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, Mihisa Fujisaki,
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 04, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.s11-005

Abstract:
In Japan, unlike many other countries, forensic psychiatry has traditionally used Binder’s criterion for determining the criminal responsibility of drunken offenders. We investigated 50 judgment documents taken from District courts and analyzed them for the implementation of Binder’s criterion and other factors, to determine criminal responsibility. Only 20 documents explicitly mentioned Binder’s criterion. Decisions were based not only on Binder’s criterion, but also additional factors related to the crime, which could contribute to diminished responsibility. Logistic regression analysis showed that decisions of diminished criminal responsibility were related to factors such as, “memory loss”, “incomprehensible motive”, and “heterogeneous character of the perpetrator”. These results suggest that Japanese District courts do not adhere as strictly to Binder’s criterion as originally thought by Japanese forensic psychiatrists. The courts also use what would be deemed “common sense standards” when determining criminal responsibility.
Nithin, Manjulatha B, Pramod Kumar Gn
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 04; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.s1-001

Abstract:
Hanging is one of the most common methods of suicide in India in which death of the individual occurs almost immediately. However, a few cases have been reported in literature in which death has occurred after a certain period of time or the patient has survived after prolonged resuscitative measures. Here we present three cases of delayed deaths due to suicidal hanging in which the victims survived for variable time duration after they were rescued from hanging.
Somsong Nanakorn,
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 04; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.s1-005

Abstract:
Finger ridge density (RD) is the number of finger ridges that touch the diagonal line drawn between a square of 25 mm2 which is placed on the core of the fingerprint image. It has been useful as a sex determination aid in forensic practice as its values are significantly higher in females than males. The present study was aimed at investigating the RD of Thai adolescents aged between 10 and 12 years old. Subjects were 130 schoolboys and 130 schoolgirls were randomly selected and signed informed consent forms prior to printing each individual’s ten fingers by using the adhesive transparent tape technique. The Microsoft Word program was applied for precise counting of RD. The mean RD differences between left and right hands, boys and girls, radial and ulnar areas were statistically tested. The likelihood ratio was computed to obtain the probability inferences of sex, and posterior probabilities were estimated using Bayes’ theorem. Results revealed as follows: (1) The mean RDs (ridges per 25 mm2) of boys and girls were not significantly different across the radial (15.89 vs. 16.19, respectively) and ulnar areas (15.84 vs. 16.00, respectively). For each sex, mean RDs in the radial and the ulnar were not statistically different. (2) The mean RDs in both sexes were greater in the left hand fingers compared to the right hand, and were statistically significant only in girls. (3) For the ulnar area, the RD of 13 or less is most likely to be of from male origin and that of 17 or more has a low probability of being of female origin. Comparing the radial area, an RD of 14 or less has a low probability of being of male origin while a weak probability of the RD of 17 or more is most likely being of female origin.
Naser Kamalian, , Maryam Soleymanzadeh.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 02; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000117

Abstract:
The frequency of thoraco- omphalo-ischiopagus tripus or conjoined twins (CT) is quite rare of mozygotic twinnings, and they are classified as unions of symmetrical CT. A case of conjoined twins with thoraco- omphaloischiopagus type is presented here as well as a review of differential diagnosis. The twins had two heads, two pairs of upper limbs and three lower limbs. They also shared thorax, abdomen and pelvis with a single beating heart.
Shafiul Alam, Ahmad Ferdous, Mohammad Eunus Ali, Tania Hossain, Mahamud Hasan
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 02; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000116

Abstract:
In this study, we are reporting the concordance study between profiles from AmpFlSTR ® SGM plus™ and that of PowerPlex ® 16 system kits in Bangladeshi Bangali population. DNA samples from 234 unrelated Bangladeshi Bangali individuals were evaluated employing both the SGM plus™ and PowerPlex ® 16 system human identification kits. Complete consistency was observed in 233 out of 234 profiles which represents substantial degree of concordance amounting 99.57% between these two kits. Only one discrepancy encompassing the dropout of allele 12 at D16S539 loci in PowerPlex ® 16 system was observed. Sequence analysis revealed two mutational events; one at 16 bp distal and another next to the 3′ end of the PowerPlex 16 reverse primer of D16S539 locus. This study has shown the significance of using of alternative set of primer to address the false homozygosity issue as well as of bringing attention regarding the fact of discrepant typing from different sets of primers to the scientific community during database handling and identity or kinship investigations.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 02; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000115

Abstract:
Forensic or scientific practices may require producing orthopantomography of dry skulls, that lack soft tissue, therefore modifications on the usual technique should be necessary. With the objective of standardizing the postmortem digital and analogue panoramic radiography this research produced a single a digital radiography and 13 analogue panoramic images, using different exposure configurations and four different objects to try to overcome the effects of the lack of soft tissue radiation absorption on the analog radiographs. A gel based ice pack, a 20 mm dental wax block, and a 0.5 mm metallic foil were placed in different points of the device. Also a previously exposed and developed film was placed inside the cassette between the unexposed film and the intensifying screen. The images were presented to 15 dentists of several specialties, who graded and ranked the images. In conclusion, the digital panoramic was easily obtained at a 60 kV and 2 mA settings and on analog equipments the use of two films inside the cassette achieved best results with 63 kV and 06 mA exposure settings.
, Agustí Mora, Marta Sanchez, María Barbal, Mariona Palahi
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 02; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000114

Abstract:
Aim: Detection of drugs of abuse is interesting in legal procedures. The aims of the study were: 1: Evaluating the detection time of drugs of abuse in saliva in an arrested population, drugs consumers that are taken into judicial custody in a maximum time of 72 hours from their detention. 2- Verifying analytical results with self reported reference of the subjects. Participants: 50 oral fluid samples coming from arrested people that are taken into judicial custody in police officer's courts of the city of Barcelona. The study was carried out in the Laboratory of the Institute of Legal Medicine of Catalonia. The design study was a cross sectional study. Drug tested were: cocaine, amphetamines and related compounds, cannabis and opiates. The time of previous consumption was of 1-3 days. Measurements: The oral fluid samples were analysed by gas- chromatography-mass spectrometry. Findings: Positive results were obtained in 40% of the samples. Cocaine was detected in the 73.9% of positive results to this drug. Cannabis was detected in the 28.5%, Opiates was detected in the 23, 1%. Amphetamines were not detected. Conclusions: It is important to stand out the high rate of cocaine positive results in relation with the time passed and abstinence consumption of 1-3 days. Oral fluid may be a good sample for cocaine detection in drug consumers.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 03; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000147

