Results in Journal Bulletin of Kemerovo State University: 544
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Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-533-540
Cтатья посвящена анализу соматических концептуальных метафор в русской и английской лингвокультурах. Объектом исследования выступают два макроконцепта: земля и earth / land. Предмет – авторские тексты с включенными репрезентантами исследуемых макроконцептов. Материал исследования собран в Национальном корпусе русского языка и Библиотеке Гуттенберга. Актуальность исследования обусловлена необходимостью объяснения существования целого набора соматических метафор земли в изучаемых лингвокультурах. Новизна заключается в обращении к фактам русской и английской лингвокультур в описании соматического кода в рамках исследования макроконцептов земля и earth / land. Cоматизмы выражаются посредством традиционных противопоставлений, обусловленных культурой русского и английского народов: правая сторона / левая сторона; внутреннее / внешнее; мужское / женское; единичность / множественность. Однако соматический код проявляется не только в дихотомии, но и трихотомии: передняя часть / боковая часть / задняя часть; верх / середина / низ; центр / связующие элементы / периферия. Важной чертой сравниваемых лингвокультур является наделение земли признаками одушевленности и одухотворенности. Русский макроконцепт земля объективируется соматическими признаками: бок, глаза, грудь, кишки, кость, кровь, ладони, лицо, лоно, пол, пуп, рот, руки, сердце, спина, тело, хребет, чрево / утроба. Английский макроконцепт earth / land актуализируется соматическими признаками: бок, грудь, кишки, кровь, лицо, лоно, пол, пуп, рот, руки, седалище, сердце, талия, тело, хребет, чрево / утроба.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-437-443
This article is a review of empirical studies on the topic of psychological characteristics that contribute to the incidence of myocardial infarction. Such studies are fragmented and deal mostly with the following categories: mental states, patient’s mental processes, symptoms of mental disorders, behavioral strategies, social factors, etc. The research objective was to analyze the results of empirical studies on the myocardial patients' psychological characteristics. The authors identified difficulties and contradictions in the studies. Diagnostic capabilities of type A proved no longer relevant. An analysis of the contradictions in type D studies suggested that longitudinal studies based on a initially healthy people would prove most effective for further research, as well as detailed meta-analyzes of empirical publications. The role of hostility in the genesis of myocardial infarction proved understudied by domestic scientists. As for anxiety in patients with myocardial infarction, it received enough scientific attention; however, researches do not agree about role in the development of myocardial infarction. To reduce psychological risks during cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to determine what conditions and factors accelerate or inhibit the onset of myocardial infarction when combined with personal anxiety. The authors propose to use the following samples: 1) patients with a risk of a heart attack; 2) patients after a heart attack; 3) patients past rehabilitation period. The findings indicate promising areas for future research for the prevention of myocardial infarction.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-463-470
Junior students have to adapt not only to the new educational environment, but also to the intercultural community of metropolitan universities. Russian students have problems both with categorization of members of other ethnic communities and their own self-categorization, i.e. the way they see a member of their own culture. The research objective was to determine the categorical structure of the image of a representative of their own culture in Russian students that studied in the city of Barnaul. The image depended on the predominating type of the respondents' own ethnic identity. The research methodology was based on the systematic approach to the personality analysis, J. Bruner's theory of perception, V. F. Petrenko's psychosemantic approach, and G. U. Soldatova's typology of ethnic identity. The authors employed the methods of an expert assessment, subjective scaling, and the questionnaire " Types of Ethnic Identity" by G. U. Soldatova and S. V. Ryzhova. They presented the categorical structure of the image of a member of the Russian ethnic group as factor models, or category structures, that described the representative of Russian nationality. Factor models were identified on the basis of the predominant type of ethnic identity of the respondents. Four factor models revealed that young people with a pronounced hyper-identity had a more positive view of the members of their ethnic group, focusing on their strength and strong-will. Students with average ethnic identity noted both advantages and disadvantages. Students with pronounced ethnic indifference tended to put more stress on the negative categories. Students with hypo-identity saw only negative traits in the members of their ethnic group. Therefore, behavioral patterns of interethnic interaction partially depended on the content of the categorical image structure of the representative of one's ethnic group. The authors propose several ways of developing a positive ethnic identity, which make it possible to shape an adequate attitude to representatives of one's own ethnicity and other ethnic groups.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-340-353
