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Oktay Alver, Ayşe Melda Payaslıoğlu, Cüneyt Özakın, Sema Esen
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 207-210; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.43434

Ibrahim Yıldız, Sema Ertuğ, Evren Tileklioğlu, Erdoğan Malatyalı, Özgür Güçlü, Hatice Ertabaklar
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 195-200; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.7257

Mehmet Çabalak, Gülnaz Çulha, , Tuğba Kaya,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 227-229; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.21931

Mehmet Çabalak, Gülnaz Çulha, , Tuğba Kaya,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 227-229; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.21031

, Metin Korkmaz, Derya Dirim Erdoğan, Ümit Inceboz
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 223-226; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.43043

Oktay Alver, Ayşe Melda Payaslıoğlu, Cüneyt Özakın, Sema Esen
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 207-210; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021-43434

Mehmet Acıöz, Faruk Bozkaya, Hazal Zorzoban, Ali Ihsan Yılmaz
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 117-120; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.7246

Abstract:
This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence, seasonal distribution and economic effects of hydatid cyst infection in slaughtered cattle of Muğla province. Data from the 2019 records of the Muğla Metropolitan Municipal Abattoir were studied retrospectively. Both direct and indirect calculation methods were used to determine the economic losses incurred due to hydatid cyst. Twenty-one out of 9.985 (0.21%) cattle were found to have been infected with hydatid cyst in 2019. The highest prevelance of infection was reported in February (1.17%), while no cases were observed in May, June and August. The direct economic loss attributed to liver destruction in Muğla province was 11,760 TL (1.950 $). The total indirect economic loss caused by hydatid cyst (carcass loss, milk production loss, decreased fecundity) was 122,691 TL (20,346 $). Cumulatively, the direct and indirect economic losses for hydatid cyst disease in Muğla province were 134,451 TL (22,296 $). According to our results, the prevalence of hydatid cyst in cattle of Muğla province was 0.21%, which was still lower than the average loss in Turkey in spite of the corresponding significant economic loss.
Ali Heydari, , Moradali Fouladvand, ,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 121-127; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.7145

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to determine the status of intestinal parasitic infections in immunocompromised patients in Bushehr province, southwest Iran by conventional and molecular methods. A total of 201 stool samples were collected from kidney transplant recipients, AIDS patients and patients under chemotherapy. Samples were collected from healthy people as the control group. The specimens were tested using various conventional methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing was performed on samples identified as positive for Coccidia by direct microscopic examination. Approximately 32.45% were infected with at least one type of intestinal parasite. The highest (46.8%) and lowest rates of infection (24%) were observed in AIDS and chemotherapy patients, respectively, while the infection rate of the control group was 16%. Isospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were observed in all patient groups, and Sarcocystis spp. sporocysts were detected in one of the transplant recipients. All identified coccidia were confirmed by PCR. There was a significant relationship between the rate of intestinal parasite infection and certain variables. Given the potential risk of certain intestinal parasites in people with immune deficiency, it is recommended that diagnosis of parasitic infections in such patients be based on specific parasitological methods. Thus, it is advisable that physicians refer them to a parasitology laboratory prior to drug administration.
Emrah Güler,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 128-132; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.6847

Abstract:
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) are considered as one of the most important public health problems that cause morbidity and mortality. For this reason, to determine their prevalence it is critical for prevention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites. In our study, a total of 4.957 patients registered to our hospital with gastrointestinal symptoms between January 2016 and December 2019 were retrospectively analysed. Their stool samples were examined macroscopically and microscopically. In the microscopy, native-lugol and formol ethyl acetate concentration methods were used. Crypto-Giardia-Entamoeba antigen test was applied. All cases were evaluated in terms of age, gender, year and season. In our study group, 239 (4.8%) patients were detected as positive for intestinal parasites. Among these patients, 129 (54%) were male and 110 (46%) were female. No statistically significant difference was found between IPI and gender (p=0.228). Blastocystis hominis (76.2%) and Giardia intestinalis (12.1%) were the most common parasites. According to age groups, most intestinal parasites are found in 16-45 years old and least in 0-15-years-old (p=0.0001). A significant increase was found in positive intestinal parasite cases especially after 2018 (p=0.0001). Our study determined that intestinal parasites were observed most frequently in autumn (p=0.033). The prevalence of IPI in our country is low. However, due to the increasing trend of IPI since 2018, necessary measures must be implemented to prevent further increase in the number of cases. In addition, reasons behind the rising cases of intestinal parasites during the autumn months in which rainfall begins require further investigation.
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 83-87; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6983

