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Results in Journal Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly: 2,053

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William Luksetich, Mary E. Edwards, Thomas M. Carroll
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 255-279; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000292003

Abstract:
The authors identify differences in performance among for-profit, nonprofit, and government-owned nursing homes in Minnesota. They investigate whether homes of diverse ownership types distribute their surpluses differently, if those differences narrow over time, and if the various ownership types react differently to changes in the regulatory environment. Government-owned and nonprofit homes spend more per resident day for nursing care costs than do independent for-profit homes. Chain affiliation is important in explaining persistent spending differences. There is an agency problem: Nursing homes belonging to chains behave differently from their independent counterparts. Secular non-profits belonging to national chains spend less of their surplus on nursing care costs after regulations allowed more of this form of spending to be recouped in rates charged to the residents. The secular firms affiliated with national chains spend less on nursing care than the control group. As the predicted surpluses of for-profit chains increase, the owners’ compensation falls.
Thomas Rotolo
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 28, pp 199-212; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764099282005

Abstract:
Researchers have claimed that trends in voluntary association participation provide the starting point for examinations of social capital—a reflection of the quality of social ties at the individual or community level of analysis. This research addresses the link between participation in voluntary associations and social capital by examining trends in U.S. participation levels over a 21-year period. Using data from the General Social Survey (1974-1994), the findings demonstrate that, although aggregate voluntary association participation decreased between 1974 and 1984, participation increased in the later half of the time period. Further analyses disaggregating participation by the type of voluntary association demonstrate that participation in all but four types of association either increased or remained stable over the period. The article concludes with implications for future research exploring the relationship between voluntary association participation and social capital.
Mark Chaves, William Tsitsos
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 30, pp 660-683; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764001304003

Abstract:
The charitable choice policy initiative has renewed attention to religion’s role in the U.S. social welfare system. The authors use data from the 1998 National Congregations Study to provide a portrait of congregations’ social service activities, emphasizing features of this portrait that are relevant to ongoing policy debates. In particular, they assess two claims often made about religiously based social services: Religious organizations represent an alternative to secular or government organizations by providing “holistic” and personalistic services focused on long-term solutions to individuals’ problems, and collaborations with secular, especially government, organizations threaten to undermine that approach to social services. Results support neither of these claims. Congregation-based social services are not an alternative to the world of secular nonprofit or government-supported social services; they are part of that world.
, Stephen S. Meinhold
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 826-849; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764011418123

Abstract:
In response to ongoing changes in local economic and philanthropic structures, the United Way of America has encouraged local affiliates to adopt a new philanthropic model—Community Impact. Despite efforts to rebrand the system, significant variation exists in local implementation of the new initiative. Drawing on case studies in 6 communities, we explore how local contexts shape local practices. Consistent with a growing body of research that describes the impact of local institutions on organizational practice, we find that local United Way practices are shaped by local institutions and the field level pressures to adopt Community Impact often conflict with local performance logics. These local logics are influenced by historical stocks of philanthropic and civic capital that both constrain and offer alternatives for local strategies.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 786-801; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764011417720

Abstract:
Community service has been a topic of public discourse and policy. Yet the literature has fallen short in providing reliable estimates of such service generally, and specifically, regarding its contextual circumstances, obligatory nature, and longevity. To fill information gaps, this study reports community service among college students who participated in four nationally representative samples, spaced approximately 4 years apart—1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. From 1996 to 2008, proportionally more students reported having performed community service, from 39% in 1996 to 47% in 2008, accompanied by an increase in community service required by the students’ program of study. There was also an increase in onetime service, from 9% in 2000 to 25% in 2008, most of which was voluntary or not required. The apparent rise in community service represents opportunities for volunteerism among young adults, especially in the wake of recent global catastrophic events.
Lourdes Urriolagoitia,
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 759-785; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764011417719

Abstract:
The study purpose is to gain insight into changing diverse management approaches to corporate philanthropy in a period that spans both from economic boom and recession. First, the authors present an overview of Spanish corporate philanthropy and compare it to U.S. corporate philanthropy. The authors find a significant gap between the U.S. and Spain’s corporate philanthropic spending as a percentage of profits and different trends between the two. A significant similarity is that the economic downturn is having a lower impact on spending than was predicted. The authors then focus on eight Spanish companies to explore how firms manage their philanthropy. The authors present a management model matrix that provides a framework for philanthropy management types and throws up divergent results for both society and companies. It seems that those companies that are managing philanthropy in a more sustainable way are not cutting their spending in this field despite falling profits.
, , Rebecca Nesbit
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 802-825; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764011418836

