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Junying Song
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n1p63

Abstract:
Doris Lessing is one of the Nobel Prize winners and “A Woman on a Roof” is such a famous short story of hers. In the patriarchal society, women are in the lower status, but the woman in the story struggles bravely to fight against the male power. During her fighting, the woman has doubts and hesitation, but she finally forces the three males to put off their prejudice. This paper focuses on how the woman strives for her own rights, and talks from the perspective of Existential Feminism, taking the main male and female characters in “A Woman on a Roof” as examples, so as to explore women’s self-survival in the dualistic society. Through studying her feminist thinking in the short story, the paper points out that the woman finally transforms her role from the Other to the Subject and then she is in an equal position with the three males. Though the two genders does not reconcile with each other as it seems to be with the purification of rainwater in “A Woman on a Roof”, the woman has made a big progress in the pursuit of her own transcendence.
Danhua Huang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n1p51

Abstract:
Machine translation has grown very rapidly in recent times due to the developments in big data, artificial intelligence, and cloud computing software and techniques. The first generation of Rule-Based Machine Translation has been replaced by fourth generation of Neural Machine Translation based on complex deep learning and networking models. Translation models have also undergone tremendous changes. The traditional translation model fails to meet the needs of the modern language service industry. There still exists doubt whether Translation technologies could enhance the quality in the translation of non-technical texts. So far no one has discussed the application of the technologies in the translation of IMTFE Transcripts. This paper aims to prove that translation technologies can be applied to the translation of IMTFE Transcripts which the author works on. By analyzing the text features of IMTFE Transcripts, and applying different translation technologies in the translation, the author finds that the quality and efficiency of translation have been greatly enhanced. It is concluded that translation technologies can be used to facilitate translation of texts of different kinds. In spite of their drawbacks, translators can still benefit a lot from the adoption of translation technologies.
Li Zhen
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n1p46

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to analyze “discipline power” and its implications for the service staff characters in the novel The Remains of The Day. From the perspective of Foucault’s power theory, especially the notion of discipline power, this essay explores these characters’ different destinies and responses to power. Contrary to many scholars who have discussed hierarchical power that easily finds expression in the master-and-servant relation in the traditional English house in this novel, the current essay mainly focuses on discipline power, which is internalized in people, allowing them to be unconsciously manipulated. Therefore, this essay first takes “Darlington Hall” as a model to analyze its disciplinary function and then turns to the main character, the butler, Stevens, who lives in the house and whose conduct mirrors how discipline shapes him. Finally, this essay points out solutions to the problem of the control of power by analyzing how Stevens and the housekeeper, Miss Kenton, renew their identities. This renewal echoes Ishiguro’s attempt to pay attention to the fates of marginalized people and console the unconsoled ones.
Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi, Isyaku Hassan, Engku Muhammad Tajuddin Engku Ali, Ahmad Taufik Hidayah Abdullah, Mohd Hazli bin YahaAlias, Muzammir bin Anas, Nur Izzati Suhaimi
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n1p38

Abstract:
Self-identity formation becomes increasingly challenging for students as they are exposed to different norms in the school environment. Education, language, and religion are crucial in the process of self-identity formation. Therefore, this study aims to explore how English language learning and the school environment influence Islamic self-identity formation among students in selected religious secondary schools in Terengganu, Malaysia. The study employed a qualitative approach in which 90 religious secondary school students in the State of Terengganu were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Focus group interviews were used as a data-gathering instrument. The students were divided across different sessions to ease the process of data collection. The data were transcribed and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The study found that English language learning does not influence the students’ Islamic self-identity formation negatively. Instead, certain morals such as respect, self-esteem, and cooperation, are instilled in the students’ self-identity. This study provides evidence on the students’ ability to construct Islamic self-identity despite the challenges of second language learning.
Yuanlin Liu
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n1p31

Abstract:
In the mock apocalypse of The Possessed, Fyodor Dostoevsky references biblical imagery to advocate for a conscientious monarchy as the ideal government to lead the Russian masses from deception. While Varvara Petrovna Stavrogin’s oppression of Stepan Trofimovich Verhovensky is similar to the Babylonian kings’ exploitation of the Jews in Daniel, the love between them and Dostoevsky’s eventual glorification of Stepan Trofimovich as the Russian prophet suggest the longevity of a conscientious monarchy, one in which the monarch takes responsibility for the welfare of its subjects and enforces Christian morality. Additionally, Dostoevsky’s description of the young anarchist revolutionaries, Nikolay Vsyevolodovitch Stavrogin and Pyotr Stepanovich Verhovensky, echos imagery of the beast and harlot in Revelation. Through the parent-child relationship between the monarchists and revolutionaries, Dostoevsky argues that the revolutionaries take root in the traditional social hierarchy yet betray it. This paper analyzes how Dostoevsky uses the biblical parallelisms in The Possessed to foreshadow the end to nihilism and defend traditional morality and the tsar as Russia’s God-ordained ruler.
Nahla Nadeem
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n1p9

