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Results in Journal Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science: 1,858

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, Alexander Bernhuber, Stefan Kammlander, Helmut Wagentristl, Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra, Jaroslav Bernas, Hans-Peter Kaul
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2014552

Abstract:
In Central European cropping systems, there is increasing interest in winter faba bean (Vicia faba L. minor), which is traditionally used as a spring crop. But limited knowledge on yield and yield formation and optimum seeding rate exist. Therefore, the purpose of this assessment was to compare soil coverage, yield and yield components of two winter faba bean varieties (Diva and Hiverna) with a spring faba bean (Alexia) with two seeding rates (SR), 25 versus 50 germinable seeds m−2 (S), in a two-year field experiment under Pannonian climate conditions in eastern Austria. Both winter faba bean varieties produced a high grain yield with 25 S, whereas that of Alexia tended to be higher with 50 S. The grain yield of Diva and Hiverna was with 25 S and that of Diva also with 50 S higher than that of Alexia. The higher SR caused in winter faba beans a higher intraspecific competition resulting in less stems plant−1. Pod density of Alexia was higher with 50 S compared to 25 S, while grains pod−1 and thousand kernel weight of all three varieties were not affected by SR. Results show that winter faba bean can be sown in Central Europe with lower seeding rates compared to spring faba bean without suffering a grain yield loss.
, Zhenyu Wang
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2005820

Abstract:
The effect of policy-oriented agricultural insurance on increasing farmers’ income has been controversial all the time. In light of this, this paper first clarifies the operation mechanism of policy-oriented agricultural insurance and its influence mechanism on farmers’ income from the theoretical level. Secondly, the fixed-effect model and panel quantile regression are used to empirically test the income effect of policy-based agricultural insurance on farmers, especially the effect on farmers of different income groups based on the panel data of 31 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) in China from 2007 to 2019. The results show that although policy-oriented agricultural insurance is beneficial to the increase of farmers’ income on the whole, which has significant heterogeneity on farmers of different income groups, and its influence becomes greater with the increase of farmers’ income. In the future, China should attach importance to the design of differentiated subsidy system, adhere to demand orientation so as to be vigilant that agricultural insurance will become the inducement of widening income gap in rural areas on the basis of vigorously develop policy-based agricultural insurance in a continuous manner.
Jiyuan Zheng,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2009552

Abstract:
As a representative industry of agricultural product quality and safety, food is an important cornerstone of stable social development and international status. However, frequent food quality and safety incidents reveal the complexity and difficulty of governance. Therefore, it is urgent to treat and solve food quality and safety problems through comprehensive, multi-level and multi perspective research. Through the research on the current situation of food quality and safety in China, this paper puts forward the perspective of food quality and safety management based on the theory of industrial agglomeration, clarifies the technical route of this paper, constructs two theoretical models of enterprise and government, and expounds the internal mechanism of the model. Finally, according to the conclusion of the theoretical model, the realization path of food quality and safety management based on industrial agglomeration theory is proposed.
, Rachid Latif, Abdelhafid El Ouardi, Mohamed Elhoseny, Adel Khelifi
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2024874

Abstract:
Precision agriculture (PA) research aims to design decision systems based on agricultural site control and management. These systems consist of observing fields and measuring metrics to optimize yields and investments while preserving resources. The corresponding applications can be found on large agricultural areas based on satellites, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), and sol robots. All these applications based on various algorithms that are complex in terms of processing time. If these algorithms are evaluated offline on work-stations or desktops, this is not the case for algorithms that need to be embedded and should operate and help make real-time decisions. We, therefore, need an advanced study using hardware-software co-design approach to design decision systems to embed different algorithms, including sensor data acquisition and processing units. In this work, we propose a review in processing information tools-based embedded systems in PA algorithms with different applications: weed detection, numerical counting, monitoring of plant indexes, and disease detection. This review has been based on more than 100 papers to extract useful information on the different techniques used and the information processing systems. The elaborated study presents the various tools, databases, and systems in order to extract the advantages and disadvantages of system and application.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2022186

Abstract:
Ethiopia is the primary wheat producer in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) owing to the suitable agro-ecological conditions. Despite wheats economic potential for food security, the actual yield under smallholder farmers conditions is low due to various production constraints. Thus, the objectives of this study were to assess the present wheat production opportunities and constraints and identify farmer-preferred traits to guide variety design with stem rust-resistance and economic traits in eastern Ethiopia. Data on production constraints and trait preferences were collected using structured questionnaires involving 144 wheat-producing farmers. Wheat rust (reported by 97.3% of respondents), small land size (90.4%) and a lack of improved varieties (75.6%) were identified as the major constraints. About 41.7% of respondents in the West-Hararghe and 27.8% in the East-Hararghe zones did not use crop protection strategies to control rusts. Substantial respondent farmers used cultural practices (18.8%), rust-resistant cultivars (13.2%) or, a combination of these (10.4%) to control rust diseases. The essential farmer preferred traits in a wheat variety were rust resistance, high yield potential and good quality grain for bread making. Therefore, there is a need to breed new varieties with high grain yield and quality and durable rust resistance for sustainable wheat production in eastern Ethiopia.
, Wenjie Zhu
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2021278

Abstract:
With the continuous development of society and the continuous improvement of people's living standards, leisure agricultural tourism based on agricultural production has gradually become popular, which takes agricultural landscape, agricultural experience and agricultural product shopping as content, and leisure agricultural tourist attractions have emerged. At present, some ecological agriculture projects are reconstruction or transformation projects, which are the recreational transformation of the original base for traditional agricultural projects in order to survive and seek market stimulation. However, due to the unscientific planning of the basic system, the low level of operation and management, and the lack of a scientific theoretical system for demonstration during the transformation process, the planning and transformation of the ecological agriculture project have not been promoted, and the project industry development has not been improved. Therefore, under the support of the concept of circular economy, this paper combines the Internet of Things technology to carry out the planning and analysis of ecological agricultural tourist attractions, and combines the experiments to analyse the effectiveness of this method. From the research point of view, it can be known that the ecological agricultural scenic area planning method constructed in this paper has certain effects.
, , Mawulawoe Anato-Dumelo, Beatrice Agyapomaa Konadu, Pangirayi Bernard Tongoona,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2018032