Abstract:
In light of the current economic conditions and the subsequent increased pressure on nonprofit organizations to collaborate, many nonprofit organizations are developing and conducting cross-sector workplace giving campaigns to increase philanthropic activity. Although some scholars have focused on the implications of such activities for for-profit organizations, little research has been conducted to better understand employee-level giving behaviors in charitable workplace campaigns. This longitudinal study focuses on workplace givers and the impact of individual-level factors on actual donation amounts in two annual workplace campaigns at a large public university from 2001 to 2008. Results show that salary consistently predicts giving amounts across campaigns; length of service, however, only predicts giving amounts in one campaign. Being promoted and receiving tenure led to employees donating less, whereas being promoted while already tenured led to employees donating more. We close the article with a discussion of the managerial implications of our findings.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 870-891; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764011419518

Abstract:
This article presents the outcomes to a study of the charity donation behavior of 771 low-income people residing in three socially deprived Boroughs in inner-London. It emerged that several variables known to affect (a) levels of charity giving and (b) choices of types of charity supported among the U.K. public as a whole also influenced the donation behavior of the financially poor. In addition, it appeared that a participant’s sense of affinity with other low-income people and the degree to which the individual believed that the poor were unfairly treated by society at large exerted significant impacts on giving behavior. However behavior differed according to whether a low-income person was “better-educated” (i.e., possessed a qualification beyond the level normally obtained at the minimum legal school leaving age) or was less well-educated. The “very poor” did not donate a higher percentage of their incomes than the moderately poor.
, Alix Slater
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 850-869; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764011420881

Abstract:
Previous studies of membership associations identify differences between passive and active participation and also identify both sociodemographic and motivational factors as influencing participation. Extant research has, however, relied on cross-sectional survey data which does not capture the whole picture of an individual’s memberships. This article reports on a mixed-methods study of members of voluntary associations in the UK heritage sector to examine patterns of participation. The data reveals intensity of participation ranging from passive to active membership and we identify a new form of engagement: substituters. We find motivation to be the main influence on participation level and identify a new group of members based on their motivation: hobbyists. The data also reveals barriers to participation, including distance to the heritage site, aging, work and family commitments, and participation in other membership or voluntary associations. Last, members display varying levels of participation over time within the same association.
Putnam Barber
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 41, pp 723-725; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764012461207

, Ali Abdelzadeh
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 1250-1269; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017728363

Abstract:
Social capital theory states that civic engagement generates positive outcomes, such as social trust and political interest. Likewise, studies show that those involved in civic engagement generally report higher levels of social trust and political interest. It is still unclear, however, whether these differences are the result of socialization or selection. We used between-effects and fixed-effects regressions to examine the development of political orientations in a three-wave longitudinal sample of 1,050 adolescents. From our results, volunteering seemed to have no socialization effect whatsoever on political interest and potentially a weak enhancing effect on social trust. Associational membership did not predict social trust over time, but it seemed to socialize members into increased political interest over time. The results are discussed in light of the social capital debate about how civic engagemend in associational life and volunteering do – or do not – function as schools of democracy.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 47, pp 107-125; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017728367

Abstract:
Charities in the United Kingdom have been the subject of intense media, political, and public scrutiny in recent times; however, our understanding of the nature, extent, and determinants of charity misconduct is weak. Drawing upon a novel administrative dataset of 25,611 charities for the period 2006-2014 in Scotland, we develop models to predict two dimensions of charity misconduct: regulatory investigation and subsequent action. There have been 2,109 regulatory investigations of 1,566 Scottish charities over the study period, of which 31% resulted in regulatory action being taken. Complaints from members of the public are most likely to trigger an investigation, whereas the most common concerns relate to general governance and misappropriation of assets. Our multivariate analysis reveals a disconnect between the types of charities that are suspected of misconduct and those that are subject to subsequent regulatory action.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 1166-1188; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017728366

Abstract:
In response to demands of funders and interorganizational competition, nonprofit human service organizations have invested in performance measurement to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of internal operations. Literature suggests that frontline workers’ involvement in performance measurement is critical in supporting organizational efforts to improve performance. Yet, we lack information on how nonprofit managers convey performance standards to frontline workers and promote their engagement in performance measurement. This study draws on data from the 2011 National Survey of Private Child and Family Serving Agencies to identify strategies nonprofit managers used to engage frontline workers in performance measurement. Findings indicate that less than half of managers reported that their workers had a strong or very strong understanding of the agency’s performance measures. Managerial communication and board involvement in performance measurement were associated with greater worker understanding of performance measures. These managerial approaches may be key factors in frontline understanding of performance measures.
Mirae Kim, Dyana P. Mason
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 47, pp 49-71; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017728364

