using convenience sampling method and health based questionnaires. One hundred and forty (140)samples were analyzed consisting prison offices(48),inmates cells (28),lavatory (16),furniture(8),nasal swabs(20) and hostels(20). AC single impactor with high vacuum pump was used for indoor air sample collection; thermometer was used in measuring the temperature of the room and hygrometer for measuring the humidity. Sterile swab was used in collection of nasal samples, walls, furniture, toilets and bathrooms. Sabouraund dextrose agar (0.05µg Chloramphenicol and 1µg of Streptomycin), Malt extract agar, Chromagar, Brain heart infusion agar, and Nutrient agar were used for culture media for isolation of fungi respectively. The data generated from this research was analyzed using SPSS statistical software version 23.The result obtained showed that the percentage distribution of fungi isolates in prison offices were 60.9%, 57.4% in Nsukka and Enugu respectively while the percentage distribution percentage distribution of fungi isolates in prison cells were 42.6% and 39.1% in Enugu and Nsukka respectively. There was a significant difference in the distribution of fungal isolates at P=0.042.The indoor temperature and humidity of Enugu and Nsukka were the same at P using ANOVA, when compared with the hostels that served as control. Considering the public health effects of these airborne fungi, appropriate measures should be put in place in prison indoor environment to prevent the growth of moulds and yeast and its dissemination.
, E. A. Effa, D. O. Etim, F. A. Akomaye, A. O. Damian
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i830407

Abstract:
Aim: Physiological variations in Cucurbita moschata due to infection with a Nigerian strain of Moroccan watermelon virus (MWMV): Lagenaria breviflora isolate was studied. Study Design: Randomized block design was used. Place and Duration of Study: Botany Department, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria between March and May, 2015. Methodology: Seeds of C. moschata were sown, on germination inoculated with the virus and analyzed for possible variations between healthy and inoculated plants. Results: Results analysis revealed increase in all amino acids investigated. Highest significant (P=0.05) percentage variation in amino acids of inoculated and healthy were -40.0% for aspartic acid, -36.1% (histidine), -29.7% (proline), -28.8% (lysine), -23.3% (glysine), -16.6% (phenylalanine) and -12.6% (glutamic acid). Infection of C. moschata with a Nigerian Strain of MWMV: Lagenaria breviflora isolate caused significant decrease in leaf nitrogen and relative water content of inoculated plants compared to the healthy. Highest percentage decrease in leaf nitrogen was 40.7% at 2 weeks after inoculation (WAI) and lowest of 25.0% at 10 WAI. The virus caused decrease in relative water content of 29.6% at 6 WAI. Activity of oxidative stress enzymes: peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway: glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (6PGdH) and 6-phosphogluconic acid dehydrogenase (G6PdH) were significantly (P=0.05) increased in infected C. moschata- MWMV plant. Enzymes activity was significantly higher in inoculated than in healthy plants at all stages of growth with decrease at later periods for both inoculated and healthy plants. Percentage increase in POD, PPO, G6PdH and 6PGdH activity due to infection at 8 WAI had values of -40.5%, -46.7%, -98.9% and -89.1% respectively. Conclusion: The Nigerian strain of MWMV: Lagenaria breviflora isolate caused significant variations with increase and decrease in biochemical and physiological components of C. moschata affecting its growth and yield.
, M. A. Mohd Shukri, U. R. Sinniah, S. Nur Atisha, A. K. Abdul Muhaimin
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 112-123; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730404

Abstract:
Aims: This work highlights short-term storage of recalcitrant Lepisanthes fruticosa seeds and long-term conservation attempts of its embryonic axes (EAs) through cryopreservation. Study design: This study adopted the Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Ten samples were used for each experiment and replicated for 3 – 5 times. Place and Duration of Study: Cryopreservation Laboratory, Agrobiodiversity and Environment Research Centre, MARDI Headquarters, Malaysia, in 2017 and 2018. Methodology: Short-term storage was carried out using fresh seeds at 54% moisture content and stored at 8±1 °C and 25±2 °C for 7 weeks. Three variations to sterilization were attempted to optimize survival while keeping contamination low. Cryopreservation using two different methods were tested, namely vitrification and the encapsulation vitrification method. Vitrification technique involved the pre-culturing of EAs overnight in different sucrose pre-culture concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 M) prior to, loading, dehydration with vitrification solution (PVS2), rapid immersion into liquid nitrogen (-196°C), rapid warming, unloading and recovery. While, encapsulation vitrification involved encapsulation of the EAs using 3% sodium alginate followed by exposure to different duration (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes) of vitrification solution (PVS2) prior to cryopreservation. Results: L. fruticosa seeds can be safely stored for short-term up to 7 weeks of storage either at 8±1 °C or 25±2 °C with no loss in germination. This study also showed that EA was amenable to cryopreservation and 13.33 – 66.67% of viability was obtained when the EAs were cryopreserved using the vitrification technique. The best result was obtained with 66.67% viability, when the EAs were pre-cultured with 0.4M sucrose prior to exposure to PVS2 and liquid nitrogen. Cryopreservation of EAs using the encapsulation-vitrification method was unsuccessful. Conclusion: Seeds of L. fruticosa can be stored for short-term (up to 7 weeks) using hydrated/non-dried seeds where they can be successfully stored at 8±1 °C and 25±2 °C for up to 7 weeks. For long-term (cryopreservation), EAs can be cryopreserved upon pre-culture with 0.4M sucrose prior to exposure to PVS2 and liquid nitrogen through vitrification technique.
Victoria N. Ebegbulem, Janet E. Nwanjoku
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 92-96; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730402