Abstract:
The adoption of maize hybrids is essential to contribute to maize productivity and ensure self-sufficiency and food security. However, the adoption of improved varieties hybrids technology including in Ghana is very low. Farmers’ socio-economic characteristics in relation to the adoption of maize hybrids, farmers constraints and readiness to adopt maize hybrids were assessed using a cross-sectional survey of 173 farmers in four regions in the forest-savannah agro-ecological zones in Ghana. The percentage of farmers that used hybrid seed in 2019 and 2020 were 32.4% and 22.5%, respectively. Of the four hybrids varieties grown, none was locally produced and over 83% of the farmers indicated readiness to adopt maize hybrid seed. The empirical model reveals that farmers readiness to adopt maize hybrids is positively influenced by gender, age, high yield and constraints variables such as high cost of production and pests and diseases.
Chanon Saengchan, Rungthip Sangpueak, Toan Le Thanh, Piyaporn Phansak,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2018033

Abstract:
Root rot disease of cassava is one of the major diseases in Thailand, widespread incidence of soil-borne pathogens has been found to affect more than 80%. The research aims to investigate the effect of elicitors as salicylic acid and Bacillus subtilis strain JN2-007 for inducing resistance against root rot disease by Fusarium solani in cassava. The experiment was carried out in a susceptible cassava cultivar to test the efficacy of elicitors in the biochemical response of plant defense mechanisms pertaining to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and enzyme activities. The results indicated that pathogenicity test of F. solani isolate SHRD1 caused the brown lesions around the inoculation point on cassava roots. Subsequently, salicylic acid and JN2-007 reduced mycelial growth of F. solani (11.83%–57.73% at day 7), as well as disease severity in the cassava plants at 14 days after the inoculation compared to that of the negative control (28.12%–39.58% compared to 68.75%). Furthermore, salicylic acid at a concentration of 500 µl. L−1 could induce H2O2, level of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, and catalase activities that were highest at 24 h after pathogen inoculation. The results suggested that elicitors played an important role as a plant defense inducer, leading to reduced Fusarium root rot disease.
Fredrik Reslow, Ulrika Carlson-Nilsson, , Jaime Cuevas,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2021279

Abstract:
The breeding of new cultivars is a powerful approach to increase both the quantity and quality of potato harvest per land unit. The aim of this research was to determine using multi-site testing the progress made by the genetic enhancement of potato in Sweden in the last 1.5 decades by comparing advanced breeding clones (T4 upwards) bred in Sweden (Svensk potatisförädling hereafter) versus available released cultivars in Europe and grown in its Nordic Region. The multi-site testing results show that potato breeding based in Scandinavia offers to the growers of the Nordic Region of Europe cultivars for prevailing farming environments and end-user needs rather than relying, as happens today in the market, on foreign cultivars. These cultivars bred elsewhere are not always very suitable for the challenging Nordic agroecosystems, as shown by the results of the multi-site testing herein. Such an approach on relying on foreign cultivars may be advocated for not funding potato breeding in, and for Fennoscandia by those ignoring the results shown by this research.
, Chenjie Xu, Yue Ying
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2005131

Abstract:
The core of agricultural product supply chain management is to emphasise the use of integrated thoughts and concepts to guide the management practices of enterprises. That is, the operation of the entire supply chain is guided by consumer demand rather than the individual management of links, and the entire supply chain is strictly controlled as a system. Based on big data technology, this paper constructs a high-performance agricultural product recommendation algorithm. Aiming at the lagging construction of my country’s agricultural product supply chain network facilities, low integration of various operating links, high logistics costs, imbalances in supply and demand, and serious agricultural product quality and safety issues, this paper combines the big data technology to study the agricultural product intelligent supply chain system, and uses the network equilibrium method to construct the agricultural product supply chain network model that considers the effort level of multiple producers and retailers. Finally, this paper proves the reliability of the system model in this paper through experimental research.
Zheng Chen,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2008481

Abstract:
In order to study the planning effects of modern agricultural tourism bases, this paper combines ecological agriculture to carry out regional planning innovations for agricultural tourism bases based on the analysis of traditional rural cultural tourism. Moreover, this paper analyses the current situation of regional planning of agricultural tourism base in China through comparative analysis, summarises its existing problems and divides the functional areas based on the current regional planning needs of agricultural tourism base. In addition, this paper combines the needs of rural cultural dissemination and agricultural ecological economic theory to make recommendations for regional planning of agricultural tourism bases. In terms of theoretical implementation, this paper analyses planning through case analysis and evaluates planning effects. Through the analysis of the agricultural tourism base planning, it is found that the rural culture needs to be combined with the agricultural investment of the agricultural tourism base. Finally, from the research results, it can be seen that the regional planning of modern agricultural tourism base based on rural culture has certain feasibility.
, George Nyamadzawo, Justice Nyamangara, Ronald Mandumbu
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2005130

Abstract:
The application of insufficient amounts of mineral fertiliser, coupled with unreliable precipitation, has caused a drastic reduction in the yield of sorghum in the smallholder-farming areas of Zimbabwe. This calls for innovative interventions to improve production under changing climatic conditions. This study evaluated the effect of contour-based rainwater-harvesting methods and the use of cattle manure + N nutrient amendment on sorghum yield. A split-split plot experiment was conducted where rainwater-harvesting practice, sorghum variety, cattle manure + N and distance from rainwater-harvesting structure were treatment factors. The results showed that the yield of sorghum was significantly higher under the tied contour and infiltration pits than standard contour at all distances from rainwater-harvesting practices and seasons. In all seasons sorghum varieties Macia and Sc Sila showed higher yield under the tied contour and infiltration pits than standard contour. However, regardless of the distance from rainwater-harvesting practice and season the sorghum variety, Macia showed a higher grain yield than Sc Sila. At each incremental level of N application to cattle manure, Macia had a higher grain yield than Sc Sila, and no significant grain yield benefits were shown in each variety at N application to cattle manure above 50 kg N ha−1.
Zhu Wenqiang, Wang Jingran, , Wang Na, Guo Jianwei, Yang Zilin, Sha Yun, Liu Lin,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2012250