Abstract:
The relationship between drug resistance and the expression of hexokinase (HK) has been indicated in leishmaniasis. According to the prolonged treatment period in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) patients co-infected with Crithidia in Iran, this study aims to investigate the expression of HK in the proteome of Leishmania major and Crithidia using a proteomic approach. A total of 205 samples were removed from the lesions of patients in Fars province, Iran, for the characterization of L. major and Crithidia using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). After protein extraction, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was employed for protein separation. Several spots were isolated for HK determination in the proteomes of L. major and Crithidia using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF/TOF MS). The PCR results showed 5 positive cases for Crithidia and 96 positive cases for L. major. MALDI TOF/TOF MS indicated HK as a common protein in the proteome of L. major and Crithidia. HK was up-regulated in the Crithidia proteome in comparison with the L. major proteome. Since a relationship between HK expression and drug resistance has been indicated in leishmaniasis, the overexpression of HK in Crithidia might be related to the increased duration of the treatment period in CL patients co-infected with Crithidia.
Özlem Ulusan Bağcı, Aygül Sadıqova,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 88-94; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.66375

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the differences between the gene expression profiles of Leismania major and Leishmania infantum promastigotes through comparative analysis of gene expressions. Cell culture of L. major (MHOM/IL/80) and L. infantum (MHOM/MA/67/ITMAP/263) cell lines was performed. Afterwards, total RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis were performed and fold changes in the expression levels of 30 genes that play a role in metabolic pathways and nucleic acid synthesis and co-expressed in two species were evaluated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Functions of genes were determined using LeishDB and KEGG databases. In this study, profiles of protein-coding 30 genes expressed in L. major and L. infantum promastigotes were evaluated and significant differences were found between the two species (p1). These genes include phosphoglycan beta 1.3 galactosyltransferase-like, lathosterol oxidase-like, fatty acid elongase, 3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid 4-dehydrogenase, calpain-like cysteine peptidase, acetyl-coA synthetase, 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease, 3'-nucleotidase/nuclease precursor and 3-ketoacyl-coA thiolase-like. When the functions of the proteins that correspond to the genes common in the two species were examined in detail using the databases, it was determined that these genes play role in lipid, protein, carbohydrate and nucleic acid metabolic functions of the parasite. Alterations in the expression profiles of genes common to L. major and L. infantum species may cause differences in the virulence, pathogenesis, clinical features and treatment modality between these parasite species. In addition, evaluation of gene profiles is important in the selection of species-specific or common targets for vaccine and drug studies.
, Nesteren Mansur Özen, Elif Merve Aydın, Deniz Ece Kaya, Cavit Kerem Kayhan, , , Fadile Yıldız Zeyrek
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 95-100; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.14622

Abstract:
In the present study, preliminary outcomes of the in vivo assessment of a Leishmania donovani/L. infantum hybrid isolated from a hospitalised patient with visceral leishmaniasis in Manisa and identified through analysis of the Leishmania-specific ITS-1, hsp70 and cpb gene regions are presented in comparison with reference strains of L. donovani and L. infantum. Three different study groups [(SG); n=16 mice each] and a control group (n=8 mice) were established with female Balb/C mice weighing 25-30 g. Reference L. donovani (MHOM/IN/1980/DD8), reference L. infantum (MHOM/TN/1980/IP1) and a L. donovani/L. infantum hybrid (MHOM/TR/2014/CBVL-LI/ LD), stored in liquid nitrogen, were thawed, cultured and incubated at 25 °C. A 15-μL dose of 1x108/mL promastigotes of three strains was applied to the tail veins of mice in the SG. After the mice were sacrificed, the liver and spleen tissues were removed and stored for immunological, immunohistochemical and pathological analyses. The presence of infection in the liver and spleen tissues of mice was detected both by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test and from the recovery of Leishmania promastigotes from liver and spleen tissues in NNN medium. However, Leishmania amastigotes were not observed in the touch biopsy smears of livers or spleens in either of the SGs. In addition, no evidence of tissue damage was identified in the SGs after immunohistochemical staining (with antibodies against IL-9, CD-117, MBP, CD163, CD4, CD8 and CD31). The obtained results show that hybrid Leishmania and reference L. donovani and L. infantum strains reached the liver and spleens of Balb/C mice in SGs but were of no pathological consequence. Yet, these three Leishmania isolates caused skin lesions when applied subcutaneously in Balb/C mice in another study. The findings presented in this study will be reassessed upon completion of the project, once the final results are obtained.
Emrah Güler, Ahmet Özbilgin, Ibrahim Çavuş, , Ilker Etikan, , Tamer Şanlıdağ
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 101-107; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.6888