Abstract:
The present study examines the rhetorical devices used by Brené Brown in a 99U conference Talk (2013) in order to engage and persuade the audience that vulnerability is the seed of creativity and therefore, should be embraced as a stepping-stone to success. The study mainly explores the role conceptual blending theory plays in the exploitation of multimodal rhetorical devices, which include an inspirational quote, analogies and metaphors (both verbal and visual) and how they form a ‘mega-blend’ and a complex network of conceptual integration. The study also applies the conceptual blending model and the discursive process of framing in the analysis as crucial for the meaning construal of these multimodal rhetorical blends. The blending-framing analysis showed that these diverse rhetorical devices often require a complex multi-frame analysis and a larger mental space network of mappings to derive the intended message and achieve the intended rhetorical effect on the audience. The analysis also showed that the blending-framing model provided a unified theoretical framework that could examine the discursive function and multimodal representations of diverse rhetorical devices in edutainment events.
Ya Fen Huang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 11; doi:10.5539/ells.v11n1p1

Abstract:
In many literary works, a character’s physical disease or illness also metaphorically references various universal characteristics of the human condition—death, religion, politics and relationships—as they are interworked amidst healthy and unhealthy bodies. In the case of Albert Camus’ The Plague, the epidemic of bubonic plague in the Algerian port city of Oran is considered an allegory for the German occupation of France from 1940 to 1944. The highly infectious disease disrupts citizens’ lives in real time, with consequences that further manifest throughout the world to varying degrees and in varying timeframes thereafter. This paper attempts to explore Camus’s metaphoric connotations of “the plague” within these social, cultural and historical narratives. This interdisciplinary study will also bring together analyses of literary and non-literary texts about the disease narrative, while also addressing literary theories related to medical science in order to better understand the allegorical definitions of illness, death, disability and exile in The Plague.
Alice Ding
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p88

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for English Language and Literature Studies, Vol. 10, No. 4, 2020.
Muhammad Asif, Radzuwan Ab. Rashid, Hanita Hanim Ismail, Omar Ali Al-Smadi, Baderaddin Yassin
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p78

Abstract:
Sisterhood corresponds to a bond of love, cooperation and solidarity among women to fight against their individual or collective oppression at the hands of patriarchy. It initiates and shapes the struggle of women against their sexism. On the other hand, envy and non-cooperation act as enemies of women, making them as easy prey for the patriarchal forces. This study provides a textual analysis of Afghan American novelist Khaled Hosseini’s novels A Thousand Splendid Suns and And the Mountains Echoed. The theoretical foundations of the research are laid down on the theories proposed by bell hooks. The study shows that the solidarity of female characters in the novels freed them from the oppression of patriarchy. However, their envy and non-cooperation led them to the domination of men. This study is a unique addition to the topic as it brings together the ideals of sisterhood and envy on the selected novels of Khaled Hosseini.
Chunxia Lu, Rosukhon Swatevacharkul
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p70

Abstract:
In English as a foreign language context, to cultivate language learners’ critical thinking skills has become a part of the education goal. In China, great efforts have been made in order to increase Chinese college students’ critical thinking skills, but their critical thinking skills are not satisfying. As to the reasons, lack of sufficient and comprehensive understanding of critical thinking skills is supposed to be one of the reasons. Thus, this paper proposed to analyze critical thinking skills from the philosophical, reflective, cognitive, cultural perspectives hopefully to enhance understanding of critical thinking skills in Chinese EFL context.
Cuiping Han, Li Wang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p58

Abstract:
This paper mainly uses the methods of questionnaire and qualitative analysis. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the last and current English majors. Mainly to understand their translation practice in school, including their attitude towards translation practice, the teaching mode of translation course, the time spent in translation practice after class and the main fields involved, and whether the school has provided translation practice platform and its practicability. The survey of 240 English majors reflects the present situation of English Majors in translation practice: 1) Strong willingness to translate; 2) Lack of practice in class; 3) Lack of extracurricular practice; 4) Lack of translation practice platform. To solve the problems in the translation practice of English majors analyzed by the survey results, this paper puts forward some countermeasures: including establishing a translation practice platform within the University, encouraging translation volunteer activities and building a cooperative translation mechanism between the University and the enterprise.
Yuxuan Zhang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p47

Abstract:
The silence around female genitalia and sexuality is a prevalent phenomenon with grave implications. Eve Ensler, an American playwright, wrote the famous Vagina Monologues to combat such issues and aim to end violence against women. While Ensler’s play is popular on a global scale, the localized versions inspired by Ensler are also emerging in various regions. A Chinese feminist organization, The Vagina Project, has created their own script and organized several localized performances in the past few years. A close analysis of one of the scripts written by the Vagina Project demonstrates that the localized versions of The Vagina Monologues, though less paid attention to, are effective in creating connections with the audience. Being attuned to the regional feminist differences allows the play to be more powerful and thoughtful when presented to the audience.
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p16