Abstract:
Corn rust disease can be classified into four types: common corn rust, southern corn rust, tropical corn rust and stem corn rust. In this paper, 270 samples of corn rust gathered from Yunnan province were identified by observation of symptom and pathogen morphology, detection of specific molecular markers between Puccinia sorghi Schw and Puccinia polysora Unedrw. The results showed that 180 samples of corn rust collected form Qujing, Zhaotong, Kunming, Honghe (Mile, Kaiyuan and Jianshui) were common corn rust caused by Puccinia sorghi Schw; and 90 samples of corn rust collected form Wenshan and Honghe (Pinbian) were southern corn rust. Morphology and aspect ratio compared Puccinia sorghi Schw with Puccinia polysora Unedrw. The uredospores of Puccinia polysora Unedrw were oval and the aspect ratio of 81.6% of all uredospores from Puccinia polysora Unedrw was greater than 1.2. The uredospores of Puccinia sorghi Schw were nearly round, and their aspect ratio was 1.0-1.3. In addition, the population genetic structure of all corn rust samples was analyzed by ISSR molecular marker. Concerning Puccinia polysora Unedrw, the genetic diversity was larger in Wenshan than in Honghe. In Puccinia sorghi Schw, the population genetic diversity was larger in Zhaotong and the lowest in Kunming.
Chengying Shan, Chengjie Shu, Wei Nie, Yue Xu, Shihong Ma,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2012249

Abstract:
Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. Et Zucc. (green pepper), a well-known traditional Chinese spice, recent studies found that the water extract of Z. schinifolium could significantly enhance the innate immune system, and Z. schinifolium peel polysaccharide (ZSPP) in the water extract is one of the active ingredients where antioxidant and anti-aging properties of ZSPP is yet to be determined. Caenorhabditis elegans was employed to see if ZSPP has anti-aging properties. After medication with ZSPP, the longevity, motility ability, and stress resilience of C. elegans were measured. We studied C. elegans brood growth and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signalling pathway to learn more about the mechanism of ZSPP's anti-aging action. According to statistical analysis of the experimental results, ZSPP therapy increased the longevity of C. elegans, as well as its motility capacity and stress tolerance. ZSPP was discovered to get a protective effect on UV-irradiated C. elegans in specific and ZSPP had no influence on C. elegans reproduction. However, after ZSPP therapy, the levels of age-1 and hcf-1 mRNA were lowered. In C. elegans, ZSPP has an anti-aging impact via the insulin/IGF signaling system, but it has the potential to evolve into a multifunctional diet in the long term.
Weitao Li, Yakov Kuzyakov, Yulong Zheng, , Meng Wu, Yuanhua Dong, Zhongpei Li
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2011394

Abstract:
Mineral fertilisers differ in changing soil properties, and revealing how the rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere respond could provide a robust assessment of fertiliser regimes. Rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils were sampled from five fertilisation treatments in a long-term (24 year) experiment. Enzyme activities and total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) content in the rhizosphere soil were 85.8% and 51.3% higher than in the non-rhizosphere soil, respectively. Fertilisation increased enzyme activities, especially the N-cycling enzyme β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase in NP fertilised soil (1.5 and 2.5 times for rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil, respectively). The PLFA composition indicated that fungi dominated in the rhizosphere fertilised with P, whereas bacteria were more common in the non-rhizosphere soil. The PLFA contents and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of P-fertilised plants were lower than those in the non-rhizosphere soil because P availability was lower in the rhizosphere. The redundancy analysis showed that the microbial community in the rhizosphere soil was different from that of the non-rhizosphere soil, mainly because there were differences in the 15:1ω6c and 16:0. Long-term (24 year) fertilisation strongly increased nutrient contents, and microbial biomass and activity in paddy soil. It is advisable to apply P fertiliser in the root zone to increase fertiliser use efficiency.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2008477

Abstract:
In order to improve the effect of precision intelligent agricultural decision support system, this paper combines big data technology to carry out precision mining of agricultural data, and combines decision tree algorithm to carry out data classification processing. Moreover, this paper obtains the most effective agricultural decision reference data through data mining, combines the agricultural decision support process to set the functional modules of the decision system, and analyzes the implementation process of each functional module. In addition, this paper studies the theoretical basis and key technologies of the agricultural production structure optimisation decision support system, and builds a precision and intelligent agricultural decision support system based on big data analysis. The system mainly performs accurate processing of agricultural data and makes effective predictions, and then makes scientific decision results. Finally, this paper verifies the structure of the model in this paper combined with experimental analysis. From the comparison of experiments, it can be seen that the precision and intelligent agricultural decision support system constructed in this paper has significant effects.
, C. Malathy
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2011395

Abstract:
In the agricultural field, weeds are grown irrespective of the required species, which spoils the growth of paddy plants. The presence of weeds is to be detected and should be classified in the earlier stage to improve the growth of species. This research work considers paddy cultivation and detection of weeds in the paddy field. The modelling of the automatic weed predictor model aids farmers in handling the weed coverage and scattering of weed in the agricultural field. Real-time data is collected from the agricultural region, and the images are provided as the input for the predictor model. Regional Convolutional Neural Networks (R-CNN) is proposed to segment the weed from the input images. The model is proposed to address the segmentation problem by concurrent simulation of the task for object prediction. Simulation is carried out in a MATLAB environment. The performance of R-CNN is compared and evaluated with existing approaches like the conventional CNN model and other segmentation approaches. The proposed model gives better results when compared to other approaches.
, A. Chaker-Haddadj, A. Nedir-Kichou, F. Aid
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1988138

Abstract:
Salinity is one of the most severe factors that can affect agricultural productivity worldwide particularly in the arid and semi-arid agro-ecological zones. Chickpea seedlings were grown in the field and subjected to different NaCl concentrations (0, 50 and 150 mM) and P application (90 kg ha–1). The experimental design was based on a completely randomised design with three replications. Salinity has disturbed the physiological and ionic state of cells by increasing stomatal resistance and significantly decreased growth and yield parameters (−66%). Under salinity, plant growth traits presented a negative correlation with yield components. P application had positive effect on growth parameters and physiological responses of the plants. Our results suggest that the tolerance of chickpea at (NaCl × P) combination is closely associated with ionic homeostasis and physiological activities of the plants. Phosphorus application allowed salinity tolerance by increasing leaf hydraulic statute, improvement of KUE and consequently enhanced grain yield of chickpea. (P × salinity) combination induced a positive correlation between vegetative traits and yield parameters like unstressed treatment. These results suggest that the use of suitable amounts of phosphorus fertiliser (i. e. 90 kg ha–1) to saline soil is a beneficial starter for plant development, yield components and rehabilitation of degraded soils.
, Shengxian Tang
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1993320

