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Results in Journal Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly: 2,060

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Richard D. Heimovics, Robert D. Herman
Published: 1 March 1990
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 19, pp 59-72; https://doi.org/10.1177/089976409001900107

Abstract:
The commonplace view of nonprofit organizations sees the board in control and responsible for the governance and outcomes of impor tant events in the organization. This point of view is empirically examined by analyzing how chief executives of nonprofit organiza tions and their board presidents attribute responsibility for outcomes of critical incidents. The results suggest both chief executives and board presidents believe in the "psychological centrality" of the chief executive in a hierarchy of responsibility for organizational outcomes. The authors discuss how those in responsible positions in nonprofit organizations come to understand and explain the reality of their organizational experience and raise the implications for a theory of nonprofit organizations.
Margaret Harris
Published: 1 December 1989
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 18, pp 317-333; https://doi.org/10.1177/089976408901800404

Abstract:
This paper focuses on problems of implementing the role of govern ing bodies in the voluntary sector. It draws primarily on a case study of local management committees in a national service-providing welfare agency in England. An examination was made of the percep tions and assumptions held by staff and governors about the imple mentation of key functions of governing bodies, including policy making, planning, securing resources, monitoring service quality, and controlling staff. The paper discusses themes that emerge from the case study and suggests that the governing body role in the vol untary sector is most usefully conceptualized as interlinked and in terdependent with staff roles. Agency culture and organizational structure are seen to have an important impact on the nature of the relationship between staff and their boards. Some proposals are made for tackling problems that arise around the implementation of the governing body role in the voluntary sector.
David Racine
Published: 30 June 2003
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 32, pp 307-314; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764003032002009

Abstract:
Although replicating promising organizations and programs has been crucial to the development of the nonprofit sector, the replication process remains poorly understood. Its development has been caught on the horns of three unhelpful dualities: replication versus adaptation, competition versus cooperation, and systems or organizational capabilities versus leadership. Drawing on actual replication experiences, the article contends that these dualities represent false, oversimplified choices and that bridging the gaps they imply would enable replication to do more to strengthen the sector.
Lee Benson, Ira Harkavy, John Puckett
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 24-45; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291003

Abstract:
In this article, the authors argue that the academic-practitioner divide is largely a product of the Platonic false dualism between “superior” pure theory and “inferior” applied practice. The authors call for a Dewey-inspired implementation revolution to build local democratic neighborly communities as a means for advancing academic-practitioner collaboration, fulfilling America’s democratic promise, and overcoming the influence of Plato’s aristocratic philosophy on American higher education. The authors describe the University of Pennsylvania’s Center for Community Partnerships’work with public schools as an experiment in progress designed to advance academic-practitioner collaboration and a “democratic devolution revolution.” Academically based community service learning and research and communal participatory action research are highlighted as particularly useful approaches for improving scholarship and communities and forging democratic, mutually beneficial, and mutually respectful university-school-community partnerships.
Derick W. Brinkerhoff
Published: 4 December 1999
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 28, pp 59-86; https://doi.org/10.1177/089976409902801s01

Abstract:
This article examines state–civil society partnerships for policy implementation, focusing on the basic factors partnerships need to deal with to be effective. These include specification of objectives and degree of convergence, mechanisms for combining effort and managing cooperation, determination of appropriate roles and responsibilities, and capacity to fulfill those roles and responsibilities. Four cases are presented, three from Africa and one from Eastern Europe. The cases are analyzed in an effort to identify the situational variables that influence state–civil society partnerships, effective partnership mechanisms and processes, and management techniques and tools for supporting cooperative action. The article considers the applicability of strategic management approaches and tools to policy partnerships. Finally, it suggests a series of steps for governments to consider taking that hold the promise of strengthening the successful pursuit of state–civil society partnerships.
, Gregory D. Saxton
Published: 12 June 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 47, pp 5-26; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017713724

