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Emmanuel Said Baeza Torres, Sara Eugenia Cruz Morales, Jennifer Lira Mandujano
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 13-22;

Introduction: In Mexico, marijuana consumption has increased in adults and university students, triggering problems in attention, concentration, anxiety, depression, dependence, and cardio-respiratory difficulties. Psychological interventions like brief motivational treatment (BMT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) have reported some difficulties such as a low and medium effect size, decreased consumption without reaching abstinence, and heterogeneity in the use of both cognitive and behavioral techniques. The use of behavioral techniques in Behavioral Activation has reported effectiveness in the treatment of anxiety, depression, and recently in alcohol and tobacco. Objective: to evaluate the effect size of a Behavioral Activation treatment in abstinence of marijuana (BA-M) measured in units, occasions, and quantity of consumption. Method: in a sample of university students (n = 8), the intervention of behavioral activation was applied, which includes functional analysis, planning and goal setting, contingency management, skills training, and relapse prevention. It was carried out a multielement single case design with eight replications, calculating the effect size through the non-overlapping index of all pairs. Results: high effect size was obtained in the consumption pattern, ranging between 91.10% and 100%, 5 university students achieved abstinence. Discussion and conclusions: treatment in BA-M obtained a high effect size in abstinence and a decrease in marijuana abuse these results are similar to those reported in alcohol and tobacco.
Sebastián Guillermo Risco Martínez, Mónica De Los Milagros Cassaretto Bardales
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 33-40;

Introduction: behavioral addictions, and particularly video game addiction, are showing a notable rise in recent years, which is why the latter is already considered a disorder by the WHO. This disorder has been researched in relation to various variables highlighting the importance of the family context; which is why it´s recommended to delve deeper regarding specific aspects about the role that the relationship between parent and child can have in the development of said addictions. Objective: Analyze the relation between the risk of developing Internet gaming disorder (IGD) and the perception a group of university students have of their parents´ parenting process (maternal and paternal). Method: 94 university students belonging to science faculties from Lima, Perú participated. The Internet Gaming Disorder Test - IGD-20 (Pontes et al., 2014) and the Adolescent Family Process scale - AFP (Vazsonyi et al., 2003) were used. Results: significant associations between both constructs were found in relation to the mother’s parenting, but not with the father´s parenting. It shows a positive correlation between IGD and the perception of support from the mother (r=.24, p
Carolina Espinosa-Luna, María Del Rocío Hernández-Pozo, Marco Torres-Inguanzo, Boris González-Ceja
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 41-46;

Introduction: Under the framework of social prevention of violence, the results of a survey on drug use in school population in a locality in Guadalupe, Zacatecas, Mexico, are presented. Objective: Determine the prevalence of drug consumption in the local student population. Method: The questionnaire developed by INPRFM for ENCODE 2014 in its version for student age populations was applied. The questionnaire was answered by 96.6% of the population studied (N=1139). Results: 33.3% of the students stated that they had been offered drugs as gifts and 7.9% stated that they had been offered to buy drugs. Lifetime prevalence were 49.4% for alcohol, 37.6% for tobacco and 24.3% for some drugs such as amphetamines, tranquilizers, marijuana, cocaine, crack or rock, inhalants, methamphetamines or heroin. Prevalence of use in the last twelve months were 56.9% for alcohol, 20.1% for tobacco and 13.2% for other drugs. Prevalence of use in the last month were 35.8% for alcohol, 9.1% for tobacco and 9% for other drugs. Discussion: the relevance of a bivariate logistic regression analysis is proposed to study the connection between personal or sociodemographic characteristics with drug use. Two routes of action are proposed: a) Psychosocial, brief interventions adapted to the population and b) Socio-political, influence on the social context of conflict and illegality.
Cinthia Judith Ibarra Villalpando, Kalina Isela Martínez Martínez, María Silvia Carreño-García, Itzel Guadalupe Romo Hernández
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 23-32;

Introduction: the usage of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to treat psychological problems such as addictions, is a recent issue that has allowed the recognition that the use of this type of tools is effective towards the problem they claim to solve, in a similar way as traditional therapy treatments do. Objective: to evaluate the efficacy of the Brief Intervention Program for Adolescents who Abuse Drugs (PIBA) and the Brief Advice in the Web Page modality regarding the barriers in the implementation of drug abuse treatments by the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: we started from a A-B-A single-case design with high school adolescent students who reported abusive use and associated consequences. The study consisted of four stages 1) evaluation, 2) admission, 3) PIBA or Brief Advice and 4) follow-up. Results: the results obtained showed a decrease in the pattern of alcohol consumption and an increase in self-efficacy to control consumption in various risk situations. Discussion and conclusions: the program provided the necessary tools for adolescents to maintain their consumption goal.
Nelson Bruno de Almeida Cunha, Carlos Eduardo Martínez Munguía
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 3-12;

Introduction: Models of nicotine dependence indicate the influence of impulsivity and affectivity in smoking behaviors. However, it is necessary that studies with higher ecological validity are carried out in order to elucidate how impulsivity and affectivity articulate to provoke tobacco craving. Objective: To evaluate the interaction effects of response inhibition and affectivity in tobacco craving. Method: The study was carried out with 90 smokers, who were divided into two groups, according to their performance on a parametric Go/No-Go task (higher and lower level of response inhibition). Cue-elicited craving was measured by physiologic responses and self-report, before and after a pleasant or unpleasant affectivity manipulation. Results: Moderation analysis suggests that response inhibition and unpleasant affect have combined effects in self-report and skin conductance related to tobacco craving. Response inhibition levels seem to increase tobacco craving, but they are independent of pleasant affect. Discussion and conclusions: Affectivity is a fundamental factor in comprehending the relationship between response inhibition and craving for tobacco. The unpleasant affect is one of the triggers for the desire to smoke, especially for those more impulsive individuals, which have an exaggerated perception of tobacco effect in alleviating unpleasant experiences. It is essential to train techniques to control negative affect stimuli, especially in those individuals with less capacity to inhibit responses.
Mario Arturo Téllez Rojas, Nicolás Javier Vila Carranza, Fátima Alejandra Rojas Iturria, Roberto Jiménez Castillo
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 16-24;

Introduction: attention is a basic process related to addictive behavior. In smokers, the stimuli associated with consumption are relevant because they are present at the beginning and in the consolidation of the smoking habit. Therefore, to contribute to the understanding of addictive behaviors with objective measures, a study through eye-tracking techniques is presented. This would support the clinical process of people seeking to quit smoking. Objective: to study the attentional bias with images related to tobacco consumption in smoking and non-smoking participants, using an eye-tracking technique. Method: eight university students participated, who were assigned to two groups based on their Fagerström Test score. The experimental task consisted of the random presentation of 15 images related to tobacco consumption and 15 neutral images. During the experiment, visual fixations, latency and time to each image were recorded using an eye tracker. Results: a statistical analysis showed significant differences between moderate smokers and non-smokers when images related to tobacco use were presented in the three measure. Likewise, a qualitative analysis of the results shows differences between the participants when they were presented with neutral images and images related to tobacco. Discussion and conclusions: it is suggested that in the smoking participants there is an attentional bias towards the images related to tobacco consumption.
Diana Mejía, Alejandro Rodrigo Gutierrez-Trejo, Laurent Avila-Chauvet, Lynette Bonin
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 25-32;