Abstract:
The National Research Council (NRC) released a report in 2009 discussing the “science” used in forensics. Specifically, the report outlined concerns regarding the state of the forensic sciences and what was needed to raise the level of rigor and reliability of these fields in a court of law. In response to this NRC document, the present paper examined several parameters used in decomposition studies that have implications for forensic entomology. Specifically, this analysis was conducted to determine the degree of repeatability in methods across studies as related to general conclusions drawn in court, entomology and forensic investigations. Forensic entomologists primarily analyze insect evidence recovered from decomposing remains to estimate a portion of the Period of Insect Activity (PIA), which encompasses the time of colonization, to infer a minimum Postmortem Interval (PMI). One method utilized by entomologists relies on succession data from published studies to generate estimates of the minimum PMI of a decedent. For this article, approximately 75 publications on arthropod succession on vertebrate carrion were reviewed for 13 criteria that are known to play instrumental roles in governing this process: 1) animal model, 2) time of actual death, 3) euthanasia method, 4) storage method, 5) storage time, 6) time of removal from storage to placement in the field, 7) time of day remains placed in the field, 8) catalog of arthropods associated with the remains over time 9) time of initial insect contact, 10) time of initial colonization (i.e., arthropod offspring located on the remains), 11) study site, 12) number of replicate carcasses and 13) months and season of study. These criteria were selected as they can directly impact arthropod colonization and succession patterns on vertebrate carrion and are easily recorded. Data indicated that such information is highly fragmented, and that key criteria necessary to repeat studies (a core principle of the scientific method) are often lacking in the published literature. As an example, among the studies included in this analysis, we could not find significant associations between arthropod taxa richness and carcass model or carcass size. In the case of carcass size, island biogeography theory predicts that larger areas/resources will hold higher diversity. We suspect that the high degree of reporting variability in taxonomic resolution and taxa-specific study focus precluded such relationships that have been reported for other disciplines of biology. Consequently, we suggest that, to date, because of these issues there has not been a comprehensive analysis (e.g., meta-analysis) to provide general inference of arthropod succession patterns on carrion to predict a minimum PMI. In order to begin standardizing such studies, we suggest that future research endeavors examining arthropod succession on carrion record detailed data for all of the suggested criteria. Doing so can result in data amassed over time for use in comprehensive and strong meta-analyses. Such results could allow for greater appreciation of variation associated with arthropod succession on carrion.
, Sandeep Kumar Gupta, Nirajan Thapa Kshetry, Raju Panday, Basanta Raj Pokharel
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000374

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the authenticity of infant Rhino horn sample from morphometric, microscopic, genetic and phylogenetic studies. Methods: A suspected rhino horn sample (11 cm × 13 cm) was sent to the laboratory for identification. Relevant morphometric data of sample were taken. Similarly, established methods for microscopic examination of rhino horn were adopted. Using standard universal primer, a part of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) and 12S rRNA was amplified from sample, sequenced and aligned using BLAST of the GenBank (NCBI) and in-house reference database available at Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India for decisive confirmation of species. Results: Morphometric analysis showed the sample was oval, dome shaped with a bony part which was supported by upper skin. Presence of filamentous units is the microscopic identifying feature of genuine rhino horn. However, microscopic examination showed very unclear filamentous units because of the immature nature of sample. Mitochondrial sequence data revealed the source of suspected sample was of a one-horn Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Similarly, NJ method for phylogenetic analysis for both Cytb and 12S rRNA identified sequence similarity with Rhinoceros unicornis. Conclusion: Even though the morphometric and microscopic data do not reveal much about the infant rhino horn, mtDNA sequencing used in this pioneer study can be applied in the wildlife forensic for identification of such parts in future and data used as evidence against the poachers in the court of law.
, Elena Patrascu, Ileana Marinescu, Elena Dinca, Petru Razvan Melinte
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000373

Abstract:
Blood micro-circulation within the placental villous system still raises a large number of problems of functional anatomy concerning the angio-structure of terminal villi, the communication between arterioles and venules of the umbilical vascular system, the spatial extension of the “extra-vascular contractile system” and, last but not least, the existence of the pre-sinusoid arteriole sphincters. The authors make a micro-anatomic analysis of the spatial distribution of the collagen fibres type III (reticulin) as markers of the pre-sinusoid arteriole sphincters. The study was performed on 20 human placentae of gestation age between 25 and 35 weeks. After paraffin embedding, 10 serial sections were obtained from each paraffin block. They were stained in Hematoxilin Eosin, or silver-impregnated according to Gömöri method. We had two objectives: to evaluate the spatial distribution of post arteriole sinusoid blood vessels within the terminal villi in the placenta, on the one hand, and the visualization of the location of a presinusoid arteriole sphincter system, on the other. The authors believe that umbilical arterioles and venules are connected “serially” at the level of terminal villi through arteriole-venule sinusoid blood vessels. The location of the trajectory of collagen type III (reticulin) bundles enveloping pre-sinusoid arterioles are markers of the existence of a pre-sinusoid arteriole sphincter at this level.
Maciej Koszowski
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000372

Abstract:
This article addresses the scope of the potential applications of an analogical argument in the domain of statutory law. The author thus shows how analogy leads to the liquidation of different sorts of legal gaps: extra legem, intra legem, contra legem, technical, logical and constructional. He also highlights the role which analogy can play as a universal method of applying particular statutory provisions in concrete cases, the way of coping with obsolete statutes with the help of an analogical inference, or the clarification of the wordings of statutory rules by recourse to reasoning from similarity. In the article, allowance has also been made for the linking of an analogical pattern of thinking with specific legislative techniques such as the ‘ejusdem generis canon of construction’ and ‘pertinent application of statutory law.’ In addition, the analogical basis of comparative arguments, the possibility of expanding the domain of statutory law with the use of analogy at the expense of the room reserved for customary and precedential law as well as special forms of analogical reasoning: argumentum a fortiori and analogia iuris have been discussed.
, Isabela Emy Kamiguchi, Barbara Wagner Ferraz De Camargo Duarte, Mara Rita Rodrigues Massad, ,
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000369

