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Ida Fauziyah, Bahrullah Akbar, Khasan Effendy, Sampara Lukman
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 73-90; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17168

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ajay Gautam
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 158-171; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17205

Abstract:
Governance and delivery of public services are aimed at managing limited available resources to effectively deliver services to the citizens of a country. However, due to lack of coordination management, personal political gains and inclusion of politics, citizens are deprived of the required information and infrastructure. This deprivation not only results in economic losses but also causes deterioration of the state of social well-being. Indian public administration has suffered from the problem of coordination due to which in many aspects the objective of benefitting the citizens is not fulfilled. This study is focused on examining the role of coordination in the public service delivery system. By comparing the Indian public delivery service system with those of Uruguay and Georgia, this study reveals that presence of coordination among the organizations, agencies, and departments improves transparency, accessibility of information, institutional capacity, and innovativeness of a country. Hence, for effective delivery of public services to citizens, maintenance of coordination is essential.
Yusuph Lameck Mashala, Lazaro Alman Kisumbe, Manumbu Hezron Daudi
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 172-187; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17235

Abstract:
Since its outbreak in late December 2019, COVID-19 has brought a state of fear, panic, insecurity and a high level of uncertainty to the whole population of the world. Amid these uncertainties, governments and international organizations across the world, have adopted various measures against its spread; such measures have depended on the nature and severity of the disease and the suitable approach adopted by each particular country. This study assessed the preparedness of the local community in the fight against COVID-19 in Dodoma Urban, Tanzania. Data were collected through a questionnaire from 100 respondents who were coincidentally selected. We analyzed data through descriptive statics and Binary Logistic Regression. The overall results show that the majority of respondents (53.68%) were well prepared to curb COVID-19. Nevertheless about 46% of the respondents were inadequately prepared. In order to curb the spread of the disease in Dodoma urban, the study recommend that the local community should consistently adhere to government directives, keep informed of the situation, and respond appropriately to protect themselves, their families, and others against the deadly corona virus disease.
Yemane Desta
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 384-409; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17810

Abstract:
This article examines the nature of corruption in the extractive industries of two Sub-Saharan countries, namely Nigeria and Botswana. It explained the root causes of the high levels of corruption present in the case of oil and gas-rich Nigeria and the reasons that account for the minimal levels of corruption prevailing in diamond-rich Botswana. This article identified corrupt political leadership; the legacy of the divide and rule policies introduced by the former British colonial masters; lack of transparent and accountable public institutions, political patronage networks; poverty-driven desire to meet the basic necessities of life; massive inflows of petrodollars producing the “resource curse”; chronic political disruptions characterized by several military coups; the supremacy of familial, ethnic and religious loyalties over national interest and poor public sector pay as the main drivers of pervasive corruption in Nigeria. On the other hand the primary factors that contributed to the remarkable achievement of Botswana in the fight against corruption include ethical political leadership; sound pre-independence traditional institutions; relatively homogenous population; respect for rule of law and property rights; high degree of transparency; cultural intolerance to graft, establishment of democratic institutions at independence; good economic management; ability to manage ethnic diversity; and a competent, a meritorious bureaucracy. This article also identified the key elements of anticorruption strategy that would help prevent and combat corruption as well enhance integrity in the Eritrean public sector based on the experiences of Nigeria and Botswana. They include sound ethical political leadership; transparency and accountability in government; merit-based and adequately paid civil service; independent, empowered and well-resourced anticorruption commission; and prudent natural resource management.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 1-5; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17356

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered one of the deepest economic recessions in human history, largely as a result of the full lockdown strategy adopted by many national governments. This lockdown strategy was primarily motivated by the limited capacities of Intensive Care Units and a lack of medical staff and equipment. In this essay, I argue that the COVID crisis and the widely used lockdown response are socially constructed, which invites a public discourse on how we can design societal solutions that would prevent the need for an indiscriminate lockdown response to a future pandemic or any other similar crisis. One potential solution is further developed in this essay: the design of latent capabilities for responding to any future emergencies. These latent capabilities, embedded in many host organizations, can help in quickly resolve shortages in professional skills and resources, which are likely to occur in any future crisis. Here, the COVID-19 crisis provides a major learning opportunity, to be exploited as soon as possible.
Lawrence Mundia
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 6-19; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17357

Abstract:
The case study (N = 54) described the participants using biographical attributes (age, type of offenses committed, education, marriage, employment, marital status of parents, repeat offenses, and district of residence) about criminality. Theft and drug-related offenses were first and second top crimes. Youths aged 18-29 were more involved in stealing and rape than older peers. Half of the theft convicts were employed and the other half unemployed before incarceration suggesting common underlying causes for stealing such as low education and low income (or poverty) among participants. Elderly convicts (aged 30-40) were most engaged in drug offenses, incest, and adultery compared to younger counterparts. First and repeat crimes were equally high across the participants' educational level, marital status, and parents' marital status. Most of the crimes were committed in the Brunei-Muara district. The findings call for mental health testing and appropriate interventions for crime perpetrators. Further mixed methods research was recommended.
Athaulla A Rasheed
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 91-111; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17105

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Charles Nnamdi Olise, Ikechukwu Eke Emeh
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 38-52; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17440

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ikenna Samuel Umezurike, Ibraheem Salisu Adam
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 20-37; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.16142