Abstract:
Goat milk is a suitable alternative to human milk owing to its high beta casein content which makes it very digestible unlike cow milk. Moreover, the West African Dwarf goat is highly trypano- tolerant and thrives excellently in the humid forest zone of Nigeria. It therefore necessitated the need to expound its potential in human nutrition in the study area. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the proximate, mineral composition and physicochemical characteristics of milk of West African Dwarf goats in Cross River State, Nigeria .Twenty five lactating West African Dwarf does within the age of 3-5 years were milked from five Local Government Areas of Cross River State (Calabar South, Calabar Municipal, Akamkpa, Biase and Odukpani) in which three goat milk samples were obtained by hand milking from each location. Data collected were presented using descriptive statistics. Completely randomized design was used to study the relationship between components of the milk samples. Proximate components of milk were crude protein (3.91-6.35%), ether extract (2.69-5.04%), Ash (1.51-1.95%), Nitrogen free extract (88.68-90.32%) and moisture content (77.72-85.56%). Values of physicochemical components were: Total Acid (0.16-0.21%), Total solid (12.30-13.30%), Density (0.90-1.95%) and pH (6.50-6.90%). Elemental components (mg/100g) were potassium (202-64-204.39), sodium (49.06-49.96), calcium (133.18-133.98), magnesium (13.96-14.07), iron (0.04-0.07), zinc (0.30-0.32) copper (1.32-1.35) and phosphorus (110.32-110.98). Proximate composition of milk samples from the different locations varied significantly (p>0.05).Similarly, the physicochemical composition from the locations also varied significantly (p<0.05) with exception to milk pH with no significant difference. Mineral elements of milk samples from different locations were not significantly different except the potassium content in milk from Odukpani which was significantly lower than the other locations. Goat milk from the study locations met the nutritional standards in terms of proximate, mineral and physicochemical composition. Results from this research provides veritable information of the nutritional content of goat milk in the study locations particularly and help encourage the incorporation of goat milk in the diet of Nigerians generally.
, Sutomo, Danang Wahyu Purnomo, Rajif Iryadi
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 97-111; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730403

Abstract:
Aims: The study was carried out to assess the species composition, vegetation structure, regeneration and possible direction of vegetation development due to Acacia nilotica invasion. Study Design: The study applied the vegetation analysis and remote sensing technique in the deciduous forest of the Palu Valley in Central Sulawesi. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Biromuli District, Sigi Regency, Central Sulawesi Province of Indonesia in February 2019. Methodology: Species composition, vegetation structure and regeneration were studied using the split plot method, while the specific population and distribution of A. nilotica were studied using drone photos in an area of 10.24 ha. Results: Individuals >2cm in diameter are 24 species, 22 genera and 14 families. The main species are Tabernaemontana pandacaqui, A. nilotica and Jatropha gossypiifolia. The ground vegetation (diameter<2cm) contained 21 species, 21 genera and 17 families, dominated by Digitaria ciliaris and A. nilotica. The species diversity index is 2.3880 (moderate), while the species evenness index is 0.75 (unstable). Density of 1.069 individual’s per ha and total basal area 2.48 m2 per ha. The dominance of individuals with a diameter of 2.0-4.9 cm (62.9%), followed by diameter of 5.0-9.9 cm (32.4%), and diameter of 10 cm up (4.67%). The canopy layer consists of only one main layer at a height of 4-7m. Canopy analysis using drone photos showed that 27% of the total forest canopy area and 32.9% of the total individuals were controlled by A. nilotica. Conclusion: The dry forest in Sigi is the remnant deciduous forest located specifically in the Palu Valley which is still in the process of development. The invasion of A. nilotica needs to be controlled in a sustainable way so that the rest of the forest does not turn into a stretch of A. nilotica.
, A. F. M. Shofiquzzoha, Nilufa Begum
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 86-91; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730401