The research featured the repressions of the 1930s, or the Great Purge. The article focuses on the case of the town of Leninsk-Kuznetskiy. The study was based on materials obtained from the press of that time (newspapers "Leninskiy Shakhter" and "Sovetskaia Sibir"), the State archive of the Kemerovo region, and scientific publications. The author highlighted the so-called Children’s Case and the trial of NKVD officers. Both events occurred in 1939 and marked the end of the Great Terror of 1937–1938. The repressions that took place in Leninsk-Kuznetskiy proved more severe than in the rest of Kuzbass. The author proposes several reasons for that fact. First of all, the town failed to meet the goals of industrial development during the first five-year plans, and the plans for coal mining industry were impossible. Second, the town owed its rapid increase in population to the categories that later would be called "enemies of the people". Third, the local NKVD desperately wanted to become the best in the West Siberia. The fact that the purges received abundant media coverage disproves the popular opinion that average public did not know about the repressions. The author developed an approach to newspapers as a historical source on the history of the Great Purge. If one factors in the specifics of this source, archival newspapers can be a reliable source about the Great Terror and the mechanisms of public opinion formation. However, newspapers alone cannot restore the full picture of local repressions, which requires a wide range of sources.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-426-436
This research is part of a large-scale project aimed at creating a factor model of creative leadership potential. The present article features the effect of major and gender of students on their creative leadership potential. The authors identified groups of variables that characterize creative leadership potential. The study was based on the holodynamic and trans-communicative paradigm. The following range of scientific methods made it possible to determine the characteristics of creative leadership potential: the method of modeling communicative worlds, the method of psychosemantic graph, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, sociability scale profile, and social network analysis. The study involved 189 students of humanities (101) and science (88). The results showed the specificity of personal creative characteristics and parameters of the communicative world of the participants. Gender proved insignificant for future research. Students that majored in humanities appeared both more original and more conformal. They tended to find unusual negative points in positive topics and problems. Science students worked better with specific information and facts. They were good at evaluating alternatives and planning.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-549-557
The article focuses on the cognitive function of metaphor in professional discourse, which is a professional terminology system and a linguistic manifestation of a professional world view. The article demonstrates evolution of different approaches to the phenomenon of metaphor in scientific discourse and professional terminological systems. Convergence of research directions and methods, as well as integration and interpenetration of approaches to the object under study, made it possible to build the framework of the conceptual logic of mental knowledge structures objectified in systems of terminological units. A conceptual analysis of metaphorical terminological derivates enriched with semantic analysis of term definition components provided the empirical evidence that anthropocentric principle is the basic trend in the process of metaphor forming in the professional discourse of petroleum refining. The author sees metaphor as a cognitive mechanism that associates new unknown concepts with familiar phenomena from everyday human life. The dominant conceptual metaphors develop on the principle of anthropocentrism by combining the source-domain, including a system of deep ontological knowledge about a person and a target-domain representing special concepts of professional discourse. The cognitive potential of metaphorical models is described on the basis of the metaphorical derivation of the professional oil refining terminology system. In addition to their nominative function, metaphorically formed terminological units perform explanatory function by visualizing the processes of petroleum refining to provide an opportunity to understand complex structural organization of professional discourse.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-489-498
