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Tom Mark Brown
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 110-127; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.18095

Abstract:
This paper investigates the governance practices embedded within governance structures at the disposal of students at a public tertiary education institution, and student unrest as a mechanism to sway decision-making and reform policy at the case study institution of higher learning. In particular, the study is guided by a qualitative research paradigm using a structured interview tool to gather primary data using the University of the Western Cape (UWC) situated in Cape Town, South Africa, as a bounded case study, against the backdrop of the 2015-2016 #FeesMustFall (FMF) protests. It is suggested in this paper that student unrest is not the main reason, but rather a symptom of the broader inadequacies of the current participatory mechanisms available in university governance structures in general, and at the UWC. Employing a Path Dependency Theoretical (PDT) Approach. The article concludes by analyzing the findings of the empirical research, by identifying several themes and sub-themes.
Khali Mofuoa
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 128-143; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.17950

Abstract:
Ethics or morals are learned as they are observed from people's life histories – present or past. They are best remembered in relationships with life histories of impeccable models of ethics or morals in their respective societies. People of Lesotho, known as Basotho, often refer to the high ethical standards or principles of Chief Mohlomi in public administration and governance and talk of him as one of history's great ethical or moral leaders of all time in southern Africa. But do such claims about Chief Mohlomi have substance, and do they withstand scrutiny in public administration and governance? If so, how? Drawing lessons primarily from the pre-colonial 18th-century history of the Basotho, the article explores such claims. It also sheds some light on the relevance of the legendary Chief Mohlomi in public administration and governance not often discussed in academia.
Bienmali Kombate, Muganga Emmanuel, Kouadio Konan Richard
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 1-25; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.18150

Abstract:
Strategic management implementation in public sector study has nowadays become the most commonly researched area among public administration scholars and researchers. However, to the best of our knowledge, there has been no attempt to investigate the influence of the implementation style and the middle management on the Strategic Management Implementation (SMI) and organizational performance (OP). There is a paucity of studies that have been undertaken in developing countries. This study aims to fulfil this research gap, investigated in the moderated mediation effect of the combination of the implementation style and middle management effort in the relationship between SMI and OP. The study data was collected on a sample of 468 public managers in the Togolese central government organizations. The findings show that public organisations that opt for logical implementation style in its program implementation result in a non-significant estimate at the mean and 1SD below the middle management effort (W). However, in the organization that applies incremental implementation style in its program implementation, the estimates at mean, 1SD below and 1SD above the mean of the W are all statistically significant. Developing country public sector organisations characterized by traditional bureaucracy and lack of administrative reform program implementation that opt for logical implementation style will likely decrease performance.
Fee Cheng Tan, Devika Nadarajah
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 85-96; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.18006

Abstract:
This study examined the mediating role of proactivity in the effects of five adaptability features (i.e. work stress coping, creativity, dealing with uncertainty, training and learning, and interpersonal adaptability) on employees’ change readiness. A total of 379 employees of public sector organisations in Malaysia participated in the study. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to analyse the proposed model. The results indicate that out of the five adaptability features, three (dealing with uncertainty, training and learning, and interpersonal adaptability) significantly predict proactivity. Proactivity was also found to mediate the effects of these three adaptability features on change readiness. This paper contributes to the change readiness literature by identifying proactivity as mediator in the relationship between adaptability features and change readiness, which has received relatively scant attention. Practical and theoretical contributions are discussed.
Maria Mohd Ismail, Raja Noriza Raja Ariffin
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 97-106; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.17961

Abstract:
Politics plays a major role in every aspect of the government development plan. Kelantan is an interesting case in understanding the different political leadership involved in the implementation process. This study reports how politics influenced the development of rural transport accessibility in Kuala Krai, Kelantan. In-depth interviews were conducted among 33 respondents; 13 policymakers from the federal, state and local level and 20 villagers covering all the three sub-districts in Kuala Krai, Kelantan, Malaysia. The findings were presented based on the emerging themes emerged from the analysis. The findings confirmed that politics is the primary mover in formulating and implementing any transport accessibility plan in the study area. The findings also provided ultimate insights for policymakers at multiple decision-making level involved in formulating and implementing for an accessible rural transport system for the rural communities.
Michael Taoyang Warai
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 65-84; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.17986

Abstract:
The article questions the practices of violation of the law and the link between illegality and administrative practices, with a focus on administrative services. In this paper, I propose to study the experience of Cameroon, a country where formality and informality work hand in hand. Precisely, administrative practices have for some time seen the proliferation of unconventional practices in the management of administrative services. The assessment is the use of informality that rub shoulders with the formal rules established by the legislator. The informal management of administrative services can be explained on the one hand by the state crisis which results in the state registry struggling to take. Administrative burdens as an institutional factor should not also be overlooked as an explanatory factor for this practice. Informality, therefore, becomes an alternative to bypass regulatory frameworks. The objective of this article is to stimulate reflection on the role that informality can play in administrative practices in Cameroon. Starting from the principle of methodological individualism, we demonstrate that informality is a vector of underdevelopment, and this way of doing must retain the attention of governments to overcome this practice.
Mayowa Joseph Oluro, Johnson Olawale Bamigbose
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 26-39; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.18151

Abstract:
The legislature is unarguably the fulcrum upon which democracy rests. Democracy, in this context, is representative government. Thus, the institution of the legislature as an assembly of elected representatives becomes the engine room of the structural framework upon which democratic governance is built. As history has shown, the beauty of legislature is greatly enhanced by a healthy multi-party system wherein elected representatives from different party backgrounds engage one another alongside party ideological positions with a view to deliberating on issue of governance and socio-economic well-being of the people. Legislative cross-carpeting in Nigeria is becoming a norm rather than exigency, and is taking a negative toll on the capacity of legislatures to fulfill their mandates as against functioning as merely rubber-stamp annexes of the executive/ruling party. This study examines the impacts of the wanton cross-carpeting, often times bereft of any ideological underpinning, that have characterized legislative assemblies in Nigeria and its implications on good governance. Among others, it concludes that concrete legal and political frameworks must be developed to check the direction of cross-carpeting in Nigeria’s legislative houses if good governance is to be entrenched.
Jack B. Isolana
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 40-52; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.18213