Abstract:
Quality diet as food for raising freshwater snails under laboratory conditions has a significant effect on their growth and the number of egg clutches laid as well as on the size of the snail. Now a days, some innovative farmers of Bangladesh started snail culture within their fish farms in the view of producing snail to use as feed for their Prawn (Macrobrachiam rosenbergii), indigenous catfish (Clarius batrachus) farms, domestic duck farms and also as a protein supplement for preparing fish feed. From previous study we know that Bulinus nyassanus growth and survive rate was found well on locally formulated fish diet consisting of 30% crude protein with ingredients comprising fish meal, maize bran, rice bran, soya bean, wheat bran, hemicellulose (binder), vitamin premix and mineral premix. But no such research has been done in case of apple snail. The present study was aimed to investigate the feed formulation preferred by Pila globosa species and their effects on survival and growth of these snails in laboratory condition. Three type of formulated feed viz., pellet feed, fish meal and 50% fish meal + 50% crusted khudipana were used for the experiment in high and low stocking density of baby snails. The present findings shown that the diets in order of preference based on their effects on growth and survival of snails were formulated pellet feed, fish meal and 50% fish meal+ 50% crushed khudipana. After rearing of 28 days, highest growth found 0.32g with 86.66% survival with formulated diet in 60nos/L stocking density and 0.35g with 90% survival with formulated diet in 30nos/L stocking density. It`s indicate that the snails reared on formulated pellet feed diets and lower stocking density gave better performance in terms of survival and mean growth rate than those reared on other diets.
Florence A. Undiyaundeye, Effiom B. Ekeng, Godwin M. Ubi
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 77-85; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730400

Abstract:
The research focuses on the relationship between age, blood pressure and body mass index among fisher folks at Nsidung, Calabar south, cross River state Nigeria. The study evaluated one hundred and twenty fisher folks separated into six groups based on age. Appropriate equipment and tools were used to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse rates. The body mass index was determined using weight over square of height (kg/m2). The data generated was analyzed using Pearson’s’ correlation coefficient and linear regreesion analysis. The results showed that the age of the Nsidung fisher folks correlates strongly, positively and significantly with their body mass index and systolic blood pressure and correlated negatively, weakly and non-significantly with diastolic blood pressure, mean body weights, height and pulse rate. The results also revealed that a body mass index is linearly dependent on the age of the fisher folks. The results of correlation analysis reveals that age correlated (r=0.719; p<0.001) and (r=0.883; p<0.001) significantly, positively and strongly with Body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure respectively. The study revealed the line of best fit equation Y = 1.2329X + 23.937 with a significant regression coefficient R2 of 0.5182. The counselor’s intervention strategy will focus on the creation of awareness on the need for a regular and routine blood pressure check - up by all fisher folks at Nsidung. There is need to create awareness on the potential risk factors that predisposes the Nsidung fisher folks to increased blood pressure and pulse rates. The need for urgent guidance and counseling program for the Nsidung fisher folks on the dangers of drug abuse, smoking and poor dieting which is highly prevalent among them. The need for government safety nets intervention program for the aged among the Nsidung fisher folks to forestall increasing cardiac associated problem which is highly prevalence among the aged.
Roberto Bedini, Marco Bedini, Arianna Trafeli, Martina Manuele
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 58-76; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730399

Abstract:
On behalf of the Management of the Protected Marine Area of the island of Ventotene and Santo Stefano the Marine Ecology and Biology Institute of Piombino (ITALY) carried out a very in dept study aimed at knowledge of the ecological situation of the Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 meadows. The most appropriate methodologies were used to be able to identify all the benthic species present in order to evaluate the efficiency of the nursery function of the prairies investigated. The results of the numerous species captured in the juvenile stage have demonstrated the excellent nursery function of the meadows of the island of Ventotene.
Arief Harsono, Dian A. A. Elisabeth, Sriwahyuni Indiati, Fachrur Rozi, Didik Harnowo, Titik Sundari, Yudi Widodo, Ruly Krisdiana,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 47-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730398

Abstract:
The main constraints of the tidal swamp lands in Indonesia for soybean growth are low soil pH, high Al saturation, and low nutrient availability of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. The objectives of this research were to determine tolerance of several soybean varieties to Al saturation level, and to obtain a technological package for soybean cultivation which was suitable for farmers to adopt on tidal swamp lands. The research consisted of two stages of study. The first stage formulated of technology package, and the second stage evaluated feasibility of the technology package which was formulation from the first stage. The first stage studied the effect of dolomite application (20% - 30% of soil Al saturation) on four soybean varieties (Anjasmoro, Panderman, Dega 1, and Demas). The second stage studied the effect of three technological packages: existing technology; water- saturated soybean cultivation (WSC); and alternative technology which was formulated from the results of the first study. In the 30% of soil Al saturation condition, the alternative technology package (application of 50 kg urea + 75 kg SP36 + 50 kg KCl + 1500 kg organic fertilizers/ha + rhizobium biofertilizer “Agriosy” 0.25 kg/50 g seeds/ha) gave soybean yield of 1.78 - 2.72 t/ha for all of soybean varieties tested. The alternative technology package with Anjasmoro variety provided higher seed yields (2.62 t/ha) compared to the existing technology (2.07 t/ha) and WSC technology package (2.44 t/ha). The alternative technology package gave a profit of 11,595,000 IRD/ha with B/C values of 1.71 which was higer than the existing and WSC technology packages. The alternative technology package was more profitable than the existing technology (current farmer practice) and water-saturated soybean cultivation technology packages.
N. F. Onyemelukwe, , C. A. Uchenna, U. Okongwu
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730397