Abstract:
Traditional rural cultural heritage is not only the crystallisation of China’s long agricultural history but also can guide the development of modern agriculture to some extent. It has its values for scientific research, education, tourism and other aspects. About exploration on the value of agricultural cultural heritage, there are some problems such as landscape homogenisation as well as iconic landscape deficiency. This paper focuses on the concept of rural culture, studies the planning of ecological agricultural circular economy in combination with agricultural ecological scenery, analyses the actual situation of regional rural culture and its actual planning needs, and verifies it through practice. From the researching point of view, the planning method proposed in this paper can be effectively combined with the traditional agricultural culture concept and can promote the development of agriculture and tourism.
Tsobedi Absalom Masenya, , Kgabo Martha Pofu
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2003852

Abstract:
Cancer bush (Sutherlandia frutescens), which is facing extinction, can be conserved through cultivation using best agricultural practices that include nodulation with effective rhizobia bacteria. The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of commercial and native nodulation bacteria on productivity of S. frutescens over two seasons. Seasonal interaction on productivity variables was not significant (P< 0.05), with pooled data (n = 75) subjected to analysis of variance. Treatments had a significant effects on plant variables, contributing from 58 to 91% in total treatment variation (TTV) of the variables. Relative to untreated control, commercial strains significantly increased plant variables from 31 to 44%, whereas wild strains increased the variables from 17 to 195%. Similarly, both commercial and native strains significantly increased nitrogen, protein and symbiotic efficiency, with magnitudes of native strains being significantly higher than those of commercial strains. Treatments had no significant effects on K and protein in leaf tissues of S. frutescens. In conclusion, the native strains as investigated in the current study have the potential for use in the husbandry of cancer bush.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2009553

Abstract:
The accounting of the performance of the new agricultural business entity and the choice of future strategic planning are all directly affected by the quality of its accounting work. Therefore, it is very important to strengthen the accounting supervision of the new agricultural business entity. This article combines big data technology to construct an accounting work quality improvement model of the new agricultural business entity based on big data, uses a clustering algorithm to process a large number of accounting work data of new agricultural business entities and reengineers the inherent expense reimbursement process. In addition, this article builds an expense control module and an image module in the system and integrates the general ledger module with multiple modules such as fund management and payable salary, so that the financial data information of the new agricultural business entities can be processed, summarised and analysed quickly and efficiently in the financial sharing service system. The experimental research results show that the new agricultural business entity accounting work system based on big data technology constructed in this article can effectively improve the accounting work quality of the new agricultural business entity.
, H. Wagentristl, S. Pauer, M. Keimerl, C. Schachinger, , ,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2018034

Abstract:
Cover cropping provides versatile benefits for sustainable agriculture, but many cover crops are potential host plants for pathogens such as Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Therefore, 14 cover crops were investigated for their interaction with sclerotia, topsoil moisture and temperature in two consecutive field trials in East Austria. In July, after the cover crops were sown, sclerotia were inoculated at 3 cm soil depth in two mesh tubes per plot with 1×1 mm and 3×10 mm mesh size and remained until March. Cover crops did not affect decay of sclerotia, but sclerotia declined faster in 3×10 mm mesh compared to 1×1 mm (75.7 and 54.7%; respectively). Degree days reached the required 500 °C for apothecia development in September in both years, but only in year 1 was topsoil moisture sufficient for apothecia development. Nonmetric dimensional scaling revealed that, among others, topsoil temperature in March was significant for sclerotia germination in spring and was independent of plant biomass. There are indications that Poaceae such as sorghum × Sudan grass and Sudan grass can stimulate early germination under cover crops, causing vulnerability of sclerotia to degradation. This could reduce the pathogen pressure for the subsequent irrigated cash crops.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1966497

Abstract:
The theoretical and practical research of industrial integration provides new directions for the development of many industries and new ideas for the reform of many technologies. In particular, it provides new impetus for the development of agricultural modernisation. This paper takes the rural development of Inner Mongolia as the research object, discusses the integration of the primary, secondary and tertiary industries in agriculture, and then provides guidance for the further development of agriculture. Moreover, this paper combines big data technology to construct an input–output analysis model for the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries in rural areas of Inner Mongolia, and on this basis, conducts research and analysis on the model. In addition, this paper uses a simulation model to analyse the industrial integration and uses the statistical yearbook data of Inner Mongolia as the input to calculate the data mining effect and data analysis effect of this model. Through experimental research and analysis, it can be seen that the model constructed in this paper can play a certain effect in the analysis of the integration of primary, secondary and tertiary industries in the rural areas of Inner Mongolia.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2008480

Abstract:
The impact of the epidemic and a series of strict prevention and control measures taken to prevent the spread of the epidemic will have a significant impact on the entire chain and various fields of agricultural production and operation. Based on the realistic basis of China’s current international cooperation in agricultural ecological environmental protection, this paper proposes an international coordination mechanism for agricultural product trade legal systems. There is a certain degree of conflict between ecological environment protection and trade facilitation and liberalisation, but they are not completely uncoordinated. Therefore, the establishment of a set of coordination mechanisms that can restrain and encourage countries to carry out international cooperation plays a key role in resolving the conflict between the two. In addition, this paper analyzes the legal regulation of agricultural trade in the post-epidemic era through intelligent model analysis and proposes corresponding countermeasures. Through analysis and research, it also provides a corresponding reference for legal regulations of agricultural trade in the post-epidemic era.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2001041

Abstract:
As the electronic process of land management is accelerating, the research on the construction of land use planning system tends to be intensified. This paper combines the concept of traditional farming culture to construct a rural land planning system, and proposes a stacked combination collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm to process traditional farming cultural data and promote the integration of traditional farming cultural data and rural land planning data. Moreover, starting from the existing problems in urban land planning at this stage, this paper proposes the rationality and importance of the land use planning system, and at the same time guarantees that it can be used in a standardised and scientific way. In addition, after explaining the construction purpose of the land use planning system, this paper also explains the tasks, design and corresponding steps to be completed to construct the system. Finally, this paper verifies the performance of this system through experimental research. Through the experimental results, we can see that the method proposed in this paper has a certain effect.
Jun He, Guanghui Yuan, Shuaiwu Li,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2007992