Abstract:
Natural plant products are considered as a source of novel and effective compounds for the treatment of leishmaniasis. In this study, the in vitro activities of essential oils obtained from Origanum dubium (OD), Origanum majorana (OM), Salvia fruticosa (SF) and Laurus nobilis (LN) plants in Northern Cyprus were investigated against Leishmania tropica. Leishmania tropica strain (MHOM/TR/2012/CBCL-LT) was obtained. RPMI-1640 was added to 96-well plates in 100 μL aliquots, 100 μg/mL essential oil was added to the first well of each row and serial 2-fold dilutions were performed. A promastigote suspension was pipetted into all wells, and the plates were incubated. The promastigotes were enumerated using a haemocytometer. OD essential oil was effective at killing all promastigotes at a minimum inhibitor height (MIC)=0.2 μg/mL and had high activity at the lowest concentrations. Both SF and LN oils had MIC=1.56 μg/mL and LD50=0.78 μg/mL. SF was observed to impair promastigote morphology at the lowest concentrations, while LN did not exert any effect at concentrations <0.2 μg/mL. OM essential oil was found to have a MIC=3.13 μg/mL and a LD50=1.56 μg/mL. All tested essential oils inhibited promastigotes of Leishmania tropica. OD essential oil demonstrated the highest anti-leishmanial activity. Bitkilerden elde edilen doğal ürünlerin leishmaniasis tedavisi için yeni ve etkili bileşiklerin üretilmesine öncülük edeceği düşünülmektedir. Çalışmamızda, Kuzey Kıbrıs’ta yetişen Origanum dubium (OD), Origanum majorana (OM), Salvia fruticosa (SF) ve Laurus nobilis (LN) bitkilerinden elde edilen uçucu yağların Leishmania tropica’ya karşı in vitro etkinlikleri araştırılmıştır. Çalışmamızda, Leishmania tropica suşu (MHOM/TR/2012/CBCL-LT) kullanıldı. Düz tabanlı 96’lık plaklarda, tüm kuyucuklara 100 μL RPMI-1640 ve ilk kuyucuklara 100 μg/mL uçucu yağlar eklenerek, seri dilüsyonları yapıldı. Ardından tüm kuyucuklara Leishmania tropica promastigot süspansiyonundan pipetlendi ve inkübe edildi. Hemositometre yöntemiyle promastigotların sayısı incelendi. OD yağının minimum inhibitör konsantrasyonu (MİK)=0,2 μg/mL’de tüm promastigotları öldürürken, en düşük konsantrasyonlarda bile etkili olduğu görülmüştür. SF ve LN uçucu yağlarının ikisinde de MİK=1,56 μg/mL, LD50=0,78 μg/mL olarak saptanmıştır. SF’nin en düşük konsantrasyonlarının bile promastigot morfolojisini bozduğu görülürken, Laurus nobilis’in ise 0,2 μg/mL’den sonraki konsantrasyonlarda etkisini kaybettiği belirlenmiştir. OM uçucu yağının MİK=3,13 μg/mL, LD50=1,56 μg/mL olduğu görülmüştür. Kullanılan tüm uçucu yağların Leishmania tropica promastigotlarını inhibe ettiği görülürken, en yüksek anti-leishmanial etkinlik Origanum dubium uçucu yağında bulunmuştur.
Koray Öncel, Ahmet Şahin, Fatih Esmer
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 153-156; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.6669

Abstract:
In a 2017 data of World Health Organisation, malaria is still an important medical health care problem by threatening 217 million people and causing 435 thousand deaths. In our country, as a result of successful eradication programmes, any domestic cases were not encountered; however, approximately 200 import cases were seen each year from 2013 to 2017. This study aimed to create awareness for cases caused by P. falciparum that are increasingly seen in rare import cases, which displays more severe clinical course than other Plasmodium species.
Gökhan Eren, Ali Tümay Gürler, Elif Burcu Gençay Topçu, Tuğçe Tuygun, Mustafa Açıcı
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 157-159; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.7047

Abstract:
Ectoparasite infestation was detected in a macroscopic examination of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) that was brought dead to the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Ondokuz Mayıs University Collected tick, lice and flea samples were preserved in 70% alcohol. It was determined in microscopic examination that tick samples were Haemaphysalis erinacei (Acari: Ixodidae), flea samples were Chaetopsylla globiceps (Siphonaptera; Vermipsyllidae) and chewing lice samples were Felicola (Suricatoecus) vulpis (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). This study first reported the existence of Felicola (Suricatoecus) vulpis from foxes in Turkey.
Dilek Kula, Sami Gökpınar
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 108-112; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7075

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Besnoitia besnoiti in cattle in the Oğuzlar district of Çorum province. Venous blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis of 100 cattle in the Oğuzlar region and stored into anticoagulant-free tubes. Serum samples were examined with commercial c-ELISA kits for N. caninum (IDEXX, Switzerland) and B. besnoiti (ID.vet, France). Two of serum samples were found to be N. caninum (2%) and five were B. besnoiti (5%) seropositive. No mixed infection was detected in any of serum samples. In this study, the presence of N. caninum and B. besnoiti was serologically determined in animals that are not imported in the Oğuzlar region. This is the first study in the region to identify B. besnoiti in the seropositive cattle and is the third study in Turkey.
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 113-116; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.7296

