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Results in Journal Current Developments in Nutrition: 4,140

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Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa128

Abstract:
Corrigendum for D'Antoine H, Bower C. Folate Status and Neural Tube Defects in Aboriginal Australians: the Success of Mandatory Fortification in Reducing a Health Disparity. Curr Dev Nutr 2019;3:nzz071. https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzz071
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa129

Abstract:
Corrigendum for Cunningham et al. Adolescent Girls’ Nutritional Status and Knowledge, Beliefs, Practices, and Access to Services: An Assessment to Guide Intervention Design in Nepal. Curr Dev Nutr 2020;4(7):nzaa094, https://doi.org/10.1093/cdn/nzaa094
Current Developments in Nutrition; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa127

Abstract:
Despite increasing research on the double burden of malnutrition (DBM; i.e., coexisting over- and undernutrition), there is no global consensus on DBM definitions. We aimed to identify operational DBM definitions in the literature, measure their frequency of use, and recommend assessment considerations. Following a structured search of peer-reviewed articles with terms describing “overnutrition” (e.g., overweight, obesity (OW/OB)) and “undernutrition” (e.g., stunting, micronutrient deficiency), we screened 1920 abstracts, reviewed 500 full texts, and extracted 623 operational definitions from 239 eligible articles. Frequently occurring definitions included coexisting: 1) OW/OB and thinness, wasting, or underweight (n = 289 occurrences); 2) OW/OB and stunting (n = 161); 3) OW/OB and anemia (n = 74); and 4) OW/OB and micronutrient deficiency (n = 73). DBM was most frequently measured at the population level using existing national health survey datasets. Addressing DBM requires considering which forms of malnutrition and population groups constitute public health priorities, and which DBM definitions capture the assessment's desired purpose.
Aseel E L Zein, Sarah E Colby, Wenjun Zhou, Karla P Shelnutt, Geoffrey W Greene, Tanya M Horacek, Melissa D Olfert, Sciprofile linkAnne E Mathews
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa120

Abstract:
Background Food insecurity affects millions of Americans and college students are especially vulnerable. Little is known about the relation of food insecurity with weight status and dietary intake during this critical phase of emerging adulthood. Objectives We aimed to examine the sex-specific associations of food insecurity with obesity and dietary intake among college students. The study also explored these associations by meal plan (MP) enrollment. Methods This cross-sectional study included 683 second-year students at 8 universities in the United States. Food security status and dietary intake were assessed using the USDA Adult Food Security Survey and the Dietary Screener Questionnaire, respectively. On-site anthropometrics were measured by researchers. Results The prevalence of food insecurity at the universities ranged from 19.0% to 34.1% with a mean of 25.4% for the entire sample. Compared with high food security, marginal food security and food insecurity were associated with 3.16 (95% CI: 1.55, 6.46) and 5.13 (95% CI: 2.63, 10.00) times increased odds of obesity, respectively, exhibiting a dose–response relation. Food insecurity remained a significant predictor of obesity among both sexes after adjusting for sociodemographic variables. Food-insecure (FI) students had a significantly lower intake of fruits and vegetables and higher intake of added sugars than food-secure (FS) students. Obesity rate and added sugars consumption were higher among FI students with MPs than among FI students lacking MPs and FS students regardless of MP status. Among students with MPs, FS students had a higher intake of fruits and vegetables than FI students. Conclusions Food insecurity was associated with obesity and poor dietary intake among both sexes. Although MP subsidies may be a reasoned approach to combat food insecurity, it should be coupled with efforts to assist students in making healthy food choices. Registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02941497.
Yu Qi Lee, Jason Loh, Rebekah Su Ern Ang, Mary Foong-Fong Chong
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa118

Abstract:
We systematically reviewed studies to examine changes in women's diets from pregnancy to the postpregnancy period and sought to understand the characteristics of women making these changes. From a search of 4 databases and up to November 2019, 17 studies met our inclusion criteria. They reported changes in various dietary aspects. Mixed findings were reported for changes in energy and micronutrient intakes. Most studies reported significant decreases in fruit and vegetable consumption, diet quality, and adherence to a healthier dietary pattern during the transition from pregnancy to postpregnancy, whereas increases in discretionary food and fat intakes were observed. Women with lower education level, lower income, and/or who worked full-time tended to have poorer dietary behaviors postpregnancy. Further research, with better aligned dietary measurement time points during pregnancy and postpartum and standardization of dietary assessment tools, is needed for future studies to be comparable. The systematic review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews as CRD42020158033.
Sciprofile linkKelly A Hirko, Sarah S Comstock, Rita S Strakovsky, Jean M Kerver
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa121