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the phonological poetic devices found in the poetry of Robert Browning and Alfred Tennyson. It investigates five patterns of phonological poetic devices. The study is based on randomly selected poems from each poet to obtain a representative sample of the particular poetic devices and tabulates the frequency their usage. The poetic devices under investigation are onomatopoeia, assonance, consonance, alliteration, and rhyme. The paper quantitatively analyzes the occurrence of these phonological poetic devices in randomly selected poems from the works of the two poets to a clear picture of the sound patterns found in the poetry of Robert Browning and Alfred Tennyson.
Nazanin Maghami,
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p7

Abstract:
The term “gender” is a load concept in translation studies. The present study focuses on stories written by Simin Daneshvar (1921-2012), a contemporary Iranian female translator and novelist, in order to explore how the visibility of women in the Iranian culture and community after a long patriarchal era has changed the community’s thoughts about women. The method used for this study was qualitative with the interpretive approach. The corpus consisted of five Persian stories, Wandering Island, Wandering Cameleer, The Quenched Fire, Ask from Birds of Passenger and Suvashun by Daneshvar, who has contributed to the promotion of Iranian women’s sociocultural status during the contemporary era. The results proved that women translators and novelists had endured the hardships of sociocultural changes and made it possible for the modern Iranian women to make themselves visible in their social context.
Xian Wu
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p34

Abstract:
Beloved written by Toni Morrison is brimming with profound sense and tension which have been focused on by an increasing large number of scholars at home and abroad. The word “Tension” means the balance between at least two inconsistent literary factors which cannot be dispelled by their opposed relationships. Based on the sense of tension and previous studies, this thesis is about further exploring its tension in themes, characters, and aesthetics. The author employs many kinds of rhetoric, such as symbol, simile, personification and poetization, representing a new method of rhetoric and contributing to a unique “black” poetic impression, which makes the story not only have the charm of form, but the tension of its idea and spirit of nationality.
, Sasitorn Suwanphathama
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p40

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the students’ perceptions and attitudes toward the use of communicative language teaching to improve their English listening and speaking skills. 82 fourth-year students who enrolled in English in Media course were asked to give their perceptions and attitudes in learning from communicative language teaching (e.g., role-play, pair work, group work, group discussion and making a video). The Results showed that the students had strong positive perception toward the classroom activities suggested by the communicative teaching approach. It is suggested that using role-play, group discussion and video production can help increase the students’ confidence and improve their listening and speaking skills. Moreover, the students also strongly agreed that making an English short movie video allowed them to get much exposure to using English.
, Muhammad Asif Khan
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n4p1

Abstract:
Postcolonial Feminism serves as a critical thought to reset the idiom of suppression by identifying the cultural codes which involve women as the ‘Other’ in the Third World countries. This paper is an effort to point out the process of gender fixation in Pakistan which determines the cultural roles for women. This paper tries to define that the system of positioning of women in Pakistan, establishes the term women, as culture and domain. The paper tries to investigate the ideological problem in Pakistan for structuring the women’s identity in their sexual cum biological caricatures in groups instead of their talents. The paper tries to explore that Qaisra Shahraz in “Perchavan” is trying to identify that the term ‘women’, initiates a debate on women not as the emblem of culture, yet women appear to be the culture themselves against all the ethnographic standards of gender remapping in any definition of culture. This study, about the Pakistani women, is an effort to show that Shahraz in “Perchavan” tries to expose, that women are treated as the culture in Pakistan. However, the women in the process of regional nomenclature become portable objects and ultimately they become the domain of society.
Alice Ding
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p113

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for English Language and Literature Studies, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2020.
Zheng Wu
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p105

Abstract:
Anthony Trollope, the British realist writer in the 19th century, writes Cousin Henry and this book is published in October 1879 without Chinese version yet. This work develops around the “will” dispute, presenting the conflict between the widespread social climate and the loft morals. With the guidance of the Relevance Theory, this report consists of the analysis and summary after the translation practice of the twelfth chapter of Cousin Henry, namely, Mr. Oven. This report adopts case-by-case analysis, based on the three principles of relevance theory, that is, ostensive-inferential communication, context and cognitive environment, optimal relevance. In the translation practice, it uses many translation methods, including addition method, domestication method, free translation method, segmenting method, adjusting-word-order method. These translation techniques are analyzed specifically when they are applied at the lexical and syntactic levels. By doing above-mentioned practices intend to enable the reader to get the optimal relevance and better the reading experience when he or she is reading the translation.
Xiu Zeng
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p100

Abstract:
Of Human Bondage, one of W. S. Maugham’s great works, is supposed to be created on the basis of the real life of the author. It centers on the psychological growth of the hero, Philip, from a crippled boy to a mentally matured man. Following Alfred Adler’s theory of inferiority compensation, through a close look into Philip’s experiences with different women in his life, this paper tries to probe into the effect that the initial inferiority in Philip could produce on his view of love and also on his mentality and aims to explore the compensation Philip seeks to get for what he is deprived of in his early age.
Shaima Al-Saeed, Abdullah A. Alenezi
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p86