Abstract:
The social media era ushers in an increasingly “noisy” information environment that renders it more difficult for nonprofit advocacy organizations to make their voices heard. How then can an organization gain attention on social media? We address this question by building and testing a model of the effectiveness of the Twitter use of advocacy organizations. Using number of retweets and number of favorites as proxies of attention, we test our hypotheses with a 12-month panel dataset that collapses by month and organization the 219,915 tweets sent by 145 organizations in 2013. We find that attention is strongly associated with the size of an organization’s network, its frequency of speech, and the number of conversations it joins. We also find a seemingly contradictory relationship between different measures of attention and an organization’s targeting and connecting strategy.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 45, pp 1130-1149; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764016649688

Abstract:
This article discusses the nature of volunteering by exploring the features of the exchanges involved and their precise meanings. The context for this analysis is the U.K. music festival industry, where volunteers are offered specific “exchange deals” for providing their work efforts. The article argues that it is in such exchanges, and in their inherent meanings, that the nature of volunteering can be appreciated as a complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon. By theorizing volunteering as possessing Janus-face features represented by its symbolic and economic faces, this research demonstrates that the practice of volunteering is inherently hybrid. This article advances conceptual knowledge on volunteering by showing the irreducibility of the concept to either of these symbolic or economic dimensions. It offers a new perspective that addresses apparently incompatible readings of volunteering, recognizing volunteers’ different experiences and how they feel about the nature of their exchange.
Karen E. Lake, Thomas K. Reis, Jeri Spann
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 41-68; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s003

Abstract:
During the past decade, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation’s impact services model has evolved to allow program directors managing large, social change initiatives to draw on the expertise of new team members offering crucial support services. These impact services include social marketing and communications, evaluation, public policy, technology, and organizational learning. Expert consultation in other areas may also be sought as needed by the management team. This article traces the evolution of the impact services model, explores the effects of impact services supported program management on both the foundation and its grantees, and offers an account of how the model was applied in the case of Families For Kids, a $42 million initiative aimed at stimulating reform in adoption and foster care systems across the nation.
William F. Crittenden
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 164-182; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s008

Abstract:
This study investigates relationships between strategic process elements, sources of funding, and the growth and financial strategies pursued by 31 nonprofit social service organizations. Organizations were categorized on the basis of their achievement of a balanced budget and targeted funding goals. Based on these criteria, the most successful firms (a) maintained or developed a strong relatedness in program offerings; (b) were financially oriented, with a diverse funding base, and with fund-raising efforts targeting a specific source category for increase; (c) emphasized marketing; and (d) principally sought growth through increased client usage of current offerings. Less successful organizations appeared to lack key strategic management attributes regarding direction or execution.
Melissa M. Stone
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 98-119; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s005

Abstract:
Through a case study, this article explores the question of whether and how actions taken by a collaborative alliance influence the strategic behavior of its nonprofit members. The article then assesses how well the existing strategy formulation models accommodate an environment of collaborative alliances. The study finds that this and other local partnerships increased the complexity of the nonprofits’ decision-making environment; had amplifying and rippling effects on their strategic direction; and changed, to some degree, perceptions of managerial roles. Despite these effects, organization-level strategic planning did not take into account the actions and decisions of these partnerships. The article argues that traditional strategy formulation models often assume a more static and apolitical environment than is the case when collaborative alliances are a significant part of that environment.
Katherine M. O’Regan, Sharon M. Oster
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 120-140; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s006

Abstract:
Increasingly, nonprofit, for-profit, and public organizations have been cooperating in producing and distributing a wide range of goods and services. In many cases, the partnerships have arisen from the recognition that different activities are best suited to different governance structures. Yet, working through a cross-sectoral partnership can bring with it complicated managerial issues. This article explores partnering in two important sectors: higher education and welfare reform. In both areas, cooperation across the sectors is widespread and follows lines of comparative advantage. At the same time, there is ample evidence in our cases of classic transactions costs in implementing cross-sectoral partnerships. The article explores ways in which organizations deal with problems of opportunism and imperfect information in contracting across the sectors.
Peter Frumkin, Alice Andre-Clark
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 141-163; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s007