Abstract:
Background Gestational weight gain (GWG) has important health implications for both the mother and offspring. Maternal diet during pregnancy may play an important role in achieving adequate GWG, although its precise role is unclear. Objectives Associations between maternal dietary components (fruits and vegetables, added sugar, percentage energy from fat, dairy) and GWG were examined in 327 pregnant women from the Archive for Research on Child Health cohort. Methods Self-reported usual dietary intake was assessed with validated dietary screening tools at the first prenatal visit. GWG was obtained from the birth certificate and was categorized as inadequate, adequate, or excessive according to the Institute of Medicine recommendations. Associations between dietary components and GWG were assessed using multivariable regression models, stratified by maternal prepregnancy BMI category. Results Only 31.5% of women had adequate GWG, with 24.8% gaining insufficient weight and 43.7% gaining excessively. Women who consumed more fruits and vegetables were suggestively less likely to have excessive GWG (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) in the minimally adjusted model, but the association became nonsignificant after adjusting for covariates (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.03). In stratified models, higher fruit and vegetable intake was linked to lower likelihood of excessive GWG among women with obesity (OR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.60, 0.97), whereas higher added sugar intake was linked to a slight reduction in likelihood of excessive GWG (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.99) among women with a prepregnancy BMI in the normal range. Other dietary components were not significantly associated with GWG. Conclusions These results suggest that consuming fruits and vegetables during pregnancy may reduce risk of excessive GWG among women with obesity. With the rising prevalence of obesity among women of reproductive age, interventions to increase fruit and vegetable intake during pregnancy may have broad public health impact by improving maternal and child health outcomes.
Jiayi Wu, Shaohui Wu, Jinhong Huo, Hongbo Ruan, Xiaofei Xu, Zhanxi Hao, Sciprofile linkYuan'an Wei
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa113

Abstract:
Background Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) in breast milk contribute to the development of the neonatal microbiota and immune system. However, longitudinal studies examining HMO profiles of Chinese mothers remain scarce. Objectives We aimed to analyze HMO profiles, including their composition, concentrations, and changes during lactation, in milk of Chinese mothers. Methods A total of 822 milk samples from 222 mothers were collected, of which 163 mothers provided single samples. Samples from the remaining 59 mothers were collected on day 3, day 7, and thereafter every 7 or 14 d until day 168. 24 HMOs were studied using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography. Secretor and nonsecretor status were determined based on Lewis blood types and a defined 2′-fucosyllactose (2′-FL) threshold. Results Of the 222 mothers, 77% were secretors and 23% were nonsecretors. The longitudinal study involving 59 mothers showed that the total HMOs in secretors were significantly greater than those in nonsecretors during the first 2 wk. Acidic HMOs decreased significantly during lactation and were similar between secretors and nonsecretors. Among neutral HMOs, distinctive differences were observed. Nonfucosylated and α-1-3/4-fucosylated HMOs in nonsecretors were significantly higher than those in secretors during the first month. In contrast, α-1-2-fucosylated HMOs in secretors were significantly higher than those in nonsecretors throughout 168 d. In secretors, 2′-FL concentrations peaked at (mean ± SEM) 3.02 ± 0.14 g/L (day 3) followed by significant decreases. In nonsecretors, 2′-FL concentrations were fairly low throughout 168 d. Of the 24 studied HMOs, only 3-fucosyllactose concentrations increased during lactation in both secretor and nonsecretor mothers. Conclusions Our study showed dynamic changes of 24 HMOs in secretors and nonsecretors during lactation and revealed unique features of these HMO profiles in the milk of Chinese mothers. Interestingly, 2′-FL concentrations in secretors were found to be lower than those of Western populations but higher than those of African populations.
Sciprofile linkChantelle Richmond, Marylynn Steckley, Hannah Neufeld, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Kathi Wilson, Brian Dokis
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa108

Abstract:
Background In Canada, few studies have examined how place shapes Indigenous food environments, particularly among Indigenous people living in southern regions of Ontario. Objective This paper examines and compares circumstances of food insecurity that impact food access and dietary quality between reserve-based and urban-based Indigenous peoples in southwestern Ontario. Methods This study used a community-based survey containing a culturally adapted food-frequency questionnaire and cross-sectional study design to measure food insecurity, food access, and dietary quality among Indigenous respondents living in urban (n = 130) and reserve-based (n = 99) contexts in southwestern Ontario. Results Rates of food insecurity are high in both geographies (55% and 35% among urban- and reserve-based respondents, respectively). Urban-based participants were 6 times more likely than those living on-reserve to report 3 different measures of food insecurity. Urban respondents reported income to be a significant barrier to food access, while for reserve-based respondents, time was the most pressing barrier. Compared with recommendations from Canada's Food Guide, our data revealed overwhelming trends of insufficient consumption in 3 food categories among all respondents. Close to half (54% and 52%) of the urban- and reserve-based samples reported that they eat traditional foods at least once a week, and respondents from both groups (76% of urban- and 52% of reserve-based respondents) expressed interest in consuming traditional foods more often. Conclusions Indigenous Food Sovereignty and community-led research are key pathways to acknowledge and remedy Indigenous food insecurity. Policies, social movements, and research agendas that aim to improve Indigenous food security must be governed and defined by Indigenous people themselves. Indigenous food environments constitute political, social, and cultural dimensions that are infinitely place based.
Jing Xue, Elizabeth K Hutchins, Marwa Elnagheeb, Yi Li, Sciprofile linkWilliam Valdar, Susan McRitchie, Susan Sumner, Sciprofile linkFolami Ideraabdullah
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa106