Abstract:
Despite the recent economic growth in Nigeria, poverty remains a social problem. One of the strategies employed by the Nigerian government and some development partners towards solving this problem is the deployment of social protection instruments, such as Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs), which aim at stemming the tide of poverty and vulnerability. This study uses the secondary research method to examine the extent to which the Latin American CCT model influenced the design and operation of the Nigerian CCT programme. The policy diffusion model adopted for the study posits that the success of CCT programmes in Latin America has stimulated its extension to many developing countries outside the region. The findings from the review of selected literature explain the rationale for CCTs as short-term poverty reduction and long-term human capital development. Admittedly, a nexus exists between the Latin American and Nigerian strategies. Yet the study concludes that the Latin American model cannot adequately serve as a blueprint for the Nigeria strategy, given that underlying conditions in upper middle-income Latin American countries are clearly different from those present in low income or lower middle-income African countries like Nigeria. The study recommends urgent implementation of the National Social Protection Policy; a review of the current CCT programme in Nigeria every two years and extensive research into social protection strategies.
Robert Knox, Michael O. Adams, Samuel Arungwa, Gbolahan S. Osho
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 112-121; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17200

Abstract:
The Act established, in pursuit of meeting it is proclamation, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. However, most employers did not abide by the act, and continued to discriminate against minorities and women with lower wages or refuse to hire them. If a minority reported the incident, usually there was nothing done to the employer. The United States office the Civil Rights Commission describes affirmative action as covering every degree of single termination of a discriminatory practice, that allows for race, national origin, sex, or disability, laterally with other benchmarks, and that embraced to offer prospects to a class of persons with historically or actually been deprived of those prospects, and to preclude repetition of discrimination in the future.
Never Pavari
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 228-242; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17687

Abstract:
The Covid-19 pandemic has continued to cause socio-economic damages which will take a long time to recover from while there is no vaccine in sight. The impacts are affecting the social well-being of global citizens which triggers the need to investigate the psychosocial effects. In order to achieve and to provide the missing African context, the study was done in Zimbabwe. Due to lockdown restrictions, samples were obtained using online survey and social media platforms. Analysis was done to determine the effects, so far, of the virus on the general economy, psychological and social aspects as well as religious values of the citizens qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings indicated that economic loses were recorded at household, corporate and national levels. Indicators included increases in prices and exchange rate which eroded the buying power of local currency and increased the cost of basic commodities. Economic pressures, Covid-19 trends and restrictions imposed caused psychological damages which included fear, feeling of uncertainty and loss of hope. The study recommended increased awareness and psychological support to help the citizens to overcome mental displeasures. The study has potential to assist policy makers, health practitioners and development partners in developing strategies to eliminate Covid-19 related psychosocial pressures in Zimbabwe and globally.
Nkrumah K. Osei
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 355-368; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17482

Abstract:
Based on qualitative data from Ghana, this article explores the issues of governance and the extent to which its potential affects the implementation of sustainable development goals (SDGs). The article argues that, although it is largely understood that governance is about the practice of good government, its potential impact on the implementation of SDGs is limited in Ghana. This study advances that, while the implementation of SDGs in Ghana has paved the way for the application of good governance practice, in some cases, it is still trapped in the institutional and network framework that is touted to hamper quality public service delivery development and progress. However, it is suggested in this context that effective implementation of SDGs can be met if the systems and structures of governance are appropriately aligned using proper checks and balances. Additionally, the level of commitment, rule of law, and accountability must be improved to ensure equal participation for all. Finally, corruption must be fought to restore public confidence in the institutions of government and public sector networks while maintaining public trust and performance management with citizen participation to achieve effective public service delivery.
Yusuph Lameck Mashala, Lazaro Alman Kisumbe
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 215-227; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17369

Abstract:
Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania are expected to fuel growth respond timely to the demands of the community; they should, therefore, ensure that the working capital is ready to embrace changes and can functionally as well as behaviorally take on key roles as effective strategic leaders. This study investigated the effect of talent development practices on leadership quality in LGAs in Tanzania. The study collected data from seventy- two (72) respondents from three LGAs (Kigoma Municipal, Kasulu and Mkuranga District Councils) through questionnaires. Data were analysed, using SPSS and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. The overall findings suggested that training and development, employee engagement, leadership development, and employee sourcing positively affect leadership quality in LGAs. The study maintained that LGAs should have a characterized talent development strategy, which can be executed adequately to enhance talent progression.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 430-442; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17494

Abstract:
This paper seeks to provide an overview of the literature regarding contemporary public management and administration. For this purpose, New Public Management and New Public Governance principles and methods are explored, since they remain the dominant approaches to public management and governance regime. A systematic examination of the relevant discourse was carried out. Data analysis revealed that the theoretical schemes continue to emphasize the priority of management over public service. As a result, the New Public Service approach is revisited focusing primarily on the reinterpretation and reorientation of public service provision. This study enriches our theoretical and practical understanding by providing important reflections and insights about the organizational conditions of public sector reform that is proceeding nowadays.
Akpeko Agbevade, Desmond Tweneboah Koduah
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 136-157; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17628

Abstract:
The Article Examined Whether Public Sector Reform In Ghana Is A Myth Or Reality. It Emerged That Since Independence In 1957, Successive Governments Implemented Both Socialist And Market-Oriented Public Sector Reforms; However, None Of These Reforms Yielded The Expected Outcome. Hence, The New Patriotic Party On Winning Political Power Initiated The National Public Sector Reform Strategy. This Reform Aimed At Using The Public Sector As The Catalyst To Stimulate The Private Sector For Job Creation And National Development. The Study Found That The Reform Made Some Gains. However, Excessive Partisanship, Narrow Political Commitment, Donor-Funding, The Time Boundedness Of The Reform And Focus On Only 16 Ministries, Departments And Agencies Militated Against It Success Hence Public Sector Reform Is A Myth In Ghana. The Article Recommends Commitment To The Directive Principles Of State Policy As The Panacea To Effectiveness Of Public Sector Reforms In Ghana.
Jacob Olufemi Fatile, Mutereko Sybert, Emma Etim
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 262-287; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17688