Introduction: in response to the pandemic originated by COVID-19, governments placed in practice a series of safety guidelines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In Mexico, one of the decisive actions to prevent the disease's spread was social isolation or lockdown. These rigorous proceedings could increase stress experience or other mental health disorders. One of the coping mechanisms used to avoid stress includes drug use. Objective: the study's goal was to evaluate the relationship between drug use (alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis) and adherence to safety guidelines. Method: the association between the variables was assessed with a series of surveys indicating adherence to safety guidelines and drug use, 475 Mexican participants (56.5% females and 43.4% males) completed the study. Results: the results suggest that most participants had low drug abuse levels before and during social isolation. There was a significant decrease in tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use in both females and males. Upon analyzing guideline adherence, low alcohol use correlated with the safety behavior scale, while tobacco and cannabis correlated with the preventive behavior scale. Discussion: the current Mexican sample had not used drugs to cope during social isolation.
Roger Quintana-Lagunas, Nora Angélica Armendáriz-García, Luis Iván Mayor Silva
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 43-51;

Introduction: alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes physical, cognitive and behavioral problems in the mother and the unborn baby. The literature recommends abstinence from this substance during pregnancy. However, the presence of factors in adolescents could be related to the initiation or continuation of alcohol consumption while pregnant. Objective: twas to identify the prevalence and factors that are related to alcohol consumption in pregnant adolescents (AE). Method: a systematic review of articles in English and Spanish published between 2009 and 2019 in the adolescent population was carried out. The databases were PubMed, Web of Science: Social Sciences Citation Index, Science Citation Index, and Scopus. The search terms included the words “pregnancy,” “pregnant,” “adolescent,” “adolescence,” and “alcohol.” Data extraction was performed independently by one author using the study quality indicators. Results: CADE prevalence’s in AE were determined. Also, personal, psychological and spiritual factors related to CADE. Alcohol consumption prior to pregnancy and exposure to the presence of previous pregnancies were the most mentioned as personal factors. Likewise, relationships of psychological factors such as depression and anxiety were identified. In addition, social factors were identified such as having a single parent, having friends who smoke or drink, as well as not having a partner. Finally, some spiritual factors were found, among which the importance given to religion stands out. Conclusions: alcohol consumption during pregnancy is multifactorial, however, there are personal, psychological, social and spiritual factors that increase the risk of consuming alcohol up to four times more.
Ricardo Sánchez Huesca, Liliana Berenice Templos Núñez
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 52-56;

Sarahí Alanís Navarro, Shoshana Berenzon Gorn, Francisco Lorenzo Juárez García
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 7-15;

Introduction: the impact of programs to prevent alcohol consumption in adolescents can be increased by incorporating an environmental component. This paper explores the usefulness of behavioral economics to analyze the preference for the substance as a function of environmental variables. Objective: to evaluate the level of alcohol consumption in a group of Mexican adolescents, as a function of sex, age, access to consumption and reinforcement derived from substance-free activities. Method: a total of 7,569 high school students participated: 51% were male and 49% female. A multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate how the selected variables are related to the level of alcohol consumption. Results: the regression model was adjusted (F = 202.423, p < 0.01) and explained 33.6% of the variance (R2 = 0.336). Gender (being male), age, and access to consumption in social contexts were positively associated with the level of alcohol consumption. Academic, prosocial and cultural activities were negatively related to alcohol consumption; while the use of electronic media, social, physical and recreational activities had a positive relationship. Discussion and conclusions: tit is necessary to reduce access to alcohol consumption, both commercially, and in social and family contexts. Preventive interventions should promote the involvement of adolescents in activities incompatible with consumption and incorporate a social component to increase their level of reinforcement.
Paola Lizeth Flores-Garza, Karla Selene López-García, Benito Israel Jiménez-Padilla, María Magdalena Alonso Castillo, Francisco Rafael Guzmán Facundo
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 7, pp 33-42;

Introduction: alcohol and marijuana are the most widely used drugs nowadays and their consumption occurs mainly during adolescence. In Mexico, different drug use prevention programs have been developed, one of them is the “Tú Decides” program, by Rodriguez et al. (2011). This program was carried out under the framework of the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991); it consists of five sessions of 50 minutes each and its objective is to reduce the experimental use of illicit drugs and the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. The program was applied to a vulnerable population in the center of the country, where it had a moderate effect on perceived behavioral control and drug use intention. Objective: to describe the stages of adaptation and extension of the theoretical basis of the intervention “Tú Decides”, focusing it on the prevention of alcohol and/or marijuana consumption in adolescents in northeastern Mexico.Method: to carry out this adaptation and modification process, the adaptation model of Barrera and Castro (2006) was taken as a basis. Results: the preliminary adaptation and modification were well accepted and successfully evaluated by the adolescents. Conclusions: the adapted intervention was named “Tú Decides +”. It is composed of four sessions from the original intervention, a self-efficacy session, and three emotional intelligence sessions, which give a total of 8 sessions of 45 minutes; it aims to reduce the intention to consume and the consumption of alcohol and/or marijuana. It is expected that by adapting and modifying to the needs of the specific population, more effective and lasting results will be obtained
Paulina Beverido Sustaeta, Betzaida Salas-García, Xóchitl De San Jorge-Cárdenas, María Del Carmen Gogeascoechea-Trejo, Patricia Pavón-León, María Leticia Sobeida Blázquez-Morales, Alma De Los Ángeles Cruz Juárez, María Cristina Ortiz-León
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 25-34;

Introduction: the emergence of the pandemic caused by the SARS-Cov-2 virus has generated lifestyles changes for humanity. Strategies to prevent exponential contagion and the collapse of health systems such as social-distancing and quarantine have affected people in different ways according to their vulnerability, including marijuana consumers. Objective: to learn if the regular consumers of marijuana who remained in physical and social isolation due to COVID-19 altered or modified their consumption, in their disposition and in their method of supply. Method: a cross-sectional, non-probabilistic and analytical study that used the snowball technique, aimed at regular marijuana consumers in Mexico, of legal age, who have access to the Internet and/or WhatsApp. Results: 50 men and 25 women participated, most from the state of Veracruz; the only mood related variable that was statistically significant was the relief provided by marijuana use and level of marijuana use during quarantine, as well there were changes in consumption, in the method of supply and in the relationship established with the people with whom they live. Conclusions: this work addresses an emerging problem of which little is still known, especially regarding its correlation with mental health and disorders resulting from the use of psychoactive substances. Thus, contributing a building basis for understanding the impact of quarantine and for the attention of marijuana consumers.
Angel López Ortiz, Marisela Gutiérrez Vega
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 6-10;