Abstract:
The study examined the internalization of core-values of New Public Management (NPM) among Local Government Units (LGUs) in the Philippines in their effort to reform the management and operation of public markets. Using Public-Private Partnership (PPP) as a framework of NPM for infrastructure development and service delivery, the study assessed the performance of PPP/BOT Public Markets in addressing the perennial problems of public markets in the Philippines. It inquired whether or not PPP as an instrument of reform has improved the management and operation of public markets.To substantiate the assessment, five pioneering PPP public markets in the country were examined, namely; Mandaluyong Public Market in Mandaluyong City, Carmen and Cogon Public Markets in Cagayan de Oro City, Suki Market in Quezon City, and Bocaue Public Market in Bocaue, Bulacan. It used organization and management, the scope of facilities and services, LGU-revenue income and expenditures, and income of market vendors, and client satisfaction on the quality of facilities and services as performance indicators. The data of the study were obtained through combined research methodologies such as case study, content analysis, ocular inspection, and interviews with the city and municipal administrators, market administrators, market vendors, and officers of market vendors associations.The study shows that while PPP has improved the performance of public markets during the early years of operation, these gains and all advances were not sustained by the LGUs when management and operation of public markets were turned over to them from the private project proponent-operators. The study argued that in order to sustain public-private partnerships in the operation of the public market, it is imperative to institutionalize reforms in the structure, processes, mindsets of the leaders, and stakeholders. The institutionalization of NPM’s core values can be carried out effectively through localization of PPP as a policy so that the necessary legal and institutional frameworks for PPP will be anchored based on the need, strength, and weaknesses of the LGU concerned.The study makes a positive contribution to the on-going discourse on public sector reform in the Philippines particularly at the local level using PPP as a model. It enriches not only the literature of Public Administration but also provides valuable lessons in the praxis of governance.
Jochelle Greaves Siew
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 11, pp 53-64; doi:10.5296/jpag.v11i1.18008

Abstract:
The performance of government bureaucrats profoundly impacts the daily lives of citizens, with their unseen decisions affecting, inter alia, the safety of society, public education standards, and working conditions. Still, scholars dispute the power of bureaucrats, and whether and how it should be controlled. Some contend that bureaucratic activity must be firmly controlled since bureaucrats are expected to shirk their responsibilities. Contrarily, others postulate that a trust-based system would be better-suited as bureaucrats subscribe to values related to public interest, professional norms, and organisational loyalty. This article conducts a review of relevant literature on ‘top-down’ and ‘trust-based’ control mechanisms in order to recommend suitable approaches for controlling bureaucratic activity, considering the factors which affect the nature of their work. It is shown that a trust-based model is appropriate as it results in an equilibrium being achieved, with discretion utilised as a tool for implementation, whilst bureaucratic activity is monitored and controlled in a less intrusive and demotivating manner. While command-and-control methods produce better results in cases where short-term cost control and productivity are in question, this approach is unsustainable in the long-run due to inherently faulty assumptions about bureaucratic motivation. This article also recognises that multiple mechanisms of control might be necessary, depending on what is appropriate according to political judgements on contexts and organisational goals. Bureaucrats are accountable in different ways, at several levels and to varying degrees, so the mechanisms used to monitor and control them should reflect this reality.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 37-52; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17646

Abstract:
Citizen-centric has been a major focus area for professionals, managers and scholars for nearly three decades because of its profound impact on policy making and service delivery. A massive number of studies on citizen-centric have been carried out by past scholars which resulted in a large volume of strategies but there has been little examination of these strategies in the crisis context. This study aims to produce a citizen-centric model that can be used during a crisis. There is a need to generalize the strategies that are capable of forming a universal citizen-centric model during crises. This study is an exploratory analysis of previous literatures in the context of public administration that has shed light by examining the indicators of citizen-centric concepts during crisis.
Eugene Danso
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 142-158; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17732

Abstract:
The complexity of business-government relations in the globalized economy cannot be underestimated. This is the product of the cross-cutting effects of a long-term policy shift heightened by globalization, coupled with privatization. Central to this, is the emergence of ideologies within the contours of the state-market-society landscape. Ghana’s privatization experience is typical of this major ideological approach to business-government relations. As a qualitative study, this paper adopts unobtrusive content analysis of an empirical study of the privatization of Ashanti Goldfields Company (AGC). This paper argues that Ghana’s adoption of privatization policy has yielded undesirable policy outcomes due to the complexities of the divestiture process which had adverse effect on the state-market-society nexus.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17818

Abstract:
This study aims to describe and analyze and interpret 1) the role of DPMPTSP in realizing innovative licensing and non-licensing services in Depok City; 2) The role of planning, leadership, human resources apparatus, and organizational culture; and 3) DPMPTSP's strategy for licensing and non- licensing service innovation in Depok City, West Java Province. As for the theory used to uncover the problems in this study, the theory of public service innovation developed by Rachel Asworth and friends as stated in the framework of thought (Ashworth, 2010). Through a qualitative method with a descriptive approach with a spiral analysis model by John W. Creswell, it was found that 1) the organizational environment, both internal and external DPMPTSP plays a role in the innovation of public services in Depok City; 2) The role of planning, leadership, apparatus human resources, and organizational culture that is built on DPMPTSP is a force to realize Public Service Innovation in Depok City; and 3) Strategy through an internal and external collaboration of local government and organizational learning is the trigger for realizing public service innovation in Depok City, West Java Province.
Kikelomo Aboyowa Mbada
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 315-330; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.18218

Abstract:
A human rights-based approach that recognizes that women deserve the right to health is critical to achieving equitable reduction of maternal mortality in Nigeria, a country that is the second largest contributor to global maternal mortality. This study evaluated the extent to which the Abiye safe motherhood policy of the Ondo State government of Nigeria incorporated human rights-principles in its formulation and implementation. The study involved interviews and focus group discussions and the OHCHR human rights principles served as the basis for the thematic analysis of data. Findings indicate that the Abiye initiative exemplified the core principles of human rights-based approach to maternal health. Whereas, the initiative showed stronger practice in terms of the principles of participation, empowerment, non-discrimination and international assistance, there was limited indication of adherence to accountability, transparency, and sustainability principles. The Abiye safe motherhood initiative responded to maternal health needs in fairly acceptable and equitable ways; allowing the creation of opportunities and enabling conditions for the fulfillment of the health rights of reproductive-age women. It is recommended that governments at all levels should prioritize incorporating human rights-based standards into new or existing programs in a way that meets the core needs of respect and welfare of every woman in pregnancy and childbirth.
Christopher P.P. Shafuda, Rainer Lenz, Matthew Mirecki
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 219-249; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17251