Abstract:
Process reengineering (PR) is a newly introduced approach to process management; it pays close attention to all the processes that are related to the achievement of organizational objectives. Although originally developed for and applied in the private sector, PR is expected to constitute a handy tool for the transformation of work processes in public sector organizations (PSOs), especially in this era of information and communications technology. This paper x-rays PR in African public sector organizations (APSOs) with an emphasis on lessons to be learnt from the private sector. This paper adopts a descriptive approach, to validate and modify extant theoretical models that are relevant in explaining PR in APSOs. The paper observes that APSOs, unlike the private sector organizations (PrSOs), PSOs have failed in the adoption of PR as well as carrying out logically related tasks in such a way that well-defined results are achieved. It reveals further that poor PR in APSOs has been a clog in the wheel of achieving high performance, efficient service delivery, public satisfaction, efficient management of resources, and sustainable development in Africa. This paper concludes that APSOs can fully adopt PR if they cut down on excessive bureaucracy and learn more from the private sector in terms of readiness and adaptability to environmental changes and transformation as advocated by the contingency theory (CT). The paper recommends, amongst others, that there should be the availability of information technology (IT) infrastructure and the willingness on the part of government representatives to deploy new technologies through adequate support for information technology companies and the prioritization of IT application's needs for high system automation. Managers of APSOs should be given the power to effect changes when the need arises, without any form of influence. Also, there should be concerns about the future of PSOs, and citizens who are clients thereof should be held in high esteem and not to be treated as ‘people in need of favour’. Finally, APSOs should embrace radical changes associated with PR especially by ensuring that promotions are based on merit and not on seniority alone.
Ikechukwu Eke Emeh, Charles Nnamdi Olise, Macben Otu Idam, Chukwudi Christopher Nwokolo
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 53-72; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17441

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
John Mary Kanyamurwa, Joseph Okeyo Obosi
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 443-462; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17428

Abstract:
Citizen competence in a democratic society is perceived as an essential mechanism for promoting political accountability in local governance. This paper, thus, qualitatively investigates the relationship between citizen competence and political accountability in Uganda’s local governance system across two discrete political regimes, during the post-independence period. Using an in-depth explorative design, it was established that citizens in both regimes were largely inarticulate, disengaged and uninvolved in determining local preferences, suggesting minimal link between citizen competence and the propensity to promote political accountability at district level. The data suggested that citizen competence was less influential in district politics for the greater part of the post-colonial period. Nonetheless, there were also episodes where citizens actively participated in enforcing political accountability at the grassroots under multiparty politics in both the Obote II and NRM regimes, with slight variations in the intensity and pattern between the two periods. Thus, the level of citizen competence and nature of local governance in Uganda mirror the political accountability practices at the local level, mainly shaped by civic challenges and the character of politics in Uganda during the periods studied regardless of differences and longevity. The paper recommended deliberate state intervention for mobilization of citizens and the establishment of state-engineered dynamic social networks to generate capacity for holding local leaders accountable and more empowered civil society to construct robust citizen competence programmes to foster political accountability.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 410-429; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17471

Abstract:
Civic engagement has been an area of research after adoption as an important approach to strengthen citizens’ voice, accountability and communication in public service delivery. However, there is mixed result on its relationship with public service delivery, particularly water services. Civic engagement studies consider collective action as critical success factor in public service delivery. Therefore, this study focused on testing the moderating effect of collective action on the relationship between civic engagement and water service delivery in Kondoa District Council of Tanzania using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 376 households. Cronbach’s alpha value was above 0.7, which was considered good and acceptable. The moderated binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. The analysis confirms the significant moderation effects of collective action on the relationship between citizens’ voice and all three-outcome variables, physical accessibility, quality, and quantity of water supplied. Similarly, collective action had a significant moderation effect on the relationship between accountability and domestic water service delivery variables except for the quantity of water supplied. Moreover, the effect of collective action in the relationship between communication and all the variables of water service delivery is not significant. The study concluded that the influence of civic engagement in water service delivery is effective when citizens are organised into collective action. The study recommends that civic engagement should be strengthened through tailor-made training and mentorship to implant collective action attributes to citizens on issues of public concern, i.e. water service delivery and management.
Jazilul Fawaid, Bahrullah Akbar, Khasan Effendy, Sampara Lukman
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 344-354; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17337

Abstract:
This research uses a quantitative research approach. The research sample of 176 respondents from a population of 313 people. Secondary data collection using library research; Primary data collection using questionnaire and interview techniques. Data processing uses SEM analysis and descriptive analysis developed with observer triangulation analysis. The results of the research analysis are The magnitude of the influence of Organizational Climate on Collective Leadership in the People's Consultative Assembly reached 0.67. The magnitude of the influence of the Coordination on the Collective Leadership Collegial in the People's Consultative Assembly reached 0.62. The magnitude of the influence of Organizational Commitment on Collective Leadership in the People's Consultative Assembly reached 0.56. Development of Concept I obtained the Organizational Support Strategy for the Collective Leadership in the Indonesian People's Consultative Assembly. Development of Concept II obtained is Optimizing the integration of roles. Development of Concept III obtained is collegial at the People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia, namely Actualization of continuation commitments.
SherienMamounSayedAhmed Mohamed
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 398-414; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17469