Introduction: many studies have concluded that self-efficacy is an essential variable within the area of drug addictions and a key to maintaining abstinence and preventing relapses. The Situational Confidence Questionnaire by Annis et al. (1987), is one of the most used instruments to measure self-efficacy and has had various modifications. The Brief Situational Confidence Questionnaire (CBCS), is the shortest version with only 8 items. Objective: to obtain the factor validity and reliability of the CBCS with a clinical sample in residential modality. Method: the study was carried out with a sample of 41 volunteers patients, adolescents, and adults interned in a residential rehabilitation center. The evaluation met the standards for the development and review of instrumental studies. Results: after carrying out the exploratory factor analysis, the eight original items were left within a single factor which explains 71.39% of the variance, with a factor load between the ranges of .76 and .91, and with an internal consistency of .941. Discussion and conclusions: the Brief Situational Confidence Questionnaire presents an internal consistency with high reliability and acceptable factor loads, such as was found in other studies. Therefore, its use in Mexico is suggested as an evaluation tool in a clinical setting, with patients who are interned in a rehabilitation center. It is recommended to carry out replications with more representative and randomly selected samples. Furthermore, it is suggested to include confirmatory factor analysis to obtain greater certainty in the results.
Juan Manuel Quijada Gaytán, Marcela Martinelli Herrera, Norberto Hernández Llanes
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 61-63;

Silvia Morales Chainé, Alejandra López Montoya, Alejandro Bosch Maldonado, Ana Beristain Aguirre, Rebeca Robles García, Fuensanta López Rosales, Carmen Fernández-Cáceres
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 11-24;

Introduction: the conditions of the COVID-19 pandemic promote mental health risks. Objective: the goal of the study was to assess the risk of developing mental health conditions as a result of COVID-19 situations: containment, symptoms or COVID-19 suspected, death of near people, use of alcohol, and violence. Method: it participated 8,348 Mexican, with a mean of 25 years old (SD =11.24), 50% single (4,133), 69% women (5,720), 47% in quarantine (3,948), 50% partially in quarantine (4,193), and 3% that they were not in quarantine (207). The kind proposed was a predictive correlational study using the WebApp application of the Questionnaire of Mental Health Screening in COVID-19 (Alpha= 0.96; 64 of explained variance) programed by Linux®, PHP ®, HTML®, CSS ®, and JavaScript®). Latent variables derivate of 124 iterations with 103 parameters (t[496] = 201,464, p=.000), a CFI = 0.921, a TLI = 0.908, a RMSEA = 0.067 (0.066 – 0.068), and a SRMR = 0.051. Results: results showed that avoidance predicted acute stress, this predicted anxiety related to health; anxiety related to health predicted generalized anxiety/sadness and somatization; and generalized anxiety/sadness predicted, disengagement/anger in people. Discussion and conclusions: containment, symptoms, or suspected COVID-19, explosive use of alcohol or reporting of emotional or physical violence, were associated with the risk of mental health conditions. Next studies should assess the impact of distance psychological interventions over the risk of developing acute and posttraumatic stress.
David Bruno Díaz-Negrete, Solveig E. Rodríguez-Kuri, Cristina De J. Cruz-Cortés, Alma Delia Gutiérrez-López, Juan David González-Sánchez, Carmen Fernández-Cáceres
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 45-60;

Introduction: in the context of the health contingency by COVID-19 pandemic and by an agreement of the Mexican Ministry of Health, Centros de Integración Juvenil has collaborated in Línea de la Vida telephone service conducted by the National Comission on Addictions in the care of people with mental health dissorders. Objective: to describe some aspects of the psychological and social problems associated with the epidemic, identifying intervening variables. Method: cross-sectional, comparative study, with a sample of 2,403 consultants from Línea de la Vida service, referred to CIJ between May and August 2020. Data included symptoms and risk conditions of COVID-19, mental health problems and daily circumstances during the epidemic. Comparative analysis were carried out by sex, age and date of consultation. Results: a third of the consultants reported symptoms of COVID-19, belonging to a vulnerable group or having contact with someone with the disease. The main mental health problems identified were anxiety/stress (67.6%) and depression (15.2%); 31.5% reported facing financial problems; 15.5% the loss of close people and around 10% having problems in the care of children, adolescents or other relatives; 5.6% reported domestic violence. Conclusions: the health, social, interpersonal and mental health problems associated with the COVID-19 pandemic reflect differences attributable to the social construction of gender, the life cycle of people and the development of the epidemic itself.
Nancy Araceli Méndez Romero, Martha Patricia Romero Mendoza, Addis Abeba Salinas Urbina
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 35-44;

Introduction: women have increased the consumption of alcohol, affecting their well-being, to this is added the situation of lag they face in receiving specialized treatment, treating their ailments in mutual-help groups, this scenario affects social and gender inequalities. The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbates these conditions, affecting specific life situations of women and their health. Objective: to understand the experience of women who receive support for their recovery due to problems due to alcohol consumption in groups of Alcoholics Anonymous in the context of COVID-19. Method: qualitative study. Sampling by opportunity defined the participation of four women from “AA”. During May 2020, telephone interviews were conducted under informed consent. A thematic analysis was developed and Atlas.ti was used. The perspective on collective health and gender guided the analysis. Results: when analyzing the information, three categories were identified. The first contextualizes the recovery experiences of women. The following categories reveal the situations experienced in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic and physical distancing. The findings were: gender roles and stereotypes are reaffirmed by expressing harassment and discrediting; family burdens and worries increase; participation in its recovery decreased. Discussion and conclusions: in the context of COVID-19, the participation of AA women in their recovery decreased, putting their well-being at risk, despite the fact that international organizations recommended continuing the care of people with mental health problems and incorporating community actions.
Verónica Lozano Morales, , Billy Raúl Millán Hernández, Rafael Antonio Serna-Arreguin, Leonor Villafranca Salgado, Juan Arturo Sabines Torres, Gady Zabicky Sirot
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 12-22;

Introduction: in Mexico, tobacco and alcohol consumption represent a public health problem. Screening, brief intervention, and treatment models had shown effectiveness to reduce substances use, which is why they have been widely used in a variety of settings. The proximity of trained human resources with consumption problems and diverse situations is one of the most important opportunities they offer. Despite the extensive experience in developing these models, they have been poorly adapted for use by medical and health personnel at the first level of care. Objective: describe barriers and opportunities encountered during the operational implementation of a pilot project for screening, brief counseling and treatment aimed at medical personnel and related to the first level of health care in a Sanitary Jurisdiction of the State of Mexico. Method: two focus groups were carried out on a randomized sample of 15 of 64 certified health professionals who developed practical experience performing interventions with the population of their Health Establishment. Results: communication, personal and organizational barriers were found, however, opportunities that emerged from the implementation of this intervention model were also identified. Discussion and conclusions: the implementation of these interventions in the first level of care has various advantages for the personnel who apply them and the population that receives it, among which the increase in productivity of the screening and brief counseling actions reported in the System of Health Information as well as the opportunity to provide the user a personalized intervention specifically focused on their local population-based problems.
Mario Enrique Gámez-Medina, Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo, María Magdalena Alonso-Castillo, Jesica Guadalupe Ahumada-Cortez
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 3-11;

Introduction: exponential and excessive use of social networks like Facebook could lead to greater exposure of alcohol-related content and influence adolescent drinking behavior. Objective: to determine the influence of the exposure of alcohol-related content on the pattern of alcohol consumption, in addition to knowing the differences in frequency and exposure of alcohol-related content on Facebook in consumers and non-consumers of alcohol. Method: a predictive correlational study was carried out, with 672 adolescents from technical high schools, a data card, the Facebook use questionnaire (CUF) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were used. Results: significant differences in exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook were found, with higher means and medians among adolescents who reported alcohol consumption compared to those who did not (U = 40875.0, p =.001). In addition, regression analysis revealed that hours per day on Facebook and exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook predict alcohol consumption in adolescents. Discussion and conclusions: alcohol consumers presented greater exposure to alcohol-related content, in addition it was found that the current alcohol consumption behavior was explained through the number of hours per day of Facebook use and exposure.
Elena Hedoux
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 45-47;