Abstract:
This paper assessed the practices and standards of Corporate Governance for SOEs in Namibia. The results revealed that the state of the SOEs Corporate Governance system in Namibia is weak. SOEs are nearly uncontrolled and unmonitored regarding their Corporate Governance. Although the Government spends roughly half the size of its annual development budget on funding SOEs, it is not controlling the performance of its investments. The Namibian system of Corporate Governance is a decentralised model and relies almost solely on the Line Ministries to ensure compliance. However, the majority of Line Ministries are not executing their assigned ownership power. Most Line Ministries do not establish extra units or divisions for SOE monitoring, and instead, delegate the task of monitoring performance to staff across different divisions.
Siti Aishah Ya'cob
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 250-262; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17824

Abstract:
Nowadays, online information serves many functions. Despite solely for shopping purposes, the online platform has tremendously served the worldwide community for information search related to travelling. Hence, the features of online information are critically important to be investigated, in understanding the factors that lead to traveler satisfaction. This study investigates the features of online tourism information that lead to satisfaction of the domestic travelers from Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah to Kuching city of Sarawak Borneo. This study proposes two factors, namely credibility of information and segmentation of information. A total of 247 sets of questionnaires were completed by domestic travelers who visited Kuching city in the year 2015. It is evident that both credibility and segmentation of online tourism information have significant and positive relationships towards traveler satisfaction. In short, the findings of this study provide a better understanding on the credibility and segmentation of online tourism information from domestic traveler’s viewpoint.
Syahrul Ibad, Yona Wahyu Lolita
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 273-277; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17867

Abstract:
This research discusses and analyzes the new normal life in the era of the Covid-19 pandemic, thus a development and urgency of public services is needed in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic that is able to answer technical problems of public services. The objective of this writing is to outline the development and the importance of public service through work system changes approach as well as the significance of public service development, which can reconstruct whether this system-based public service could really be implemented during the covid-19 pandemic. using descriptive research methods with a qualitative approach, methods used to describe or analyze a research result but not used to make broad conclusions. Thus it is found in this study the dimensions of the ASN work system change model, the development and urgency of e-government public services, and adjustments to the development of public services in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Ye Zheng, Yunshan Jiang, Kexin Qin
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 278-298; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17844

Abstract:
In the past 10 years, various sudden public outbreaks of diseases worldwide have posed great threats to the economic and social development of countries. However, there is a lack of case studies and empirical studies on the fight against major outbreaks in foreign public health institutions. Based on a review of classical materials and narrative research methods, this study combs the institutional profile, function allocation, and funding input of the American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and focuses on the CDC’s important measures and experiences in preventing and controlling the Ebola virus in West Africa during 2014–2015. According to the research, the main characteristics of CDC’s epidemic prevention and control in the United States are effective organizational structure and system, as well as the abilities of emergency management of rapid response. Furthermore, these two advantages and characteristics have penetrated the construction of the incident management system, adoption of specialized technical means and tools, and wide cooperation network and organizational coordination. Accordingly, the enlightenment of public health institutions regarding “epidemic prevention” and “anti-epidemic” is proposed from two aspects: system construction and ability enhancement.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 73-99; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17740

Abstract:
The specific objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness and the challenges of the training programs imparted by BCSAA, a leading training institution for the BCS administration cadre officials in Bangladesh. The study is qualitative is nature that used data from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was obtained by interviewing a total of 75 participants from 113th, 114th and 115th Law and Administration Course (LAC) using semi-structured questionnaire and phone in interview. While secondary data was obtained adopting content analysis technique through reviewing books, journal articles, e-resources, unpublished monographs and newspapers. Analyzing the data from both the sources, the study has found that the training program of LAC has been effective to a certain extent as it has helped its participants to achieve some core qualities relevant to their job performance. The findings of the study also suggest that due to the intervention of this training, trainees have improved their knowhow about land management, conducting mobile courts, magisterial duties, e-filing, e-mutation etc. Furthermore, the training has resulted in significant improvement of their communication skills particularly in English, presentation skills, public speaking and in few other areas of their professional needs. However, the respondents raised few concerns about certain aspects of the training which include absence of proper need assessment for training, heavy reliance on guest speakers, huge syllabus compared to the course duration, absence of e-library facilities in the academy, sessions being mostly lecture based, absence of refreshers training etc. Nonetheless, this study has come up with certain pragmatic recommendations drawing on the narratives from the respondents. BCSAA need to address these issues with utmost priority for making this training further effective.
, Farhana Ahmed, Tanzim Ahmed
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 1-18; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17601

Abstract:
Bangladesh is one of the most governance deficit countries of the world. In this reality, Upazila system, as an intermediate tier local government unit, is reestablished under the Upazila Parishad Act 2009. This Act is the basis of the formation and function of the Upazila Parishad. In this study, survey method has been applied to primary data collection from two upazila (Sylhet Sadar Upazila and Kanaighat Upazila) in Sylhet district. The study finds that the existing upazila parishad activities do not meet the demand of the people. Citizen’s trust on the Upazila Parishad is very low. The study also finds some other challenges, including unskilled manpower, proper planning and a lack of financial resouces. Moreover, the officials are not professional and their behaviors are not good while performing their duties. Most of the service receiver did not get best service from upazila officials. However this study suggests some recommendation for improving the service of upazila parishad. Officials should be highly trained and professional on their service delivery. By ensuring the best services, they can achieve the trust of general people.And the Government should take additional steps with regards to improving the upazila parishad service.
Jack B. Isolana
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 199-218; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.18031