Abstract:
In recent years, arts and culture nonprofits have sought to make themselves more relevant to community issues by engaging in advocacy. Based on survey data drawn from a national sample of arts nonprofits, this study compares the different levels of advocacy carried out by all arts nonprofits and by minority-led arts nonprofits. To explain the varying levels of advocacy, this study focuses on the diversity of an organization’s constituents and its surrounding community, as well as the ethnic or racial identity and the professional background of its leader. Our results indicate that constituent and community racial and ethnic compositions are associated with the level of advocacy at arts nonprofits. Also, arts nonprofits with leaders who have been in the arts industry for a significant time are more likely to be engaged in advocacy than otherwise similar organizations. We discuss the implication of diversity and professional leadership on arts nonprofits’ advocacy.
Susan M. Chambré, Naomi Fatt
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 31, pp 502-524; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764002238098

Abstract:
The number of new nonprofit organizations has grown considerably. New organizations influence public policy. The early years of a new organization are a time of “imprinting,” as well as vulnerability. The concept of the liability of newness has influenced organizational research, but its dimensions have not been explored fully. This article reviews past research and presents descriptive data on the experiences of newly founded HIV/AIDS organizations. The fate of new AIDS organizations was highly dependent on their acquisition of stable funding sources, particularly public funds. Internal organizational problems had a limited impact on the deaths of organizations, especially those with public funds. Although new organizations face hazards, there are also common dilemmas at other stages in the life cycle that can be traced to nonprofit organizations’dependence on multiple funding sources.
Dag Wollebæk, Kristin Strømsnes
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 37, pp 249-263; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764007304754

Abstract:
This article argues that the scope of the voluntary sector is more important than the activity level of members for the formation of social capital. The intensity and scope of 13 European voluntary sectors are analyzed on both the individual and aggregate levels. This reveals no additional effect of face-to-face contact (active participation) over passive membership. Thus, the primary mechanism of social capital formation in the voluntary sector cannot be socialization of individual members. Furthermore, effects at the aggregate level are much stronger than at the individual level. This indicates that social capital is constructed through institutional (macro), not social (micro) processes. It is not face-to-face encounters but awareness of strong and visible voluntary organizations in society that generate a belief in the utility and rationality of collective action. Thus, voluntary organizations institutionalize rather than generate social capital.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 1189-1208; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017718634

Abstract:
In this article, we reassess the relation between association membership and individuals’ feelings about immigrants, thereby focusing on possible shifts in this relation in the wake of negative societal shocks (i.e., the 9/11 terrorist attacks). That is, do such events tighten or loosen the connection between association membership and immigrant intolerance? Using repeated survey data from Flanders (Belgium), our results indicate that there is at best a weak overall connection between association membership and immigrant intolerance. The exception lies with members of socially embedded (or “connected”) associations, which tend to be significantly more tolerant toward immigrants. Interestingly, we find no significant change in the relationship between voluntary association membership and immigrant intolerance in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. This suggests that negative societal shocks have little direct impact on the membership-attitudes relation. The analysis contributes to discussions on the potential “bright” and “dark” sides of civic engagement.
, Jennifer Rinella, Xuan Pham
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 47, pp 146-164; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017722023

Abstract:
Although much has been written about the need for effective nonprofit leadership and management, less attention has been paid to the unique career paths taken by professionals who occupy the highest nonprofit staff positions. This study investigated who is serving in the role of executive leader of nonprofit organizations and the variables that may affect reaching the CEO position. Data for this research included a random sample of LinkedIn profiles of local and regional leaders from 12 national nonprofit organizations. K-modes cluster analysis and multiple regression modeling revealed clues for understanding the career trajectories of current top leaders and resulted in the development of a new typology for nonprofit executive career paths. Significant factors affecting the path to the CEO role included gender, education, age, mission-focused career, and sector-specific experience. These findings inform nonprofit professional career decision making and guide boards in the executive selection process.
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 47, pp 27-48; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017721060

Abstract:
Nonprofit organizations that primarily provide social or health services can play an important role in policy advocacy, as indicated by recent research. Less is known about how and why they participate in policy advocacy, and concerns remain that their advocacy is overly self-interested. This case study of an urban immigrant health policy advocacy coalition made up primarily of service-providing nonprofits in New York City suggests that (a) service-providing nonprofits’ insights as daily case-level advocates for their clients generate unique contributions to policy change agendas, particularly at the policy implementation level rather than at the legislative level; (b) these organizations do not necessarily see a conflict between their organizational survival imperatives and social change objectives, nor between case-level and higher level advocacy; and (c) a coalition structure, leadership by an experienced advocacy organization, and dedicated foundation funding can elevate case advocacy concerns into a higher level and more sustained advocacy agenda.
, Carolin J. Waldner, Yasemin I. Dere, Yuka Matsuo, Kevin Högy
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 1092-1105; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017720770