En los últimos años ha habido un aumento sin precedentes en el número, tipo y disponibilidad de nuevas sustancias psicoactivas (NPS, por sus siglas en inglés) en diversas regiones del mundo. El crecimiento en este mercado también es responsable del aumento de daños graves reportados recientemente. Los desafíos clave giran en torno a la velocidad a la que aparecen las NPS, su proliferación rápida y abierta, y la información limitada o nula sobre sus efectos y daños.
, Liliana Templos-Núñez
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 1-2;

Las nuevas sustancias psicoactivas (NSP) son sustancias de abuso en forma pura o preparada no incluidas en las Convenciones Internacionales que suponen una amenaza a la salud pública. Comprende sustancias utilizadas en medicina o veterinaria usadas como psicotrópicos.
Pedro Moises Noh Moo, , Carolina Valdez-Montero, Mario Enrique Gámez-Medina, Manuel Antonio López-Cisneros
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 34-44;

Introduction: child-to-Parent Violence (CPV) is alarmed in society due to its increase and frequency in recent years. This type of violence is one where the child acts intentionally and consciously, with the desire to cause harm, prejudice and / or suffering to their parents, repeatedly, over time and with the immediate purpose of obtaining power, control and dominance, this behavior could be related to substance use due to the aggressiveness and lack of control that the consumer presents when under the influence of the substance. Objective: analyze the available literature on the relationship between CPV and drugs consumption in adolescents. Method: a systematic search was carried out in the PUBMED, EBSCO, Elsevier, Lilacs and Google Scholar databases, to identify articles published between January 2010 and July 2019. Results: the studies showed that according to the CPV classification, physical violence is the most exerted by men, while women refer more psychological and verbal violence towards their parents, in addition it was found that CPV shows a relationship with the consumption of licit and illegal drugs. Discussion and conclusions: although the full extent of this form of violence in the Mexican population is unknown, it highlights the importance that the nursing professional design psycho-family interventions to prevent these risk behaviors.
Solveig E. Rodríguez-Kuri, Alma Delia Gutiérrez-López, Marco Antonio Rios-Salinas, Carmen Fernández-Cáceres
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 6, pp 23-33;

Introduction: opioids are the substance responsible for the highest number of deaths from drug use worldwide. According to the Survey on Drug, Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Mexico, 0.2% of the population (just over 145,000 people) have used heroin once in their lives. Objective: to analyze the trends in heroin use, including the estimation of the average annual growth rate, in patients treated at CIJ between 2013 and 2019 and to explore and compare their sociodemographic profile and pattern of use with that of users of other illicit drugs. Method: a study based on the analysis of trends and the estimation of the average annual growth rate from databases of a census registry of patients, as well as on comparative analysis, based on bivariate tests of two groups of drug users. Results: the proportion of heroin-consuming patients showed a gradual increase until the middle of the period 2013-2019, reaching its highest prevalence in 2016, to start falling from there, especially among men. The sociodemographic profile of heroin users shows a greater physical and psychosocial impact compared to those of other substances. Conclusions: there is a decrease in the demand for treatment, at least in CIJ, consistent with the prevalence observed in the general population, highlighting that this decrease does not occur among women, especially among younger women, even an increase in consumption is observed.
, Perla Vargas, Miriam Domínguez, Elías Robles
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 21-29;

Introduction: perceived social support (PSS) is considered an important factor to lessen the negative effects of stressful events. Likewise, the literature suggests a beneficial impact on the evolution of different diseases. However, little is known about the relationship between PSS and treatment completion in methamphetamine-dependent individuals who receive help in a forced manner. Objective: to evaluate the effect of perceived social support (PSS) on treatment completion in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methods: prospective study with a cohort of 67 men on whom PSS, addiction severity, anxiety, and depression were assessed. Results: analysis of variance of prospectively obtained data showed that age, years of drug use, and PSS differed between those who completed the treatment and those who did not. Logistic regression analysis showed that increases in PSS (Odds Ratio, OR = .970, Confidence Interval - CI 95 % = .943 - .999) were predictive of a decrease in the probability of completing the treatment, while age had the opposite effect (OR = 1.117, CI 95 % = .1.027 - 1.215). Discussion and conclusion: these results show that the role of social support in the treatment of chronic conditions is complex and suggest the need to study the nature and quality of the social interactions that lead to therapeutic success.
, Guillermina Natera-Rey, Claudia Elena Castillo Lozada
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 1-7;

Introduction: substance use is a problem that requires prevention strategies since childhood. It has been noticed that certain personality traits can play an important role in substance use in adolescence and early adulthood. It is essential to study the factors associated with substance use in order to develop and implement preventive interventions. Objective: to evaluate if hopelessness, sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety sensibility traits increase the risk of substance use (tobacco, alcohol, marihuana and inhalants) in a group of children enrolled in four primary schools in Mexico City. Methodology: cross sectional exploratory ex post facto survey in which substance use and a personality profile was assessed in a non-randomized sample of 182 children of age 10 to 13. Results: the lifetime prevalence of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs (marihuana and inhalants) use was of 4.4%, 28.6% y 5.5%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the hopelessness trait significantly increases the risk for use of tobacco (OR = 15.883) and other drugs (OR = 15.090), while the sensation seeking increases the risk of tobacco (OR = 20.856), alcohol (OR = 4.453) and other drugs (OR = 17.139). Discussion: substance use was greater than the estimation in the 2014 Nacional Survey of Drug Use in Students. Hopelessness and sensation seeking play an important role in substance use since late infancy. These results have implications that can help prevention.
, Jorge Luís Olivares Peña, Paula Alexandra Carvalho De Figueiredo
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 38-47;

Introduction: the evidence mentions that the abuse of inhalants can cause alterations in the reuptake of dopamine, fundamentally in the mesolimbic system, the responsible structure of reward system and consequently of the addiction. Objective: the objective of the research was to investigate the relationship between the consumption of inhalants and suicide, through a retrospective post-mortem analysis. Method: the method used was a case study, with a qualitative approach of descriptive design, evaluated through the use of psychological autopsy and an in-depth interview, of the particular case of a suicide victim by hanging, of a 20-year-old male, consumer of inhalants. Results: thus, neuroanatomical alterations in the prefrontal cortex (ventromedial and orbitolateral), anterior cingulate cortex, basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, subthalamic nucleus and nucleus accumbens were verified, which, probably, could have had some influence on their suicidal behavior. Discussion and conclusion: altered structures directly and indirectly affect the mesolimbic system, and are related to low tolerance to failure, persistence in actions aimed at minimizing the results of social behaviors, ideation and magical thoughts in relation to their religious beliefs, and verbal disinhibition, which, probably, may have influenced on his suicidal behavior.
, Ma. De Los Ángeles Vacio Muro, Juan José Macías Rodríguez
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 30-37;