Abstract:
Local problems that go beyond jurisdictional boundaries such as; traffic congestions, pollution, garbage collection and disposal, environmental degradation, flooding, criminalities, pandemic, and other public health issues are readily seen and felt in urban areas today. To effectively address these inter-local problems, the establishment of metropolitan organizations has become a necessity. One of the primary functions of metro government is to manage the affairs of urban growth particularly in addressing the problems that go beyond the geographical boundaries of local governments. As a developmental strategy among adjacent local government units, metropolization requires a rules-based approach in order to effectively govern and address inter-local government problems and concerns.The common issues that metro governments deal with include urban growth areas development, controlling urban sprawl and its effects like pollution, solid waste disposal, traffic congestion and others. The rationale behind setting-up a single authority among local government units is to deal with inter-local concerns which cannot be efficiently and effectively addressed by disjointed actions of individual local government.The study looked into the state of inter-local relations among the eight component-local government units of the Metro Vigan Coordinating Council (MVCC). It identifies the common problems that transcend the geographical boundaries of the local government units as well as the common development potentials that can be optimized through inter-local cooperation. It highlighted the legal, institutional, and financial challenges of the Metro-Vigan initiative, and offers recommendation to deepen and broaden the inter-local cooperation.
Nick Fobih
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 125-141; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17955

Abstract:
The purpose of the study is to examine the new public management (NPM) reforms in Ghana’s Ministries, Departments and Agencies, and at the local government level in terms of key changes implemented and its successes. The study also examines the challenges that have been encountered in the implementation process and recommendations to address the weaknesses in the system. The methodology used is based on the qualitative approach and the descriptive method. The findings in the study show that regardless of the in-roads made since the introduction of the NPM reforms, a number of challenges such as lack of expertise, lack of political will, inadequate resources among others, continue to affect the performance of Ghana’s civil service, which in turn, impact the delivery of public services. The study recommends that NPM reforms must seek to increase levels of accountability because monitoring the performance of key institutions will go a long way to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the public service. The significance of the study is that it provides key insights into important issues in Ghana’s NPM reforms, which can serve as useful tools for decision makers in moving the reforms towards accomplishing its goals more successfully. The outlined challenges and recommendations will inform the government, key policy makers and local government officials to enable them address the challenges affecting the effective implementation of NPM reforms. This study further contributes toward academic discussions relating to the impact of NPM reforms in Ghana and Africa in general.
Iis Sandra Yanti
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17819

Abstract:
Human Development Index (HDI) is still used for determining the quality of human life in local government. In local government, specially in industrial region, HDI is to hard to be achieved. Bekasi regency as the biggest industrial region of the South-East Asia also has same problem about achieving HDI target annually. With qualitative method, this research tries to identify factors that causing HDI target of Bekasi Regency is not achieved in 2012-2017 period. Some results shows that the factors are natural environment, social environment, and task environment.
Siti Daleela Mohd Wahid, , Abdul Jalil Mohamed Ali, Aida Abdullah, Siti Mariam Ali
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17586

Abstract:
Citizen-centricity satisfaction is a recent phenomenon spreading around the world. It is of growing interest to scholars and many papers are focused on this area. This paper aims at revealing factor that predict a citizen satisfaction during pandemic outbreak in public service delivery. A massive number of theories and past scholars have carried out studies on the factors influencing citizen satisfaction, which resulted in a list containing large volume of variables. There was a need to generalize factors that capable to form a universal citizen satisfaction model. This research utilizing citizen-centric demands of transformational government model as the theoretical foundation in citizen satisfaction in public service context. 346 citizens conveniently were selected as respondents, at the same time as information become amassed via online surveys. The information become then analyzed via the use of AMOS software. The structural equation modelling (SEM) was executed to develop the measurement model. The results exhibit that goodness of fit, construct reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity achieved the overall fitness threshold to model citizen satisfaction. This research contributes to shed light on the literature via examining the elements of citizen-centric demands of transformational government model namely openness, responsiveness, transparency and participation in citizen satisfaction.
Marjorie Don Resuello
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 179-198; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17752

Abstract:
The study explored the key trends and various issues surrounding disaster risk reduction and management (DRRM) in the Philippines by analyzing the interrelationship of disaster risk, revenue generation capacity, and DRRM capacity of local governments in the Philippines. The study analyzed the economic implications of disasters to the local economy and analyzed how revenue generation capacity of local governments contributes to realizing disaster-resilient local economy. The study found out that while the law encourages local governments to invest on DRRM, the current system, however, puts local governments with lower income at a disadvantage as they have lower revenues and thus, less resources to utilize for DRRM. The varying income among local governments create disparity not just in local growth but also in performing their DRRM devolved functions. Therefore, the revenue generation capacity of local governments is crucial to strengthen DRRM at the local level. The study suggests that addressing disparity in income and the complexities in sourcing the local revenue as well as having entrepreneurial and transformational local chief executives are crucial factors to realize disaster-resilient local economy in the Philippines.
Adeniyi Olufemi Oluwakoya, Stephen Olufemi Obasa
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 159-168; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17956

Abstract:
Transport, due to its ubiquitous nature, takes a key position in contemporary discourse as a critical sector that impacts governance, economic and social wellbeing of the national development. The unprecedented transportation challenges, particularly in the sub-Saharan states, have a significant implication on the performance of their economies. These challenges, more often than not, are generated by disequilibrium in the policy of the government as it affects transport administration. The study takes a comparative evaluation of the extent, dimension and manner of transport administration in Nigeria and Britain. The approach involves a documentary search of the policy intervention of transport administration in both countries. The study identifies the issues and challenges of transport administration lapses, especially on the part of Nigeria and relevant recommendation to improve transport administration for national economic development.
Shalva (Lasha) Gogidze
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17772

Abstract:
This article reviews the role of the institute of whistleblowers in modern system of public administration and its connections to fighting corruption and detecting violations of legislative and ethical norms in public and private sectors. In this context, the article discusses the experience of Georgia, post-Soviet country that is in democratic transition with nascent norms and mechanisms for whistleblower protection. Specifically, the article analyzes Georgia’s legislative norms and their practical application by bringing specific examples from within the country and abroad. This is complemented by the analysis of international norms and mechanisms the adoption of which would improve the status quo in the field and encourage more people in the Georgian state and civil service and beyond to raise their voices against injustices and unlawful and corrupt behavior. The article ends with the conclusion and a list of recommendations tailored to the Georgian context.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 53-72; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17209