Abstract:
Maltreatment against animals is defined as a deliberated action that causes pain and suffering to those. At this range, Brazilian law of Environmental Crimes states that cruelty against animals is, by nature, a crime. In cases of suspected maltreatment and non-accidental injury, is of great importance the role of the veterinary doctor in recognizing and, therefore, taking the correct conduct during the attendance. For this, one must have the knowledge of the elements that sustain the chance of abuse, as the characteristics of the wounds and whether they consist with the record given by the owner, if the wounds repeat in this animal or in other animals of the household, the posture of the owner during the attendance, amongst others.
, Gaurav Sharma
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000371

Abstract:
Objective: To determine the frequency and reliability of cervical soft tissue emphysema and pneumomediastinum in autopsy cases of hanging. Material and Method: We prospectively studied 30 autopsy cases of hanging including 18 males and 12 females with age ranging from 19 to 65 years. The control group consisted of age and sex matched 30 cases that died due to various natural pathologies. Along with this, a small group of five cases consisting of homicidal asphyxial deaths from ligature and manual strangulation was also studied for this purpose. Various other known vital phenomenon in hanging were also recorded in the form of hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissues, laryngeal hyoid skeleton fractures, conjunctival and facial petechial hemorrhages, hemorrhages over clavicular origin of sternocleidomastoid muscle, carotid intimal tears (Amussat’s sign), Simon’s bleeding and hemorrhages in the respiratory auxiliary muscles of respiration. The dissection and preparation of the neck was done in layers. None of the cases underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Signs of putrefaction were absent. Results: The soft tissue emphysema was seen in 22 cases (73.3%) of hanging as fine soapy air bubbles in the mediastinum that could be traced further in the superficial and deep tissues of the neck up to the level of ligature mark beyond which it was missing. Among two other groups, 3 controls depicted this finding while no traces of emphysema were seen in any of the strangulation cases. Conclusion: Cervical soft tissue emphysema along with pneumomediastinum is a frequent and important vital finding in cases of death due to hanging. Whenever possible, the vitality of the sign should be considered in conjunction with other known vital signs of hanging. However a proper care should be taken during dissection of cervical and thoracic structures to avoid artefactual introduction of air in the soft tissues. The interpretation must be based on sound medical grounds and observations.
, , Mara Rita Rodrigues Massad, Luiz Mauricio Montoya Florez, Elan Cardozo Paes De Almeida, Noeme Sousa Rocha
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000370

Abstract:
Cases of intoxication are common in the history of the veterinary medicine, mainly in dogs and cats. Appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and pathological findings could characterize cases of intoxication, however laboratorial methods in forensic toxicology is fundamental to establish a definitive diagnosis of the toxic agent. In the present work was made analysis of three cases of pet animals criminally intoxicated by carbamate. Necropsy helps to uncover causes mortis, were verified cardiac respiratory insufficiency and hypovolemic shock in all cases. Histopathology exam of liver, kidney and brain described the main lesions like congestion, degeneration and haemorrhage. Organs show signs of autolysis and putrefaction. Therefore, diagnostic techniques helps veterinarian to make reports for litigation in animal criminal intoxication.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000368

Abstract:
Sexual addiction has become the catch-all for infidelity, cheating, and promiscuity. The problem is that the experts in the field of sexual addiction have promulgated these misperceptions and misdiagnoses. The wealthy and famous appear to have mental health field in their pocket to use as a get-out-of-jail-free card, to have an excuse for having engaged in affairs or promiscuity or the use of prostitutes. Sexual addiction was defined similarly to how the DSM-5 has defined substance use disorders. Following those diagnostic criteria, as well as how Carnes et al. defined sexual addiction, it appears that the rich and famous do not meet the diagnostic criteria for sexual addiction. They do appear however to meet the criteria for infidelity, cheating, sense of entitlement, and promiscuity. And what about sexual offenders who claim to be sexual addicts? They may or may not have a sexual addition however they are also sexual offenders.
, Bengt Jansson, Klaus Olsen,
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000367

Abstract:
There is a tendency to regard police-work, implying independence and initiative in the absence of direct presence of authority that places a premium upon leadership, as a ‘drudge’ although ‘daily hassles’ may be converted immediately to “special events”. Despite this aspect, police leadership tends not to differ from other, civil, forms of leadership. A sample of police leaders (n=106) was compared to civil leaders derived from government administration and private enterprise (n=1650). Personal attitudes to and experiences of job relations and characteristics are measured with the JMT three subscales (Inner Drive and Tolerance to stress distress from the main scale Stability together with Enterprise from the main scale Action) all of which provide an indication of the leader’s resourcefulness. Low-level scoring on any of these three attributes is expected to induce negative influences upon subordinates whereas the opposite outcomes may be predicted by high-level scoring. The results indicated that: (i) All-level police chiefs differed markedly from executive leaders in public administration and private enterprise; the former expressed the lowest levels of tolerance to stress, enterprise and Inner drive. (ii) Correlational analyses indicated that there were clear-cut, positive and strong relationships between the three variables, tolerance to stress, enterprise and Inner drive. (iii) there was a marked difference between public and private executive leaders with regard to enterprise and Inner drive to the advantage of the private executive leaders. The present results are discussed in relation to police leadership inadequacy and efforts to overcome the situation.
, Okoye Fbc, Onyenekwe Cc, Azuonwu O, Ebiere Ne
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000360

Abstract:
Background Study: Vitreous humor is an inert, transparent, jelly like substance that fills the posterior four fifths of the cavity of the eyeball. It is the choice sample in post-mortem investigation and analysis. Objective of study: To determine vitreous biochemical parameters suitable for postmortem interval (PMI) extrapolation. Material and Methods: Vitreous humors were collected from the eyes of 50 dead bodies (28 males and 22 females) at the Federal Medical Center Yenagoa morgue employing Coe method. The vitreous was extracted, centrifuged and the resultant supernatant used for the biochemical analysis. The supernatants were analyzed for glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, urea and creatinine using WHO approved methods. Results: The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS. The results indicated that there was strong correlation (R-0.88) between vitreous potassium and PMI. Other parameter showed either weak or negligible correlation. The staged-three -hourly mean potassium showed a gradual increase using student t-test. Conclusion: Death within 15 hours can be extrapolated from potassium concentrations.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000365