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the frequency of Enterobius vermicularis in appendectomy specimens and evaluate the histopathological characteristics of adult and pediatric cases with E. vermicularis infection. Appendectomies examined from 1 January 2010, to 1 December 2020, were analysed retrospectively. Cases were divided into two groups: under 18 years (children) and 18 and over (adults). Demographic and histopathological characteristics of patients were also examined. Out of 14.797 patients that underwent appendectomy, 6.130 were children and 8.667 were adults. E. vermicularis was detected in 268 patients, wherein 64.2% were children and 35.8% were adults. In the detection of E. vermicularis in appendectomy specimens, the frequency was higher in children compared to that in adults (2.85%, 1.1%, respectively) (p<0.001). Histopathologically, acute appendicitis was defined in 31.7% (n=85) of 268 cases, and E. vermicularis was found to cause a higher rate of acute appendicitis in adults (p<0.001). The frequency of E. vermicularis in appendectomy specimens is higher in children. However, E. vermicularis causes acute appendicitis more frequently in adults.
Jurica Zedelj, Igor Petrovic, Goran Pavlek, Trpimir Moric, Marijan Romic, Hrvoje Silovski, Renata Romic, Ivan Romic
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 146-148; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7001

Abstract:
A 65-year-old man, with signs of acute colon obstruction, was diagnosed with rectal tumour and liver hydatid cyst. Additionally, a focal liver lesion in segment 1 was detected. Moreover, physical examination revealed hepatomegaly and abdominal distension. Thus, rectal resection and small liver lesion biopsy was performed. Serological and pathohistological analyses showed concomitant presence of hydatid cyst and colorectal metastasis in the liver. Hence, the cyst was treated with anthelmintic therapy, and patient lived another year after the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, cases of concomitant hydatid cyst and colorectal liver metastasis has never been reported; thus, this article addresses a unique case of coexistence between these two serious liver diseases.
Ahmet Yücel, Mustafa Yılmaz
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 133-136; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.6874

Abstract:
Scabies is caused by an ectoparasite called Sarcoptes scabiei (S. scabiei), which penetrates the epidermis through skin folds and burrows in the stratum corneum, following the development of tunnels (sillion). The disease is specifically characterised by keratosis, allergy and itching that increases at night-time. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of S. scabiei in patients with a pro-diagnosis of scabies. Between January 2012 and December 2019, a total of 746 [n=388 (52%), female; n=358 (48%) male] patients aged 0-80 years were admitted to Fırat University Hospital Parasitology-mycology Laboratory. Skin scrapings were taken from suspected lesions on anatomic regions such as the hands (wrist, interdigital skin, fingertip and palm), abdomen, penis and legs (thigh and bottom foot). They were examined under a light microscope after adding 15% potassium hydroxide solution. S. scabiei was positive in 139 (18.63%) of 746 patients including a mother and her daughter and a married couple, where 68 (9.11%) were female and 71 (9.52%) were male. To our best knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study of scabies in Elazığ. Despite the recent socio-economic and cultural developments observed in our country, scabies and all other parasitic infestations still remain to be important problems. We believe that improvement of the public vigilance together with early diagnosis will improve sanitation and provide protection against scabies and parasitic infestations.
, , Fahriye Kılınç
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 149-152; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7066

Abstract:
Lichen planus is a traumatic (koebner positive), chronic, inflammatory and autoimmune disease affecting the oral and genital mucosa, scalp and nails. The Food and Drug Administration approved the use of medical leeches for therapeutic purposes (hirudotherapy) in 2004 to ensure flap nutrition in plastic surgery. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our dermatology outpatient clinic with a swollen, itchy and purple-coloured rash on legs and back for a month, and white and reticulated plaques in the mouth. It was learned that a week earlier, eight leeches was applied to both knees and ankles to alleviate knee and leg pain. The patient had no history of drug use. A punch biopsy was taken from the patient with a preliminary diagnosis of lichen planus and lichenoid drug reaction. The histopathological examination showed hyperkeratosis, irregular acanthosis and hypergranulosis. Systemic methylprednisolone, levocetrizine and topical methylprednisolone aceponate were planned for the therapy. To the best of our knowledge, the appearance of lichen planus after hirudotherapy was never reported in literature. Hence, physicians should keep in mind that lichen planus and similar dermatoses could be triggered due to hirudotherapy. The fact that lichen planus appeared a week after hirudotherapy does not necessarily mean that leeches were the cause of this phenomenon. Accordingly, it could be deduced that lichen planus was probably developed as a result of leech therapy.
Banuçiçek Yücesan, , , Selçuk Kılıç
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 160-163; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2021.7230

Abstract:
Myiasis is a disease caused by tissue invasion of diptera larvae and eggs. Oral myiasis is mostly related to old age, poor oral hygiene, suppurative lesions, anatomical disorders and cancer cases. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is an important risk factor for myiasis. This report presents the case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with gingival myiasis developing on the background of OSSC. The patient was diagnosed with OSSC in the hospital. Myiasis larvae were identified and sent to the National Parasitology Reference Laboratory for identification. Thus, development of myiasis on OSCC background was shown in Turkey for the first time. Myiasis larvae have been identified as the 3rd phase of the larvae Sarcophaga sp. development (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). As a result, myiasis cases are sporadic in Turkey, and it can be avoided by controlling fly population and by paying attention to hygiene. Controlling myiasis is an important public health problem and should be considered in a single health concept, as it causes health problems in both humans and animals. The findings of this case will draw attention to the importance of dealing with myiasis factors, which is a public health problem.
Ahmet Duran Ataş, Berna Baysal Bakay, Hakan Bakay, Derya Gülpınar
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 137-145; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7056