Abstract:
The capabilities, efficiency and effectiveness of the outcomes of the African Regional Forum on Sustainable Development demands a lot of analytical work from an African perspective towards its commitment on achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in the 2020-2030 decade. This paper provides an analytical framework questioning the forum`s outcomes and the African capabilities. The framework interrogates the feasibility of the approaches of the forum used as alternatives towards the achievement of the 17 sustainable development goals, 169 targets and 304 indicators. The analysis is made together with the outlook of the African aspirations as defined in the Agenda 2063. An analytical framework based on advocacy research and desk review of literature available was used. The framework provided a balanced analysis of both the progress made so far and the challenges that Africa is facing today. Africa does not have effective strategies that make her ready to meet the sustainable development goals by 2030. Africa is recommended to prioritise on investment, build strong partnerships and coalitions as a critical discernment of the different African initiatives propagated through the 2030 Agenda and 2063 Agenda.
William G. Dzekashu, Julius N. Anyu
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 19-36; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i4.17876

Abstract:
The West, chiefly Europe, left political footmarks in Africa from the Colonial Era, along with varying economic footprints and surviving engagements in the immediate Post-colonial Era. However, the relationships between Africa and her former colonial masters have hardly yielded much to the former following the wave of independence, leading to the perception of failed relationships. This perception of failure to deliver on their undertakings has left Africa with only one option—China. The latter has been addressing some of Africa’s urgent infrastructure needs in return for natural resources and agricultural products. These engagements on the surface appear to be good business, but on further examination seem questionable notably as it relates to debt distress on vulnerable economies. To increase her footprint within the continent, China extended her Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) to most African nations who have signed a memorandum of understanding for future development projects. Though the commitments usually are unspecified, China’s investments have seen rapid growth since the early 2000s, largely owing to the implementation of the BRI. The memoranda have had the potential to strengthen ties with partner nations. The expansion to include Africa in its economic participation in the BRI has left the West questioning China’s motives while reinforcing suspicions about possible future US-China conflict. The impact of BRI on the African continent is quite visible in all the subregions, especially in their improved gross domestic products. A burning question has been whether these partnerships represent win-win relationships for sustainable growth or debt-growth dynamics.
Jazilul Fawaid, Bahrullah Akbar, Khasan Effendy, Sampara Lukman
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 344-354; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17337

Abstract:
This research uses a quantitative research approach. The research sample of 176 respondents from a population of 313 people. Secondary data collection using library research; Primary data collection using questionnaire and interview techniques. Data processing uses SEM analysis and descriptive analysis developed with observer triangulation analysis. The results of the research analysis are The magnitude of the influence of Organizational Climate on Collective Leadership in the People's Consultative Assembly reached 0.67. The magnitude of the influence of the Coordination on the Collective Leadership Collegial in the People's Consultative Assembly reached 0.62. The magnitude of the influence of Organizational Commitment on Collective Leadership in the People's Consultative Assembly reached 0.56. Development of Concept I obtained the Organizational Support Strategy for the Collective Leadership in the Indonesian People's Consultative Assembly. Development of Concept II obtained is Optimizing the integration of roles. Development of Concept III obtained is collegial at the People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia, namely Actualization of continuation commitments.
Akpeko Agbevade, Desmond Tweneboah Koduah
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 136-157; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17628

Abstract:
The Article Examined Whether Public Sector Reform In Ghana Is A Myth Or Reality. It Emerged That Since Independence In 1957, Successive Governments Implemented Both Socialist And Market-Oriented Public Sector Reforms; However, None Of These Reforms Yielded The Expected Outcome. Hence, The New Patriotic Party On Winning Political Power Initiated The National Public Sector Reform Strategy. This Reform Aimed At Using The Public Sector As The Catalyst To Stimulate The Private Sector For Job Creation And National Development. The Study Found That The Reform Made Some Gains. However, Excessive Partisanship, Narrow Political Commitment, Donor-Funding, The Time Boundedness Of The Reform And Focus On Only 16 Ministries, Departments And Agencies Militated Against It Success Hence Public Sector Reform Is A Myth In Ghana. The Article Recommends Commitment To The Directive Principles Of State Policy As The Panacea To Effectiveness Of Public Sector Reforms In Ghana.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 410-429; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17471

Abstract:
Civic engagement has been an area of research after adoption as an important approach to strengthen citizens’ voice, accountability and communication in public service delivery. However, there is mixed result on its relationship with public service delivery, particularly water services. Civic engagement studies consider collective action as critical success factor in public service delivery. Therefore, this study focused on testing the moderating effect of collective action on the relationship between civic engagement and water service delivery in Kondoa District Council of Tanzania using a cross-sectional design with a sample of 376 households. Cronbach’s alpha value was above 0.7, which was considered good and acceptable. The moderated binary logistic regression was used for data analysis. The analysis confirms the significant moderation effects of collective action on the relationship between citizens’ voice and all three-outcome variables, physical accessibility, quality, and quantity of water supplied. Similarly, collective action had a significant moderation effect on the relationship between accountability and domestic water service delivery variables except for the quantity of water supplied. Moreover, the effect of collective action in the relationship between communication and all the variables of water service delivery is not significant. The study concluded that the influence of civic engagement in water service delivery is effective when citizens are organised into collective action. The study recommends that civic engagement should be strengthened through tailor-made training and mentorship to implant collective action attributes to citizens on issues of public concern, i.e. water service delivery and management.
John Mary Kanyamurwa, Joseph Okeyo Obosi
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 443-462; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17428

Abstract:
Citizen competence in a democratic society is perceived as an essential mechanism for promoting political accountability in local governance. This paper, thus, qualitatively investigates the relationship between citizen competence and political accountability in Uganda’s local governance system across two discrete political regimes, during the post-independence period. Using an in-depth explorative design, it was established that citizens in both regimes were largely inarticulate, disengaged and uninvolved in determining local preferences, suggesting minimal link between citizen competence and the propensity to promote political accountability at district level. The data suggested that citizen competence was less influential in district politics for the greater part of the post-colonial period. Nonetheless, there were also episodes where citizens actively participated in enforcing political accountability at the grassroots under multiparty politics in both the Obote II and NRM regimes, with slight variations in the intensity and pattern between the two periods. Thus, the level of citizen competence and nature of local governance in Uganda mirror the political accountability practices at the local level, mainly shaped by civic challenges and the character of politics in Uganda during the periods studied regardless of differences and longevity. The paper recommended deliberate state intervention for mobilization of citizens and the establishment of state-engineered dynamic social networks to generate capacity for holding local leaders accountable and more empowered civil society to construct robust citizen competence programmes to foster political accountability.
Jacob Olufemi Fatile, Mutereko Sybert, Emma Etim
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 262-287; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17688