Abstract:
This article explores the meaning of nonprofit strategy in the human services through an examination of the challenges facing nonprofit organizations working in the field of welfare-to-work transitions. After considering how the growing competition from large business firms in this field poses a major challenge to nonprofit organizations, the article suggests that many nonprofits are not well equipped to engage in a narrow efficiency competition with large corporations. Instead, nonprofit human service organizations need to develop a strategy that emphasizes the unique value-driven dimension of their programs. Welfare reform legislation can serve as an opening for both faith-based and secular nonprofits to differentiate themselves and to develop a distinctive position within the government-contracting market. From this analysis, the article draws some broader conclusions about the future of strategy in the nonprofit human services in an increasingly competitive environment.
James E. Austin
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 69-97; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s004

Abstract:
Collaboration between nonprofits and businesses is increasing and becoming more strategically important. Based on 15 case studies, this article presents a cross-sector collaboration framework consisting of four components. First, the collaboration continuum provides a conceptual framework for categorizing different types of partnerships and studying their possible evolution through three principal stages: philanthropic, transactional, and integrative. Second, the collaboration value construct facilitates the analysis of the definition, creation, balance, and renewal of the value generated in different types of alliances. Third, a set of alliance drivers is identified that determines the nature and functioning of the partnerships. Fourth, alliance enablers that contribute to the effective management of the relationship are set forth. The article discusses the dynamics of the alliance marketplace. The research builds on and extends existing interorganizational research theories by providing a distinctive conceptual framework and new empirical understanding of cross-sector alliances. Future research needs are identified.
Kirsten A. Grønbjerg, Laura Martell,
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 9-40; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s002

Abstract:
Philanthropic funders play an important role in human services—they support policy research and community services—but little is known about how they structure their funding or select grant recipients. Using personal interviews with Chicago-area foundation officials, this article documents how four types of philanthropic funders approach these decisions. The article shows that the grant process is constrained by how funders obtain their resources and govern themselves. It is also constrained by ongoing relationships between funders and grant recipients, reflecting pervasive task ambiguity and weakly institutionalized norms. The result is a grant award system that resembles a two-stage competitive process.
Elaine V. Backman, Allen Grossman, V. Kasturi Rangan
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 2-8; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s001

J. Bart Morrison, Paul Salipante
Published: 30 June 2007
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 36, pp 195-217; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764006295992

Abstract:
The nonprofit sector is challenged by increasing public and stakeholder demands for a broadened accountability. Strong expectations for performance accountability now accompany those for fiscal accountability. In response, better concepts of nonprofit accountability are being developed in the literature. However, knowledge of governance practices that can achieve broadened accountability has lagged. This article attempts to stimulate research and contribute to such knowledge by (a) synthesizing concepts of accountability presented by Behn (2001), Kearns (1996), and Boland and Schultze (1996) into two categories: rule-based and negotiable accountability; (b) developing grounded concepts concerning the practice of governance by nonprofit leaders; and (c) exploring the interrelationships of the previously discrete concepts of deliberate strategy, emergent strategy, and accountability. The study's ethnographic methods recorded and analyzed real-life interactions involving a board chair—chief executive officer pair. The article presents a detailed narrative description of these actions to convey its key concept, blended strategizing, and to provide stimulus for new practice by leaders in governance situations.
, Laura Littlepage, Teresa A. Bennett
Published: 3 April 2012
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 1029-1050; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764012438698

Abstract:
College student volunteerism and interest in community-based learning are on the rise. Are communities ready for them? This article examines the “supply side” of student engagement: nonprofit capacity to accommodate students. Our analysis of a large random sample of nonprofit managers in two contrasting communities finds that many of the volunteer management (VM) functions assumed to be important in any volunteer context also are important to student engagement. We also find role differentiation between interns, service learners, and general volunteers in the VM tools used to engage these students and the outcomes that can be expected. Despite variation in reported outcomes, nonprofit managers consider some aspects of VM to be essential to all campus–community partnerships. We find that each type of student involvement contributes to organizational capacity in specific ways and that student engagement depends on adequate VM capacity (VMC). Our conclusion discusses how the findings challenge service learning as presently formulated.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 43, pp 832-849; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764013486195