Abstract:
This exploratory study investigates the use of literary texts in English as a foreign language (EFL) coursebooks and examines the extent to which literature is used within the coursebooks, the types of texts used as regards authenticity and recency, the criteria for selecting and adapting the texts and the ways of improving the selection and adaptation process. Multiple articles written on this subject show that the evaluation of EFL coursebooks is a relevant and important research area in the study of language and linguistics. This study gives a survey of the extent to which literary texts are used in EFL coursebooks within institutions of higher learning in Kuwait and worldwide. In this study, 44 popular EFL coursebooks (between 2015 and 2019) within higher education institutes, including those in Kuwait, were analysed. The findings demonstrated that literary texts are not included in many of the coursebooks used nowadays and that the literary texts selected were primarily from an early period (more than a century ago). Furthermore, the results revealed that the coursebooks include a large percentage of inauthentic, ill-adapted works. Consequently, this study recommends incorporating authentic literary texts in EFL coursebooks comprising modern literature.
Xinyi Yuan
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p79

Abstract:
This paper introduces the concept of endangered languages and the corresponding solution of language revitalization. It first illustrates the importance of language preservation and the process of language endangerment and death. The two principal strategies of thwarting language death are discussed, with an emphasis on the language revitalization as the more effective option due to the difficulties that language revival faces. The most commonly successful approaches to language preservation are discussed such as establishing cultural pride and identity, education, and utilizing modern technology. These strategies are discussed in detail through the presentation of a case study: the Khoisan language family.
Shifang Zhou,
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p62

Abstract:
This paper analyzes universalities and variations of LIFE metaphor via qualitative and quantitative analysis of data retrieved from two authoritative, general, and monolingual corpora—Center for Chinese Linguistics (CCL) and Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) in Chinese and English. The study aims to explore the universalities and variations of LIFE metaphor in Chinese and English on the one hand, further the hidden reasons for the universalities and variations on the other. Results reveal that source domains like JOURNEY/VOYAGE, FOOD, WAR, DREAM, BOOK are employed to conceptualize LIFE both in Chinese and English justifying the universality of conceptual metaphor, which can be ascribed to Chinese and American people’s common bodily experience, common knowledge and experience about the world, common social and cultural experience. However, the frequency of conceptualizing FOOD, WAR, DREAM, BOOK is different, and the potential universal metaphors like FOOD show differences in their specific details. Besides, unique source domains are used for a particular culture (OPERA in Chinese). Different socio-cultural contexts, differential memory, Chinese and Americans’ different outlooks on life may account for LIFE metaphor’s cross-cultural variation.
Abeer Mohammed Raafat Khalaf
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p54

Abstract:
Climate change is one of the significant and threatening problems worldwide. It has attracted the attention of scientists and politicians as well as writers and critics especially in the western world. Writers have responded by writing climate change fiction despite the challenges of representation. James Bradley, an Australian novelist and critic, is one of those writers who are deeply occupied by the impacts of climate change. He has written Clade (2017) which traces the life of Adam Leith, a climatologist, and his family descendants amid the disastrous consequences of climate change. To analyze this novel, the researcher focuses on solastalgia, and applies the approach of everyday aesthetics. In a nutshell, the paper attempts to highlight the impact of climate change, examine the relationship between the characters and their environment, and explore the possibility of adaptation and detection of aesthetic values in an environment destroyed by climate change.
Chunyan Zhang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p39

Abstract:
The Countryside as an inhospitable frontier, as a place where human beings live a harsh life, frequently appeared in both Australian film and Chinese leftist films in the period of nationalism, the 1920s and 1930s. In Australia, this construction manifests itself in the old idea of human beings in conflict with nature, working in an unfriendly environment to make the barest living. In China, it is a new construction, differing from the old motif of a “pastoral” countryside blessed by nature. In Australia, despite its challenges, the countryside was still regarded as a peaceful homeland for human beings to return to, but in Chinese leftist culture, the construction of a negative image of the countryside was so extreme that it was depicted as a totally wretched world.
Xuebin Chen, Tong Liu
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p49

Abstract:
Xunwu Diaocha (Report from Xunwu) by Mao Zedong was abundant in original material and local people’s language and characterized by the Hakka culture, including the local Hakka dialect and vernacular, social customs, foods and tools, and other aspects. This makes it difficult for non-Hakka Chinese to understand its contents, let alone English speakers who know nothing about Hakka. In attempting to make the translation smoothly understood by English speakers while not losing the Hakka flavor, American translator Roger Thompson has done a good job. By comparing Xunwu Diaocha (the original) with its English version Report from Xunwu translated by Roger R. Thompson, this paper analyzes the English expressions of the Hakka culture and discovers four translation strategies that the translator has adopted to achieve the goal of cultural representation. The strategies are Chinese Pinyin plus explanation, literal translation plus explanation, free translation plus Chinese Pinyin, and free translation plus explanation. The study reveals that through the above-mentioned strategies, the translation has well represented the Hakka culture and realizes cultural representation in its translation. Hopefully the strategies employed to represent the Hakka culture can serve as solid guidance for translations of other texts involving rich cultures.
Tanzin Sultana
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p1