Abstract:
The U.S. policy toward North Korea has always been issue of great concern and research focus. According to the grain production data of North Korea, and combined with perspectives from experts of China, the United States and South Korea, this paper tries to make a tentative judgment of the hawk/dove tendency of the five U.S. Presidents' remarks on North Korea from 1989 to 2019. The results show that: (1) The hawkish tendency in the presidents' attitudes has a certain relationship with North Korea's grain production. However, dove tendency is related to grain yield and its fluctuation rate, and the impact of the rate on the dove stance is even greater than the impact of production. (2) When North Korea's grain production increases, the presidents' stance on North Korea's policy tends to be tough; but when its grain production decreases, the presidents' attitudes towards North Korea will become relatively moderate. (3) The fluctuation rate of grain production in North Korea will affect the dove tendency of the presidents. Their stance will be more moderate if the rate decrease. But if the rate rises, the moderation of the statements will retreat.
Yuanyuan Zhou, , Zichen Zhang, Mengqi Quan, Haoran Li
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2008482

Abstract:
In recent years, greenhouse development has been innovative in agriculture based on information systems guidance with accelerated growth. The IoT provides an intelligent system and remote access technologies such as green infrastructure. The usability of information systems for effective training and producing intelligent systems and predictive models in organizational real-time based on machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI). Therefore, a Remote Sensing Assisted Control System (RSCS) has been proposed for improving greenhouse agriculture requirements. This proposed method utilizes artificial intelligence and machine learning technology for the green development potential industry's ability to manage economic resources and increase innovative agriculture product development patterns. Thus, the key preconditions for increasing healthy food choices and promoting local and global organic farmers' potential development are straightforward suggestions for developing an effective marketing strategy. The experimental results RSCS the highest precision ratio of 95.1%, the performance ratio of 96.35%, a data transmission rate of 92.3%, agriculture production ratio of 94.2%, irrigation control ratio of 94.7%, the lowest moisture content ratio of 18.7%, and CO2 emission ratio of 21.5%, compared to other methods.
, Hongchang Li
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2008478

Abstract:
In order to improve the effect of intelligent fertilisation, according to actual fertilisation needs, this paper combines big data technology to perform data analysis, and designs a variable fertilisation mechanical structure that can be used for mixed fertilisation to realise mixed fertilisation of multiple crops. Moreover, from the perspective of precise fertilisation, this paper combines the actual needs of variable fertilisation to construct a control system, and adopts an adaptive federated filter structure to solve the influence of equipment errors on system position estimation. In addition, this paper solves the problems of excessive partial application and low fertiliser utilisation in traditional fertilisation, as well as the resulting waste, environmental pollution, and poor quality of agricultural products. Furthermore, this paper designs and manufactures a dual-variable application test device, and conducted a fertiliser discharge test on the test device. Finally, this paper uses big data technology to analyze the experimental data of variable fertilisation operation machinery. From the experimental research, it can be seen that the effect of the fertilisation operation machinery designed in this paper meets actual needs.
Chun Luo,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2007993

Abstract:
In order to promote the integration of leisure agriculture and red cultural tourism, this paper improves the big data technology and combines the actual needs of tourism data fusion to construct an integrated analysis system of leisure agriculture and red cultural tourism-based big data. Through the data collection layer and the data information provided by the third party, this paper uses various technologies such as cloud computing and fuzzy recognition to classify and store massive amounts of data and information and establish a data warehouse to integrate various information resources to serve various smart applications. In addition, this paper combines the characteristics of leisure agriculture and red cultural tourism to integrate the two and builds an intelligent system with the support of big data technology. Finally, this paper carries out the performance verification of this system through experimental research. From the research results, it can be seen that the system constructed in this paper meets the needs of the integration of leisure agriculture and red cultural tourism.
, Tang Yan, Liu Fen, Fu Xiuyong, Liu Fugang
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2008479

Abstract:
Organic pollution of agricultural land will cause environmental problems and agricultural economic effects. To explore the reliable effect of remediation of organic pollution in agricultural land, wheat straw biochar was prepared in this paper. Moreover, this paper uses experimental research and comparison methods to study the difference in the adsorption performance of biochar at different pyrolysis temperatures on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the effect of pyrolysis biochar on the availability of phenanthrene and pyrene microorganisms in the soil at the same temperature. Additionally, statistical methods are utilised in this research to do analytics and data processing on test data, and test findings are visually displayed using a combination of graphs and tables. Finally, to understand the experimental research findings, this system employs analytical approaches. The results of the experiment show that wheat straw biochar can effectively reduce soil organic pollution, which can expand the research on the restoration of other crop straw biochar on agricultural land.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2008476

Abstract:
In order to promote the development of agro-ecological economy and improve the reliability of the development model of agricultural circular economy, this paper explores the general framework of the coordinated development of the agricultural logistics ecosystem from the perspective of the construction of the agricultural logistics ecosystem, the composition of the ecosystem, the synergy stage, and the synergy goal. Moreover, this paper combines big data and Internet of Things technology to analyze its own path of the cooperative development mechanism of the agricultural logistics ecosystem, and uses typical cases to show the internal relationships between the main bodies of the agricultural logistics ecosystem. In addition, this paper attempts to explain the core essence of the agricultural logistics ecosystem and the internal relations of the subjects through the practice of enterprises. After constructing the system framework, this paper combines the intelligent algorithm to construct the intelligent model structure, and analyzes the system function realisation process based on the actual situation. Finally, this paper evaluates the performance of the algorithm model constructed in this paper through experimental research. From the experimental statistical results, it can be seen that the algorithm model constructed in this paper has a certain effect.
Yiru Wang, Jie Lyu,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2000632