Abstract:
This research provides detailed descriptive information about decision-making behaviors and processes of community foundation boards. Our study responds to Graddy and Morgan’s (2006) call for research that examines how community foundation leadership (board and staff) affects strategic direction. We provide an understanding of how community foundation boards interpret organizational and environmental realities while balancing what has been described in the literature as “competing” mission-related objectives among donors, recipients, and the community. We find decision making to be influenced by three powerful forces; fear, tradition, and serendipity.
, Pamela Paxton, Yan Wang
Published: 28 June 2015
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 45, pp 526-547; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764015591366

Abstract:
Although much is known about the individual-level predictors of volunteering, charitable giving, and informal helping, less is known about how the characteristics of communities shape generosity. In this article, we assess the predicted effects of both individual- and contextual-level social capital (social networks and generalized trust) on three forms of generous behavior using the European Social Survey, which provides complete data on over 30,000 respondents in 160 regions in 19 countries. The results suggest that regional-level trust is associated with more volunteering and donating to charities. In addition, regional-level social capital (the combination of trust and social ties) predicts greater volunteering. The relationship between contextual-level social capital and informal helping is weaker.
Marcus Lam, Lindsey McDougle
Published: 25 June 2015
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 45, pp 500-525; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764015591365

Abstract:
Nonprofit human services organizations (HSOs) provide vital services to communities. Yet studies show that the density of these nonprofits varies from one community to the next, often with fewer quantities located in vulnerable communities. These findings have led to concerns regarding the ability of the human services subsector to meet community needs. In this article, however, we make the argument that organizational density is a limited indicator of a sector’s ability to provide services, and suggest that financial health is a more robust indicator. We model six measures of financial health as conceptualized by Bowman and examine relationships between these measures and indicators of community vulnerability. Our results indicate that variation exists in four of our six outcome measures (equity ratio, months of spending, mark up, and months of liquidity), and that contextual effects (e.g., being located in a minority or low-mobility community) partially explain these variances.
Published: 21 December 2012
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 43, pp 480-501; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764012468629

Abstract:
Even though previous research indicates that an organization’s pursuit of strategic orientation (SO) has positive effects on its performance, we have deepened and expanded our understanding of how this concept can also be applied to social enterprises (SEs). Using data collected from British and Japanese social enterprises, we examined the mediating roles of market effectiveness and consumer satisfaction in both the social and commercial domains with regard to SO effects on performance, as well as how performance in one aspect of practice positively moderates the impact of SO behavior in another. The results contribute to the development of a theory for understanding the concept of SO associated with social enterprise performance. More generally, this article contributes to the ongoing efforts to understand the strategic management aspect of social enterprises.
Mark H. Moore
Published: 1 March 2000
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 183-204; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000291s009

Abstract:
All organizations benefit from developing a strategy. The most well-developed strategy models come from the private sector and focus on markets, customers, and competition. Yet, these models fail to take account of two crucially important features of nonprofit organizations: (a) the value produced by nonprofit organizations lies in the achievement of social purposes rather than in generating revenues; and (b) nonprofit organizations receive revenues from sources other than customer purchases. An alternative strategy model developed for governmental managers focuses the attention on three key issues: public value to be created, sources of legitimacy and support, and operational capacity to deliver the value. This alternative strategy model resonates powerfully with the experience of nonprofit managers precisely because it focuses attention on social purposes and on the ways in which society as a whole might be mobilized to achieve them.
, Jenn-Shyong Kuo, Yi-Cheng Ho
Published: 14 November 2011
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 1051-1071; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764011427597

Abstract:
Encouraging organizations to be more open has been a key issue in contemporary debates over nonprofit accountability. However, our understanding of what motivates organizations to the disclosure decision is weak. We aim to enhance our understanding of this critical issue by developing and testing a model of the determinants of voluntary disclosure decision making, using data gathered on the population of not-for-profit medical institutions in Taiwan during a period where the government encouraged—but did not require—disclosure on a centralized website. As a result, we are able to conduct a “natural experiment” of the voluntary disclosure behavior of an important population of non-donor-dependent organizations. We find voluntary disclosure is more likely in organizations that are smaller, have lower debt/asset ratios, and are run by larger boards with more inside members. Our data suggest that, from a policy perspective, voluntary disclosure regimes are not an especially effective means of promoting public accountability.
, Kathy Babiak
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 1030-1051; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017713725