Abstract:
This study aimed to examine the frequency of house dust mite according to various variables and determine the house dust mite population in these provinces in house dust samples collected in the same period from İstanbul and Tekirdağ provinces, which is located on the coastal part of the Marmara Region, and Sivas province, which has different climatic and geographic characteristics from these provinces. A comparison was done from each province. Between May and August 2018, a total of 100 powder samples were prepared by a lactic acid precipitation method that was examined microscopically. Besides, some variables in Tekirdağ and İstanbul provinces were applied to participants by face-to-face interview method from a questionnaire. House dust mite was found with a rate of 66.7% in İstanbul and 61.5% in Tekirdağ; however, house dust mite was not found in Sivas province. According to survey results, the frequency of house dust mite detection is 1-4. It increased according to the fact that it is located between floors, cleaning was every 15 days, no smoking at home and insufficient sun exposure. No statistically significant difference was found according to the presence of plants and/or animals in the house and way of heating. Measures to be taken against house a dust mite, which is the most essential component of house dust with allergic content, are observed to be important in reducing complaints of sensitive people by especially considering the climate, geographic characteristics and general hygienic conditions. According to investigations, Baloghella melis, one of the mites detected in dust samples taken from İstanbul, has been determined to be a new record in Turkey. This study will contribute to Turkey with this aspect fauna of house dust mites.
Melodi Inceboz,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 49-55; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6973

Abstract:
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite. Approximately 30% of the global population is infected by T. gondii. In chronically infected individuals, the parasite resides in tissue cysts, especially in the brain. There is a growing interest in the role of parasitologic agents in the causation of neuropsychological disorders. In this review, we have explained the interactions between Toxoplasma and its host, mechanisms, and consequences on neural and psychological diseases.
Hümeyra Yıldırım Can, Nihal Çeken
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 80-82; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6937

Abstract:
Phthiriasis palpebrarum is a rare eyelid infestation caused by Phthirus pubis (pubic lice) that is often confused with other causes of blepharoconjunctivitis. In this study, we report the case of a 49-year-old male patient with phthiriasis palpebrarum who presented with itching and eye irritation in the left eye and had undergone treatment for conjunctivitis in the past month. Biomicroscopic examination revealed a dense population of motile and translucent lice and eggs, more intensely on the upper lid. For treatment, the lice were first cleaned mechanically, eyelashes were cut from the bottom, and eggs and lice were removed from the eye, after which petrolatum jelly (vsaseline) was applied to the lids for 10 days. In the control examination, no lice and eggs were observed.
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 56-75; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7193

Abstract:
Significant numbers of parasites such as protozoa, helminths and arthropods infest equids. Various investigations have been conducted in Turkey to detect these parasites. In this review, all parasites reported in horses, donkeys and mules have been listed. A total of 62, 52 and 21 helminths were recorded in horses, donkeys and mules, respectively. As protozoan parasites, 13 species were detected both in horses and donkeys, and 3 in mules. With regard to arthropods, 40, 23 and 6 species were detected in horses, donkeys and mules, respectively. In the recent years, various molecular diagnostic methods have been developed and especially applied to the protozoan research area. Classical diagnostic methods were incapable of detecting certain protozoan parasites. Such protozoan parasites can be detected at the nucleic acid level with these new techniques. During the last quadranscentennial, a reduction has been recorded in the total number of equids in Turkey, whereby the breeding of sport horses is becoming an important issue. Thus, this review summarises the published research papers in Turkey in order to raise awareness among the animal owners and veterinarians in terms of the prevention of potential hazards resulting from parasitic infections/infestations in equids.
Kazem Ghaemi, Mohamad Ali Masoudifar, Marouf Mehdi, Rahmat Solgi,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 76-79; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6921

Abstract:
Cystic echinococcosis is an important zoonotic disease that occurs in humans and mammals in general, which causes considerable economic loss and poses health concerns in different parts of the world. The patient involved in this case report was a 28-year old man living in Birjand city who had been suffering from intermittent headache, nausea and vomiting for the past two weeks. The other symptoms presented by the patient were dizziness, blurred vision, seizures and imbalance. The patient only complained of headache in the last two weeks and had no symptoms of visual or speech impairment. He had a history of consuming raw vegetables, but did not have canine contact. In brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, a large cyst was evident in his brain. The patient was admitted to Razi Hospital in Birjand and followed-up by surgical treatment of the hydatid cyst, with no complications observed.
Uğur Uslu, Abdullah Küçükyağlıoğlu,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 5-10; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6883