Abstract:
Process reengineering (PR) is a newly introduced approach to process management; it pays close attention to all the processes that are related to the achievement of organizational objectives. Although originally developed for and applied in the private sector, PR is expected to constitute a handy tool for the transformation of work processes in public sector organizations (PSOs), especially in this era of information and communications technology. This paper x-rays PR in African public sector organizations (APSOs) with an emphasis on lessons to be learnt from the private sector. This paper adopts a descriptive approach, to validate and modify extant theoretical models that are relevant in explaining PR in APSOs. The paper observes that APSOs, unlike the private sector organizations (PrSOs), PSOs have failed in the adoption of PR as well as carrying out logically related tasks in such a way that well-defined results are achieved. It reveals further that poor PR in APSOs has been a clog in the wheel of achieving high performance, efficient service delivery, public satisfaction, efficient management of resources, and sustainable development in Africa. This paper concludes that APSOs can fully adopt PR if they cut down on excessive bureaucracy and learn more from the private sector in terms of readiness and adaptability to environmental changes and transformation as advocated by the contingency theory (CT). The paper recommends, amongst others, that there should be the availability of information technology (IT) infrastructure and the willingness on the part of government representatives to deploy new technologies through adequate support for information technology companies and the prioritization of IT application's needs for high system automation. Managers of APSOs should be given the power to effect changes when the need arises, without any form of influence. Also, there should be concerns about the future of PSOs, and citizens who are clients thereof should be held in high esteem and not to be treated as ‘people in need of favour’. Finally, APSOs should embrace radical changes associated with PR especially by ensuring that promotions are based on merit and not on seniority alone.
Ikechukwu Eke Emeh, Charles Nnamdi Olise, Macben Otu Idam, Chukwudi Christopher Nwokolo
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 53-72; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17441

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Seil Oh
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 188-214; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17514

Abstract:
Contrary to common belief that political actors can fundamentally shape the welfare state, any political regimes with distinct positions on welfare policies are usually put under public scrutiny, which makes it risky for them to simply follow their traditional beliefs without taking into account public reactions over welfare-related decision making. In terms of the welfare state development, South Korea is an interesting example in the sense that parties from different political backgrounds have had the opportunity to run the country for almost the same amount of time, since progressives came to power for the first time in modern Korean history. Based on data ranging from 1998 to 2016, the relationship between the welfare state and political/socioeconomic conditions is evaluated alongside policy implications, revealing the path dependence of the South Korean welfare development. The increase in social spending in South Korea was rather due to natural phenomena such as population aging, than any political actors’ approaches to the welfare state.
Semliko Fulbert Dossou
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 122-135; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17509

Abstract:
Background: Before the Covid-19 breakout, some debates' subjects were left hanging in the education area: the E-Learning integration. With the pandemic impact (making closed almost all schools in the same month), the debate gained again importance. Among the temporal Anti-Covid-19 measures adopted, was the replacement of classic education by distance-online education.Purpose: This article attempted a preliminary estimate related to the probabilities of E-learning’s ‘‘de facto’’ implementation in different countries groups of the world if the confinement should be extended in Covid-19 crisis context.Methods/Approach: The probabilistic method was adopted to analyze 143 countries including (49 High income, 40 upper-middle-income, 33 lower-middle-income, and 21 low-income economies). The main variables (related to E-learning), collected from official sources in the Covid-19 period were: Access-to-electricity, Access-to-Internet, Access-to-Multimedia-Devices (Personal-Computer, Tablet and/or Smartphone).Results: Results showed that the probabilities of E-learning's ''de facto'' implementation would be around 0.6502 in the world, 0.8731 in High-Incomes, 0.7075 in Upper-Middle-Incomes, 0.5272 in Lower-Middle-Incomes, and 0.2950 in Low-Income economies.Originality/value: (1) In the past, "suddenly closing almost all schools in the world" would be inadmissible. Everyone can henceforth believe in that eventuality after the experience with Covid-19. In this context, this research shows the need to reconsider E-learning or at least, a new hybrid education model as a "plan B" for future times. Thanks to technological integration, online and traditional education could go hand in hand, even after the Covid-19. (2) This study reminds the importance of speeding up the resolution of certain thorny (pending) problems such as access to energy and the development of educational infrastructure in certain regions of the world. The quality, performance and success of the educational component depend on it.
Ida Fauziyah, Bahrullah Akbar, Khasan Effendy, Sampara Lukman
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 73-90; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17168

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ajay Gautam
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 158-171; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17205

Abstract:
Governance and delivery of public services are aimed at managing limited available resources to effectively deliver services to the citizens of a country. However, due to lack of coordination management, personal political gains and inclusion of politics, citizens are deprived of the required information and infrastructure. This deprivation not only results in economic losses but also causes deterioration of the state of social well-being. Indian public administration has suffered from the problem of coordination due to which in many aspects the objective of benefitting the citizens is not fulfilled. This study is focused on examining the role of coordination in the public service delivery system. By comparing the Indian public delivery service system with those of Uruguay and Georgia, this study reveals that presence of coordination among the organizations, agencies, and departments improves transparency, accessibility of information, institutional capacity, and innovativeness of a country. Hence, for effective delivery of public services to citizens, maintenance of coordination is essential.
Yusuph Lameck Mashala, Lazaro Alman Kisumbe, Manumbu Hezron Daudi
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 172-187; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17235