The research featured legal terms formed according to the semantic method, e.g. semantic generalization, expansion / narrowing of meaning, institutional specification, metonymic or metaphorical transfer, their correlation, etc. The author highlighted the interconnection of semantic term formation and polysemy. The article contains a list of factors that cause ambiguity of legal concepts: (a) the author of the legislative text and the recipient; (b) the open nature of the legal terminological system, as well as the reproduction of multivalued lexemes in the laws and their reinterpretation; (c) the development of various variants of legislative definitions, etc. The paper focuses on semantic generalization and institutional specification of legal concepts. The author describes the interconnection of denotative-predicative and logical-conceptual approaches, as well as the mechanism of generalization and abstraction of lexical meaning. The differences of metonymic and metaphorical transfers were interpreted in terms of contrasting functions, models of education, and connotation potential. The research revealed a high productivity of metonymic transfer and legal concepts based on a combination of different types of semantic terminology. The study featured the texts of Russian Federal and regional laws. The author applied various approaches, e.g. discursive, contextual, intertextual, component, denotative-predicative, logical-conceptual, interpretative, comparative, etc. The results, conclusions, and illustrative material presented in this work may be of some interest to scientists and practitioners who study legal terminology, legal texts, and issues of the Russian language as a state language.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-397-408
Learned helplessness was discovered by American positivists in the 1970s. There are two approaches to learned helplessness: as a phenomenon (state) and as a process. Learned helplessness develops as a result of development deficiency or a severe impairment of one of the spheres of personality, e.g. emotions, motivation, will, or cognition. However, the ability to detect learned helplessness is not sufficient to provide timely and systemic psychological assistance. To determine the potential risk of development and aggravation of this state at different stages of ontogenetic development, i.e. as a process, is the main task of preventive diagnosis and systematic prevention of the state of learned helplessness. The research featured peculiarities of learned helplessness development at different stages of ontogenesis – from senior pre-school to adolescence. The research objective was to identify the markers of learned helplessness. Early detection made it possible to develop a special matrix of personality spheres vulnerability related to structural components of learned helplessness. The article illustrates the system of psychological assistance aimed at urgent (primary and secondary) prevention of the state of learned helplessness in children from senior pre-school age to adolescence.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-387-396
According to post-non-classical psychology, the values of mass consciousness act as a guideline for the moral behavior of the individual. This is especially important for a specialist whose work depends on the formation of professional and ethical principles of their personality. Deontological principles develop during training. The substantial characteristics of one’s self-image also develop at university. They approach the values of mass consciousness, which are the universal regulator of any form of human activity. The research featured the development of students' value orientations and the methods aimed at educating future deontology specialist. Such methods are usually based on post-non-classical psychology. Currently, this is the most important scientific matter in educational psychology. The article focuses on the temporal characteristics of the development of value components of the self-image in students of the deontological profile. The authors identified the main value components that characterize the development of moral and ethical principles in students at all stages of training. The values proved to undergo several changes during the learning process. Utilitarian and hedonistic values were most pronounced in first-year students and maintained their first rank positions until graduation. According to M. S. Yanitskiy’s value types of personality, senior students demonstrated the intermediate type. The authors registered a certain discrepancy between students' ideas about professional values and the actual values they chose. This contradiction must be resolved during the training period.
Bulletin of Kemerovo State University, Volume 22; doi:10.21603/2078-8975-2020-22-2-541-548
The present research featured German texts of mining equipment advertising, namely phrases with suggestive pragmasemantic potential. The research objective was to reveal the semantic characteristics of these language units. The article classifies and describes various pragmasemantic types of suggestive phrases using methods of componential, morphological, and syntactic analyses. The function of suggestion in mining equipment advertising proved to be of specific nature, as it has to oppose the conscious desire of a technical specialist to purchase effective and profitable equipment. The suggestion function in these texts belonged to words and phrases that created a positive image of the advertising object and suggestively described its usefulness to the consumer. A significant proportion of phrases contained the seme "safety", which could be explained by the following pragmatic presupposition: mining is highly dangerous; therefore, equipment should help to increase production safety. Such ergonomic characteristics of mining equipment as "controllability", "manufacturability", and "masterability" also depended on industrial safety. Most suggestive phrases appeared to have an adjective nuclear component, because German primarily uses adjectives to describe quality.