Abstract:
China has developed into the world’s largest producer of peanuts; however, it remains unable to achieve self-sufficiency. We assessed China’s peanut production performance and determined the crucial influential factors to improve the efficiency and productivity of peanut production. In this article, the performance of ten main peanut producing areas was evaluated from 2009 to 2018 through the adoption of a three-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach and the Malmquist index. The results revealed inefficient peanut production in China. First and foremost, the overall efficiency was not located at the production frontier due to the decreasing scale efficiency. In addition, insufficient technological progress led to the relatively low total factor productivity. Last but not least, the managerial inefficiency was the main external environmental factor influencing the peanut production performance in China. Accordingly, we put forward corresponding suggestions, such as enhancing the environmental factors, realising the technological process, and achieving the optimal scale.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2007994

Abstract:
The quality and safety of agricultural products is not only related to the health of consumers, but also to the sustainable and stable development of the economy, and even to the harmony and stability of the society. The application of the theory model of multiple co-governance of agricultural product quality and safety has certain theoretical support. This paper applies big data technology to agricultural product quality and safety governance, and uses big data methods to study the key control points in the process of agricultural product traceability. Moreover, based on the selected key control points, this paper studies the key traceability indicators corresponding to the key control points of each link. In addition, this paper combines multi-disciplinary knowledge to carry out a systematic study on the legal issues of multivariate co-governance of agricultural product quality and safety in my country from the perspective of law. From the experimental research and the final decision-making suggestions, we can see that the method proposed in this paper is feasible.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2003853

Abstract:
Root-knot nematodes pose a severe threat to worldwide agricultural development. Due to the high toxicity of chemical nematicides, eco-friendly control strategies against root-knot nematodes need to be established. A pot and in vitro experiment were performed to estimate nematicidal potential of Pochonia chlamydosporia. P. chlamydosporia was used alone or in combination with two botanicals for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in chickpea. The laboratory assessment was performed with four prepared concentrations (S, S/2, S/10, S/25) of fungal inoculum of P. chlamydosporia against egg hatching and second-stage juvenile's mortality of M. incognita. All four concentrations reduced egg hatching and increased mortality of J2s. In pot experiment, P. chlamydosporia was used with chopped leaves of two botanicals viz., Ageratum conyzoides and Eichhornia crassipes against M. incognita in chickpea. All the treatments found significantly suppressed root infestation caused by M. incognita and improved growth and physiological attributes of chickpea. The combined application of P. chlamydosporia + A. conyzoides was found highly effective, and E. crassipes alone was least. Therefore, using P. chlamydosporia with botanicals is a promising sustainable strategy in agriculture against M. incognita infected chickpea.
Marilyn Kutamahufa, Lincon Matare, Gabriel Soropa, , Ezekia Svotwa, Arnold B. Mashingaidze
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1998593

Abstract:
Integrating forage legumes with maize has the potential to restore soil fertility and increase grain yield among smallholder farming systems. A study was conducted over two cropping seasons to determine the effect of intercropping maize with forage legumes on soil fertility restoration, weed biomass and maize yield. Treatments involved: four cropping systems (sole maize, maize-velvet bean, maize-silverleaf, maize-cowpeas) and four fertiliser regimes (no fertiliser, 150 kg ha−1 of compound D fertiliser (7% N: 14% P2O5: 7% K2O) + 150 kg ha−1 ammonium nitrate (34.5% N), 100 kg ha−1 single super phosphate (SSP, 17.5% P2O5) and 200 kg ha−1 SSP). Maize-velvet bean intercropping reduced weed biomass by 80% relative to sole maize and maize-silverleaf intercropping. Maize-cowpea and maize-velvet bean intercropping reduced maize grain yield by 25.9% and 64.7%, respectively, compared to sole maize and maize-silverleaf intercropping. In 2017/2018, maize-silverleaf intercropping increased resin-extractable P2O5 by 60.1% compared to other cropping systems while the three fertiliser treatments increased the levels of this nutrient by 41.9–100%. The results of this study show that intercropping maize with silverleaf has the potential to restore soil fertility and control weeds, without reducing maize grain yield.
, Lv Jie
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2001040

Abstract:
Improving cost efficiency is one of the main ways to reduce the production cost of agricultural products and increase farmers' income. Human capital is an important way to improve cost efficiency. This article takes five major corn production areas as an example, uses data envelopment analysis to measure the cost efficiency and makes an empirical analysis of the impact of human capital on cost efficiency and its action path by using bidirectional fixed-effect model. It is found that the impact of educational human capital on cost efficiency presents a positive ‘U' shape, and there are differences among different regions through technical efficiency and allocation efficiency paths. Healthy human capital has a significant positive impact on cost efficiency, but with the increase of the number, its role will gradually weaken, except for the southwest region, and its impact path is allocation efficiency. The impact of technical human capital on cost efficiency shows a positive ‘U’ type change, and the change of each production area is roughly the same as the whole. Its impact on cost efficiency is mainly realised through allocation efficiency. This article provides a theoretical basis for different policy measures to better play the role of human capital in improving cost efficiency in China.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.2001042

Abstract:
A study was conducted to evaluate the adaptability, yield performance and nutritional value, and to identify farmers preferred lupine genotypes. Four lupine genotypes were evaluated using participatory approach at Arbegona and Bule districts of Ethiopia on the farmer’s plots. The experimental layout followed a randomised complete block design with four replications. Farmers as well as researchers gave the first rank for accession No. 239042 and accession No. 239047 and least for Sanabor (Accession No. 144) in overall performance. Moreover, according to the results of the current study, accession No. 239004 and 239042 were the best lupine genotypes, which gave the greater grain yield, forage dry matter production and nutritive value than the other accession tested. Based on the laboratory evaluation, sweet lupine forage and seed can be used as homegrown protein source in livestock feeding. Farmers preferred all the tested lupine genotypes for their after assessing its grain yield. Even though Sanabor (Accession No. 144) was inferior in its grain yield, the farmers preferred the Sanabor mainly due to their early maturity, short growth habit, lodging tolerance, despite its high vegetative growth. Thus, the consideration of farmers’ preference for forage crops is crucial for increased adoption of improved forage crops.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1990389