Abstract:
The study investigated the role of internal control system in activating governance principle.The problem of the study if there are relationship between internal control and corporate governance. The study aimed to: Determine the mechanisms of internal control and how to benefit from them in activating the principles of governance. The study seeks to establish the relationship between internal control and corporate governance in the corporation on Sudan.The importance of the study lies in how to implement governance as system and not just knowing governance as concept, and role of internal control in activating the principle of corporate governance. The study adopted inductive approach, descriptive analytical approach, and historical approach. The questionnaire used to collect data from The National Audit champers. To achieve the goals of the study, the following hypotheses were tested:First hypothesis: There are relationship with statistical significance exists between financial control and activating governance's principle.Second hypothesis: There are relationship with statistical significance exists between management control and activating governance's principle. The study found several results, among which is that; Setting a good accounting system that is appropriate with the facility environment contribute in activating governance's principles. Checking the accuracy of information in the financial statements contribute in activating governance's principles.The study recommended several recommendations, among which is that; The use of specialized centers concerned with governance issues, and the task of preparing training programs to consolidate the goals and achievements of governance.The application of the principles of governance should take into account the impact of environmental changes that are undergoing rapid and continuous changes in all economic, political and social aspects.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 350-368; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17236

Abstract:
The creative education system is introduced in different stream of Bangladesh education towards developing the ingenious capability of students. The study is an endeavour that tries to know the possibilities and difficulties in the creative education system at the secondary level in Bangladesh from the teachers’ and students’ perceptions. It is an exploratory type of research that used primary and secondary sources of information to look for the problems, underlying the system. To collect primary data, Ambarkhana Girls’ High School & College; and Osmani Medical High School of Sylhet Sadar have been chosen as the study area. From the second tier of the chosen institutions; 60 students and 20 teachers are selected using a systematic random sampling method. The social survey method has been implied in this research and data collected through face to face interview method; along with a few well responded and informed respondents’ in-depth interview. Collected data from the respondents are then analyzed through a mixed research approach. The study findings reveal that most of the students signify the system enjoyable to study, memorizing reduced for textbooks learning, and appearance in examination turned easier. While others find the system confusing, difficult to understand questions and answer in examination hall within limited time. Besides, the system reciprocally encourages students to enrol in coaching centres for a vague idea about question pattern; lack of linkage between book and exam questions; and also, to get good marks. Findings from teachers' evaluation depict that though they welcome the system they are not well prepared to assimilate the system because of inadequate training facilities, absence of inquisitive seeking awareness program, dependence on the readymade question paper, challenges exerted on them to give students attention and proper guidance. The study recommends introducing well-researched textbooks avoiding mistakes, improving integrative classroom learning, controlling coaching business, increasing training facilities for teachers, providing awareness programs to make effective the creative education system in a competitive world of education.
Alexander D. Kasonso, Emanuel E. Chingonikaya, Anna N. Sikira
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 311-326; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17207

Abstract:
Community Health Fund (CHF) is one among health insurance schemes found in Tanzania. It was established in 1996 with the aim of improving the health of people who work in informal sectors. However, since its formulation, it has not performed well; the majority of HHs are not members, and some members are withdrawing from the scheme. The overall objective was to assess the attitude of community members towards the importance of CHF for health security. Specifically, the paper assesses the attitude towards CHF interventions among members and non-members of CHF and compares the attitude between members and non-members of CHF on health security. Cross sectional research design was used in this study. Simple random sampling technique using the lottery method was employed to select 354 respondents. Data were collected using a household questionnaire survey, Focus Group Discussions guide, Key Informant Interviews checklist and documents’ reviews. Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics and content analysis were used to analyze the data. The findings show that CHF has inclusive benefits to its members as it covers costs of health treatment rather than paying money every time they attend medical treatments. Furthermore, the attitude towards CHF among members and non-members was accounted for 9.3% and 51.9 negative, 2.3% and 4.1 neutral and 88.4 and 44.0 positive. This indicates that the majority of people in the study area had a positive attitude towards CHF services. Thus, the study concludes that a great proportion of members of CHF in Kalambo District have positive attitude towards CHF intervention while the majority of non-members have negative attitude towards CHF intervention because they were not aware of it due to lack of knowledge. It is recommended that the government should mainstream CHF intervention to all communities so that non-members can join the scheme and hence get better health services. Also, the study recommends that the CHF service providers should put more emphasis on sensitising communities against negative attitudes from non-members of CHF.
Youssef Chahine
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 297-310; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17206

Abstract:
Entrepreneurship is used to denote explorers and innovators in various fields. It has affected by economics, psychology, marketing, sociology, history, strategic management and human sciences. It is also considered as one of the important areas in the economies of developed industrial countries and developing ones. Therefore entrepreneurial projects make an active contribution to expansion of comprehensive economic development in all countries. This paper attempts to provide a theoretical frame work on the concept of entrepreneurship, its importance, characteristics and components. It also deals with the most important obstacles, reforms and the extent of the impact of entrepreneurshipon economic and social development of the country. Many societies face different problems related to pushing economic development forward. Hence, the role of entrepreneurship lay which affect positively and substantially in supporting this progress.
Kenneth Karumba
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 213-232; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17140

Abstract:
Accountability in public sector is a complex concept. Public administrators are held accountable by multiple mechanisms of accountability. It is unclear in the public health sector in Kenya which of the four mechanisms of hierarchical, professional, legal and political accountability dominates accountability responses of hospital administrators. The objective of this study was to assess which among the competing multiple accountability mechanism is accorded priority in the health sector in Kenya. The study adopted a case study design targeting hospital administrators from 36 public hospitals in 14 Counties in Kenya. The study found out that professional accountability tend to be given precedence over other forms of public accountability in ordinary conditions and hierarchical accountability under crisis situations. The study concluded that hospital administrators are confronted with all the four mechanisms, but their intensity on accountability vary.
Mohamad Hisyam Selamat, Foo Kok Soon
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 279-296; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16969