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to discuss comparatively Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and Waliullah’s Tree Without Roots to address the social and religious challenges behind the psychology of a man. Dimmesdale and Majeed are not hypocritical. Nathaniel Hawthorne is an important American novelist from the 19th century, while Syed Waliullah is a famous South Asian novelist from the 20th century. Despite being the authors of two different nations, there is a conformity between them in presenting the vulnerability of Dimmesdale and Majeed in their novels. Whether a religious practice or not, a faithful religion is a matter of a set conviction or a force of omnipotence. If a man of any class in an unfixed socio-religious environment finds that he is unable to survive financially or to fulfill his latent propensity, he subtly plays with that fixed belief. In The Scarlet Letter, the Puritan Church minister, Arthur Dimmesdale cannot publicly confess that he is also a co-sinner of Hester’s adultery in Salem. In Tree Without Roots, Majeed knows that the ‘Mazar of Saint Shah Sadeque’ is a lie to the ignorant people of Mahabbatpur. There is also a similarity, however, between Dimmesdale and Majeed. They understand the cruelty of man-made, unsettled social and religious verdicts against a man’s emotional and physical needs. So, despite suffering from inner torment against goodness and evil, they are not willing to reveal their truth of wrongdoing in public action to save their status as well to survive.
Hualan Tan, Zhilong Xie
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p31

Abstract:
English serves as a bridge of communication for the people from all over the world as it plays an increasingly crucial role in the process of globalization. In accordance with English curriculum standards issued by the Ministry of Education in 2011, the ultimate goal of English language discipline is to communicate. But over these years, China’s English education has been difficult to get out of the dilemma of “Dumb English”. When facing the real oral communication situations, students are still too nervous to speak with a great deal of fluency and accuracy. Therefore, the present study aims to explore the relationship between English language anxiety, gender, years of English learning and final oral English achievement by inviting 41 English major freshmen of foreign language departments of Nanchang Business College. For this purpose, this study adopts a reliable Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale developed by Horwitz and Cope (1986) to measure students’ anxiety. The results reveal that anxiety levels between males and females are similar; there is also no significant difference among years of learning English; however, a significantly negative correlation between college students’ foreign language anxiety and their oral English learning achievement was found.
Jiapei Gu
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p8

Abstract:
The article investigates the translation of Love Must not be Forgotten by British translator Gladys Yang from the perspective of New Historicism, focusing especially on the gender issues in the translation. The research first introduces New Historicism and explores the possibility of combining New Historicism and translation studies together. Then, case studies are conducted. The analysis of the translation, along with the analysis of many other texts, both literary and non-literary, such as newspaper or journal articles, considers three aspects. These are, namely: the translator’s manipulation of the text; the ideas that the translator holds, and how all those texts, or discourses, create the positive representation of China in terms of gender issues in the 1980s. The paper, by using a Foucauldian approach, links translation, gender, and New Historicism together and thus successfully creates an interdisciplinary zone of enquiry. Overall, it can serve as a good example of how New Historicism and translation studies can be combined.
Ahmad Mustafa Halimah
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n3p15

Abstract:
It is evident to see that, in the field of translation, there is a random use of the terms ‘method’, ‘approach’, ‘strategy’, ‘procedure’ and ‘technique’ by both teachers and students alike. This article attempts to shed light on such phenomenon and to bring more clarity and objectivity to the world of translation by suggesting a standardised methodological framework. English-Arabic-English translation examples and a questionnaire filled by university Arabic-speaking students and teachers were used for analysis and discussion. Results of the analysis and discussion of samples and the questionnaire in this paper have indicated that there is an urgent need for a novel methodological framework in order to form a standardised profile for the use of translation parameters such as ‘method’, ‘approach’, ‘strategy’, ‘procedure’ and ‘technique’. To achieve this objective, a proposed methodological framework was made for use by students, teachers and those interested in carrying out further research in this field.
Alice Ding
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p91

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for English Language and Literature Studies, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2020.
Feiyue Zhang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p75

Abstract:
As part of the family trilogy of Sam Shepard, Buried Child has been understood in that the corruption of the nuclear family has been identified as the theme of the play, and the guilt and the secret of this American family is the buried child who is regarded as the incestuous relationship between Halie and Tilden. This paper argues that the buried child is not only the illegitimate child in the family, but Dodge and every family member in the play. First, Shepard builds a multi-dimensional space in the play, in which the passage of time and the experience of characters are different, forming a chaos of narration. There are two main spaces represented in the play; the one is the living room, and the other is the backyard, and Dodge lying in the living room is equivalent to the secret child buried in the backyard. Second, Shepard uses a circular rather than linear movement in the play, which symbolizes that everything happened in the house is a closed story, and as one of elements in this circle, every family member becomes the buried child, or part of the buried child. Shepard titled the play with the buried child, using this image to depict the unchangeable influence of American family’s emotional and spiritual inheritance and how it will affect future generations an even deeper mystery.
Lijun Xin, Jun Gao
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p85