Abstract:
In order to improve the effect of agricultural data collection and transmission, based on the technology adopted by the mainstream agricultural environmental information monitoring system on the market, this paper uses game theory to innovatively improve the algorithm mechanism of wireless sensor nodes, optimise the clustering structure and routing method of wireless sensor networks, design a remote monitoring platform for field farm information and finally build a complete agricultural information monitoring system. Moreover, taking the temperature and humidity sensor as an example, this paper improves the parameters on the basis of testing the various performance of the sensor, and develops the software of the main chip on the basis of the improved node, and completes the driver design of the sensor. In addition, this paper constructs a wireless sensor network data transmission model based on game theory, and combines simulation experiments to conduct experimental research on the system model constructed in this paper. From the test results, it can be seen that the model constructed in this paper has a better effect.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1990386

Abstract:
The planning and management of water resources are becoming more and more important, and the forecast of water demand as the prerequisite and foundation of the entire planning has become a very important task in agricultural development. This paper combines the particle swarm algorithm to construct the agricultural water resource demand forecasting model, analyzes the shortcomings of the traditional particle swarm algorithm, and makes appropriate improvements to the quantum particle swarm algorithm. Moreover, this paper constructs the functional structure of the agricultural water resource demand forecast model based on the forecast demand of water resources, and analyzes the application process of the particle swarm algorithm in the system of this paper. After the model is constructed, the performance of the model is verified, and the simulation test is designed to evaluate the effect of system forecast with actual data. At the same time, this paper uses the model constructed in this paper to analyze the factors affecting water resources forecast demand. From the results of the experimental analysis, it can be seen that the model constructed in this paper is more effective in the forecast of water resources demand.
, Jennie Barron
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1993993

Abstract:
In Sweden, drainage and the construction of water infrastructure have influenced agriculture in the last few centuries both positively and negatively. Recently, a trend has set in where wetlands are constructed to retain water, retain and reduce nutrients and to enhance the biodiversity. This study aimed to use remote sensing techniques to study landscape water retention over time. In this pilot study, water retention structures in Gotland (57°28′35.0′′N18°29′ 13.9′′E) and Kalmar Län (56°39′41′′N16°21′46′′E) for 2000/2001 and 2020 were identified and analyzed using Landsat data. In this study, it was found that the number of water retention structures (>0.8 ha) increased from 44 to 101 for Gotland Län and from 44 to 127 for Kalmar Län. Most water retention structures were <4 ha and were located in mid- and downstream areas. A comparison of the remote sensed results with the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) database showed a disagreement of the spatial coordinates of the wetlands in the database with the water retention structures. This pilot study has shown that remote sensed data can be used to identify water retention structures, although higher resolution imagery would be highly advisable in these kinds of studies.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1990387

Abstract:
To improve the roof waterproof construction effect of agricultural construction projects, this paper applies big data technology to construction management and construction decision-making of construction projects. Moreover, this paper improves the traditional big data technology, and from the perspective of the roof waterproof construction requirements of agricultural construction projects, this paper improves data mining to make it a core intelligent algorithm that can be used for data recognition and analysis of construction projects. In addition, this paper simulates the construction process according to the roof waterproof construction process of agricultural construction projects, builds the corresponding intelligent construction simulation model and builds the agricultural construction engineering roof waterproof construction simulation through simulation research. Finally, after obtaining the data, this paper conducts experimental research and applies the data mining system of this paper to the analysis of agricultural construction engineering. From the experimental research, it can be known that the method proposed in this paper has a certain effect.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1993321

Abstract:
In order to explore the impact of trade uncertainty on the national grain supply, based on the BP neural network algorithm, this paper combines the characteristics of grain supply and trade data to construct an intelligent analysis model. Moreover, this paper uses historical data as the basic data to study the trade uncertainty and the relevant characteristics of grain supply, and combine the actual demand to construct the structure of the BP neural network model. After constructing the model, this paper analyzes the function of the model, combines the comparative analysis method to classify the data and studies the influence mechanism of trade uncertainty on the national grain supply. In addition, this paper combines the actual data to analyze the performance of the algorithm model of this paper, and the analysis results are consistent with historical data. Finally, this paper analyzes the cost control of national grain supply based on the results of the model analysis, and proposes several countermeasures.
, Dong Yan, Yiming He, Sufang Liu, Xiutao Yang, Bei Wang
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1990388

Abstract:
This paper combines the intelligent computer-assisted technology to carry out the architectural design and planning of the agricultural sightseeing area, and mainly plans the electricity consumption system of the agricultural sightseeing area to ensure that the agricultural sightseeing area can provide tourists with a good sightseeing experience at night. Moreover, this paper conducts an end-point analysis of the circuit system and analyzes multiple parameters, and combines the construction power demand of agricultural tourism areas to conduct power model analysis. The computer control system integrates various factor control methods, uses advanced control technology and control strategies, and fully considers the relationship between the control variables to realise the automation, intelligence and energy-saving regulation of the greenhouse environment of the agricultural sightseeing area. Finally, this paper takes the greenhouse system as an example to analyze the architectural planning. From the research point of view, it can be known that the architectural design method of agricultural sightseeing tourism area constructed in this paper has certain effects.
, Phatu William Mashela
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1993323

Abstract:
Globally, the guava root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne enterolobii) is becoming an emerging threat of note in crops with or without Mi resistance genes. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) cultivars are highly susceptible to Meloidogyne species, with all cultivars without genotypes with resistance to the genus. In contrast, nematode management options for watermelon production had since the withdrawal of fumigant nematicides been constrained. The objective of this study was to investigate the comparative efficacy of the locally-developed cucurbitacin phytonematicides and commercially available synthetic chemical nematicide Velum on growth and fruit yield and quality of watermelon cv. ‘Congo’, along with its accumulation of foliar nutrient elements and suppression of M. enterolobii population densities under field conditions. Nemarioc-AL and Nemafric-BL phytonematicides were each applied biweekly at 2% per seedling using 500 ml solution, while Velum was applied once using 500 ml solution at 0.08 ml/15 L chlorine-free water. At 90 days after the treatments, relative to untreated control, the two phytonematicides and Velum (a.i. fluopyram) significantly increased plant growth, fruit yield and quality, although with the accumulation of phosphorus in leaf tissues, with efficacies of the three products being comparable. Similarly, relative to untreated control, the three products significantly reduced nematode eggs and juveniles in roots and juveniles in soil, with efficacies that were significantly comparable. In conclusion, the benefits of phytonematicides on the productivity of watermelon cv. ‘Congo’ and suppression of population densities of M. enterolobii were comparable.
Barbara Zanelli, Miha Ocvirk, , Matej Vidrih, Tanja Bohinc,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1990390