Abstract:
This study examined the influence of civil servants’ attitude on engagement and participation in cost reduction policy implementation in Malaysian public organizations. Attitude was divided into two categories, namely, attitude towards leader and attitude towards government. Civil servant engagement in the workplace was treated as the mediating variable. All these values were included in the conceptual framework. Cross-sectional survey was adopted to validate the framework. The sample size for the population of this study was determined at 400. From the analysis it was found that attitude towards leader and attitude towards government influenced participation in cost reduction policy implementation and engagement significantly. Additionally, engagement mediated the relationships between attitude towards leader, attitude towards government and participation in cost reduction policy implementation. Lastly, it was found that engagement influenced participation in cost reduction policy implementation significantly. The practical implications are the discovery of theoretical, personal, and workplace practical best practices for the participation in cost reduction policy implementation in public organizations.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 63-84; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16719

Abstract:
Scholars have long sought answers for the socio-economic and political discomfort of immigrants. Migrants became underclass and exploited in their new environment. In a field survey conducted in Ondo State, Nigeria, the study examined the ontological submissions about immigrants’ plight for employment and the host community’s potentials at tapping high skills available among the migrants. The study anchored on Talcott Parson’s AGIL- Social System Theory of societal survival, most especially its functional prerequisites, notably adaptation, goal, integration and pattern maintenance. The overall finding emerging from the study is that social integration links positively to migrants’ acquired work ethics, acceptance into formal workforce, and socio-communal interactions. Consequently, standardised integration of skilled-migrants into workforce shaped cordial relationship and lasting peace between migrants and the host community.
Abdul Nadjib, Rabin Ibnu Zainal
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 108-122; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16611

Abstract:
The mandate of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Indonesia through various laws and regulations, provide an alternative source of funding for local government for the development and the provision of basic services in their area. However, the process of integrating business CSR with local development program must consider the perception of all relevant stakeholders, namely local government officials and staff or managers managing CSR programs in the company. Business CSR are often placed as an instrument for companies to achieve its interest, such as to obtain a social license, reputation and security of business. This study is aimed at understanding business perceptions in integrating business CSR with local development program. The study took place in Muara Enim Regency, South Sumatra province, which is known as a regent where many mining and plantation companies operating in the region. The method used is a descriptive qualitative research method by conducting unstructured interviews with managers and staff of 10 business companies in this region. The study found that there were differences in perceptions of managers and staff towards the integration of CSR with local development programs. The differences of perception is occurred as the local government is still not adopted the business interests. This can be used as a guideline for all parties as a first step to integrate CSR programs with regional development planning.
Robert Dibie, Raphael Dibie
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 34-62; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16934

Abstract:
This paper examines the factors that determines tax policy compliance and the impediments to effective tax administration in Nigeria. The objectives are to: (a) determine if there is a relationship between knowledge of tax laws and compliance in Nigeria; and (b) if there is a positive relationship between corruption and tax compliance. The paper argues that taxpayers’ knowledge of Nigerian tax laws could positively influence citizens attitude and behavior towards compliance. The primary data were derived from interviews, and questionnaires. The conceptual frameworks are based on strategic and benchmark approaches, and principal agent model. The data analysis shows that there is a strong positive relationship between lack of tax knowledge, low level of education and tax compliance in Nigeria. The findings of this study also reveal that there is a strong positive correlation between corruption and tax evasion. The inadequate use of information technology in tax administration, and lack of government incentives as well as poor working condition have negative correlation with tax collection management. There is however significant relationship between inappropriate assessment system, poor economic situation in the country, and lower tax compliance rate in the country. Some benchmark strategic policy recommendations are provided on how to better implement tax compliance laws in Nigeria in the future.
Amy Huong Yong Jing, Rossazana Ab-Rahim
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 20-33; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16589

Abstract:
Digital economy generally refers to a digital technology-based economy. The embrace of digital economy is transforming a nation's economic growth. Countries blessed with successful digitisation will improve their economic performance; hence, it could increase country's GDP growth. In this respect, ASEAN-5 countries becoming a major economic force driver in Asia as well as to the global growth. The goal of this research is therefore to investigate the relationship between ICT and economic growth in the ASEAN-5 countries over the 2003 to 2018 study period. Using static and dynamic panel data estimation, results shows that fixed telephone line subscription has the greatest impact on ICT on economic growth. The findings suggest countries shall focus on the innovation of ICT especially on the mobile-cellular telephone subscription and fixed telephone line subscription to achieve economic growth. Investments in ICT infrastructure foster co-operation in ICT technology as well as advancing ICT particularly on the rise in jobs in the ICT sector, transforming government services into digital form to enhance economic growth in the country.
Dimitrios J. Dimitriou
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 261-278; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16645

Abstract:
The key objective of this paper is to present the dimensions and the characteristics of an airport enterprise management engagement in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). By analyzing different strategies and plans towards CSR, applied in a sample of 15 European airports, the comprehensiveness is defined, providing the assessment framework of the airports CSR effectiveness and efficiency. Conventional wisdom is to provide a CSR assessment framework applied on airport industry. The methodology based on the competitive analysis framework, driven by benchmarking analysis applied to a group of European airports engaged in different CSR strategies. Defining the key actions of the airports CSR strategy, an assessment framework to review how this strategy meets social goals is developed. The airport strategy is reviewed considering the aviation business characteristics such as, traffic and regional GDP. Based on data collected from 15 busy European airports, the comprehensiveness of CSR strategy for this business sector considering stakeholders’ theory is investigated. The outputs provide key messages to decision makers, managers, and stakeholders towards CSR comprehensiveness of the airport operators.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 141-160; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16825