Abstract:
As a reminiscent prose, The Sight of Father’s Back was written by the modern writer, Zhu Ziqing, in 1925. A wave of warm current floods a large body of readers since this essay describes, in earnest, love of father. This research performs a contrastive analysis of interpersonal function between the Chinese and English versions of The Sight of Father’s Back in terms of mood, modality, and evaluation meanings. We find that mood and evaluation meanings display parallel distribution. Declarative and exclamatory moods occur most frequently in both the Chinese and English versions, whereas interrogative mood is at a premium. Besides, various evaluative adjectives and adverbs are used in both versions. However, modality shows remarkable discrepancies. The English version tends to adopt modal verbs with median-and-low value, while most median-and-high value modal verbs are presented in the Chinese version. In our view, the exercise of median-and-high value modal verbs reflects the thoughts more directly. While the selection of median-and-low value modal verbs might be concerned with the need for politeness. Besides, diverse choices of modal verbs are incident to various modal meanings along with research purposes.
Miaomiao Wang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p66

Abstract:
Chinese scholar Cao Shunqing devoted himself to the construction of Chinese Comparative Literature discourse system and successfully established a new discourse of the variation theory of comparative literature in the eponymous book. This is the latest practice of President of the People’s Republic of China Xi Jinping’s advocation to construct Chinese discourse theories. The variation theory of comparative literature is a significant concept that has been accepted and applied by the international society, in which its effects have conducted major contributions to the development of discourse system and literature theory with Chinese characteristics. And it has positively pushed the construction of Chinese soft power in the global context. As a new concept, a new field, and a new statement, the emergence of the variation theory of comparative literature has led to heated discussions and researches at the international academic level and received great feedbacks from various scholars, both national and international.
Bing Li, Jun Gao
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p80

Abstract:
Taking the interpersonal function theory as the theoretical framework, this study selects the popular online talk show “Qi Pa speaking” in China as the data to analyze language strategies used by debaters to win votes and supports. The TV program, “Qi Pa Speaking”, is a new program format, which is popular with people at all ages. It is different from the traditional form of debating competition with serious atmosphere, on the contrary, the atmosphere of the show is relaxed and lively. The results show that the declarative and exclamatory moods are two frequently used strategies by the debaters. The declarative mood usually implies the earnest instruction, while exclamatory mood helps to make the arguments more convincing. The use of different moods also reflects the different personalities of the debaters.
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p57

Abstract:
The universal concern of domestic violence against women in its various manifestations came to the center of scholarly attention due to its harmful effects and consequences on the lives of thousands of women worldwide. This umbrella term that refers to any form of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse against women is the result of gender-based power imbalance and sexist inequalities in societies where patriarchal norms hold sway. However, the enormity and severity of the problem is more profound in third-world countries where governing policies are determined by traditional and religious doctrines. Afghanistan is one such third-world country where woman’s oppression and abuse originate from the reigning religious principles that dominate its culture, society and politics. Nevertheless, there is a recent trend among literary figures of the Afghan Diaspora in highlighting the plight of Afghan women in Afghanistan through the medium of fiction. This paper therefore intends to investigate the manifestations of domestic violence against women in the Afghan context through a reading of Atiq Rahim’s novella, A Thousand Rooms of Dream and Fear (2007). Rahimi’s novella narrates the story of a male protagonist named Farhad and simultaneously highlights the miserable living conditions of the Afghan people, particularly the lives of Afghan women during the turbulent period of the Soviet Invasion as well as the many internal political upheavals that followed soon after. Using feminist literary criticism, the present paper shall discuss the depictions of three prominent forms of domestic violence against women as experienced by the female characters in the novella, namely physical, sexual and psychological violence that have shaped them into oppressed, silenced and traumatized individuals.
Val Scullion, Marion Treby
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p40

Abstract:
As diaries, letters and the intensive intertextuality of his prose fiction show, the German Romantic writer and composer, E. T. A. Hoffmann (1776-1822), was an obsessive bibliophile and polymath. The aim of this article is to explore how far three of his literary fairy tales, The Golden Pot: A Modern Fairy Tale (1814), The Strange Child (1816) and The Nutcracker and the Mouse King (1816), use the generic conventions of the fairy tale, and how far they are influenced by his voracious reading, his encyclopaedic knowledge of literature, and his engagement with contemporary debates. We conclude with brief observations about his literary legacy in the genres of fairy tales and fantasy fiction.
Zhehui Zhang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p53

Abstract:
The Man Who Ended History: A Documentary is a science fiction by Chinese American science fiction writer Ken Liu (1976-). Based on the theory of Post-Colonial Criticism, this paper makes a concrete analysis of the text from the perspectives of three eminent contemporary theorists, aiming at the readers’ better understanding of the work, and eliminating ethnocentrism, racism, unilateralism and hegemony; keeping history in mind and justifying the names of innocent humans who have been persecuted; safeguarding world peace, and building a community with a shared future for mankind.
Jun Wang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p35