Abstract:
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) have remained a serious challenge to developing countries. Infectious disease and nutritional deficiencies can impact adversely on the nutritional status of children. Hence, this study aimed at investigating prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections among malnourished children in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria. It was a case-controlled study consisting of 164 malnourished children and 100 well-nourished subjects between the ages of 0-10 years whose caregivers gave their consent. Anthropometric measures were evaluated using the Gomez system of classification. Stool samples were analyzed using standard parasitological protocols. Of the 164 malnourished children 52(31.7%), 63(38.4%), 49(29.9%) had mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition respectively. Five species of helminths and three species of protozoa were detected. The overall prevalence was 51.8% among the malnourished and 12% in well-nourished children. The prevalence of IPIs among the control, mild, moderate, and severe malnutrition were 12%, 36.5%, 60.3%, and 57.1% respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides ranked highest 40(37.7%) followed by Hookworm 31(29.3%) and the least was Strongyloides stercoralis 4(3.8%) among the helminths while Cryptosporidium spp was the most prevalent protozoa 8(7.6%) and the least was Isospora spp. 2(1.9%). Mixed infections were detected in 3(7.5%) and 6(21.4%) among children with moderate and severe malnutrition respectively. Nutritional status was found to be a significant risk factor while gender and age were statistically insignificant P= 0.118 and P= 0.455 respectively. The study revealed that malnourished children are highly susceptible to IPIs. There is a need for integrated effort to address malnutrition and parasitic infections
Udeme Uyom Udofia, Finian Tobias Okoro,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 23-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730396

Abstract:
Aim: The study investigated the toxicological effects of Calabar municipal dumpsite leachate on the fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus. Experimental Design: The study was set-up in a 6 × 2 Complete Randomized Block Design. Methodology: During the studt 120 C. gariepinus fingerlings were used. Each group was made up of 10 fingerlings. The fingerlings were exposed to 0% (control group), 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% of leachate in duplicate. Histopathology was also carried-out on the gills and liver of the fingerlings of each exposure group. Results: The temperature, pH, conductivity, and BOD increased with increasing leachate concentration, while the DO decreased with concentration. 5.17 ± 0.66 cm and 1.09 ± 0.40 g mean length and weight respectively of fingerlings were determined. Mortality depended on concentration. The 96 hours LC50 value with 95% confidence limit of C. gariepinus fingerlings exposed to leachate was 22.5% ± 0.89, and was significant with a determination coefficient (r2) of 0.93 at P<0.05. Leachates altered the orientation of gills and liver of the fingerlings. Conclusion and Recommendations: The low LC50 value of fingerlings exposed to different concentrations of leachate indicates a high toxicity of the leachate and altered the gills and liver of fingerlings. To this end, we recommended dumpsites are sited at a distance far from water bodies and areas inhabited by human, to mitigate the leeching of leachate into nearby aquatic systems. Law against indiscriminate discharge of waste into drainage channels and any aquatic system should be enforced by Government, to prevent mortality of biological organisms, extinction of species, contamination of organisms in nearby aquatic systems, changes in the physical properties, and health risk to humans that depends on resources from these aquatic systems for food.
, Kehinde Busuyi David, Saka Waheed Adeoye, Oyewande Esther Ajoke, Ayandiran Tolulope Akinpelu, Ogundiran Mathew Akinloye
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 12-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730395

Abstract:
Cardiovascular disease is the world's leading cause of death, killing 17 to 19 million people each year. The usage of traditional drugs was influenced by the need for effective medications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease without side effects. The current study investigated the cardio-protective effects of Adansonia digitata leaf extract on doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity in laboratory rats. Thirty-five albino rats were divided into five groups, each consisting of seven rats. Group 1 was given filtered water as a control, while Group 2 was given saline and doxorubicin, Group 3 received doxorubicin and Vitamin E, and Groups IV and V were myocardial oxidative animals treated with Adansonia digitata leaf extract (150 and 300 mg/kg/wt) for two weeks. After the rats were sacrificed, their hearts were collected and homogenized for biochemical assays. The results on the activities of creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde were determined. Histopathology examination was used in addition to assays to validate myocardial damage. In comparison to the control group, rats provided doxorubicin showed a significant increase in the activities of cardiac marker enzymes (CK, LDH, and AST), as well as a significant increase in malondialdehyde concentration with a concomitant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, and NOS), implying cardiotoxicity. In rats with doxorubicin-induced myocardial infection, pretreatment with Adansonia digitata leaf extract reduced myocardial damage, these biochemical results were confirmed by histopathology. Finally, the new study demonstrates that Adansonia digitata has cardioprotective properties.
, Gabriel O. Agu
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i730394