Abstract:
Since its outbreak in late December 2019, COVID-19 has brought a state of fear, panic, insecurity and a high level of uncertainty to the whole population of the world. Amid these uncertainties, governments and international organizations across the world, have adopted various measures against its spread; such measures have depended on the nature and severity of the disease and the suitable approach adopted by each particular country. This study assessed the preparedness of the local community in the fight against COVID-19 in Dodoma Urban, Tanzania. Data were collected through a questionnaire from 100 respondents who were coincidentally selected. We analyzed data through descriptive statics and Binary Logistic Regression. The overall results show that the majority of respondents (53.68%) were well prepared to curb COVID-19. Nevertheless about 46% of the respondents were inadequately prepared. In order to curb the spread of the disease in Dodoma urban, the study recommend that the local community should consistently adhere to government directives, keep informed of the situation, and respond appropriately to protect themselves, their families, and others against the deadly corona virus disease.
Yemane Desta
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 384-409; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17810

Abstract:
This article examines the nature of corruption in the extractive industries of two Sub-Saharan countries, namely Nigeria and Botswana. It explained the root causes of the high levels of corruption present in the case of oil and gas-rich Nigeria and the reasons that account for the minimal levels of corruption prevailing in diamond-rich Botswana. This article identified corrupt political leadership; the legacy of the divide and rule policies introduced by the former British colonial masters; lack of transparent and accountable public institutions, political patronage networks; poverty-driven desire to meet the basic necessities of life; massive inflows of petrodollars producing the “resource curse”; chronic political disruptions characterized by several military coups; the supremacy of familial, ethnic and religious loyalties over national interest and poor public sector pay as the main drivers of pervasive corruption in Nigeria. On the other hand the primary factors that contributed to the remarkable achievement of Botswana in the fight against corruption include ethical political leadership; sound pre-independence traditional institutions; relatively homogenous population; respect for rule of law and property rights; high degree of transparency; cultural intolerance to graft, establishment of democratic institutions at independence; good economic management; ability to manage ethnic diversity; and a competent, a meritorious bureaucracy. This article also identified the key elements of anticorruption strategy that would help prevent and combat corruption as well enhance integrity in the Eritrean public sector based on the experiences of Nigeria and Botswana. They include sound ethical political leadership; transparency and accountability in government; merit-based and adequately paid civil service; independent, empowered and well-resourced anticorruption commission; and prudent natural resource management.
Alexander D. Kasonso, Emanuel E. Chingonikaya, Anna N. Sikira
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 369-383; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17745

Abstract:
Community Health Fund (CHF) was established in 1996 as a District Council based pre-payment health insurance scheme in Tanzania with the aim of improving health of communities working in the informal sectors. However, since its formulation, it has been performing unsatisfactorily, and hence majority of Households (HHs) are not members while other members are withdrawing from the scheme. This necessitated the need for assessing the contribution of CHF on social health security among members. Specifically, this paper examined the challenges faced by households regarding CHF membership and analysed the contributions of CHF on its member. The study area was Kalambo District Council. A cross-sectional research design was used, whereas a simple random sampling technique through lottery method was employed to select the sample size of 354 respondents. Qualitative data were collected using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), while quantitative data were collected using a questionnaire. Quantitative data were coded and analysed using IBM-SPSS. Qualitative data were analysed through content analysis. The results show that CHF contributed to social health security among its members in the study area, through provision of health services to its members once they fall sick. On other hand, CHF had few members as only 24.3% of HHs had membership to CHF. One of the barriers for CHF was lack of awareness among communities about the existence of CHF, while other cited lack of money for contributing to CHF. Thus, the study concludes that CHF has not contributed significantly to the health security among targeted members. The study recommends that, CHF officials should widely sensitize communities through seminars and meetings about CHF and its benefits to them. Furthermore, CHF stakeholders should coordinate communities in the area to establish financial institutions such as Village Community Banks (VICOBA) where they can save and borrow money for registration cards.
Akkas Ahamed, Sayedur Rahman, Nur Hossain
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 321-343; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17704

Abstract:
Myanmar's geopolitical and geostrategic position is very important for China and India, the two regional powers in East Asia and South Asia. Myanmar is the main connecting hub for South Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia, and it is also connected with the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean. Myanmar is connected with the two corridors of China's ambitious projects, Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), and Bangladesh, China, India, Myanmar Economic Corridor (BCIM). Chinese ships have to navigate at the Malacca Strait, especially in the case of fuel oil imports and exports to global markets, which are, both times consuming and strategically risky. But, using the Rakhine state's Kyaukpyu port will reduce China's dependence on the Malacca Strait and expand trade. Due to the US presence in the Indian Ocean, the recent Sino-Indian conflict, and Myanmar's geostrategic position, Sino-Myanmar relations are now one of the topics of study. This article will analyze the geostrategic and economic issues of Sino-Myanmar relations. The study has found that both China and Myanmar have greatly been benefitted through the establishment of strong bilateral relationship based on trade and investment, connectivity, constructions of ports and special economic zones. The main objective of this study is to find a diplomatic way to improve the Bangladesh-Myanmar relations based on the results of the strong relationship of China and Myanmar. This study is a major contribution to the field of China–Myanmar bilateral relations in the context of some geostrategic and geo-economic issues. The study has been carried out based on secondary data with some primary data of border survey and focus group discussions. At the conclusion of this study, there has been provided with some policy recommendations to improve the geostrategic and economic relations between the two neighboring countries.
Ronnel Santarita Ubungen, Vilma B. Ramos, Rosemarie Riguer Casimiro
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 288-305; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17689

Abstract:
From 2014 to 2016, the Province of Nueva Ecija has been a constant beneficiary of the Bottom-up Budgeting (BuB) program. However, the change in administration and priority programs since June 2016 has resulted not only in the change in nomenclature from BuB to Assistance to Disadvantaged Municipalities (ADM) Program but also to the shift in focus in terms of budget share and activity options. While both programs are into breaking the cycle of poverty and empowering the local communities, there are differences among the two that needs further attention. The paper evaluates the implementation of the BuB program in the first legislative district of Nueva Ecija from 2014 to 2016 and analyzes the trend as as bases for the crafting of programs at par with the recent and future developments. The study employed descriptive qualitative research design particularly, content analysis to answer the research question. The study found out that a more responsive ADM program entails greater participation from the stakeholders such as civil society organizations with the technical guidance of the local government units.
Lazaro Alman Kisumbe, Yusuph Lameck Mashala
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 215-227; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17370