Introduction: self-efficacy for the control of alcohol consumption is a relevant variable in addiction intervention programs. The Brief Situational Confidence Questionnaire (CBCS) was developed for adult problem drinkers in Canada and subsequently included in intervention programs for adults and adolescents in Mexico. Although, the only data reported in our country has been its internal consistency index. Therefore, it was proposed to evaluate whether the questionnaire had similar psychometric characteristics, as previously reported with Canadian adults, with Mexican college students. Objective: obtain the validity and reliability of the CBCS with Mexican students. Method: 1,175 university volunteers, alcohol consumers in the last year and who reported two or more indicators for DSM 5 alcohol use disorder. The evaluation followed the standards for the development and review of instrumental studies. Results: the confirmatory factor analysis yielded a final model of a single dimension of four reagents: testing control over consumption, physical need, conflicts with others and pleasant moments with others, with an internal consistency index of .78. Discussion and conclusions: unlike what was found with adult problem drinkers, in this work a questionnaire composed of a single dimension was obtained, possibly due to the characteristics of the population, with an acceptable level of reliability. The questionnaire can be used in intervention programs or in studies that measure the situational self-efficacy for alcohol consumption in Mexican university students.
, Violeta Felix-Romero, Germán Palafox Palafox, José Luis Vázquez Martínez
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 8-20;

Introduction: the continuous training and certification of primary healthcare professionals support the implementation of brief interventions to address drug use. Objective: our objective was to validate the training materials of the “Universal Treatment Curriculum for Health Professionals” by assessing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Method: we worked with 823 health professionals (137 from Argentina, 59 from Colombia, 86 from El Salvador, 398 from Mexico and 143 from Uruguay), regarding the utilization of brief intervention, according to the training modality in which they participated (272 face-to-face, 125 mixed, and 426 online). We applied a written knowledge evaluation, behavioral assessment of skills - attitudes, and a Satisfaction Questionnaire. A post-quasi-experimental design was used, with comparison groups to assess knowledge, skills, attitudes (through direct observation) and satisfaction of health professionals. Results: the results of the written evaluation and direct observation indicate that both, the training materials and the pedagogical strategy, increased knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the implementation of brief interventions. Conclusions: in this way, a successful dissemination tool was obtained, based on the contents recommended by international organizations and validated in the field of clinical application of the basic principles of behavior.
José Luis Benítez-Villa, Centros De Integración Juvenil, Carmen Fernández-Cáceres
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 39-50;

El abuso y dependencia de alcohol son trastornos altamente discapacitantes debido a que tienden a la cronicidad y a la recurrencia. Con frecuencia coexisten con otras condiciones médicas que contribuyen a ensombrecer el pronóstico de los pacientes, ya que empeoran el curso clínico y dificultan su tratamiento y recuperación. identificar las alteraciones comórbidas de carácter médico que se presentan con mayor frecuencia en personas con abuso y dependencia del alcohol. se realizó una revisión documental a partir de las bases de datos PubMed, LILACS y Gale Virtual Reference Library, entre junio y noviembre del 2017. a partir de la estrategia de búsqueda, se seleccionaron 24 artículos para su revisión. Los hallazgos sugieren que los usuarios que consumen bebidas alcohólicas en exceso tienen mayor probabilidad de presentar condiciones médicas comórbidas que afectan al sistema nervioso central, tracto gastrointestinal, hígado y sistema cardiovascular. la frecuencia con la que estos padecimientos se hacen presentes en usuarios de alcohol devela una necesidad de atención no satisfecha y la coexistencia de complicaciones que en la mayoría de los casos son subestimadas e insuficientemente tratadas.
, Fundación Recal, Belén Gallego-Arjiz, Patricia López-Ewert, Jacobo Reguera-Errasti, María Quevedo De La Peña, Yunier Broche-Pérez, Universidad Central “Marta Abreu” De Las Villas
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 6-14;

En el área de las adicciones, que un paciente pueda completar su tratamiento tiene notables implicaciones para su la calidad de vida, tanto desde el punto de vista clínico como social. el presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de explorar la interacción de los factores referidos al paciente y la incorporación de sus familiares en el plan terapéutico, con la finalización de los primeros 90 días de tratamiento. se realizó un estudio ex post facto retrospectivo con 234 pacientes entre 18 y 75 años, atendidos en la Fundación Recal en el período desde noviembre de 2014 hasta mayo de 2018. Para ello se registró un grupo de variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, de las que se analizó su interacción con la finalización o abandono del tratamiento, mediante la utilización de un algoritmo CHAID. la principal interacción detectada con la finalización del tratamiento fue la asistencia de los familiares a Grupos de Apoyo. A su vez, esta variable interactuaba con la presencia de antecedentes familiares de adiciones y el nivel educacional del paciente. El modelo obtenido es adecuado para clasificar la finalización del tratamiento, pero no así el abandono. los resultados obtenidos brindan soporte a la importancia de introducir a la familia dentro de los planes terapéuticos del paciente, sobre todo en las etapas iniciales de su tratamiento.
Daniela Romero Reyes, Universidad Autónoma De Tamaulipas, José Luis Ybarra Sagarduy, Luz Adriana Orozco Ramírez
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 23-30;

Las adicciones representan un serio problema de salud pública. Existe la necesidad de realizar más estudios sobre las características de los consumidores de drogas en general para desarrollar tratamientos más específicos. el objetivo de este estudio fue identificar las características sociodemográficas/clínicas de usuarios de un Centro de Rehabilitación de adicciones y establecer posibles asociaciones entre perfiles de personalidad y droga de impacto. el estudio fue no experimental, descriptivo y correlacional; la muestra estuvo conformada por 300 participantes, en su mayoría varones solteros, estudiantes de bachillerato y licenciatura. las principales drogas de elección reportadas fueron alcohol, mariguana y cocaína. Se encontró mayor cantidad de usuarios con rasgos de personalidad antisocial, seguidos por rasgos de personalidad límite y esquizoide. se observa la necesidad de prevención primaria y secundaria. La rehabilitación es una opción favorable y necesaria para la recuperación de usuarios y sus familias.
, Universidad Autónoma De Nuevo León, Karla Selene López-García, Francisco Rafael Guzmán-Facundo, Lucio Rodríguez-Aguilar, Benito Israel Jiménez-Padilla
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 31-38;

El consumo de alcohol es un problema de salud que impacta negativamente en el bienestar biopsicosocial de las personas y puede favorecer la aparición de distintas formas de agresividad. determinar la relación entre la frecuencia y tipo de consumo de alcohol y distintas formas de agresividad en adolescentes de secundaria. se realizó un estudio descriptivo correlacional en 259 adolescentes de secundaria del estado de Nuevo León, México, a quienes se les aplicó una cédula de datos personales y consumo de alcohol, así como el cuestionario AUDIT y el cuestionario de agresividad (AQ) de Buss y Perry (1992). se encontró que 122 adolescentes han consumido alcohol alguna vez en su vida, de los cuales 57.7% presenta un consumo de riesgo y 28.9% un consumo dependiente. Asimismo, se observó una media de 40.3 en la escala de agresividad general, se identificó a la ira como el tipo de agresividad que presentó la mayor puntuación (= 42.0). Además, tanto la agresividad general como la agresividad física se relacionaron con el consumo de riesgo (= .213, = .036, en el caso de la agresividad general y = .287, = .004 en el de la agresividad física) y con el consumo dependiente ( = .209, = .040, para la agresividad general y = .219, = .031 para la agresividad física). tanto quienes presentan un consumo de riesgo como quienes presentan dependencia del alcohol manifiestan mayores niveles de agresividad general y física.
, Universidad De Guanajuato, Paula Figueiredo, Paulo Pombo Marques, José Félix Gómez Calderón, Cesun Universidad, Centro De Integración Juvenil León
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 5, pp 15-22;