Abstract:
Portulaca oleracea Linn. has a history of extensive use as a medicinal plant and is a component of the Nigerian ethnomedical pharmacopoeia. Although several studies have been carried out exclusively on the leaves to ascertain the physiological effect, there seems to be dearth of literature on the physiological effect of the stem. This study which was designed to fill this gap investigated the sub-chronic effect of oral administration of chloroform stem extract of P.oleracea (CSEPO) on haematological parameters and plasma activities of some enzymes (Alanine Aminotransferase - ALT, Alkaline Phosphatase - ALP & Aspartate Aminotransferase - AST) and levels of other biochemical parameters such as total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea and creatinine in male wistar rats. Twenty animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5 rats each. Group A(Control) received 0.5 ml of olive oil(vehicle) while Groups B, C & D received 125, 250 & 500 mg/kg body weight of CSEPO respectively for 21 days by oral gavage. At the end, the animals were anaesthetized and blood samples were collected for haematology and plasma biochemical assay. No significant (P > .05) variation occurred in the mean values of ALT, ALP, AST, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration, RBC, WBC and differential leucocyte counts relative to the control. There was a highly significant (P < .01) increase in the total platelet count only at the dose of 500mg/kg in comparison with control. Oral administration of CSEPO as used in this study had no adverse effect on haematological and biochemical parameters. Secondly, CSEPO may be a useful remedy in thrombocytopenia, due to its potential to increase platelet count. However, further study is recommended in that regards.
C. N. Okwuosa, N. C. Azubuike,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 91-99; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630393

Abstract:
Background: Cinnamomum cassia stem bark is used traditionally for the treatment of digestive disorders, diabetes and to alleviate symptoms of cold or flu. Aim: The present study evaluated biochemical and haematological changes in male albino rats after exposure to the stem bark ethanolic extract of Cinnamomum cassia (SBECC). Study Design: An experimental study which lasted for 19 days. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences and Animal House, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, between April 2019 and August 2019. Methodology: Twenty (20) rats weighing 130-170 g were used. Graded doses (100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight) of the SBECC were orally administered to the animals in groups B, C and D respectively, once daily for 18 days. Group A served as the normal control and received only the vehicle (5ml/kg of 0.25N sodium carbonate). On Day 19, body weights of the rats were measured and blood samples obtained via retro-orbital puncture, were placed into plain tubes and tri-potassium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (K3EDTA) containers for biochemical and haematological studies respectively. Results: Weight gain was observed in all treatment groups and control. The highest and lowest percentage weight gain was observed in Group C (51%) and Group B (33%) respectively. All the doses of the extract significantly decreased serum cholesterol levels when compared to the control (P<0.05). Treatment with 400mg/kg SBECC (Group D) significantly increased serum Alkaline phosphatase (224.00±12.88iu/l) and creatinine levels (85.60±7.40) when compared to the control (140.00±26.47 and 63.60±7.60 respectively) (P<0.05), whereas treatment with 200mg/kg SBECC significantly increased urea and creatinine levels (P<0.05). No significant changes were observed in the haematological parameters of the treated rats compared to the control. Conclusion: Sub-acute oral administration of Cinnamomum cassia stem bark extract at doses lower than 500 mg/kg may not exert toxic effects on haematological parameters but can alter some serum biochemical parameters in rats.
, Komla Elikplim Abotsi, Kossi Adjonou, Kossi Novinyo Segla, Adzo Dzifa Kokutse, Kouami Kokou
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 81-90; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630392