Abstract:
This paper examines the impact of social accountability mechanisms on the fiscal management challenges facing local government bodies in Zimbabwe. The paper hypothesises that there is a positive relationship between the use of social accountability mechanisms or tools by local authorities and the effectiveness of their fiscal management policies to mobilize more revenue for service delivery. In this study, both quantitative and qualitative methods are adopted in gathering and analysing data from central government officials, Goromonzi Rural District Council employees and members of the public. The results of the study reveal that the local government body faces a number of fiscal management challenges that include a shrinking tax base, non-payment of taxes, resistance to successive budgets; lack of implementation; lack of monitoring and evaluation. Council has implemented participatory budgeting to deal with some of these challenges. While results show a significant improvement in tax collection, some of the challenges have persisted. The paper proposes some recommendations useful to central government, policy makers, civil society organisations, local government officials and the general public. The paper manages to demonstrate that the implementation of social accountability tools can have positive impacts on the fiscal management challenges facing local governments.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 181-193; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16870

Abstract:
The study investigated the Performance Appraisal Experiences and its Implications on Human Resource (HR) Decisions in the decentralized health service in Shinyanga Region, Tanzania. The region was selected because over different periods it revealed poor performance in health service delivery whose causes remained unfolded. An explanatory Survey research design with a mixed approach was employed, whereas the survey tool was used to collect data from 287 respondents. The findings revealed that even though the team performance is evaluated through the Quality Improvement Teams, the individual employee’s performance is ineffectively evaluated due to the ineffective use of the Open Performance, Review and Appraisal System (OPRAS). The ineffective use of OPRAS instrument is linked to several factors including the complexity of the instrument; inadequate availability of funds to implement the set targets; shortage of the human resources in the facilities making overwhelmed by the responsibilities; the OPRAS process being time-consuming and inadequate commitment on the use of the instrument. Thus, when the individual performance is ineffectively appraised, human resource decisions such as training and compensation for employees’ performance remain uninformed, hence affecting both their quality and human resource performance. It was thus, recommended inter alia, simplification of the OPRAS instrument and customization of it to suit the health sector settings, frequent provision of training on the application of OPRAS, and linking OPRAS results with the immediate rewards to enhance employees’ commitment to the instrument. Additionally, the establishment of the mechanism to enforce the use of OPRAS in assessing employees’ performance in health facilities and ensuring that the appraisal results are linked to the human resource decisions are of paramount importance for improving human resource decisions and for performance improvement in health facilities.
, Ruhi Begum, Muhammad Mustofa Kamal
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 123-140; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17015

Abstract:
Land acquisition in Bangladesh for development activities is considered a critical issue. This study attempts to explore the existing scenario of the governance in the land acquisition process at Shreehatta Economic Zone, Moulovibazar, Bangladesh. This study is based on both the primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data was collected from 55 respondents which include both administrative officials and the project affected people and the secondary data was collected from different renowned journals, official documents of the administration, newspapers, and other relevant sources. The study reveals that there exists malpractices in the land acquisition process, where project-affected people do not get fair compensation and they are forced to pay bribe for getting compensation. In spite of having national and international guidelines for land acquisition, officials unethically acquire the agricultural land by misusing their discretionary power which leads the project affected people to more vulnerability.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 1-19; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16598

Abstract:
This study examines the association between good governance indicators and the human development index in Africa. Accordingly, it uses the panel data of 49 African countries from 2000-2018 on the six World Bank governance indicators (WGIs) and the UNDP aggregate human development index (HDI). The data are analyzed using descriptive statistics and panel regression analysis. The descriptive statistical analysis shows that most of the countries that are scoring high in the governance indicators are also scoring high in the human development index. It also indicates that Africa's average score in all governance indicators from 2000-2018 ranges between 36.2 % and 40.4%, while the score for human development was 50.8%. Using a one-year moving average, the calculated improvement rates for the eighteen years in all the governance and human development indicators were meager. The finding from the panel regression analysis attests only the three good governance indicators - the rule of law, regulatory quality, and political stability and absence of violence - are significantly and directly associated with the human development index. The finding implies that policy makers in African countries should give emphasis on these three good governance indicators to augment their human development effort.
Wan-Lin Yong, Jerome Kueh, Yong Sze Wei, Jang-Haw Tiang
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 194-212; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16900

Abstract:
This paper intends to investigate the nexus between energy consumption, carbon dioxide emission, total export and economic growth of China from 1971 to 2014. This study adopted Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test to examine the existence of short-run and long-run relationships among the variables. Empirical findings indicated that energy consumption contribute to economic growth while carbon dioxide emission is impeding the growth. There is a positive long-run relationship between both energy consumption and total export with economic growth of China. However, a negative relationship is observed between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth. Hence, in terms of policy recommendation, policymakers can implement a balance environment-economic policy; reduce the carbon dioxide emission by imposing carbon tax; promote renewable energy among the industries and households and promoting reserves forest policy is needed for aspiration of sustainable growth for both environmental and economic.
Godwin Ihemeje, Grace Ihemeje
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 85-92; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.15173

Abstract:
Readjusting a standardized national drinking age, particularly in the area of implementation has been a matter of concern to scholars of political science and health sciences. It is instructive to note that the national legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy initiated and implemented since 1985 in the United States. Different groups have raised public debate on the minimum drinking age and proposed reducing it to 18 years. However, recent trends in alcohol drinking and related consequences, comparative effect of the minimum legal drinking ages of 21 years and 18 years, research on drinking among high school and college students related to minimum legal drinking age are critically reviewed, using secondary data sources. This article therefore seeks to support the minimum drinking age of 21 years, rather than lowering it to 18 years. Concerted interventional roles are essential by the assistance of non-governmental organizations, public health experts, legal experts, and public office holders; for the purpose of influencing healthy decisions about alcohol among the early adults and thereby leading to reduction in alcohol consumption and its negative impacts.
Vidar Stevens, Tine Vertommen
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 93-107; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16778