Abstract:
This paper intended to examine the effects of the language of instruction on Learning in secondary education in Dodoma region, and its implications in the preparation of the country's workforce. A total of 288 form one students at Ipala and Hombolo secondary schools were purposely and conveniently selected into the study. Standard seven past papers including geography, history, and civics were used as model papers to test the effects of the Language of instruction in students' learning. The same examination was conducted to the same group in each school administered in English and later in the Kiswahili language. A Paired sample t-test (dependent t-test) for paired samples was used to compare means of correlated samples and to test the null hypothesis that "there is no significant difference between the sample means". Each sample from the population was measured twice. It was revealed that the students' scores in the examination differed due to the difference in the language of instructions. The scores in grade-wise revealed the poor performance of the examination in English when compared with the same examination in the Kiswahili language. We found that the use of the English language inhibits the understanding of the subject and limits the rooms for active involvement in training and learning, which is a prerequisite for understanding. Thus, it affects the efforts to prepare the future workforce to propel the realization of education policy and its contribution to the Tanzania National Development Vision 2025. We recommend designing operational strategies for implementation of the National Education and Training Policy, 2014 that directs the use of Kiswahili as the instructional language in all levels of education in the country.
Never Pavari
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 306-320; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17690

Abstract:
Practical theology, according to Stone (2002) posits that churches should care and sacrifice for the community. Consequently, Christianity has been handling epidemics for more than 2000 years. This paper seeks to assess the role that is being played by the leadership in Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe (AFMZ) in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. The term leadership in this paper refers to those in charge of the congregants and this includes church pastors, reverends, bishops and elders. Church leaders are people who play influential roles within their faith communities and the broader local community. They benefit from trust and exercise moral authority over members of their local faith community, and shape public opinion in the broader community and even at the national or international level. The paper argues that the church and its leadership play an important role in providing moral guidance to tackle COVID-19 and also to dispel fear that stalks communities alongside the disease. In order to evaluate the role that AFMZ leadership is playing in the fight against COVID-19, the paper employs a qualitative research approach in its exploration and analysis of data gathered through an online survey method. The paper found out that the church is playing a vital role in communities by communicating messages of hope in the midst of severe fears of COVID-19. It also found out that the church leadership is playing a vital role in changing people’s attitudes toward COVID-19 by providing in depth discussions of safety measures in times of the pandemic. Lastly, the paper found out that the church leadership is not doing enough on the practical matters like providing food to the most vulnerable groups in their respective communities and for quarantined patients, maintaining clear communication with families and ensuring that basic primary care is not undermined due to limited finances. The paper therefore recommends that more finance should be availed to church leadership especially from the main church coffers to enable them to meet the above-mentioned demands.
Lawrence Mundia
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 6-19; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17357

Abstract:
The case study (N = 54) described the participants using biographical attributes (age, type of offenses committed, education, marriage, employment, marital status of parents, repeat offenses, and district of residence) about criminality. Theft and drug-related offenses were first and second top crimes. Youths aged 18-29 were more involved in stealing and rape than older peers. Half of the theft convicts were employed and the other half unemployed before incarceration suggesting common underlying causes for stealing such as low education and low income (or poverty) among participants. Elderly convicts (aged 30-40) were most engaged in drug offenses, incest, and adultery compared to younger counterparts. First and repeat crimes were equally high across the participants' educational level, marital status, and parents' marital status. Most of the crimes were committed in the Brunei-Muara district. The findings call for mental health testing and appropriate interventions for crime perpetrators. Further mixed methods research was recommended.
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 1-5; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17356

Abstract:
The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered one of the deepest economic recessions in human history, largely as a result of the full lockdown strategy adopted by many national governments. This lockdown strategy was primarily motivated by the limited capacities of Intensive Care Units and a lack of medical staff and equipment. In this essay, I argue that the COVID crisis and the widely used lockdown response are socially constructed, which invites a public discourse on how we can design societal solutions that would prevent the need for an indiscriminate lockdown response to a future pandemic or any other similar crisis. One potential solution is further developed in this essay: the design of latent capabilities for responding to any future emergencies. These latent capabilities, embedded in many host organizations, can help in quickly resolve shortages in professional skills and resources, which are likely to occur in any future crisis. Here, the COVID-19 crisis provides a major learning opportunity, to be exploited as soon as possible.
Robert Knox, Michael O. Adams, Samuel Arungwa, Gbolahan S. Osho
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 112-121; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17200

Abstract:
The Act established, in pursuit of meeting it is proclamation, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. However, most employers did not abide by the act, and continued to discriminate against minorities and women with lower wages or refuse to hire them. If a minority reported the incident, usually there was nothing done to the employer. The United States office the Civil Rights Commission describes affirmative action as covering every degree of single termination of a discriminatory practice, that allows for race, national origin, sex, or disability, laterally with other benchmarks, and that embraced to offer prospects to a class of persons with historically or actually been deprived of those prospects, and to preclude repetition of discrimination in the future.
Ikenna Samuel Umezurike, Ibraheem Salisu Adam
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 20-37; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.16142

Abstract:
Despite the recent economic growth in Nigeria, poverty remains a social problem. One of the strategies employed by the Nigerian government and some development partners towards solving this problem is the deployment of social protection instruments, such as Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs), which aim at stemming the tide of poverty and vulnerability. This study uses the secondary research method to examine the extent to which the Latin American CCT model influenced the design and operation of the Nigerian CCT programme. The policy diffusion model adopted for the study posits that the success of CCT programmes in Latin America has stimulated its extension to many developing countries outside the region. The findings from the review of selected literature explain the rationale for CCTs as short-term poverty reduction and long-term human capital development. Admittedly, a nexus exists between the Latin American and Nigerian strategies. Yet the study concludes that the Latin American model cannot adequately serve as a blueprint for the Nigeria strategy, given that underlying conditions in upper middle-income Latin American countries are clearly different from those present in low income or lower middle-income African countries like Nigeria. The study recommends urgent implementation of the National Social Protection Policy; a review of the current CCT programme in Nigeria every two years and extensive research into social protection strategies.
Athaulla A Rasheed
Journal of Public Administration and Governance, Volume 10, pp 91-111; doi:10.5296/jpag.v10i3.17105

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