Abstract:
Collaborations between nonprofits and corporations aim to serve both social and commercial goals. This study posits that social sponsorships can increase donations to nonprofits and simultaneously benefit corporations by communicating signals of measured societal value. Studies 1 and 2 provide evidence that communication of measured societal value, endorsed by a credible source, can increase willingness to donate to nonprofits through individuals’ perceptions of corporate social responsibility. Study 3 generalizes these findings, simultaneously showing that communication of measured societal value can reduce perceptions of hypocrisy toward corporations. It also examines the underlying mechanism of these results by investigating the serial mediation effects of corporate social responsibility perception and functional fit in the causal relationships from measured societal value to both increased willingness to donate to nonprofits and reduced perceptions of corporate hypocrisy. Furthermore, the work demonstrates that these effects are due to communication of measurement, not the source of the communication.
, Maria May Seitanidi
Published: 13 September 2012
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 929-968; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764012454685

Abstract:
In this second of a two-part focused review of the nonprofit business and corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature, the authors present the third and fourth components of the collaborative value creation (CVC) framework: the partnering processes that unpack the value creation dynamics and the collaboration outcomes that examine the benefits and costs on multiple levels. The authors suggest that greater value is created at all levels of analysis, micro, meso, and macro, as collaboration moves from sole creation to co-creation of value. The CVC framework assigns equal importance to all forms of value (economic, social, and environmental), types of actors (individuals, organizations, and societies), and time scales (short/long term), providing the analytical paths for assessing value creation holistically. Examining systematically the processes and the outcomes of value co-creation allows for greater specificity, dimensionality, and inclusivity. The article concludes by delineating the contribution of the CVC framework and offering recommendations for future research.
Hillel Schmid, Michal Bar, Ronit Nirel
Published: 6 February 2008
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 37, pp 581-602; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764007312666

Abstract:
The article describes political and advocacy activity in nonprofit human service organizations for children, elderly people, women, and people with disabilities. On the whole, the level of their political activity was found to be moderate, as perceived by the directors of the organizations. The main findings reveal a significant positive correlation between advocacy and political activity in nonprofit organizations and their perceived influence on setting the public agenda. Analysis of the findings indicates that the larger the number of volunteers in the organization, the greater the organization's political influence. In addition, it was found that the more dependent the organizations were on funding from local authorities, the lower the level of advocacy and political activity. The effectiveness of strategies used to attain political influence was also analyzed. The most effective strategy was exerting pressure on decision makers, both on the national and local levels.
P. Wesley Routon,
Published: 18 December 2016
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 627-651; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764016682111

Abstract:
National statistics disclose that college graduates are more prone to volunteerism than nongraduates. These statistics motivate the question of exactly what college experiences are most likely to change a student’s altruistic goals and whether these same experiences alter a student’s self-interest. Using data from a longitudinal survey of American college students from 457 institutions of higher learning, we examine how the importance of altruistic acts and personal wealth aspirations changes during undergraduate tenure, and estimate the determinants of these changes. Among other results, we find major of study, certain collegiate activities, relative academic success, the ethnicity and background of roommates, institutional characteristics, and within-college labor market participation all play roles in shaping both the altruistic and personal wealth aspirations of individuals.
, , Therese A. Sprinkle
Published: 1 January 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 652-671; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764016685859

Abstract:
We examine the relative efficacy of two theoretically distinct variables for predicting job satisfaction and turnover intentions for workers in nonprofit organizations. The first, perceived job characteristics, reflects the structure of jobs in terms of autonomy, skill variety, task identity, task significance, and feedback. The second, perceived organizational support, reflects the quality of the employee–organization relationship. We collected data from 196 full-time, nonprofit employees across two time periods, and we tested hypotheses using hierarchical regression and relative importance analysis. Results emphasize the significance of managing employees in a supportive manner and structuring jobs so that employees can work autonomously.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 47, pp 723-744; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017705735