Abstract:
To date, the knowledge base on the topic of violence and integrity in sports is limited, the scientific community is relatively small, and the research field is in its infancy. The few researchers have predominantly been working in silos, and, consequently, initial studies have examined this issue with a singular discipline approach. Violence in sport is a multifaceted issue that has physical, psychological, social and organizational consequences. The fragmentation of the research efforts in this area thus far has limited the possibility of formulating a clear, collaborative and international agenda for future research. In this article, we aim to build on previous research, but also borrow insights from public administration, to pave the way for new studies that look from a governance perspective at policy strategies for the prevention of interpersonal violence against young athletes in sports. Particularly, we aim, in line with the Dutch policy development, to discuss the value of local networks, and its challenges, as vehicles of collaboration and prevention.
Chotiphun Tiaviwat
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 370-397; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17188

Abstract:
This paper examines the economic, political, and institutional determinants of the propensity of privatization, as well as the sensitivity of privatization, in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) context over the observation period from 1988 to 2008, with the Asian Financial Crisis being the median point of the observation period. This is particularly to investigate the organic progression of the privatization of ASEAN nations as an isolated endogenous phenomenon. This paper, using a two-stage quantitative technique, aims to exhibit the novel, and to a degree inventive, insights that are unique to the context of ASEAN, as well as to identify the potential policy implications directed towards how ASEAN policymakers may steer their national development policies to manufacture the constructive economic, political, and institutional conditions needed to foster privatization processes. The findings indicate that GDP per capita, current account balance, and stock market capitalization are statistically the key moving parts that contribute to the propensity of privatization, as well as the sensitivity of privatization, in the ASEAN context.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 233-260; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16311

Abstract:
This paper explores the drivers of political instability and how political instability affects the economy in the context of Yemen. It is a low country income, although the critical location is at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula with 200 islands. The country is rife with terrorists and lives under much socio-political strife. We implemented an empirical model to test the correlations and multiple regression between political instability and economic growth. The study found that there is a high negative correlation between volatility and economic growth with negative correlations value. Furthermore, we investigate the significance of the regression -enter method- stepwise method which show the existence of the impact of the political instability index conflict, and civil war in economic growth.
Dube Makuwerere Langton
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 327-349; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.17040

Abstract:
Using the Zimbabwean case, this article explores the assertion that autocracies are better placed than democracies in land redistribution because of lower institutional constraints and concentration of power which makes policy implementation easier. This is rightly so, because such political systems have the notoriety of neutralizing or eliminating the veto gauntlet which is normally strengthened by institutional autonomy. Extant literature on land reform continues to grapple with overarching questions as to why countries redistribute land, relating to the type of conditions that incubate the need for reform and the political purpose that redistribution serve in this world. Equally important, is the need to interrogate the real beneficiaries of land reform. The study notes that in the post-Cold War globalized era of ‘fractured sovereignty’, redistribution from above remains attractive despite its protracted nature. However, against a post-colonial settler land discourse that memorializes race, privilege, dispossession, and restitution, the article evinces that land redistribution is tainted by elitism, clientelism, and partisanship which eventually distort its structural transformative power.
Mashala Lameck Yusuph, Kisumbe Lazaro Alman
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 161-180; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i2.16869

Abstract:
Oil and natural gas have increasingly become potential resources for the socio-economic development of Tanzania. Understanding the factors on its sustainability remains of critical importance. This study intended to analyze the factors for the sustainable development of oil and gas resources in Tanzania. We collected quantitative data from 250 participants through a questionnaire, whereas data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results show that institutional development, enterprise development, and good governance are pertinent factors for the sustainable development of oil and gas resources in Tanzania. The study offers the implication that to realize the benefits of oil and gas resources for the long-term development of Tanzania, policymakers should ensure institutional and enterprise development, and promotion of governance framework to enhance transparency and accountability in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, we recommend that the realization of long-term extraction and sustainable development of oil and gas resources in Tanzania, robust policies, strategies, good governance frameworks and combined efforts of the government, oil companies, and private sector, civil organizations, and citizens’ participation in the management of oil and gas resources is of critical importance.
Bilal Tariq, Rossazana Ab-Rahim
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 17-40; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.15429

Abstract:
Employed child or working child is known as child labor in literature. The child labor is an important issue for economic analysts, governments and social groups. The awareness of the exploitation of children, in much of the developing world, has brought the issue of child labor to the forefront of debate within governments and social groups. The purpose of this study is to organize the past literature on trade and child labor. Additionally, this paper presents the conceptual and empirical discussion with some recent estimates of the magnitude of the problem. The review of past studies presents the child laborers’ effect on an economy as well as the debate on the effectiveness of various policies related to trade and economic growth.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 262-289; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16613

Abstract:
Implementations of public policies and programs have been the bane of developing countries. Ghana is no exception as past policy measures initiated to resuscitate the dwindling cocoa industry have been implemented with less success. The introduction of the Cocoa Diseases and Pests Control (CODAPEC) program has been unique from the earlier reforms. The article explores on this program using a case study research based on survey questionnaire data from 100 farmers in Bia District of Ghana. The analysis focuses on the contributory factors and the relative importance of these factors towards implementation of this agricultural program. Five main factors of success were identified. The results showed that all these factors mattered as they played different and important roles. However, three key successes of factors based on statistical evidence were the supply of skilled personnel, active participation of farmers in the education program and high quantity of agrochemicals supplied. The study recommends the creation of incentive systems to reduce cost of production, periodic review of the producer price of cocoa and the development of the private sector.
Manila Khisa
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 249-261; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16612