Abstract:
Background and Aims: The sylviculture of Pterocarpus erinaceus is still in its infancy due to lack of information on its biology. The aim of this study is to investigate its mycorrhizal status in order to better address its sylviculture. Place and Duration of Study: The study was performed on the field from May 2019 to December 2020 and data were analyzed at the laboratory from January to March 2021. Methodology: The frequency and intensity of mycorrhization were determined under a microscope after staining with trypan blue of fine roots collected at a depth of 20 cm under adult plants at 5 sites, 3 in the Guinean zone and 2 in the Sudanian zone in Togo. The spore density was obtained on soil samples taken at the same depth under the same trees. Results: Results indicate, without significant differences (P value = 0.166) among sites, and show that P. erinaceus is frequently mycorrhized (88% to 94%). However, there were significant differences (P value = 0.001) in spore densities between sites located in the Sudanian zone (16.53 ± 1.25 and 10.66 ± 0.71 spores per gram of soil – SPGS – respectively for the Fazao-Malfakassa and Oti-Kéran-Mandouri) and those located in the Guinean zone (4.54 ± 0.3, 2.93 ± 0.43 and 3.76 ± 1.01 SPGS respectively at Abdoulaye, Hahomegbe and Togodo). There are significant differences between mycorrhization intensities Togodo which has a mycorhization intensity of 33.52 ± 2.54 and other sites. The redundancy analysis carried out by taking into account substrates’ chemical characteristics shows that spore density remains low when phosphorus and nitrogen are important in the rhizosphere whereas the intensity of mycorhizations is low when PHKCl is high. Conclusion: This study provided evidence of mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pterocarpus erinaceus whether in the Sudanian or Guinean zone. Chemical quality of the growing substrate has an influence on parameters of mychorization. Further studies should therefore allow an assessment of the degree of dependence of this species with respect to the possible benefits associated with this symbiosis.
Jorma Jormakka,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 69-80; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630391

Abstract:
The article derives the probability for lethal recessive alleles in the case of recessive disadvantage or advantage. It is shown that recessive advantage of a lethal gene can be detected by the ratio of heterozygotes and homozygotes. This demonstrates that higher IQ of certain ethnic groups cannot be explained by recessive advantage of lethal genes. The article shows that lethal genes can survive in the population if some lineages of families have much more children than the average.
, E. A. Effa, I. R. Udosen
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 55-68; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630390

Abstract:
Aim: Amelioration effect of soil amendment on growth and yield of Vigna unguiculata L. grown in acidic and alkaline soils. Study Design: The study was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five replicates. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Botany, University of Calabar, Nigeria, between May and September, 2017. Methodology: Composite soils from two locations Akamkpa (pH 4.0) and Odukpani (pH 9.0) were collected, mixed thoroughly with organic manure (OM) and agricultural lime (AL) singly and in combination, allowed to stay three weeks for proper blending before V. unguiculata seeds were sown. On seedlings germination, amelioration effect of soil amendment on growth and yield of cowpea grown in acidic and alkaline soils was studied at different periods of growth. Results: Results revealed significant (P=0.05) increase in leaf area, plant height, number of leaves, leaf fresh and leaf dry weight, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and leaf area ratio of V. unguiculata grown in acidic and alkaline soils treated with OM and AL. Pod length, number of pods plant-1, number of seeds pod-1, number of seeds plant-1, weight of 100 seeds increased significantly. Organic manure used singly and in combination was more effective in ameliorating soil pH effect than AL. Vigna unguiculata performed better in treated and untreated alkaline than in acidic soils. Least plant height for V. unguiculata grown in untreated alkaline soil at 12 weeks after sowing WAS was 60.22±0.16a cm and highest 119.63E2±.35g cm for plants grown in soil treated with AL1+OM1. Least number of seeds plant-1 for plants grown in untreated acidic soil at 12 WAS was 90.60±0.02a and the highest 139.18E2±0.02e for plants grown in soil treated with AL1+OM1. Conclusion: An improvement in growth and seed yield of V. unguiculata grown in acidic and alkaline soils is feasible through the use of organic manure and agricultural lime.
, E. O. Nwachukwu, I. O. Agbagwa, H. O. Stanley
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 39-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630388

Abstract:
Fungi play vital roles as decomposers. White rot fungi are an eco-physiological group that degrades wood by the secretion of specialized extracellular enzymes including lignin-modifying enzymes. There is growing interest in the use of extracellular enzymes for bioremediation. This study determined the Lignin Modifying Enzymes (LMEs) associated with two species of mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus squarrosulus. The qualitative study was conducted using agar medium substituted with chromogenic substances to determine the production of LMEs by the species. The appearance of colour change and clearance due to reaction with chromogenic substrates were used to determine LMEs production by the fungi. The results showed that Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinus squarrosulus tested positive by the appearance of light brown colouration, reddish-brown colouration and discolouration of media for overall polyphenol oxidase, Laccase and Peroxidase activity, respectively. The study showed that the species studied are candidates for large scale production of LMEs that can be utilized as an eco-friendly solution for bioremediation of contaminated sites.
, E. E. Ekpiken, O. A. Iso
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 46-54; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630389