Abstract:
In this study, we experimentally test the impact of a formal signal (a third-party certificate) and an informal signal (self-proclaimed management quality with respect to social entrepreneurship) on stakeholder supportive intentions and perceived organizational effectiveness. Our study confirms the social entrepreneurship advantage, but we find no proof of a convincing effect from the formal signal. However, complementary analyses and additional testing of control variables add new perspectives on the relative importance of the social entrepreneurship advantage and on potential moderators that could better explain in future studies the varying effects and specific contextual elements that influence formal and informal reputation-building signals.
, Abhisekh Ghosh Moulick,
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 46, pp 1117-1141; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764017720769

Abstract:
Drawing upon transaction costs economics, we examine the determinants of the two-stage allocation process within the local United Way (UW) system. We use a unique multiyear data set that captures local UW allocations to nonprofit grantees at four points in time (2000, 2004, 2008, and 2010). We find that the first stage is screening, in which organizations’ legitimacy, mission, and financial performance are preliminary determinants of partnership in the UW system. In the second stage, UWs incentivize existing grantees with high legitimacy to stay in the system through larger allocation share. These determinants are stable over time. However, size of these effects varies across size of UW system; this finding suggests that transaction costs influence the likelihood of using performance measures to evaluate grantees in the first stage of the allocation process.
Peggy Levitt
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26, pp 509-526; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764097264007

Abstract:
This article explores the impact of transnationalism on organizational performance through a study of an organization spanning Boston and the Dominican Republic. Because growing numbers of migrants sustain strong, long-term ties to their countries of origin, these kinds of transnational migrant organizations are becoming increasingly common. Transnational activism enhanced organizational performance at the same time that it constrained it. The organization contributed significantly to sending-community development. A more diverse, highly-skilled group of residents participated. The organization functioned more efficiently and accountably, and the community enhanced its position vis-à-vis the state. The benefits of transnationality were not without cost. A sharp division of labor between donors and beneficiaries meant that nonmigrant interests sometimes received short shrift. There were significant ebbs and flows in activism. Finally, the community's heightened ability to solve its problems set a precedent that allowed the Dominican government to pursue policies unfavorable to rural development.
Inge Kaul
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 30, pp 588-602; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764001303013

Abstract:
This article draws attention to the importance of public goods for the well-being of people, including, as a means toward this end, for the efficiency of markets. The author suggests that as a result of globalization, a growing number of public goods have assumed cross-border dimensions and become global public goods (GPGs). They can no longer be adequately provided through domestic policy action alone but require international cooperation for their adequate provision. The author argues that for globalization to work for all, it is important for civil society organizations (CSOs) to become more systematically involved in international negotiations and cooperation and to facilitate closer linkages between domestic policy making and international cooperation. Six policy options are discussed that could strengthen the role of CSOs in the provision of GPGs and in achieving more balanced and sustainable development.
Karen A. Froelich, Terry W. Knoepfle, Thomas H. Pollak
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 29, pp 232-254; https://doi.org/10.1177/0899764000292002

Abstract:
The IRS 990 Return is becoming an increasingly prominent source of financial data underlying descriptions of the nonprofit sector and studies of nonprofit organizations. However, questions about the quality of the data continue to be of concern. This study of 350 nonprofit organizations investigates the adequacy, reliability, and appropriate interpretation of IRS 990 Return data through comparisons of selected entries with corresponding measures from each organization’s audited financial statements. Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used to examine and explain the consistency between the two data sources. The study concludes that the IRS 990 Return can be considered an adequate and reliable source of financial information for many types of investigations, but preparers and users of the data need a clearer understanding of its purposes to enable appropriate interpretations.
Denise Nitterhouse
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640071

Abstract:
Although small, religiously affiliated nonprofit organizations share financial management and accountability challenges with other small nonprofit organizations, they tend to face issues and problems that differ from those of small secular nonprofit organizations. Exploratory research methods were used to develop hypotheses about the nature and likely origins of the financial management challenges of small, religiously affiliated nonprofit organizations. The article delineates financial management and accountability challenges common to all small nonprofit organizations and contrasts them to small businesses. It then proposes and discusses the hypothesized origins of financial management and accountability issues unique to or different in small, religiously affiliated nonprofit organizations. A life-cycle framework for small religious nonprofits is developed and differentiated from the life cycle of small secular nonprofit organizations. A small survey provided supportive, but not statistically significant, results, showing that larger small, religiously affiliated nonprofit organizations are more likely to have separate budgets and accounting records.
Mark A. Hager, Joel J. Pins, Cheryl A. Jorgensen
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640061