Abstract:
An extensive amount of social science research has been conducted on issues related to the criminal justice system. From the moment a crime is witnessed until a verdict and sentence have been rendered there exists opportunity for the human cognitive system to distort and misinterpret data about a crime, about the suspect, and about the process itself. The research presented here describes, in easy to understand terms, some of the empirical research that points out disadvantages minorities face within the system, differences in the way in which trial information is received and evaluated, and provides a framework that may potentially lend itself to methods for mitigating these disadvantages and individual differences.
Zhiwen Wei, Jie Yu, Chao Zhang, Juan Jia, Jie Cao, Yujin Wang, Cairong Gao, Yingyuan Wang, Keming Yun
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000363

Abstract:
Epidural anesthesia is often used form in Chinese primary hospitals and lidocaine is the most favorite anesthetic. Fatalities due to epidural anesthesia accident and lidocaine overdose are often happened, but there still have not obvious evidence to indicate the real reason of death according to the concentration of lidocaine in postmortem blood because the postmortem redistribution (PMR). An animal models using dogs has been developed, whereby the dogs received an intravenous, subarachnoid, and epidural injection of lidocaine (75 mg/kg body weight). The dogs were placed at room temperature after sacrifice. The cardiac blood, inferior vena cava blood, liver and cerebrum samples were collected at 0 h, 1 h, 4 h, 8 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h postmortem with the same animal’s corpse. The lidocaine is easier diffusion from canalisvertebralis to cardiac blood in subarachnoid administration. The level commonly has a great change from 48 h after death in cardiac blood, from 35.7 mg/L to 1421.9 mg/L, and then decreasing 50% at 72 h. The inferior vena cava blood concentration was stabilized in postmortem time. The cerebrum concentration of subarachnoid administration decreased by 50% and was observed at 72 h after death. The changes were observed in cardiac blood in intravenous and epidural administration groups, but no changes were observed in cerebrum. Lidocaine concentrations did not change significantly in the liver in any of the three groups. This study can assist toxicologists to determine which specimens should be the most appropriately during the interpretation of lidocaine concentrations in epidural accidents.
Lilian M Passarelli, Romina Mori Cortes
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000366

Abstract:
Forensic Palynology is an important tool to resolve the place and sometimes the season of the year of a fact. The palynomorphs may be in different objects (clothes, shoes, ropes). Pollen morphology is sometimes exclusive for a plant species and some of them grow in specific areas besides plants produce pollen at certain times of the year. The study was based on field work and monitoring seasonal wild communities near Punta Lara reserve. This paper describes the pollen morphology of the representative species which grow in this zone of wetlands from Buenos Aires, Argentina and can be representative of the landscape of the region.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000361

Abstract:
Considerable research reveals that most people, including mental health and law enforcement professionals, are remarkably poor at catching liars, doing no better than chance. Our comparative inability to detect deception poses a profound threat to the reliability of forensic psychological and psychiatric evaluations of criminal defendants intended to assess such things as current mental status and future dangerousness. In forensic evaluations, where one’s personal freedom, even life, can be at stake, some clients, perhaps more than some, will inevitably dissemble. This essay provides a brief and non-technical description of the research my students and we have conducted designed to better understand the reasons for which detecting deception is so difficult. In this regard, and consistent with much previous research, we discovered that in assessing the verbal content of other persons’ statements, it is possible with a good degree of reliability to differentiate between true and deceptive statements of criminal defendants. We also found that the “truth” is itself a multidimensional concept and that truthful versus false statements differ with regard to both the quantity and quality of information contained in a statement. While multiple challenges exist to accurately detect deception, our data strongly suggested that it may be so difficult to catch liars because it requires more cognitive work to identify false rather than true statements. Indeed, the data indicate that determining a statement is true appears to involve a one-step cognitive process while determining a statement is false appears to involve a two-step cognitive process, whereby a false statement is recognized as lacking attributes of truthfulness while simultaneously manifesting attributes of deception. That it would be more difficult to recognize falsehoods and require more cognitive work does not seem surprising considering that the identification of a lie forces us to look below and reject the surface meaning of a statement concluding that the statement is not simply inaccurate but actually intended to deceive or mislead us. On a more positive note, even though deception is ubiquitous in human relationships and a significant number of dangerous liars will be successful, the accuracy of deception detection can be improved by the application of the findings from verbal content analysis identifying those statement attributes characteristic of truthfulness versus deception. It would seem especially important for forensic psychologists and psychiatrists to be aware of research capable of assisting them in assessing the veracity of criminal defendants participating in court-ordered evaluations.
Fahd Mohammed A. Abd-Algalil, Sureshchandra Popat Zambare, Lubna A Khan, Kamlesh H Mali
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000364

Abstract:
The present study deals with the effects of variation in temperature and humidity on the different life cycle stages of Calliphoridae fly Chrysomya saffranea. In India for first time, Chrysomya saffranea was recorded apart from Australia as a native place of this fly. In this study different life cycle stages of Chrysomya saffranea in different seasons were observed. In summer season when the average temperature ranged between 30.5°C and 33.2°C and the average humidity ranged between 12% to 19%, life cycle duration was completed in 220 h (9.17 days) from the depositing of eggs up to the eclosion of adults. But in rainy season when the average temperature ranged between 25.6°C and 28.9°C, and the average humidity ranged between 50% to 65%, life cycle duration was completed in 259 h (10.79 days), while in winter season when the average temperature ranged between 17.8°C and 24.4°C, and the average humidity ranged between 17% to 28%, life cycle duration was completed in 341 h (14.21 days) from eggs up to emergence of the adults. The temperature and humidity are the most important factors playing role in the larval development, decay and degradation of the cadavers. Therefore, the climatic fluctuations and environmental changes play an important role in the life cycle of Chrysomya saffranea. All these factors must be considered in the Post Mortem Interval determination.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 08; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000362