La ingesta de metanfetamina origina una reacción química con la dopamina segregada en las estructuras de la vía mesolímbica, produciendo alteraciones en los procesos conductuales, emocionales y cognitivos. el objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar los cambios neuropsicológicos asociados al consumo de en estudiantes de educación media superior y superior, en fase inicial de tratamiento, con consumos controlados. es un estudio comparativo con la participación de 170 adolescentes evaluados en los ámbitos neuropsicológicos (NEUROPSI), personalidad (NEO-FFI) y regulación emocional (DASS-21). la evaluación de las dimensiones cognitivas por el NEUROPSI revelan diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los dos grupos. el consumo de parece producir una serie de daños neuropsicológicos acentuados, como consecuencia de una sintetización menos pura que ataca determinadas regiones y sistemas cerebrales. Los cambios emocionales demuestran tener vínculos con la conducta y a la vez con el aspecto neuropsicológico, generando cambios que llevan a una inadecuación social por parte de los consumidores.
, Universidad Veracruzana Instituto De Investigaciones Psicológicas, Arminda Tlaxcalteco González, Daniela Morales Hernández
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 10-18;

Introducción: La violencia en México se ha incrementado de manera sustantiva en lo que va del presente siglo, y el grupo familiar no ha quedado exento de este tipo de eventos, afectando principalmente a los adolescentes. Veracruz es uno de los estados en los que se ha registrado un incremento sustantivo de este tipo de violencia en el grupo familiar. Objetivo: Con el objetivo de explorar en estudiantes de telebachillerato usuarios y no usuarios de drogas ilícitas su percepción acerca de la violencia familiar, e identificar su relación con el uso de drogas. Método: se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal, correlacional, comparativo, en el que participaron 667 estudiantes del municipio de Alto Lucero de Gutiérrez Barrios, Veracruz, México. Resultados: 13.2% había usado alguna droga ilícita al menos una vez, 86.8% no había consumido. El grupo de usuarios de drogas ilícitas percibe en una proporción significativamente mayor eventos violentos entre hermanos, de padres a hijos, entre padres, y de hijos a padres. La violencia ejercida fue predominantemente física y psicológica. Discusión y conclusiones: La violencia entre hermanos resultó ser predictor del consumo de drogas ilícitas; lo que permite concluir que es un tema por considerar en la atención del grupo familiar en particular cuando hay hijos en la etapa de la adolescencia.
Emmanuel Said Baeza Torres, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México Programa De Maestría Y Doctorado, Leticia Echeverría San Vicente, Eduardo Velasco-Rojano, Sara Eugenia Cruz Morales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México Facultad De Psicología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México Departamento De Psicología Social, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México Facultad De Estudios Superiores Iztacala
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 33-40;

Introducción: antes de empezar el tratamiento, es necesario conocer el patrón de consumo, determinar los antecedentes y las situaciones de riesgo que llevan al individuo a consumir en exceso, entre otras variables. Hasta el momento no se cuenta con un instrumento validado en México que mida las situaciones que precipitan el consumo de alcohol. Objetivo: validar el Inventario situacional de consumo de alcohol (ISCA) en población mexicana consumidora de esta sustancia. Método: se obtuvo una muestra de 592 (88.2% hombres, 11.8% mujeres), cuyas edades oscilaron entre los 18 y los 30 años de edad (M = 21.13, S.D. = 2.26), que solicitaron atención psicológica por problemas con su consumo de alcohol, de los cuales 66.2% reportó dependencia baja y 33.8%, dependencia moderada. Resultados: se realizó un análisis confirmatorio de máxima verosimilitud robusta, con el que se obtuvo un instrumento confiable (α = .96) y válido, con una varianza explicada del 59%. Discusión y conclusión: se obtuvo un instrumento válido, confiable y breve aplicable en intervenciones breves para usuarios que buscan tratamiento para consumo de alcohol.
Quitzia Torres-Salazar, Universidad Autónoma España De Durango Escuela De Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Autónoma España De Durango Núcleo De Nutrición Y Enfermedades Metabólicas, Alberto Ramírez-Gurrola, Michelle Castañón-Alvarado, Acis Aroña-Campos, Arely Betancourt-Araujo, María Fernanda Carrillo-Cisneros, Christian López-Molina, Juan Gerardo Medina-Rosales, et al.
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 19-24;

Introducción: el uso indiscriminado de los teléfonos móviles puede estar asociado a eventos de igual forma negativos como insomnio, depresión, estrés o tendinitis crónica. La identificación de factores emocionales de riesgo para el desarrollo de nomofobia es importante para poder priorizar estrategias de intervención preventiva en adolescentes, quienes dicho sea de paso se unen cada vez más al grupo de personas adictas al celular o como se define en este estudio, con nomofobia. Objetivo: determinar si existe relación entre la presencia de nomofobia e indicadores de inteligencia entre ellos: a) Inteligencia cognitiva medida a través del IQ; b) Resiliencia; y c) Autoestima. Método: diseño observacional, analítico, transversal, prospectivo, de Casos y Controles pareados por edad y sexo. La muestra se integró por 70 casos y 70 controles, con una edad promedio de 22 (DE = 1.5 años); 60% hombres y 40% mujeres. Resultados: se encontró que en el grupo de personas con IQ promedio o por debajo del promedio es 27 veces más probable el desarrollo de nomofobia, comparado con el grupo de no nomofóbicos. Al realizar este ejercicio con la baja autoestima, se identificó un OR de 58, y con resiliencia promedio o baja, el OR es de 2.2 (ambos con IC 95% estadísticamente significativos). Conclusión: existe asociación entre la presencia de nomofobia e indicadores de inteligencia cognitiva y emocional.
David Bruno Díaz-Negrete, A.C. Centros De Integración Juvenil, Jessica Zapata Téllez, P. Isaias Castillo-Franco, Lourdes María López-Granados, Alberto J. Córdova-Alcaráz, Carmen Fernández-Cáceres
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 25-32;

Introducción: las competencias socioemocionales integran conocimientos, actitudes y habilidades para el manejo de afectos, entablar relaciones interpersonales y tomar decisiones responsables, entre otros. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo estimar la capacidad explicativa de un modelo de competencias socioemocionales respecto al consumo de drogas en estudiantes de educación secundaria. Método: estudio ex post facto, con comparación de una muestra de 512 estudiantes distribuidos en dos grupos: usuarios y no usuarios de drogas alguna vez en la vida. Se aplicó un cuestionario que incluyó escalas de inadecuada regulación emocional, bajo control conductual, toma irreflexiva de decisiones, dificultad para el establecimiento de relaciones positivas con pares y para el ajuste escolar. Se analizaron diferencias de medias y se aplicó un modelo de regresión logística, incluyendo estas variables como predictores del uso de drogas. Resultados: se identificaron como predictores significativos del uso experimental de drogas, una inadecuada regulación emocional, un deficiente ajuste escolar y un bajo control conductual. Discusión: los hallazgos obtenidos corroboran la relación existente entre competencias socioemocionales deficitarias y uso de sustancias reportado en otros estudios y proporcionan una base empírica para el desarrollo de programas preventivos dirigidos al medio escolar.
Hugo Sánchez Castillo, Facultad De Psicología Departamento De Psicobiología Y Neurociencias, Rodrigo Iván Castañeda Garrido, Diana Berenice Paz Trejo, Daniel Soltero De La Rosa, Pavel Zárate González, Sina Iberoamérica Sociedad Iberoamericana De Neurociencia Aplicada, Facultad De Psicología Laboratorio De Neuropsicofarmacología, Facultad De Psicología Sistema De Universidad Abierta Y A Distancia
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 1-9;