Abstract:
In 2019, we conducted a field experiment to test the effects of three different granular fertilizers on the salicylic acid and total phenolic contents in five different sport turfgrass mixtures under natural conditions. It was one of the first experiments assessing the natural resistance of sport turfgrass in Europe. In five terms, before and after fertilizers applications, we randomly collected turfgrass samples within each plot for chemical analyses. The turfgrass mixtures did not affect the average contents of salicylic acid and total polyphenols. The average contents of both compounds were influenced by the date of evaluation and fertilization scheme. The average content of salicylic acid was significantly the lowest under fertilization scheme C. The highest level of salicylic acid was detected on 18th June under scheme A and the lowest on 28th May, where the salicylic acid content ranged from 0.01 ± 0.00 mg.g−1 under scheme A to 0.017 ± 0.00 mg.g−1 under scheme B and 0.006±0.00 mg.g−1 under scheme C. The content of total polyphenols was higher under fertilization schemes B and C. We conclude that the method of fertilization exerts a certain effect on the salicylic acid and total polyphenol contents in turfgrass mixtures, which also depends on environmental factors.
, R. Suguna
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1976266

Abstract:
The changes in weather have beneficial and harmful effects on crop yields. There will be a loss of yield because of the diseases in crops. With the growing population, the fundamental want of food is growing. That is why agriculture gains a prominent position all around the world. It eventually ends up by a massive defeat for the farmers and the financial boom of India. The article’s primary goalis to bring together farmers and cutting-edge technologies to minimise diseases in plant leaves. To enforce the idea, ‘Tomato’ is selected in which leaf sicknesses are expected and identified by the Artificial Intelligence algorithms, CNN (Convolution Neural Network) with pc technological know-how. Tomato is a mere consumable vegetable in India. In this investigation, seven types of tomato leaf disorders were sensed, including one wholesome elegance. The farmers are able to check the symptoms with the shapes of images of the tomato leaves with those expecting diseases. Its comparison of various classification and filters/methods with different techniques, such as K-Means classifier, SVM (Support Vector), RBF(Radial Basis Function) Kernel, Optimised MLP(Multilayer perceptron), NN classifier, BPNN (back-propagation neural network) and CNN Classifier. The classification accuracy of the existing method after experiment is RBF − 89%, k-means – 85.3%, SVM – 88.8%, Optimised MLP – 91.4%, NN – 97, BPNN – 85.5%, CNN – 94.4%. The proposed architecture can achieve the desired accuracy of 99.4%.
, , Mark D. Laing, Toi J. Tsilo,
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1984564

Abstract:
The production and quality of wheat are affected by abiotic constraints including water stress and soil nutrient deficiencies. It is imperative to develop drought-tolerant wheat varieties with high yield potential and enhanced grain protein content for food security. Silicon (Si) is important for plant growth and development but its role in abiotic stress tolerance has been overlooked in breeding programs. Identifying the underlying functional genes controlling drought tolerance, protein content and grain yield is essential for wheat improvement, especially under drought stress. Silicon uptake is conditioned by several Si transporter genes such as Lsi1, Lsi2 and Lsi6 and aquaporins, which facilitate transport of silicon and water between cells. The objectives of this review are to examine the role of Si in improving plant nutrition and drought tolerance, and to appraise the genetic control of Si uptake and breeding methods for improving Si uptake for drought adaptation and improved grain yield and quality. The review highlights the limited progress made in breeding for drought tolerance in wheat, especially in sub-Sahara Africa where the challenge is prevalent. Limited understanding of the genetic basis for Si uptake and physiology contribute to the limited progress in its exploitation in wheat improvement programs.
, Nameda Astašova, Edīte Jākobsone, Laura Ozoliņa-Pole
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1977841

Abstract:
The broadbean seed beetle (Bruchus rufimanus Boheman, 1833) is a major pest of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) almost everywhere this crop is grown. The main tasks of this research were to study the seed beetle's phenology, and rates of egg laying, larval survival and the emergence of young adults before the harvest. Studies were done in field conditions in farms located in various places in Latvia. The highest density of imagines was observed at a time when the plants were flowering intensively. Egg laying began as soon as the pods had formed in the lower third of the stem and lasted 4–5 weeks. In severe infestation happened, more than 34 eggs were laid per pod. The percentage of damaged yield increased in proportion to the average number of eggs laid on pods until this number reached 11–12 eggs per pod and remained at approximately the same level also when egg-laying rate was higher. In several fields, no seeds with imago exit holes were found in the samples few days before harvest, while in other sowings, the proportion of such seeds exceeded 90% of the total amount of damaged yield.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1977380

Abstract:
Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has numerous insect pests, some of which are stem-miners. Currently, blue stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus sulcicollis) is not considered a pest of oilseed rape. In the present study, a total of 60 (30 untreated, 30 insecticide-treated) oilseed rape plants were dissected; and stem-mining larvae were collected, and subsequently allowed to pupate in soil. After pupation, all emerged adult weevils were identified as either blue stem weevil (C. sulcicollis) or cabbage stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus). We report that under favourable conditions C. sulcicollis was capable of reaching pest status, and was significantly more abundant than C. pallidactylus, indicating a critical need for future studies regarding C. sulcicollis.
Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B - Soil & Plant Science pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1080/09064710.2021.1966496

Abstract:
To improve the effect of agricultural water management, this paper builds an agricultural water management system based on the Internet of Things and data analysis, and designs an intelligent analysis model of the system using the method of time series forecasting. Moreover, this paper designs the software and hardware of the ZigBee wireless sensor network monitoring node, including the hardware circuit design of the ZigBee network monitoring node and the software acquisition program design to realise the data acquisition and short-distance transmission of the farmland environment. In addition, this paper designs a farmland irrigation system based on the Internet of Things, which can also realise real-time monitoring of agricultural water quality. Finally, this paper designs an experiment to analyse the performance of the system constructed in this paper. Judging from the performance of the agricultural water management system, it can be seen that its performance can meet the actual needs of agricultural water management.
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