Abstract:
The official position of the United States Government is Marine Corps Colonel James E. Sabow committed suicide. He allegedly died by an intraoral shotgun discharge in the backyard of his quarters on the El Toro Marine Corps Air Station, Orange County, California, USA in 1991. However, questions have persisted since the Colonel’s death whether he died by homicide. The two scenarios on the manner of death, suicide and homicide, were evaluated as to the gunshot residue (GSR) and back spatter residue (BSR) on the Colonel’s clothing, the bloodstains on and off the body and the position of the body at the death scene. The shotgun, when test fired, was shown to leak GSR from its breech and trigger housing. Samples from the Colonel’s clothing were analysed by scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis show there are no concentrations of GSR or BSR on the clothing that should be present if the Colonel committed suicide. Bloodstains on and away from the body and the position of the body do not support the suicide scenario, The Colonel’s body was staged to appear he committed suicide. There is no evidence of suicide. The Colonel’s death was a homicide.
Awad E Osman, , , Jasem Bjm Theyab, Mohamed Mubasher, , Hanan AlHarthi, Eman Al Idrissi, Michael H. Crawford, Gehad El Ghazali
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 06, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000267

Abstract:
Introduction: The small size of Short Tandem Repeats (STRs), their ubiquitous genome-wide distribution and polymorphic nature enhances their value in human forensic/population genetics applications. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the short tandem repeat variation based on 15 loci in a population from the central region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Allele frequency variation for 15 Short Tandem Repeat (STR) loci was examined in 190 unrelated Saudi volunteers. Results: This study summarizes the allele distribution in the Saudi population and compares them to other populations located in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. The standard forensic parameters of Observed Hetrozygosity (Ho), Expected Heterozygosity (He) and Gene Diversity Index (GD) were determined for the following 15 STR loci: D8S1179, D21S1, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH0, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S5, D5S818 and FGA. The most frequent alleles in the Saudi population were: 8 repeats (0.558) at TPOX, 12 (0.411) at D13S317, 12 (0.385) at CSF1PO, 11 (0.382) at D16D539 and 10 (0.358) at D7S820. The 15 markers utilized in this study are highly informative as evidenced by their high power of discrimination (PD) values with D2S1338, D19S433 and FGA having the highest PD values. The relationship between the Saudi population and other geographically distributed populations, assessed by a Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) plot, showed that the Saudi population clustered with groups from Yemen, Iraq, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain. Conclusion: TPOX, D13S317, CSF1PO, D16D539 and D7S820 markers were found suitable for forensic analysis, paternity testing and can also be used for chimerism study after allogenic bone marrow transplantation for Saudi population. On the other hand, the population admixture with other ethnic origins might explain the variable degree of genetic distances of this population and other Arab-related groups.
Marzena Labecka, Lorkiewicz-Muszynska D
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000348

Abstract:
Objectives: According to WHO, suicide is the act of deliberately killing oneself. The number of suicide autopsies is comparable year by year; there are differences however in the sex and age, and the method chosen. The aim of the study was to analyze the cases of people who used their occupation-related knowledge to commit suicide. Material and Methods: A retrospective study of the Department of Forensic Medicine autopsy protocols from 2010 to 2014 was carried out. Of the 1,908 protocols searched, 292 suicide cases were selected and the reason and circumstances of death were studied. Results: The number of suicides increased from 49 cases in 2010 to 65 cases in the years 2013 and 2014. The most common ways were by hanging and intoxication. In 7 (2.8%) of the cases, professional knowledge was used. Amongst them were three cases where death was the result of having knowledge of and access to firearms. Three other suicides were committed by physicians with use of pharmaceuticals. The case of a taxi driver who gassed himself with exhaust fumes causing death by carbon monoxide intoxication was found and the case of an electrical engineer who connected himself to a power source using a timer was also recorded. Conclusions: Although suicides planned and committed with use of professional knowledge are rare, they always succeed. The need for restricting access to means to prevent suicides is underlined.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000340

Abstract:
Objective: The main objective of this paper is the estimation of age at death using subjective dental data. This is particularly useful in developing and under developed countries. Methods: This study provides a framework for the estimation of age at death using very subjective measurements of the teeth using (i) Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) and (ii) Generalized Additive Models (GAMs). These predictors of age were all ordinal in nature. A dataset comprising measurements taken on 71 maxillary incisors from different individuals at the time of their death was used. A comparison of two models – the Gamma GLM and the Gamma GAM is used to illustrate the flexibility of this method and the predictive power of the statistical modelling process. Results: The study showed the effectiveness of the models through the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) as well as the proportion of correct predictions within each of the age groups. The Gamma GAM actually had the higher AIC but the better predictive values within the age groups. Conclusion: Statistical modelling caters for the types of data and can give reasonable predictions of age at death.
Elvira Ventura-Spagnolo, , , Orazio Ventura-Spagnolo, Giulio Cardia
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000349

Abstract:
We describe a case of death by facial and skull fractures with brain injuries of a motorcyclist wearing a full-face helmet. A 40-year-old man driving a high-powered motorcycle crashed violently into the rear of a stopped car. The main results from the autopsy revealed the deformation of the left orbito-zygomatic and fronto-temporoparietal regions corresponding to bone fractures with laceration at the left temporal lobe. The CT scan of the helmet revealed the detachment of the energy-absorbing liner. Moreover an impact speed of 93 Km/h resulted from the analysis of accident dynamics. We analysed the literature regarding the effectiveness of full-face helmets in reducing the risk of fatality and we sought the factors that may have deleted the protection offered. The lesions causing death were due to high speed and probably the inadequacy of the helmet.
, Katherine Kirby-Parker
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000342

Abstract:
Contact lenses have rarely been relevant in criminal investigations and/or trials. Furthermore, there are no established protocols for the forensic evaluation of contact lenses in a criminal case. Recently, an article concerning the forensic use of contact lenses in a murder case was published in the Journal of Forensic Science. After obtaining a court order, the body of murder victim Janet Abaroa was exhumed for further forensic evaluation. Contact lens remnants were retrieved from her orbital contents and became key material evidence in her murder trial. This paper describes the contact lens burial simulation study, which served as a vital part of the Abaroa forensic investigation. Additionally, a retrospective summary of other criminal cases involving contact lenses is presented. A finalized protocol for the forensic analysis of contact lenses in a criminal case is presented to assist future investigators.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000341