Introduction: drug abuse is a health problem that affects millions of people around the world. It could be defined as a concurrent condition in which the behavior has the goal of produce a pleasant sensation and reduce the discomfort produced by the interruption of the drug administration. The drug retirement produces cognitive alterations, particularly in memory and executive function. Those effects are due to the vulnerability of prefrontal cortex to the drug effects. Poly drug use is defined as the simultaneous intake, or separated in short time lapses, of several drugs. This kind of drug intake has been poorly studied in comparison to other addictions. Objective: to evaluate the effects of poly drug use in three groups of drug consumers evaluated with a neuropsychological battery. Method: thirty-six poly drug consumers were included and eleven non consumers integrated a control group (total sample: 47 subjects). Poly drug consumers were divided in three different groups depending on the kind of drugs consumed. All poly drug users were evaluated with the Neuropsychological battery “Neuropsi Atención y Memoria” and were compared against the performance of control group. Conclusion and discussion: neuropsychological affections were observed, particularly in verbal memory and evocation (both verbal and visuospatial) as well as in abstract attitude and inhibition (p < 0.05). We observed several relapses and readmissions in the rehabilitation center. The findings over inhibition and abstract attitude could explain the poor adhesion to treatment, alterations in everyday life and several relapses.
Francisco Justiniano Velasco Arellanes, Erica Angelina Soto Mendívil
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 36-52;

Introducción: en el presente trabajo se identifican tres vertientes relacionadas con el debate de la legalización y la regulación de la mariguana en México: 1) uso como tratamiento médico para enfermedades que no cuentan con una alternativa alópata en el mercado, 2) criminalización de la portación y uso en cantidades de autoconsumo y 3) industrialización con fines de lucro y de consumo recreativo. Objetivo: exponer la evidencia científica que se opone a la posibilidad de legalizar el uso de la mariguana en el sector “empresarial” o recreativo. Método: se realizaron búsquedas bibliográficas en bases de datos de revistas científicas. Resultados: la evidencia científica indica que la mariguana tiene efectos de índole biológico, psicológico y social. Discusión y conclusiones: la posibilidad de proporcionar a la población mexicana mariguana con fines recreativos puede tener importantes implicaciones sociales y de salud pública. En México no contamos con condiciones sanitarias y profesionales para contrarrestar las drogodependencias.
Martha Leticia Salazar Garza, Centro De Ciencias Sociales Y Humanidades Departamento De Psicología, Silvia Jazmín Ortiz Noriega, Ma De Los Ángeles Vacio Muro
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 25-35;

Introducción: el Cuestionario de Expectativas hacia el Alcohol (AEQ) es empleado para medir las creencias de los individuos sobre el consumo de esta sustancia. En México se cuenta con una adaptación del instrumento, aunque al revisarlo se llegó a la conclusión de que algunos ítems no reflejaban las creencias en términos de una relación de causalidad y que las opciones de respuesta presentadas en forma dicotómica reducían la posibilidad de que los estudiantes respondieran de una manera más cercana a su realidad. Objetivo: obtener las características psicométricas de una versión revisada y modificada del AEQ, adaptado previamente en México. Método: se trabajó con una muestra de 510 estudiantes universitarios, siguiendo las normas para el desarrollo y revisión de estudios instrumentales; mediante el empleo de análisis factorial confirmatorio y el análisis de validez concurrente. Resultados: la versión final del instrumento quedó integrada por 26 reactivos, agrupados en siete factores: desinhibición, confianza en sí mismo, reducción de la tensión, relajación, incremento de la sexualidad, interacción social y cambios psicofisiológicos; con índice general de Confiabilidad de .937. Discusión y conclusiones: posiblemente la revisión conceptual y operacional influyó en el reacomodo y la eliminación de reactivos en comparación con la versión adaptada previamente en nuestro país; sin embargo, los análisis muestran que las expectativas positivas guardan una relación con la frecuencia de consumo excesivo de alcohol. Se obtuvo una versión del AEQ más corta, con validez de contenido, factorial y concurrente, y un índice de confiabilidad aceptable para cada dimensión.
Cuauhtémoc Muñoz Ruiz, México Centros De Integración Juvenil
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 53-68;

Introducción: la cannabis es una de las drogas que más se consume en el mundo y por la que hay mayor demanda de tratamiento. Los usuarios han identificado dificultades para acceder a tratamientos tradicionales, entre ellas el transporte, los costos y el estigma social. En el ámbito de la salud existen intervenciones digitales que usan la tecnología para facilitar la implementación de tratamientos; algunas se enfocan en la reducción del consumo de drogas, específicamente de cannabis; éstas podrían contribuir a solventar la demanda de tratamiento y a reducir las dificultades reportadas por los usuarios. Objetivo: actualizar el conocimiento acerca de la efectividad de las intervenciones digitales para reducir el consumo de cannabis, a través de una revisión sistemática. Método: en octubre de 2017 se emprendió una búsqueda sistemática en las siguientes fuentes: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PsycINFO y PubMed; el intervalo de búsqueda fue 2010-2017. Resultados: fueron identificados 1022 registros, de los cuales se eligieron 26 ensayos clínicos para su análisis en la presente revisión. Discusión: la mitad de los ensayos analizados reportaron reducción en el consumo de cannabis asociado con una intervención digital. Hay algunas características frecuentes en las intervenciones; por ejemplo, la mayoría usa Internet para su entrega, se emplea la entrevista motivacional como enfoque teórico y gran parte de ellas se realizan en una única sesión. Ninguna de estos atributos u otro fue constante en las intervenciones efectivas. Conclusiones: existen intervenciones digitales efectivas para la reducción del consumo de cannabis. Se requiere mayor investigación para determinar las características que comprueban su efectividad, especialmente las que son propias de su condición digital.
Jennifer Lira Mandujano, Facultad De Estudios Superiores “Iztacala” Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México., Eréndira Valdez- Piña, Mariana Núñez-Lauriano, Daniel Pech Puebla, Silvia Morales-Chainé, Sara E Cruz Morales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma De México. Facultad De Psicología
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 4-12;