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of liver hydatidosis in sheep slaughtered in a private slaughterhouse in Konya and to estimate the economic loss incurred because of the disease. The study was conducted over a period of 12 months between 1 June 2018 and 31 May 2019. Given that the aim of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of liver hydatidosis, only the livers of 41,002 sheep were examined for hydatid cysts. The liver of 810 (1.97%) sheep was found to be infected with hydatid cysts during the study period. The infection rate was determined as 5.34% in animals older than one year of age and 1.68% in animals less than one year of age. Regardless of the age group, the highest infection rate was found in autumn (3.34%), while the lowest infection rate was seen in spring (0.84%). In the sheep, the highest infection rate was in December (17.2%), and in lambs, it was in June (2.9%). On the other hand, the lowest infection rate in sheep was observed in November (1.8%), while the lowest infection rate in lambs was found in April (0.7%). The total economic loss incurred due to the annihilated livers was estimated as 36,450 TL (6.417$). Regardless of the number of cysts and degree of infection, the infected livers were completely discarded. The economic loss incurred due to the discarded livers was estimated by considering the 2019 offal prices. Based on the data obtained from this study, it could be concluded that hydatidosis still exists in Konya as well as throughout Turkey and that it causes serious economic loss.
Serkan Bakırcı, Ali Dinç Topçuoğlu
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 11-16; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7010

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis by molecular and serological techniques among owned dogs brought to veterinary clinics in the Muğla region of Turkey. Blood samples were collected from a total of 131 dogs of different breeds and gender that were brought to veterinary clinics between October 2017 and November 2018 in the Muğla region. These blood samples were analysed using immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). According to the IFAT results, 49 out of 131 dogs (37.4%) were found to have anti-Leishmania antibodies at a titer of ≥1/64, which was considered as seropositive. On the other hand, PCR results obtained in this study showed that 9 out of 131 dogs (6.87%) were Leishmania spp. positive by RV1/RV2 PCR. The results suggest that there is a need to focus on developing measures to control the disease, fight the vector Phlebotom and initiate disease control programmes for dogs in the Muğla region.
Harun Kaya Kesik, Figen Çelik, Şeyma Günyaktı Kılınç, , Aydın Çevik,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6818

Abstract:
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic infection that affects humans, livestock and wild animals through the larval form of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.). Molecular and taxonomic studies carried out in the recent years accept that Echinococcus granulosus s.l., a complex of 5 cryptic species, causes CE. In this study, we performed morphological and molecular characterisation of cyst isolates obtained from a wild boar and mule naturally infected with hydatid cyst. After gDNA isolation, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (mt-CO1) gene region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. The amplified mt-CO1 PCR products were purified and one-way DNA sequence analysis was performed. Comparison of the partial sequences of mt-CO1 gene from the hydatid cyst isolates with that of reference sequences in GenBank revealed 100% similarity with E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3) sequences. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the molecular characterisation of Echinococcus species in a wild boar in Turkey.
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 34-38; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7074

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the temperature- and time-dependent variations in the anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibody titres in serum samples collected from T. gondii-infected patients. During May 2017-February 2018, five serum samples (stored at different time periods and conditions) from pregnant or non-pregnant women aged ≥18 years who were infected with T. gondii and had applied to our Parasitology Department of Hafsa Sultan Hospital, Manisa Celal Bayar University, were investigated for the anti-T. gondii IgG antibody levels by enzyme linked fluorescent assay (ELFA). The serum samples of five female volunteers who were infected with T. gondii that were stored at room temperature (20/25 °C), in a cargo package (+4/+8 °C), in a refrigerator (+4 °C), in a deep freezer (-16/-20 °C) and in an incubator (+37 °C) were tested at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after infection with the ELFA test. No statistically significant difference was observed in the anti-T. gondii IgG antibody titres (p>0.05). The results obtained from the patients infected with T. gondii at different times and conditions of up to 72 hours were not significantly affected clinically. Hence, more comprehensive data can be obtained by increasing the number of patients and storing the serum samples for more than 72 hours.
, , , Osman Abbasoğlu, , Yahya Büyükaşık, , Yakut Akyön, Sibel Ergüven
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 39-44; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6819

Abstract:
Immunocompromised patients are at a greater risk of developing intestinal parasite infections. In this study, we examined the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encaphalitozoon intestinalis and other intestinal protozoa in stool samples of immunosuppressed patients. A total of 100 stool samples were obtained from patients receiving chemotherapy because of solid organ tumour with haematological malignancies and those receiving immunosuppressive treatment because of rheumatic diseases, organ transplant patients and patients receiving treatment for HIV-related infections. Stool samples were examined by using the native-lugol method in which the stool concentration, modified Kinyoun acid-fast and trichrome staining methods and parasite presence were analysed. The stool samples were also examined for the presence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis using an indirect fluorescent antibody method. Intestinal parasites were detected in 12% of all patients. The distribution of intestinal parasites in patients were 7% Blastocystis spp., 2% Blastocystis spp. + Dientamoeba fragilis, 1% Blastocystis spp. + Entamoeba coli, 1% Blastocystis spp. + Giardia intestinalis and 1% G. intestinalis. Microsporidia spp. were detected in 4% of all patients by the IFAT method and in 8% of all patients by calcoflour staining method. In our study, the most prevalent parasite detected in the immunosuppressed patients was Blastocystis spp. The pathogenesis of Blastocystis spp. remains to be controversial, and their role in immunocompromised patients continues to remain unknown. Although these rates detected in our study are similar to the prevalence in the normal population, it is important to study these microorganisms in immunocompromised patients in terms of the associated decreasing morbidity and mortality rates.
Jamshid Ayatollahi, Zahra Aghaee, Aliakbar Tajfiruzeh, Seyed Hossein Shahcheraghi
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 45-48; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6808