Abstract:
The Plain of White Deer, known as a “secret history of China”, unfolds the historical changes of Weihe Plain in more than half of the last century. Based on the fates of different females, the novel tries to disclose the cruel oppression of the feudal clan system on women and the low status of women as a child-bearing tool in the patriarchal society. This paper will analyze the miserable fates of the three main females Tian Xiao’e, Lu Lengshi and Bai Ling in the novel and also the reasons for their tragic fates.
Rongfei Wang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p27

Abstract:
Roderick Usher is the protagonist of Edgar Allan Poe’s masterpiece The Fall of The House of Usher. Concerning his death, the scholars and critics at home and abroad have discussed a lot but there is no fixed conclusion. Based on the ecological niche theory, this thesis explored Roderick Usher’s death and concluded that his death was a natural outcome as his natural as well as his social niche positions were on the decline because of his failure to have effective communication with the environment he was living in and with the people around him. Furthermore, his niche trend to do nothing to the ever-decaying living environment but to do harm to his twin sister further accelerated the demise of his niche position. It is hoped that this thesis can shed some new light on the exploration of Roderick Usher’s death and work as a kind of tentatively interdisciplinary research between ecology and literature.
, Chengfei Mi
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p17

Abstract:
Trust is a valuable asset for business organizations and is vital for an organization’s survival. After two air clashes, Boeing is facing trust crisis and is making great efforts to earn trust back. Corporate communication is a common and important means for the management to demonstrate the company’s attitude and to persuade the audience that they are reliable. This paper aims to elucidate the role of corporate communication in recovering the damaged trust of Boeing. The paper applies the model of trust-repair discourse established by Fuoli and Paradis to analyze Boeing’s CEO’s address to shareholders following the two fatal crushes. It is found that the CEO repairs the company’s trustworthiness from three aspects, namely, ability, integrity and benevolence. To fulfill this purpose, the CEO adopts such strategies as neutralizing the negative and emphasizing the positive. Through the use of evaluating and dialogic engagement resources, the CEO discursively rebuilds and renegotiates the company’s trustworthiness.
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n2p1

Abstract:
The article studies the conceptual metaphors of time in the sonnets of Shakespeare in light of the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) presented in their book, Metaphors We Live By, and Kovecses’ (2002) informative views in his book, Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. The extracted metaphors selected from a variety of sonnets that tackle the theme of time will be divided into three sub-categories: structural, ontological, and orientational. Under ontological metaphors, the study addresses metaphors in the forms of personification, metonymy, and synecdoche. Using the cognitive approach to understand the abstract concept of time in terms of a variety of concrete concepts with experiential dimension enables the reader to perceive this concept from different perspectives. The study hopes to show that the cluster of source domains Shakespeare provides in the metaphors maps an association of multidimensional possibilities that improve our understanding of time. Also, this consortium of possibilities points to the creativity and the wide scope of Shakespeare’s vision. The study hopes to add another vantage point from which to view Shakespeare’s presentation of time in light of modern progress in the studies of conceptual metaphors and cognitive poetics.
Alice Ding
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p93

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements for English Language and Literature Studies, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2020.
Jinhua Zhang
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p86

Abstract:
Pride and Prejudice is a classic novel from Jane Austen, a prominent female British writer, which has attracted considerable attention from the perspective of language, content, feminism, and marriage view but without the plot organization. Different from the previous study, this paper aims at the plot organization of the novel to see its structure and the deep meaning. This paper is devoted to analyzing the novel from the surface and deep structure, in which the structuralist approach is employed. The surface and deep structure theory is the main clue; besides, the structuralist narratological methods are applied to analyze the cases in the novel and explore the surface structure and deep structure respectively. The concepts of surface and deep structure and the structuralist narratological methods were applied to analyze Pride and Prejudice to see how the plots act to serve for the theme. The paper shows that the achievement of a novel is closely related to its complement of the structure. The clear hierarchies can effectively elaborate the story and the theme. To divide the plot into several parts can easily control and handle the development and interaction of the plots. The relative and oppositional relations of the different plots contribute to the demonstration of the theme and the comprehension of the readers.
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p67

Abstract:
This study means to analyze Shakespeare’s use of mental time travel (MTT) in his collection of sonnets, especially those addressed to his young friend. It also hopes to amplify that Shakespeare’s versification of MTT anticipates modern neuropsychological studies on the topic. The article tackles MTT in light of four different premises induced from the sonnets subject to analysis: first, MTT occurs in the sonnets in correlation with objective time; second, the dual constructive and destructive nature of time triggers the need for the memory-based MTT; third, the disparaging effect of time on the poet and the friend’s mother is meant to stimulate the young friend to heed the future of his extraordinary beauty under the strokes of ruthless time; and, fourth, the destructive force of time on non-human beings and natural phenomena provides another stimulus to urge the young friend to heed the dangers of time on his future.
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p77