Introducción: en los últimos años, la prevalencia del consumo de tabaco en mujeres se ha incrementado de manera significativa a nivel nacional e internacional. Esto genera altos costos a nivel económico, familiar y de salud. Un sector de la población en el que resulta particularmente indispensable realizar investigación sobre los factores asociados con el consumo de tabaco es el de mujeres universitarias, a fin de incidir en el desarrollo de estrategias de prevención y en las intervenciones para dejar de fumar. Objetivo: determinar la asociación, entre el consumo de tabaco, la dependencia de la nicotina y enfermedades como ansiedad, depresión y afecto negativo y positivo en universitarias. Método: 72 universitarias fumadoras que asistieron de manera voluntaria a solicitar tratamiento para dejar de fumar al Centro de Atención y Orientación para Estudiantes (CAOPE) de la Facultad de Estudios Superiores Iztacala, de la Universidad Autónoma de México; se aplicaron diferentes instrumentos para conocer el patrón de consumo, el nivel de dependencia, la sintomatología depresiva y de ansiedad, y los afectos positivo y negativo. Resultados: todos los factores emocionales (ansiedad, depresión, afectos positivo y negativo) integrados en un modelo son predictores, tanto del patrón del consumo como del nivel de dependencia en universitarias; la ansiedad, en específico, aumenta el riesgo de consumo de tabaco y de presentar dependencia de la nicotina. Discusión y conclusiones: dichos resultados se deben considerar para diseñar estrategias de prevención y tratamiento para dejar de fumar en mujeres universitarias, en las que se incluyan técnicas cognitivo-conductuales. En cuanto a la prevención, es indispensable incluir estrategias enfocadas al autocontrol de emociones, a la solución de problemas y al afrontamiento para el manejo de la ansiedad.
Sheila Adriana Mendoza Mojica, Universidad Autónoma Del Estado De México Centro De Investigación En Ciencias Médicas, Midiam Moreno López, Luciana Ramos-Lira, Instituto Nacional De Psiquiatría Ramón De La Fuente Muñiz Dirección De Investigaciones Epidemiológicas Y Psicosociales
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 4, pp 12-24;

Introducción: los eventos adversos pueden afectar la salud mental y considerarse “potencialmente traumáticos”. El uso de alcohol puede configurarse como estrategia de “automedicación” para abordar la sintomatología postraumática asociada. La victimización, al igual que su impacto, puede mostrar un perfil diferente por el tipo de evento y el sexo de la persona afectada. Objetivo: explorar la asociación entre la exposición a eventos potencialmente traumáticos, la sintomatología postraumática y el consumo de alcohol en estudiantes de bachillerato de ambos sexos. Método: se realizó un estudio analítico de corte transversal en una muestra de mil estudiantes de bachillerato. Se empleó la Escala para Estrés Postraumático en Universitarios Mexicanos (EEPUM) y un cuestionario para detectar el abuso de alcohol. Se analizó, asimismo, la asociación entre los eventos potencialmente traumáticos y los síntomas postraumáticos con el consumo de alcohol. Resultados: cuatro de cada cinco participantes experimentaron un posible evento postraumático; una proporción similar consideró un evento con afectación actual. Se observaron altos porcentajes de sintomatología postraumática: al menos un síntoma en más de 80% de las personas. El consumo de alcohol fue más frecuente entre las mujeres que experimentaron un evento posiblemente traumático –específicamente violencia interpersonal–, en comparación con las que no lo vivieron. En hombres, el consumo fue similar entre los que experimentaron un evento adverso y los que no. Discusión y conclusiones: la adversidad y la violencia son una realidad diaria para los jóvenes, y estas situaciones tienen un gran impacto en su bienestar y salud mental. Los eventos posiblemente traumáticos se asociaron con el consumo de alcohol sólo en mujeres, por lo que estos hallazgos deberían profundizarse, incluso si la violencia interpersonal es la más asociada con este consumo.
Mario Sánchez-Morate Tristante, Consorcio Hospital General Universitario De Valencia. Unidad De Conductas Adictivas De San Isidro, José Miñarro-López, , , Universidad De Valencia. Departamento De Psicobiología. Unidad De Investigación En Psicobiología De Las Drogodepedencias. Facultad De Psicología, Evaluación Y Tratamientos Psicológicos. Facultad De Psicología Departamento De Personalidad
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 3, pp 12-20;

Introducción: la Patología Dual se define como una enfermedad en la que concurren de forma simultánea en un mismo individuo, por lo menos, un trastorno por uso de sustancias y un trastorno mental. Ambos trastornos se influyen de manera mutua, por lo que se recomienda hacer un abordaje conjunto. Objetivo: analizar las características psicopatológicas y su asociación con determinados tipos de sustancias, a través de la Entrevista de Cribado en Diagnostico Dual (ECDD). Método: participaron 63 pacientes de entre 18 y 45 años, con una media de edad de 37.7 años (DT = 9.6), asistidos en la Unidad de Conductas Adictivas de una población de Valencia. Las variables sociodemográficas, clínicas y toxicológicas se evaluaron a través del cuestionario del Sistema de Información para la Evaluación de la Calidad Asistencial en Drogodependencias (SECAD), en tanto que los diagnósticos de Patología Dual se analizaron a través de la Entrevista de Cribado en Diagnostico Dual (ECDD). Resultados: las sustancias que tuvieron mayores índices de demanda asistencial fueron la cocaína y el alcohol. En general, se encontró que 84.13% de los participantes presentaron algún tipo de trastorno del Eje I (uno o más) y que la sustancia que presenta mayor número de psicopatologías asociadas con su consumo es la cocaína. Discusión y conclusiones: la presencia de posibles casos de Patología Dual en la muestra evaluada con ECDD fue muy elevada; se observó una relación entre el tipo de sustancia consumida y la psicopatología diagnosticada. El ECDD se presenta como una herramienta de gran utilidad en la práctica clínica diaria para la detección de posibles casos psicopatológicos en el campo de las adicciones.
, México. Instituto Nacional De Psiquiatría Ramón De La Fuente Muñiz, Juan Carlos Calva Nieves, Susana Barbosa-Méndez, Alberto Salazar-Juárez
Revista Internacional de Investigación en Adicciones, Volume 3, pp 35-44;

Introducción: por lo común, la adicción a las drogas se trata con psicoterapia y farmacología que evita la unión de las sustancias psicoactivas a receptores específicos en el cerebro. El resultado de estos tratamientos no ha sido del todo satisfactorio, por lo que el desarrollo de terapias más eficaces representa un reto constante para tratar las adicciones. Una alternativa a la farmacología antiadictiva es la vacunación activa dirigida contra las sustancias de abuso. Objetivo: esta revisión reúne la información disponible sobre los fundamentos y avances científicos en la generación de una terapia inmunológica, que coadyuve al tratamiento de la adicción a sustancias como la heroína-morfina, la cocaína, la nicotina y la anfetamina. Método: se consideraron los reportes científicos disponibles en PubMed –de 2005 a abril de 2017–, sobre los fundamentos, la metodología empleada, los estudios preclínicos y clínicos, y los resultados obtenidos en dichas investigaciones para generar vacunas contra las drogas. Resultados: las vacunas lograron mitigar los efectos producidos por las sustancias en los estudios preclínicos en modelos de estudio en animales; sin embargo, con pacientes humanos los resultados no han sido del todo satisfactorios. Discusión y conclusiones a pesar de los esfuerzos realizados por diferentes grupos de investigación y compañías farmacéuticas para generar vacunas terapéuticas contra el uso de diferentes drogas, ninguna ha alcanzado la fase III de estudios clínicos. En la actualidad, se continúa con los esfuerzos para lograr que las vacunas contra las adicciones alcancen su máxima eficiencia y eficacia, y contribuyan al tratamiento de la adicción a las drogas.
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