Abstract:
Background Liver metabolite concentrations have the potential to be key biomarkers of systemic metabolic dysfunction and overall health. However, for most conditions we do not know the extent to which genetic differences regulate susceptibility to metabolic responses. This limits our ability to detect and diagnose effects in heterogeneous populations. Objectives Here, we investigated the extent to which naturally occurring genetic differences regulate maternal liver metabolic response to vitamin D deficiency (VDD), particularly during perinatal periods when such changes can adversely affect maternal and fetal health. Methods We used a panel of 8 inbred Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse strains, each with a different genetic background (72 dams, 3–6/treatment group, per strain). We identified robust maternal liver metabolic responses to vitamin D depletion before and during gestation and lactation using a vitamin-D-deficient (VDD; 0 IU vitamin D3/kg) or -sufficient diet (1000 IU vitamin D3/kg). We then identified VDD-induced metabolite changes influenced by strain genetic background. Results We detected a significant VDD effect by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (Q2 = 0.266, pQ2 = 0.002): primarily, altered concentrations of 78 metabolites involved in lipid, amino acid, and nucleotide metabolism (variable importance to projection score ≥1.5). Metabolites in unsaturated fatty acid and glycerophospholipid metabolism pathways were significantly enriched [False Discovery Rate (FDR) <0.05]. VDD also significantly altered concentrations of putative markers of uremic toxemia, acylglycerols, and dipeptides. The extent of the metabolic response to VDD was strongly dependent on genetic strain, ranging from robustly responsive to nonresponsive. Two strains (CC017/Unc and CC032/GeniUnc) were particularly sensitive to VDD; however, each strain altered different pathways. Conclusions These novel findings demonstrate that maternal VDD induces different liver metabolic effects in different genetic backgrounds. Strains with differing susceptibility and metabolic response to VDD represent unique tools to identify causal susceptibility factors and further elucidate the role of VDD-induced metabolic changes in maternal and/or fetal health for ultimately translating findings to human populations.
Sciprofile linkNicolai Petry, James P Wirth, Valerie M Friesen, Fabian Rohner, Arcade Nkundineza, Elli Chanzu, Kidist Girma Tadesse, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Lynnette M Neufeld, Ekin Birol, et al.
Current Developments in Nutrition, Volume 4; doi:10.1093/cdn/nzaa107

Abstract:
Background Biofortification of staple crops has the potential to increase nutrient intakes and improve health outcomes. Despite program data on the number of farming households reached with and growing biofortified crops, information on the coverage of biofortified foods in the general population is often lacking. Such information is needed to ascertain potential for impact and identify bottlenecks to parts of the impact pathway. Objectives We aimed to develop and test methods and indicators for assessing household coverage of biofortified foods. Methods To assess biofortification programs, 5 indicators of population-wide household coverage were developed, building on approaches previously used to assess large-scale food fortification programs. These were 1) consumption of the food; 2) awareness of the biofortified food; 3) availability of the biofortified food; 4) consumption of the biofortified food (ever); and 5) consumption of the biofortified food (current). To ensure that the indicators are applicable to different settings they were tested in a cross-sectional household-based cluster survey in rural and peri-urban areas in Musanze District, Rwanda where planting materials for iron-biofortified beans (IBs) and orange-fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSPs) were delivered. Results Among the 242 households surveyed, consumption of beans and sweet potatoes was 99.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Awareness of IBs or OFSPs was 65.7% and 48.8%, and availability was 23.6% and 10.7%, respectively. Overall, 15.3% and 10.7% of households reported ever consuming IBs and OFSPs, and 10.4% and 2.1% of households were currently consuming these foods, respectively. The major bottlenecks to coverage of biofortified foods were awareness and availability. Conclusions These methods and indicators fill a gap in the availability of tools to assess coverage of biofortified foods, and the results of the survey highlight their utility for identifying bottlenecks. Further testing is warranted to confirm the generalizability of the coverage indicators and inform their operationalization when deployed in different settings.
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