Abstract:
Background and Objectives: Medical malpractice is a legal cause of action that occurs when a physician deviates from required substandard and causes deterioration, disability, harm or death to a patient. This study documented all the reported malpractice cases according to the forensic medicine authority in Fayoum Governrate in the in the course of regular and proper health service Methods: All cases of medical malpractice claims of several medical specialties referred to the Forensic Medicine Authority, in 2012-2016 were checked (n=55). Results: The present study shows that 87.3% of the study group were adults, and 12.7% of them were children, 50.9% of them were males and 49.1% were females, and as regards to the place of residence, 47.3% of the victims were from urban places. The study has also pointed out that the majority of malpractices occurred in general hospitals (67.3%), more than in clinics and private hospitals. The 40% of malpractice were complications of surgery, then 23.6% of them were due to negligence, then 21.8% of patients had medication errors, and the least percentage of 14.5% had forgotten gauze and the majority of malpractices occurred in obstetrics and gynaecology which represent (36.4%) of the cases. Conclusion: It is extremely essential to analyse the errors properly in order to get the medical malpractice under control to avoid incidence of litigation and to propose professional standards as well as accurate references in connection with medico-legal procedures.
Monica L Snyder,
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000352

Abstract:
Criminals have long used fire to try to destroy evidence of other crimes. Historically this cover-up attempt has had enough success that today investigators may assume evidence has either been consumed by the fire or ruined by the fire-fighting efforts. Yet research indicates evidence can endure fire and still yield partial or even full DNA profiles. However, there has been little investigation into the robustness of DNA from one biological fluid compared to another. This study examines whether fire degrades the DNA from blood more than the DNA from semen. The two biological fluids were exposed to fire, the DNA from these samples was extracted using Qiagen kits, and DNA degradation was quantified using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. DNA was quantified from 59 postfire samples plus 10 positive controls. Data analysis indicated the DNA degradation levels were not significantly different between blood samples and semen samples. However, DNA degradation levels varied significantly between samples on different substrates (nylon versus polyester).
Dubinsky Alexander Aleksandrovich, Bulygina Vera Gennadievna, Dubinsky Alex, Er Aleks, Rovich, Pronicheva Maria Mikhailovna
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000355

Abstract:
The results of studies on the interrelation of autobiographical memory with the features of the inward picture of the disease among offenders with schizophrenia. There were examined 17 patients with schizophrenia with criminal history, under compulsory treatment. The comparison group consisted of 17 patients with schizophrenia with prosocial behavior and 18 mentally healthy individuals without criminal history. The following techniques aimed to study the inward picture of disease were used: the types of attitude towards disease, symptom checklist-90-revised, life-line (for studying the autobiographical memory), metaphor of the past, functions of autobiographical memory, the questionnaire of self-attitude and balanced inventory of desirable responding. Specific interrelationships between the types of attitude to the disease and perceived symptoms with the peculiarities of functioning of autobiographical memory were revealed. It was found that patients have less realistic possibilities of consciousness with reduced mediation of autobiographical memory representations of the disease at the higher level of severity of distress due to the perceived symptoms and to the less realistic and adaptive types of attitude to disease. It was discovered that offenders with schizophrenia are characterized by the predominance of negative perceptions of past experience, the fragmentation of attitude to disease with low awareness of their symptoms, which is associated with a lower contribution to the mediation of ideas about the disease of functional constructs of autobiographical memory.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000343

Abstract:
Photographs or recently digital images are routinely taken during autopsies. The analysis and interpretation of those images assumes that they are properly taken and handled, and can be relied upon. This paper concerns a case in which manipulation of such an image may have led to an unfounded conclusion in a death investigation. In 1994, as a result of the wrongful death civil case in United States District Court Central District of California Southern Division (SA CV 93-991) brought against the Department of Defense by Dr. David Sabow and Sarah Sabow, brother and wife of the victim, United States Marine Colonel James E. Sabow, approximately 30 autopsy photographs were released. One of the autopsy photographs differed from all the other photographs by appearing to be poorly taken. This photograph of the victim’s posterior upper body appeared to have had the flash too close to the victim’s lower left side, which caused the upper back, neck and left pinna to be overexposed. Digital analysis of a high resolution scan of this photograph revealed it was likely the result of darkroom manipulation. A nearly identical photograph to the questioned photograph, submitted in a report to the United States Congress, was a different fabrication. In December 2012 the original, unmodified photograph was discovered from which both manipulated photographs were generated. The original photograph allowed for a more detailed analysis of the questioned photographs and showed that perjured submissions had occurred: the first in Federal Court and the second to the United States Congress.
Surendra Kumar, Pradeep Jain
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000347

Abstract:
In India, the forts and fortresses are historical heritage and symbol of grandeur, dignity and strength of our vibrant past. Rajasthan is the most visited place by foreigners in India to feel and explore this heritage. All these forts and fortresses were equipped with every kind of war wares & weapons, which can be found or witnessed decades later, nowadays too and gun powder was one of the essential commodities of warfare. The unutilized gun powder in these forts brings a problem as no one knows about its whereabouts of storage as these forts and fortresses got abandoned on their own and this causes accidental explosions. Such an interesting in forensic point of view incident was reported in the fortress of village Jasaana where some arc welding for the modernization work in the fortress was being done and a massive explosion occurred. Our team of expert visited the spot of occurrence, in forensic point of view, calculated the amount of explosive materials and level of explosion. On the basis of our observations we concluded that this explosion might have been caused by gunpowder. Through this article we tried to put light on the features and characteristics phenomenon of gun powder explosion and we have performed first ever a forensic attempt to estimate the approximate amount of gun powder that got exploded.
John Wang
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000344

Abstract:
A quick determination whether a fired cartridge case is a reloaded case or not has several practical implications for responding officers, crime scene technicians, and criminal investigators in the field. Such a determination would give them a precaution: (1) The fired case may have been be fired by one or several weapons. (2) A quick determination of reloaded and fired pistol cases should assist criminal investigation in narrowing down the type of ammunition used, the type of suspects involved, and a possible link between the reloaded case(s) and the reloading machine at the suspect's residence. (3) If the case goes to the court, the expert opinion from the examiner would be challenged heavily by the defense. Currently, little information and research is available on the topic. Based on the observational examinations of reloaded and fired pistol cartridge cases (N=100) with three types of calibers (.45, .40, and 9 mm), this study offers three practical guidelines for a quick determination of these reloaded and fired cases by naked eyes or a magnifier. These three guidelines should be relevant and useful in identifying reloaded and fired pistol cartridge cases at the scene and as reference later in comparing them in the lab to improve criminal investigations.
Sun-Min Kim, Sunwook Hong
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000346