Abstract:
Cucurbits are group of plants which belonged in the Cucurbitaceae family and constitute one of the most important vegetables for human consumption throughout the world. A survey conducted between January to March 2021 across major cucurbit-growing area in Cross River State revealed wide spread virus infection of these crops, surveyed plants showed mosaic, mottle and leaf deformation symptoms. This research was aimed at identifying viruses infecting some cucurbits in the study areas. Twenty four samples showing virus like symptoms were collected and tested against ACP-ELISA and RT-PCR. Result obtained from ACP-ELISA showed that 20 out of 24 samples collected tested positive to universal potyvirus antisera, the gene sequence analysis revealed that samples were predominantly infected with Algerian watermelon mosaic virus representing 40% of total viruses detected followed by Morroccan watermelon mosaic virus representing 15% of total viruses detected followed by Papaya ringspot virus, Zucchini tigre mosaic virus, Watermelon mosaic virus and Soybean mosaic virus representing 10% each for total viruses detected and finally Potato virus Y representing 5% of total virus detected. This survey is an accurate and timely detection and will form the basis for mitigating yield losses resulting from virus infection on cucurbits. This is the first report of wide scale detection of viruses infecting cucurbits in Nigeria.
Dool-Ri Oh, Yujin Kim, Kyo-Nyeo Oh, Yonguk Kim,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 29-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630387

Abstract:
Polygonatum humile Fisch is commonly called Sookjuk in Korea. The roots of P. humile are typically used in traditional medicine as an anti-rheumatic, demulcent, and sedative agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the P. humile extracts to treat depression. Mice were administered P. humile water extract (PH) and were subjected to the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), and open-field test (OFT). The levels of brain monoamines including serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine, and dopamine were evaluated. In addition, the PH antidepressant-like effects were studied based on the regulation of 5-HT-mediated Ca2+ and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in human 1321N1 cells stably expressing the 5-HT subunit 6 receptor (5-HT6). In FST and TST, PH (300 mg/kg) significantly reduced the immobility time without changing the locomotor activity in mice. In addition, PH enhanced the level of 5-HT in the mice brain. The results further indicated an inhibitory activity of PH on both the 5-HT6 receptor expression level and the 5-HT6 receptor dependent downstream signal pathway ERK1/2.These findings indicated antidepressant-like effects of PH as evidenced by decreased immobility time in mice through a 5-HT6 receptor antagonistic mechanism.
, Maki Kobayashi, Kazuki Kanazawa
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 19-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630386

Abstract:
Objective: The effects of 6-MSITC on cell cycle progression were investigated in quiescent mouse epidermal JB6 cells. Background: 6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (6-MSITC) derived from wasabi (Wasabia japonica) has been reported to prevent tumor development in vivo. Material and methods: Treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) to quiescent JB6 cells, which were serum-starved for 36 h, promoted cell cycle progression from the G0/G1 phase to the S phase. Effects of pretreatment with 6-MSITC on cell cycle progression were estimated by flowcytometry and real-time RT-PCR. Results: Pretreatment with 6-MSITC at 0.25-1.0 μg/ml prior to the growth stimulation with EGF significantly inhibited cell cycle progression. Pretreatment with 6-MSITC inhibited the gene expression of DNA synthesis-related proteins cyclin A2, dumbbell former 4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen. Conclusion: These results showed that 6-MSITC inhibits cell cycle progression in quiescent cells, accompanied by the inhibition of gene expression of DNA synthesis proteins.
, Ernest Afu Ochang, David Ewuru Elem, Promise Akugom Owai, Bernard Ekpan Monjol, Ikechukwu Henry Ukweh, Chimaobi Ikechukwu Nwagboso, Bode Akashie Abraka, Simon Edward Ereh
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 10-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630385

Abstract:
Introduction: Urinary tract infection is a major reason for hospital visits and a common clinical condition encountered by clinicians. The causative agents of urinary tract infection and their resistant pattern vary globally. The aim of this study was to highlight the profile of pathogens associated with urinary tract infections in our locality. The objective was to investigate the resistant pattern of these microbial isolates from patients with urinary tract infection and offer recommendations for effective treatment. Materials and methods: We retrospectively analyzed the urine culture and antimicrobial sensitivity reports of patients with suspected urinary tract infection at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria, from September 2019 to August 2020. Methicillin resistance was detected by disk diffusion method using 30 µg cefoxitin disk. Production of Extended spectrum beta lactamases was detected by the Combination disk and the double-disk synergy method. Results: Of 979 urine culture and sensitivity reports, 306 (31.26%) were positive for microbial growth. Two microbial isolates each were recovered from urine samples of 5 patients giving a total number of 311 isolates from 306 patients. 45.75% of positive results were in males. The predominant isolate was Escherichia coli (n=97, 31.19%). Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL) producing strains comprised 10.08% (10/238) of Gram-negative group of organisms, while 47.39% (145/306) of all bacterial isolates in our study were multi drug resistant (MDR). 14.29% (6/42) of S. aureus isolates were methicillin resistant S. aureus, while 33.33% (2/6) of methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) were multi drug resistant. Conclusion: Urinary tract infection caused by antimicrobial resistant organisms is common among studied patients. This emphasizes the need for urine culture and sensitivity tests in the management of urinary tract infection.
, Oluwadamilare Oluwaseun Ajayi, Babafemi Tosin Ogunbiyi
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i630384