Abstract:
Can the “associational revolution” improve authoritarian government responsiveness? If it can, what kind of nongovernmental organization (NGO) can successfully lobby the government? Based on different theoretical perspectives, I develop three hypotheses: a pluralist hypothesis that focuses on resource exchange between such organizations and the government, a corporatist hypothesis that focuses on government institutional control and policy consultant intention, and a clientelist hypothesis that recognizes the underinstitutionalization of the policy-making process and emphasizes the informal network. I then test these hypotheses with a quantitative study of survey data of registered NGOs in three Chinese provinces. I find that the corporatist hypothesis is largely supported; the pluralism hypothesis is also somewhat supported while the clientelist hypothesis is not supported. The data reflect a hybrid pattern of policy advocacy that I term pluralized state corporatism, which fits China’s recent social-economic transformation and lagged political reform.
, José Luis Vázquez,
Published: 12 April 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 1006-1029; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017703706

Abstract:
Based on a self-selection perspective, this study analyzes the relation between personal civic engagement and the willingness to join a voluntary association by considering the mediating role of motivations. Four factors of civic engagement are considered: civic duty, civic skills, social connection, and civic participation; in addition, three motivations are considered: instrumental, expressive, and career-related. The proposed model is tested using a survey of 408 Spanish young adults with no previous experience as members of any association. The analytical technique used is partial least squares. The findings point that instrumental motivation is the main vehicle to translate the four factors of civic engagement into associational involvement, whereas expressive motivation represents a secondary mediator in the effects of civic duty and social connection. Career-related motivation is not associated with the willingness to join a voluntary association. Implications for the recruitment and retention of young adults in voluntary associations are discussed.
, Humphrey Bourne
Published: 20 April 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 794-816; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017703705

Abstract:
Nonprofit organizations that engage in rebranding strategies face challenges reconciling normative (social or mission driven) and utilitarian (business driven) identities of their organizations. This research examines the interplay between rebranding processes and dual identities of 10 rebranded charitable organizations, in particular how these identities are reflected in managers’ narratives and subsequently shape rebranding strategies. The study reveals four types of rebranding strategies and the potential drivers for their adoption. Pressure to secure resources can lead nonprofit organizations to emphasize utilitarian identities in rebranding, and so surface hidden tensions among stakeholders reluctant to relinquish established normative identities. In managing the process of rebranding, senior managers engage in practices of justifying, re-visioning, and influencing to reduce emerging tensions. The research suggests that both utilitarian and normative identity concerns need to be addressed during the process.
Published: 17 April 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 747-771; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017703711

Abstract:
This research explores perspectives on the accountability of Private Ancillary Funds (PAFs), a type of Australian endowed philanthropic foundation. PAFs are relatively new giving structures that have experienced strong growth over the past 15 years. With limited regulatory obligations and exemptions available from public reporting, PAFs have discretion in various forms of public accountability. Using Ebrahim’s conceptual framework of nonprofit accountability, this study explores PAF accountability in terms of to whom, for what, how, and why, examining tensions between PAFs’ private form and public purpose. Through in-depth interviews with managers and trustees of 10 PAFs, findings reveal that PAFs engage in accountability for internal reasons relating to their mission and purpose, and their desire to lead others in philanthropy. PAFs are influenced by philanthropic peers, in particular other PAFs; but their accountability does not necessarily include public disclosure or transparency. Four variations to Ebrahim’s accountability framework are proposed.
Published: 11 April 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 944-962; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017703710

Abstract:
We conducted a field experiment to find out whether a sample of the New Zealand general public preferred to give money to World Vision, an international development charity, or the Salvation Army, a local charity helping families in need. The majority of participants revealed a preference for giving to the local charity, rather than the international development charity. Participants were given the option of commenting on why they chose the charity they did, and we analyze these responses. We also analyze whether participants’ individual characteristics are correlated with the choice of charity.
, Ian Fraser, Ian Fillis
Published: 11 April 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 837-858; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017703708

Abstract:
Many nonprofit organizations face revenue uncertainty due to funding cuts. It is crucial for them to supplement existing revenue streams by private donations, and apply thoughtful market segmentation in their pursuit of donors. We introduce the behavioral concept of “nudge” based on the possibility of loss aversion affecting willingness-to-donate, and investigate its implications for fund-raising strategies. Potential donors are nudged to donate by the hypothetical scenario of “losing” an existing exhibition, and also by that of “gaining” an additional exhibition. We observe significant loss aversion effects as frequent gallery-goers donate more to avoid losing an exhibition. While both prospective gain and loss scenarios are effective in nudging nonfrequent gallery-goers, the prospect of enjoying “one more” event is observed to be stronger. We argue that there may be scope to increase support for nonprofit organizations, particularly in the cultural sector, by exploiting the psychological characteristics of prospective donors.
Published: 5 April 2017
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 859-873; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017703712