Abstract:
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease and one of the most widespread diseases in our country. This illness is a significant public health concern in most Iranian provinces. Therefore, it is necessary to study the prevalence and identification of new sources of this problem in many regions of Iran. The present study was intended to investigate the epidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Yazd city. This descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study was performed on 121 patients with leishmaniasis in Nicopoor Center, Yazd in 2017. According to ethical and research standards, information about patients, including their gender, age, occupation, location and number of lesions and month of illness were collected and evaluated using SPSS Statistics, Version 21. The highest incidence of leishmaniasis occurred in adults over 50 years of age (28.9%) and in children under the age of 10 (23.1%). An incidence of 41.3% was observed for other occupations, including driver, farmer and child. In second place, the highest frequency was related to housewives (25.6%), and in third place, a higher frequency was observed in students (19%). The most common venereal sites were the hands (38.8%), in second place the feet (28.1%) and in third place the face (15.7%). The highest seasonal frequency of leishmaniasis occurred during the autumn. In light of the current study findings and the adverse effects of leishmaniasis, it is necessary to design strategies with the aim of controlling the disease and to implement appropriate actions with the intention of decreasing its prevalence nationally.
, , Toktem Rajaii, Ebrahim Shafaie, , , Davoud Tasa,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6956

Abstract:
Cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major (L. major) is an endemic disease in Iran. The current reference drugs, including Glucantime, possess high toxicity in addition to some side-effects. Therefore, there is a growing interest in exploring biomedical plants. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the anti-leishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Prosopis farcta (P. farcta) over promastigote and amastigote forms. This study was performed at the Iran Birjand University of Medical Sciences, during the year 2019. In this study, the hydroalcoholic extracts of the stems, leaves (LE) and fruits (FE) of P. farcta were obtained. The anti-leishmanial activity was assessed against leptomonad promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. major. The cytotoxicity of these extracts was determined in murine macrophages. The FE and LE of P. farcta demonstrated a significant leishmanicidal effect against L. major promastigotes with an IC50 of 0.9 mg/mL and 1.1 mg/mL, respectively. The FE showed the most anti-leishmanial activity and presented with the highest index of selectivity (SI=14.6) as an anti-leishmanial product. Infected macrophages treated using the FE showed a reduction in parasite burden by 97.3%. The results of the present study demonstrated the leishmanicidal activity of P. farcta on both promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. There is a need for performing comprehensive studies on relevant animal models and to access the effects of active components of P. farcta extract on the growth of L. major.
Süleyman Aypak, , , Adnan Ayan, Tülin Karagenç
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 17-21; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6989

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of eprinomectin, moxidectin and fenbendazole for treating Dentostomella translucida infections in naturally infected Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). A total of 28 gerbils were placed in individually numbered cages to determine the individual animal parasite load. Eggs per gram (EPG) counts were used to estimate the efficacy of the drugs. The day before the anthelmintic administration was denoted as day 0, and the EPG counts were determined by the McMaster technique from the stool removed from the cage bottom on days 7, 14, 21 and 28. The animals were assigned to one of four treatment groups according to their day 0 EPG counts. The orally administered drugs in the treatment groups were eprinomectin (15 mg/kg), moxidectin (0.4 mg/kg) and fenbendazole (12 mg/kg) for groups 1-3, respectively. The fourth group served as the control (without any drug administration). Treatment efficacy was evaluated based on weekly EPG counts. The values decreased to zero in the fenbendazole group at 4 weeks of follow-up after treatment, and no parasite was found in any of the repeated examinations. The eprinomectin and moxidectin groups exhibited a fluctuating EPG state on both individual and group basis. D. translucida, which is known as the specific parasite of gerbils, can easily affect other members of the animal colony; thus, the control of its presence in gerbil breeding units is necessary. Therefore, the reported effective drug treatments are important for the fight against the investigated parasitic infection.
Fatma Esenkaya Taşbent, Burcu Yağcı, Cengiz Kadıyoran,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 45, pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7045