Abstract:
The separation methods of duct tape, packing tape, aluminum foil tape, clear tape, electrical tape and the semi-transparent tape was studied. Adhesive-side to adhesive-side adhered tapes, adhesive-side to non-adhesiveside adhered tapes and adhesive-side to A4 paper adhered tapes were prepared, and the performance of three separation methods (dipping in liquid nitrogen, liquid nitrogen spraying with a cryogun and application of Un-Du) were compared. The fingermarks on the surface of the adhesive surface were developed with Adhesive Side Developer (duct tape, packing tape and aluminum foil tape) and Rose Bengal dye dissolved in a phase-transfer catalyst (clear tape, semi-transparent tape). No differences were observed between the dipping in liquid nitrogen and liquid nitrogen spray methods with respect to the following features: tape fracture and brittleness; transfer of adhesive material to the adhesive-facing side of the tape; separation of the adhesive material from the plastic backing layer; and fingermark development. Un-Du method was successful in separating adhesive-side to adhesive-side adhered tapes, adhesive-side to non-adhesive-side adhered tapes and adhesive-side to A4 paper adhered tapes. We also confirmed a decrease in fingermark quality when using the Un-Du method.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000353

Abstract:
Sexual addiction has become the catch-all for infidelity, cheating, promiscuity, and rape. Recently it has become the newest claim for rapists and child molesters. Sexual addiction was defined similarly to how the DSM-5 has defined substance use disorders. Following the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria, as well as how Carnes et al. defined sexual addiction, it sometimes appears as though sexual offenders are sex addicts and are therefore not responsible for their sexually abusive behaviour. Sex offenders may have a sexual addiction in addition to being a sexual offender; however the sexual addiction has nothing to do with sexual offending. No different than a sex offender having a substance use disorder- the drugs or alcohol used never cause the offender to rape, rape is a choice the offender makes whether sober or intoxicated. Sexual addiction involves having intense thoughts involving sexual activities and may include engaging in numerous promiscuous sexual encounters and frequent masturbation. However, those sexual encounters are not about forced sex, just about sex. Sexual offenders rape and molest because of thoughts involving the use of physical or psychological use of force to obtain sex and/or because of sexual thoughts involving children or adolescents.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000345

Abstract:
Cardiac myocytes respond to volume overload by undergoing hypertrophy in two phases: Proportionate increase in breadth and length and Continuation only of lengthening after the chamber dilates beyond a defined threshold. These responses have upper limits that are in need of explanation. Hearts were retrieved from 104 forensic autopsies. Myocyte breadths were measured in H&E-stained paraffin sections from LV and RV free walls. Mean myocyte lengths were calculated from chamber diameter and wall thickness (at full systole in these preparations) using a previously defined regression equation. Using body weight as an estimate for volume overload, myocyte breadth obeyed the expected two phase pattern. This pattern differed between ventricles in only one well defined way: the limiting mean breadths in the right and left respectively were 17.5 μm and 21.9 μm. Hence, in the RV it is not the attained size that imposed the limit on further hypertrophy of the mean myocyte because that attained size imposed no such limit in the LV. The behaviour of overworked myocytes is virtually identical in the two ventricles and it seems reasonable to propose that this identity should affect also the upper limit to size. Log normal distributions generally fit reasonably well in both RV and LV with no ceiling exerted upon the most enlarged cells, which further supports the lack of effect by attained size. A body of theory emerges which provisionally places a causal role for hypertrophy on the simple operation of geometry constrained by a fixed number of myocytes. The theory emerged without need to introduce any proposed contractile weakening. If this theory is confirmed by further observations using improved methodology then this conclusion would sharply constrain what subcellular mechanisms might mediate these events.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000354

Abstract:
Background: Several reports are available on human body dimensions (BD), their interrelationships with height, sex difference and sex estimation from different populations. Objectives: To understand interrelationships between linear BD and height in adults and estimation of sex. Methods: A sample of 20-39 years old Nepali-speaking 268 adults (158 men, 110 women) was selected from Naxalbari in Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Anthropometric measurements included height, sitting height (SH), upper arm length (UAL), forearm length (FAL), combined length of forearm and hand (CLFH), total arm lengths (TAL) (left side), hands and feet (bilateral length and breadth). Sub-ischial leg length (SLL) and indices (hands and feet), relative proportion, multiplication factors (MF) of linear BD for height were calculated. Sectioning point (SP) values [(mean value in men + mean value in women)/2] were calculated for anthropometric variables to estimate sex. Results: The SH and SLL each shared almost 50% of height. Relative proportions of BD to height were: TAL (men 45.39%, women 46.36%), CLFH (men 25.88%, women 26.58%), UAL (men 19.48%, women 19.82%) and FAL (men 14.83%, women 15.47%). Foot length (FL) and hand length (HL) was approximately 15% and 11% of height in men and women respectively. Foot breadth (FB) and hand breadth (HB) were approximately 6% and 5% of height respectively. The approximate values of MF of BD for height were calculated for TAL (2), CLFH (4), UAL (5), FAL and foot length (7), HL (9), FB (17), and HB (20). Based on SP value, sex estimation was done accurately (%) for SH (82.10%), FL (bilateral 81.72%), HL and FB (left 79.10%), FB (right 77.99%), HB (right 77.61%), TAL, HL (right) and HB (left) (75.37%), SLL (74.25%), CLFH (70.15%), UAL (66.67%) and FAL (62.70%). Conclusion: The MF and SP values were effective in understanding relative proportions of BD to height and sex estimation respectively.
, Joe Mullins
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000350

Abstract:
This article reports on techniques used in forensic facial identification with a 3D modeling software system to create a virtual sculpture. In this forensic case study, Free Form Modeling SensAble Technologies and a haptic feedback Phantom® Desktop™ were used to reconstruct the facial features of the deceased from her skull. It was previously C-T scanned and then imported as an STL file under which the work was done. The advantages of the haptic feedback device is that the forensic specialist is able to “feel” the surface of the skull, not only to provide a more accurate assessment of the individual -such as their ancestry, sex and age determination-but also to visualize the process of the Manchester method of forensic facial reconstruction step by step.
Sungwook Hong, Chung Kim
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000351