Abstract:
This note delineates different motivations for holding endowment by nonprofits, analyzes the definitions and measurement of endowment in the literature, and details newly available data on endowment contained in the Form 990 since 2008. More than 43% of organizations report owning an endowment, and the overwhelming majority of endowment funds are held by higher education nonprofits. One third of endowment funds are unrestricted and 41% are permanently restricted, with heterogeneity across subsectors. Endowed nonprofits exceed average payout rates each year of 5%. Annual endowment payouts average 4.1% of total organizational expenses, which measures the sector’s dependence on endowment revenue for operations. We evaluate past endowment measurement approaches using actual endowment data and find wide variation in validity. Although still imperfect, the new endowment data allow researchers to better understand a key distinguishing financial feature of the nonprofit sector.
Matthew E. Archibald
Published: 5 September 2007
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 36, pp 598-621; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764006297666

Abstract:
Although a considerable amount of research on modern self-help/mutual aid has been undertaken during the past several decades, studies have yet to address the question What are the organizational dynamics underlying the institutionalization of self-help/mutual aid? As a partial answer to this question, the author describes the central patterns of growth, decline, and persistence of national self-help/mutual-aid organizations, their formal diversification, and the extent to which subpopulations gain market share. In addition to using an organizational—ecological focus to map the trajectory of voluntary organizations, this article builds on resource partitioning theory by applying its central insights to subtypes of organizations. Expansion of self-help/mutual aid is remarkably similar to the trajectories of commercial and bureaucratic populations, but expectations that generalist concentration fosters growth of specialist organizations are not supported. Specialists dominate generalists except among medical self-help/ mutual aid. Implications for future research are discussed.
Eleanor Burt, John Taylor
Published: 1 March 2003
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 32, pp 115-127; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764002250009

Abstract:
Advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) have the capability to support strategic innovation within voluntary organizations as they seek to respond to shifts in their environments. Evidence from this study of two U.K. voluntary organizations demonstrates that they are using ICTs to reconfigure key information flows in support of enhanced campaigning and more effective user services. The study also reveals that adherence to embedded values and relationships tempers the extent to which the organizations are able to exploit opportunities for radical shifts in organizational arrangements that the transformational potential of the technologies makes possible. This article describes the way in which emergent tensions have been reconciled as both organizations seek to exploit the transformational capability of ICTs in ways that accommodate, and largely sustain, their organizational values.
Michael J. Austin
Published: 1 March 2003
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 32, pp 97-114; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764002250008

Abstract:
The implementation of welfare reform in the United States provides another opportunity to assess the relationship between nonprofits and public social service agencies. The primary goal of this analysis is to identify the major forces affecting the county social services agencies as they sought to implement welfare reform and how these forces can affect the agency’s relationship with community-based nonprofit service providers. The internal and external dimensions of the organizational change process are assessed in terms of the central concepts of devolution, privatization, and community building.
Nicole P. Marwell, Paul-Brian McInerney
Published: 1 March 2005
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 34, pp 7-28; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764004269739

Abstract:
A growing body of research has emerged on “mixed-form” markets—markets for goods and services in which for-profit, nonprofit, and government providers coexist. This article seeks to understand the dynamics between nonprofit and for-profit organizations operating within the same market. The authors propose a five-step theoretical framework that includes both nonprofit and for-profit actors to capture what is fundamentally a temporal process: market identification; market growth; increasing cost for goods/services; increasing price for goods/services; and cross-sector competition. The authors use data from extended qualitative investigations in distinct service markets to analyze the unique contributions and capacities of each organizational form, and the transformation of market structure over time. The authors conclude that the dynamic interplay between nonprofit and for-profit forms within markets produces three possible outcomes: stratified, displaced, and defended markets.
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