Abstract:
Over the past few decades, decentralizing public services and rendering administrative power to the local government institutions has become a popularly followed strategy to accelerate development in the rural areas. Since its independence till date, Bangladesh has taken quite a number of decentralization initiatives in the areas of health, education, agriculture and small industry promotional activities. This study has adopted secondary data analysis method to examine the degree of rural development made through decentralized public service delivery by the local government institutions of Bangladesh. The study suggests that, despite some improvement, the local governments in Bangladesh have not managed to bring significant changes at the rural level due to political supremacy, administrative and financial incapacity. The study concluded with identifying the changes that are necessary in the areas of resource accumulation and management, financial and administrative decision making system, political and bureaucratic capacity.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 159-181; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16490

Abstract:
This paper discussed a set of theoretical and administrative hypothesis of schools of administration, which contributed to influence the science of management in general and led to the emanation of many models associated with the means of management and its fundamentals. These schools relied on the use of various hypotheses or theories that sought to develop a knowledge structure of management that could contribute to solving administrative problems, especially at the end of the nineteenth century, which witnessed the development of management science through scientists and eggheads.Moreover there was an odd experience at the level of administration and governance, revealing the unique mentality of Ali in management, in the legal, comprehensive and humanitarian ones, which printed the terms of his reign to Malik - decibel and companion of Ali - some related to economic matters political, social issues deal with the duties and functions of the ruler and relations between the ruler and the parish.We concluded that the management materials provided by all known administrative schools testify unequivocally to the thought of Ali, addressing the administration from the perspective of building the land on the basis of justice, efficiency and equity. Therefore, we consider that venerable scholars, whatever their religion, creed or race, are just witnesses to the correctness, validity and comprehensiveness of Ali's thought, not only in the twenty-first century, but we can say objectively as a testimony to all ages.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 132-158; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16489

Abstract:
This study carried out a quantitative analysis of several variables in both Lebanon and France. Specific aspects related to education, unemployment, vulnerable employment, gender gap, and participation in parliamentary life were studied. We started from the rationale that human rights necessitate that human beings so it is imperative that each individual enjoy civil and political rights, which means in addition to the right to life and the right equality, there should be the right to the legal recognition and participation in public life whether through employment or elections. These rights have been recognized by the international human rights laws, mainly in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by United Nations and by the existing local laws both in Lebanon and France.The tests of homogeneity for the panel data models from Lebanon and France have been implemented carefully considering the linear relationship between the real GDP as a dependent variable and three of the independent variables consisting of the rate of women teachers in the secondary education , the rate of female to male ratio in labor force participation , the rate of women’s vulnerability to risks in the female labor force . The study demonstrated the importance of the Random Effects Model (REM) using the the log-transformed data. The study revealed a positive impact of both and on the real GDP while the variable has a negative impact both in Lebanon and France during the period (2008-2017).
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 333-347; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16675

Abstract:
In this paper, the study summarizes the major studies addressing on the power of political connections that have impacts on the role of audit committees and corporate governance in the companies. The question addressed by this paper is how the political connections and audit committee role may influence the corporate governance variables as reflected in audit fees and corporate governance behavior through auditor’s assessment process. This is what has been lacking in the literatures.This paper is an attempt to identify the gaps and contribute to the political connections and corporate governance literature by showing the political connection influences on audit committee especially in an economy in which the government has coercive power in the firms. In the different context, the paper provides avenue to potential research to understand firm’s agency conflicts between the majority shareholder and the management as well as political connections that providing external resources to the firms affect auditor’s decision on audit fees, audit plan and assessment process and audit opinions.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 218-238; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16252

Abstract:
Can we use digital tools to increase and deepen citizen participation in open and democratic policy-making processes? That is the main question this article aims to address. Today, there is a global effort to foster democracies through online digital tools. However, for many governmental officials and scholars it is still a challenge to decipher how online digital tools technically function and operate, what effects such tools have on the users of the platforms, and how it impacts the practices of governmental organizations and politics. In our view, practices of digital democracy deserve more governmental attention. Anno 2018, we already do our banking, tax-payment, and data sharing online. Nonetheless, our democracy remains decidedly analogue; the activity of casting a vote requires citizens to go the local polling booth, queue up, and tick a box on a paper voting slip. As such, the aim of this article is to shed more light on this new way of thinking about democracy in the digital era. Furthermore, we want to show the readership how in a time where there is growing disillusionment with the political institutions of advanced Western democracies, online tools provide new ways of involving citizens in political decision-making. Therefore, in this article we explore the possibilities of digital tools regarding citizen participation and democracy, and particularly, focus on how to manage these political experiments.
Benson Kunle Sehinde, Adeoye Julius Olaniyi
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 239-248; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i1.16587

Abstract:
Implementation of State public procurement law has been one of the task assignments on project execution in Lagos State. However, little or no emphasis has been placed on the extent of its compliance. This study attempted to investigate the extent to which State public procurement law using Lagos State. It showed that the policy objective of efficiency, probity, and openness among the various procuring entities has to a large extent being achieved, though with various challenges undermining the implementation of public procurement policy, which needs prompt consideration. It employed both quantitative and qualitative data. In respect to quantitative data, a study population of 1, 401 comprised staff members on GL. 07-17 in the following Ministries: Housing, Finance as well as Works and Infrastructures. A sample size of 15% representing 210 respondents was used to represent the study universe. On the other hand, the qualitative data were drawn from the interview analysis. Conclusively, there is statistically significant relationship between compliance with Lagos State Public Procurement Law variant (openness and efficiency) and procuring entities.
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