Abstract:
Several studies on the adverse effects of methotrexate have been reported, especially its implication in the degeneration of spermatogenesis, reduced sperm count and ultimate male infertility. As an antagonist, methotrexate (MTX) uses folic acid to obstruct the production of some biomolecules involved in synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein. It is used in the treatment of cancer and other diseases such as psoriasis, and rheumatism. Reports have also revealed that the expression of Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP8a) promotes spermatogenesis and fertility through the induction and activation of signaling sets of transcription factors, SMAD1/5/8. Hence, the expressions of these proteins and role of apoptosis are crucial to understand the mechanism involved in Methotrexate-induced infertility. In view of this, albino mice (Swiss strain) were randomly sorted to four groups. Group I served as control while groups II, III & IV (n=5) were treated with 5, 10 and 20mg/kg/day of Methotrexate (IP) respectively. Expressions of BMP8A and SMADs 1/ 5/ 8 were done by PCR and Western blotting techniques. Germ cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry techniques. Ultrastructural changes were assessed in leydig cells as well as sertoli cells. The results of this study reveal a down-regulation of BMP8A and SMAD1/5/8 proteins in a dose-dependent pattern. Induction of apoptosis was also confirmed by the expression of primary apoptotic Bax antibody. The sertoli cells which play their major roles of nourishing and protecting the development of sperm cells were severely impaired too. These findings suggest that the function of BMP8A and SMAD1/5/8 proteins in promoting proliferation and differentiation of spermatogonia was severely disrupted following methotrexate exposure. Caution should therefore be taken when administering this drug.
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 100-106; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530381

Abstract:
The antifertility effects of Abrus precatorius root bark meal (APRB) on Coptodon zillii juvenile was determined by a 42 days feeding experiment, with the inclusion levels of 0g, 6g, 12g, 18g and 24g/kg diet. Water volume of 20 litres in a plastic tank (50cm x 27cm x 35 cm dimension) was maintained throughout the period of experiment. Coptodon zillii was fed at 4% body weight. In male fish, testis weight, milt volume, milt count and motility duration reduced with increase in inclusion level and there were significant differences (P<0.05) in the treatments used. Histology of testis at 0g of APRB/kg diet showed primary and secondary spermatocytes in the seminiferous tubule, connective tissue was clearly seen. In treatments 6g, 12g, 18g and 24g APRB/kg diets, there were increase in interstitial cell, eroded connective tissue and necrosis. In female fish, ovary weight, fecundity, relative fecundity and gonadosomatic index reduced with increase in the concentration of treatments used. Histology of the ovary at 0g APRB/kg diet showed developing oocytes while treatments 6g, 12g, 18g and 24g revealed reduced oocytes, increase in interstitial cell, alteration in ovary development and necrosis. The research revealed that Abrus precatorius root bark meal may be effective in controlling reproduction in Coptodon zillii.
Zakir Hossine, Oishi Khanam, Mashih Ibn Yasin Adan,
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 88-99; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530380

Abstract:
This paper explores a two-species non-homogeneous reaction-diffusion model for the study of pattern formation with the Brusselator model. We scrutinize the pattern formation with initial conditions and Neumann boundary conditions in a spatially heterogeneous environment. In the whole investigation, we assume the case for random diffusion strategy. The dynamics of model behaviors show that the nature of pattern formation with varying parameters and initial conditions thoroughly. The model also studies in the absence of diffusion terms. The theoretical and numerical observations explain pattern formation using the reaction-diffusion model in both one and two dimensions.
, Mounirou Sow, Olufisayo Kolade, Roland Bocco, Clement Agbangla
Annual Research & Review in Biology pp 75-87; https://doi.org/10.9734/arrb/2021/v36i530378

Abstract:
The Africa Rice Center Gene Bank hold about 2,500 accessions of Oryza glaberrima. To understand well the genetic diversity in O. glaberrima and its wild species, the use of molecular tools is prominent. The sample consisted of 217 accessions of O. glaberrima, 46 of O. barthii and 7 of O. sativa (checks) was genotyped with 21 polymorphic microsatellites markers. A total of 245 alleles were detected with average 11.67 alleles per locus. Number of alleles was ranged from 2 (RM124) to 20 (RM536). The polymorphic information content value was 0.49 while the heterozygosity was 0.091. The result showed that the sample can be clustered into four genotypic groups. Two groups among them were homogeneous. The first one consisted of O. barthii accessions with 82 alleles in total with average 3.90 alleles per locus. However, the second one consisted of only O. glaberrima accessions with 122 alleles with average 5.80 alleles per locus. O. glaberrima accessions were analyzed using model-based population structure. Results revealed two groups among O. glaberrima accessions. At the end, the identified core collection has 26 accessions consisted of 16 O. glaberrima and 10 O. barthii based on 21 microsatellites markers.
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