Abstract:
The development of latent skin impressions on a variety of fabrics (cotton, rayon, polyester, nylon, and acrylic fabrics in five colors; white, black, yellow, blue and red) has been studied. Squid soaked in artificial sweat solution or de-ionized water was used as an alternative to human skin to make skin impressions on the fabric. A piece of squid was subjected to a constant force, to transfer the skin components onto the fabric. The fabrics bearing the skin impressions were treated with various reagents such as ninhydrin, 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO), 1,2-indanedione/ Zn (1,2-IND/Zn), Amido black and Hungarian red, to know the most effective method for developing the skin impressions on the fabrics. Comparing the sensitivity of the reagents, stronger development was observed from the impressions made with the artificial sweat soaked squid than the de-ionized water soaked squid. These results show that the development quality of the latent hit mark is influenced by the sweat, as well as other skin components. Also, the development efficiency of the reagents varied depending on the chemistry, color and texture of the fabric. Therefore, before the development of skin impressions on the evidence fabrics, it is suggested to perform a preliminary experiment with different methods on a similar fabric to decide the most sensitive method.
, Certova J, Mekss P
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000337

Abstract:
A study of four different ballpoint pen inks was carried out using methods of HPLC and solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Inks of different ballpoint pen manufacturers-two blue ones and two purple ones were chosen for the research. Naturally aged ink samples on paper were stored under various conditions, and the comparative samples were exposed to aggressive influence of light, temperature and ozone. During the study of artificially and naturally aged samples differences in chemical composition of ink were identified-possible signs of accelerated ageing were detected in records and signatures that were made with blue and purple ballpoint pen inks.
Yoshiaki Omura
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.c1.019

Abstract:
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Jeanne Marie Stumpf-Carome
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.c1.020

Abstract:
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Robert Ndou
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.c1.021

Abstract:
This interactive publication is created with FlippingBook, a service for streaming PDFs online. No download, no waiting. Open and start reading right away!
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 07; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000e118

Abstract:
Harvey JM Hou-Editor's Note: Journal of Forensic Research (Volume 7 Issue 3)
Caio Cesar Silva De Cerqueira, , , Soledad De Azevedo, , Carolina Paschetta, Celia Cintas, Marina González, Lavínia Schüler-Faccini, Maria Cátira Bortolini, et al.
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000336

Abstract:
The 'omics' era and its concomitant technological advances have brought great insight into genetics. One of the most promising fields within human genetics is the prediction of physical traits from analysis of genetic material. Besides the predictive potential of DNA, the traceability of pathogenic agents in the human body through molecular analysis is also a field to be further exploited. In this review, we aim to discuss specific aspects of phenotypic prediction by analysing DNA, with special emphasis on normal variation, and the application of a technology known as ‘Forensic DNA Phenotyping’ (FDP). We also suggest the term ‘Phenotype Informative Markers’ (PIMs) to designate any molecular markers responsible for normal or pathological human phenotypic variation. In addition, we raise some recommendations related to forensic genetics, the molecular diagnosis of human diseases, and the traceability of pathogens in the human body, giving special emphasis to the need for validation of these tests with strict protocols. Some relevant concerns about privacy, ethics, and legality of such predictions have also been discussed. Finally, we look at perspectives on the use of epigenetic tools, and quote some examples of what has been done in this specific field.
Todor Todorov
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000334

Abstract:
Todor Todorov-The Usage of Polygraph Method in Bulgaria
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000332

Abstract:
Background and Objective: Child abuse is not an uncommon issue for pediatrics; rather, it is a major public health worry all over the world. An apparent form of maltreatment with children is child sexual abuse (CSA), which has negative consequences on both the short and long-term health consequences, apparent in both physical and mental disorders. This study is particularly important to determine the demographic and medico-legal aspects of sexual abuse of children in Fayoum Governorate, Egypt, which has clinical implications for pediatricians, psychiatrists working with children. Methods: This is a multi-faceted study that was conducted among children by the Forensic Medical Authority (FMA) in Fayoum Governorate. This study is a descriptive case-series analysis of child sexual-abuse cases documented over the last five years (2010-2014). Results: The total number of cases was 15 victims; 80% were males and 20% were females. Most assaults occurred in 2010 (20%), 2013 and 2014 (33%). The samples selected was at a mean age of 8 years and the range of ages varied from 5 months to 15 years; 12 (80%) were males and 3 (20%) were females. A total of 40% of the victims were related to the urban areas, and 60% of the victims were from rural areas. Physical signs were found in 26.7% of the victims in the form of abrasion and bruises in the face, forearm and leg, while such signs were absent in 73.3% of the selected sample. The perianal sign was found in 80% of the victims while it was absent in 20% of them. Conclusion: The study has shown that the rate of parental illiteracy of the selected sample was higher than it was for others (the general population), which seems to be one of the causes of the issue. The main victims are the children whose ages range from 6-12 years.
, Singh Cp, Rakesh Dhar, Rajesh Soni
Journal of Forensic Research, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.4172/2157-7145.1000338

Abstract:
An experiment carried out on speaker identification by semi-automatic measurement of parameters with the goal of collaborating numerical data as well as descriptive data with that of probability scales. The 15 sets of speech samples of 15 speakers selected randomly from 100 actual crime cases, in Hindi utterances for purpose of speaker identification test subjected to spectrographic analysis. Speaker specific acoustic parameters, namely 1st formant frequency at a particular location (F1); 2nd formant frequency at a particular location (F2); and 3rd formant frequency at a particular location (F3) measured for the set of speech samples for all the 15 speakers. Also, the auditory analysis based on the linguistic features and phonetic features noted of each of the 15 sets of speech samples. We developed software to calculate the similarity percentage for the numerical data measured on the basis of acoustic analysis and numerical values assigned to auditory parameters on the basis of auditory analysis computed according to one of the nine probability scales. Most of the existing methods take only acoustic features to obtain numerical results for the purposes of speaker identification.
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