Abstract:
Despite the explosive growth of the nonprofit sector in recent years, many charitable organizations have closed their doors. Evolution of the health care delivery system in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area in Minnesota has favored large, integrated service networks at the expense of small, church-based nonprofit organizations that have long served as a means of neighborhood organizing, social outreach, and the proliferation of community values. Interviews with three defunct church-based health care organizations provide the basis for the authors' observations that relatively sudden and wide-scale changes in the health care environment have legislated against small health care organizations, selecting them out for extinction.
Melissa M. Stone, Miriam M. Wood
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640041

Abstract:
Religiously affiliated providers of social services are becoming increasingly important in the transformation of social welfare policy in the United States. This article focuses on governance issues and challenges facing these small service providers. Using perspectives from the organization and management literatures and examples from prior research, the article makes three general observations. First, predictable patterns of governance exist, depending on the types of structural relationships religiously affiliated agencies have with their religious bases. Second, governance will be affected by particular characteristics of both small and religious organizations. Third, growth presents critical challenges to the ability of these providers to maintain their indigenous religious cultures. Hypotheses are offered to stimulate further research in each of these areas.
Julian Wolpert
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640021

Abstract:
Small religious nonprofits (SRNPs) providea variety of services to residents of low-income center-city neighborhoods, but the magnitude and effectiveness of their service contribution are difficult to assess and evaluate. A preliminary field study of SRNPs in selected communities in Philadelphia and in Trenton, New Jersey, that have undergone profound neighborhood social and demographic change has identified widespread prevalence of SRNPs in these communities and deep commitment to address their service needs. Detailed neighborhood studies are needed to examine comparatively how SRNPs and secular agencies respond and adjust to altered service demands, client populations, and financing options.
Carl Milofsky
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640091

Abstract:
This article is a case study of one minister's effort at congregational renewal in a small-town, mainline Protestant church that had persistently lost members as the congregation aged. Although the article describes the minister, his efforts, and his church, the main goal is to show how we may view organizations as subcomponents of the communities in which they exist. The article explicitly conceptualizes this church renewal effort as an example of an organizational type first proposed by Janowitz in describing the community press in urban settings. To move beyond the business model of organizations in analyzing nonprofit organizations, we need to find conceptual models that represent clear alternatives. We also need case examples that clearly illustrate those conceptual alternatives. This case is offered in that spirit.
Michael Byrd
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640081

Abstract:
This article provides an organizational analysis that addresses the challenge of studying community-based groups lacking the characteristics of formal, rational organizations, doing so through the use of social and moral theory. It first addresses prominent schools of research in the contemporary sociology of religion as influenced particularly by resource mobilization and rational choice theories. In the course of so doing, it demonstrates the adequacy and limitations of resource mobilization theory for understanding religiously based organizations.
Thomas H. Jeavons, Ram A. Cnaan
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640051

Abstract:
The goal of this article is to identify and explore the patterns of formation and development ofsmallerreligiousnonprofitserviceorganizations-thosethatoftenbegininthebasements of some religious congregations-and to examine the transitions that they go through to become viable, self-sustaining entities. Based on a review of the available literature and extensive fieldwork, the authors propose insights into these issues as well as suggestions regarding when external intervention and support are worthwhile.
Ellen J. Benjamin
Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Volume 26; https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640972640031

Abstract:
Basedon information gathered from small religious nonprofits(SRNPs)and philanthropic organizations in the Chicago area, this article finds that SRNPs may have difficulties obtaining foundation grants due to their mode of operation and the misconceptions of some grant-making officers. By pinpointing specific areas of misunderstanding, both donors and SRNPs are offered the opportunity to revise those assumptions and practices thatimpedecooperation.Thefindingsofthisstudysuggestthatalthoughthereissubstantial interest and goodwill extended between the two populations studied, there are also vast gulfsin theknowledgeandexpectationsthesesectorsholdforoneanother.Asaconsequence, opportunitiesareunnecessarilyforgoneforreceiving,aswellasforconveying,philanthropic gifts. Despite this discouraging news, there is every reason to believe that these problems may be addressed through education and enhanced communication. The article concludes by offering practical recommendations to close the gap between SRNPs and grant-making institutions.
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