Abstract:
This article aims to investigate the construction of the gender identity of the young-adult female protagonist in The Hunger Games trilogy. Through the lens of Judith Butler’s gender performativity, both male and female characters in the trilogy manifest different perspectives of masculinity and femininity through the deconstruction of the gender binary. Similar to the muttation of the mockingjays, the female protagonist hybridizes masculinity and femininity. Katniss Everdeen embraces both masculine and feminine attributes simultaneously, and this adoption promotes an alternative way of performing gender. Gender, hence, becomes a choice for characters to perform to present themselves. In this regard, Judith Butler’s gender performativity is applied to analyze Katniss’s gender identity that deconstructs the ideologies of the traditional gender binary. The adoption of gender performativity may encourage awareness and empowerment of gender equality in the trilogy.
Yue Hu
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p62

Abstract:
Spatial narrative is an emerging theory of Narratology since Joseph Frank proposed it in 1945. Point Omega is one of Don Delillo’s work, completed in 2010, mainly tells stories about two persons: a nameless person alone in museum exhibition hall to watch a silent film and a high-level war adviser Richard Elster, away from the city in seclusion in the desert. This paper use spatial narrative to analyze the theme of Point Omega, which is divided into four parts: the first part briefly introduces spatial narrative and Point Omega; in the second part, the literature in China and others of spatial narrative and Omega Point are reviewed; in the third part, the text is interpreted from three aspects of spatial narrative, physical form, text structure and narrative perspective; the fourth part summarizes how the novel reflects the influence of the concept of time on people’s lives.
Saif Al Deen Lutfi Ali Al Ghammaz, Ruzy Suliza Hashim, Amrah Binti AbdulMajid
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p53

Abstract:
Violence against women is a heinous act committed against a woman, a wife, a mother, a sister, or even a daughter deliberately or not deliberately causing her psychological, emotional, and physical harm. The rise of this unhealthy phenomenon mainly in less-developed countries such as Jordan necessitates more academic attention not only because of its detrimental effect on the Jordanian women’s lives, but also because it is intentionally ignored and dismissed as taboo. With that, there has been a growing interest among Jordanian writers and sociologists in exploring the extent of this social ill through creative literary genres such as novels. This paper for one primarily examines the manifestations of violence against women in the Jordanian context through a textual analysis of Falling in the Sun by Sanaa Shalan, an author hailing from the contemporary Jordanian generation. Originally written in Arabic, this well-known novel gives prominence to the severe reality of the distress habitually suffered by many Jordanian women, notably the various forms of violence that they have to tolerate living in a multicultural male-controlled nation. With a feminist reading of Falling in the Sun (2014), we shall examine Shalan’s representations of violence against women in the novel as a dire social illness resulting from mistaken social beliefs, absence of laws, and misunderstanding of religion and gender inequality in the Jordanian society. Additionally, the current paper’s outline is constructed on three main forms of violence against women, i.e. physical, psychological and economic abuse as depicted in Falling in the Sun through the novel’s female characters, primarily the main protagonists.
, Aifen Li
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p46

Abstract:
Swearwords are commonly used in daily communications, but how to translate swearwords appropriately has received relatively little attention. This research explores swearword translation from English into Chinese based on Peter Newmark’s theory of communicative and semantic translation through a case study of the book Steve Jobs. Through detailed analyses, it is proved that translating swearwords should be reader-oriented so that the translations can produce an equivalent effect on the target readers. It is also found that many elements should be considered in swearword translation, such as character of swearer, context, source language and culture as well as target language and culture.
English Language and Literature Studies, Volume 10; doi:10.5539/ells.v10n1p32

Abstract:
This study explores Morrison’s A Mercy as a palimpsest, both in terms of its adoption of multiple narrators and in the way, landscape is layered with vestiges of history, myths, and most importantly, with traces of black women creativity. Reading landscape in Morrison’s novel as a multi-textured palimpsest entails an assessment of the interplay of ethnicity and gender in the novel. This study finds in Alice Walker’s employment of the symbolic connotations of the “garden” to depict the creativity of black women discussed in her book In Search of Our Mother’s Garden (1984) a theoretical framework for interpreting Florens’s creativity in reading the land and the development of her identity in relation to the natural realm. This study also explores the palimpsestic aspects in Morrison’s text both synchronically and diachronically. The diachronic aspect examines the way Morrison’s A Mercy delves into history towards earlier representations of the American landscape and shows how her text reads and overwrites others. As a model of intertextuality, the palimpsest enables Morrison to overwrite the writings of American Transcendental figures such as Emerson and Thoreau, who have gained precedence in writing and visualizing the American landscape. Conversely, the synchronic angle addresses the implications of Morrison’s adoption of multiple voices, which are laid over each other and either rival or endorse each other in the form of a palimpsest. Reading each experience as a separate layer reveals other minor embedded layers that surface through Morrison’s stylistic language and evocation of smells and colours.
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