Abstract:
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a common public health concern in Turkey. In this study, we investigated the agreement between the results of radiological imaging methods and serological tests through a 5-year retrospective evaluation in patients admitted to a university hospital with a suspicion of CE so as to determine the frequency of CE in the study region. The indirect hemagglutination test (IHA) results of 1.046 patients obtained from various clinics with the suspicion of CE between January 2014 and December 2018 were retrospectively analysed. Of these, patients with at least one radiological imaging report in the system (938 patients) were included in the study. Radiological imaging findings and IHA test results were compared and examined. Seropositivity was detected by IHA test in 143 (15.2%) of 938 patients included in the study. The CE findings were recorded in at least one radiological imaging report in 130 (90.9%) of 143 patients with positive IHA test. At least one of the radiological imaging reports suggested presence of CE in 362 (38.5%) of all the patients. Thus, serological test and radiological imaging methods should be used in combination for the diagnosis of CE.
Nihal Doğan
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 44, pp 239-257; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6710

Abstract:
Ocular parasitic infections, which lead to significant morbidity and mortality in particular areas, have been shifting from endemic areas to other regions due to tourism, wars and migrations in recent years. This study aimed to review the parasitic factors related to the human eye and their geographical distribution, pathogenesis of the disease and the methods used in and studies conducted for its diagnosis. PubMed, MEDLINE and Google databases were researched and reviewed for relevant keywords in recent publications. Although such parasitic infections are rare in many parts of the world, they continue to be an important public health problem that affects human and animal health in places with poor health conditions. The distribution of ocular parasites and their spread to non-endemic areas are facilitated. The morbidity and mortality risks have been increasing due to the difficulties encountered by health personnel in the diagnosis of these parasitic infections. Defining them accurately and appropriately can save not only eyesight but also lives.
Gülseren Samancı Aktar, Zeynep Ayaydın, Arzu Rahmanalı Onur, Ayser Uzala Mızraklı, Fikret Tekay
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 44, pp 207-210; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6592

Abstract:
Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonotic disease, which leads to morbidity and mortality worldwide. This study aimed to retrospectively evaluate the presence of anti-Echinococcus granulosus immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, which were detected by indirect fluorescent antibody test in the samples that were transferred to the Microbiology Laboratory of University of Health Sciences Turkey, Diyarbakır Gazi Yaşargil Training and Research Hospital with the pre-diagnosis of CE. Moreover, gender differences with respect to positivity rates of anti-E. granulosus IgG antibodies were investigated. Anti-E. granulosus IgG antibodies, which were detected in the samples of cases with the pre-diagnosis of CE between January 2014 and December 2017, were retrospectively evaluated. Gender difference with respect to positivity rates was investigated by applying the chi-square test in cases with positive anti-E. granulosus IgG antibodies. Out of the 829 serum samples, 222 (26.7%) were found to be positive for E. granulosus IgG antibodies, among which 40 (27.2%), 56 (25.5%), 51 (23.3%) and 75 (30.6%) were found to be positive in 2014, 2015, 2016 and 2017, respectively. No significant difference was found between genders amongst the cases with positive anti-E. granulosus IgG antibodies (p>0.05). Since CE is a major public health problem, evaluation of the presence of anti-E. granulosus IgG antibodies would be important to understand the positivity rate at the regional level.
, Nazma Akhter Burgess
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 44, pp 211-215; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6361

Abstract:
Coconut oil and its derivatives are widely thought to kill head lice by occlusion and asphyxiation. There is no evidence in support of coconut derivative-based products sold to treat pediculosis. This study was designed to test one such product. This was an open-label clinical study in 31 people. The treatment was shampoo containing 1% fractionated coconut oil. Treatment was given on day 0 and day 8. Efficacy was measured using a detection comb on day 1, day 8 and day 16 after the first treatment. The trial was registered in the current controlled trials database, under number ISRCTN79136319. The first application of the product eliminated the lice from 7/31 participants, and 12/31 (38.7%) people had no lice at the end of the study. Lice of all development stages were found post treatment at all assessments on one or more participants. This indicates that the treatment failed to kill all stages of the life cycle of head lice. Two applications of the modified coconut shampoo were not effective at killing head lice or their eggs. The results confirm other studies that show little intrinsic activity in vegetable oils and modified oils. Most of the activity in shampoos is probably due to other product components, such as high levels of detergents.
Ümmühan Çay, Erdi Çağrı Dağdelen, Zerrin Özçelik,
Turkish Journal of Parasitology, Volume 44, pp 270-272; https://doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.7046

Abstract:
Hydatid cyst is a common zoonosis caused by larval forms of tapeworms called Echinococcus. The problem often occurs in the liver or lung. Cyst rupture and secondary bacterial infection are the most important complications of pulmonary hydatid cyst (PHC). PHC may mimic serious lung diseases such as treatment-resistant pneumonia, tuberculosis, and tumours. This report discusses the case of a paediatric patient with PHC who presented with chronic cough, hilar lymphadenopathies up to 3 cm, and worsening symptoms despite non-specific pneumonia treatment. Hence, PHC should be considered in patients with treatment-resistant pneumonia and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.
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