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Results in Journal International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development: 281

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Mehran Alalhesabi
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 31-49; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_31

Abstract:
In response to the Covid-19 outbreak, nations worldwide imposed various restrictions on their citizens in an attempt to stem its spread. One underlying aspect of the success of these policies is people's adaptation to epidemics and their continuous cooperation with urban management to adhere to precautionary measures. Otherwise, the disease incidence and death rates in the countries will not decrease. The situation that has occurred in Iran since the beginning of September and a sudden rise has put this country at the top of the daily reported deaths of Covid-19 (in proportion to the population) in October and November. Thus, this study will focus on two important Iranian metropolises (Tehran and Karaj) to understand: 1) What is the level of citizens’ cooperation in complying with Covid-19-related precautionary measures? 2) How has the level of citizens' precautionary behaviors changed compared to the early days of the outbreak? 3) Is there a correlative relationship between citizens' personal and socioeconomic characteristics and their level of cooperation in this period? This cross-sectional study is based on online surveys (completion of 667 online questionnaires by ordinary citizens living in Tehran and Karaj). Findings show the participation of 30.3% in implementing all precautionary measures, with women, high-income groups, unemployed people, and those without a history of Covid-19 infection having a higher odds ratio than others. In terms of citizens' behavior, 21% have reduced their level of cooperation in this area, which is correlated with their personal and socioeconomic characteristics (except their city of residence).
Dillip Kumar Das, Innocent Chirisa
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 82-101; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_82

Abstract:
Some of the most important challenges in the city regions of Africa are related to food, energy, water, and nutrients. To meet these challenges, arguments have emerged that cities should become regenerative, resource-efficient and arrest the decline of ecosystems. Therefore, a case study was performed by considering the linkage between Lake Chivero, and the Harare city region to conceptualize a framework of the water-nutrient-food nexus and to examine how nutrients from the wastewater that is disposed to Lake Chivero can assist in contributing to the food production in the Harare city region. An Applied Systems Analysis (ASA) linked System Dynamics (SD) modelling methodology was used. It is observed that the water supply in the city region, wastewater generation and disposal to Lake Chivero, nutrients, food production, food consumption and wastewater generated from consumption in the city, all work in a feedback mechanism. Premised upon the feedback mechanism, the ASA linked SD model estimates that Lake Chivero has already accumulated about 19,800 tonnes of Nitrogen (N) in its sediments, of which over half can be extracted. To comprehend the significance, it is estimated that 100 tonnes of N might assist in the production of over 35,000 tonnes of food if extracted and utilised in the city region. Therefore, the waste generated in the city region needs to be considered as a resource and recovered, which might turn a recalcitrant problem of pollution into the benefits of resource recovery and environmental and socio-economic wellbeing of the city region.
Pindo Tutuko, Nurhamdoko Bonifacius, Dani Yuniawan, Razqyan Mas Bimatyugra Jati, Imam Santoso, Mochamad Rizqi Junianto, Reynold Johan Aleksander Telnoni
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 102-115; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_102

Abstract:
In Indonesia, a kampong is an urban village region where about 75% of the city populace resides. Of late, kampongs have been drawing the attention of city government authorities with regards to formulation of kampong improvement initiatives and the conservation of kampongs by adhering to specific themes. This includes Malang city as well. Concerning one of the many urban planning challenges regarding sustainability, it is essential to monitor the kampong pattern in Malang. This pattern may be used for creating other kampongs using the template. The space syntax approach is utilised for determining the attributes of the kampong spatial patterns in Malang city. Moreover, kampong patterns were compared to determine the anticipated pattern. Depth computation and map connectivity concerning any theme-based Malang kampongs were used. Computing such patterns requires connectivity and depth computations. Justified plots are mathematical tools used for such computations; the DepthMapX software is used for the same. The present research aims to determine computations used for kampong pattern identification utilised for city planning. This computation will help determine which kampong has the most superior depth and connectivity among the reviewed kampongs and which kampong has the most intricate spatial syntax.
Yasushi Asami
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_1

Abstract:
Two concerns for city information are discussed. The first topic is the big data. Volume of information is increasing and sooner or later a better way to handle information may become necessary, that is to forget wisely. The second topic is the vague data. Casual information we often transmit is vague. A wiser operation to deal with vague data is essential. Both are the frontiers in studying city information.
Hee-Jin Oh, Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 50-66; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_50

Abstract:
The spread of infectious diseases is a spatial process, including Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Cluster infections of COVID-19 have arisen globally in various urban spaces, implying that tracking the spread necessitates a spatial approach to understanding the dynamics of the disease. In this study, we employ an online survey in the Seoul metropolitan area in South Korea to examine changes in the use of urban spaces and factors that affect individual’s choice in using urban spaces in the COVID-19 era. We classify various urban spaces into three activity types according to the previous studies: spaces for mandatory activities, maintenance activities, and discretionary activities. The results show that every type of urban space is visited less than before the COVID-19 outbreak. Factors involved in the use of spaces for mandatory activities include the preference for offline consumption, gender, and risk perception of COVID-19. In the case of non-mandatory activity spaces, factors that commonly influence the use of the spaces are compliance with social distancing regulations, preference for offline consumption, refraining from outdoor activities, risk perception of COVID-19, and perceived safety in the city concerning COVID-19. The present study is significant as it identified not only different factors affecting the choice of mandatory and non-mandatory activity spaces but also distinctive variables determining the choice of urban spaces for maintenance activity and discretionary activity. From the analysis, this study draws policy implications to effectively prevent and control infectious disease in the context of urban spaces.
Pindo Tutuko, Nurhamdoko Bonifacius, Dani Yuniawan, Razqyan Mas Bimatyugra Jati
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 67-81; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_67

Abstract:
This study proposes an easy method for calculating the spatial arrangement of Indonesian city planning, in line with sustainable urban forms. Several Indonesian cities originated during the Dutch colonial era. Although it is very important to consider the original plans of these cities to maintain their sustainability, generally, the original plans tend to be ignored. The master plans investigated in this work are those of three cities in Indonesia designed by Dutch planners of Semarang, Bandung, and Malang, and which are compared to two cities in the Netherlands (Delft and Amsterdam). The method used was by collecting images of ancient maps of Amsterdam, Delft, Bandung, Semarang, and Malang, then digitising the image from raster to vector so that it can be calculated using DepthMapX. This study utilised maps for computing the Depth of the cities. Then, a space syntax approach using Depth Calculation (DC) techniques is deployed for determining the similarity ratio among the cities. Based on the results of the assessment, it is found that there is similarity in Depth in the cities of Amsterdam and Delft against three Dutch colonial cities in Indonesia. This study supports that the DC in the master plan of cities in Indonesia is similar. The resulting ratio shows the extent of the difference between the pattern of Indonesian colonial cities and the pattern of Dutch cities. It is expected that this study will contribute to urban planners’ and city governments’ determination of the direction of development of a city designed during the Dutch colonial period. Maintaining the sustainability of the old colonial urban form requires harmony between urban planning and the policies made by the city government.
Herry Santosa, Fauziah Nur, Widisono Adrian
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 10-30; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_10

Abstract:
Maintaining the continuity of a valuable and livable visual experience is very important for the quality of urban streetscape planning and design. One of the impacts of the rapid development of urban streetscape is unsatisfying pedestrian space for spatial and visual comfort. In line with establishing good governance, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of urban visuals by involving community participation through online participation. The case study on the five provincial streets In Malang, Indonesia, has become a strategic route for the uncontrolled rapid growth of commercial districts alongside these streetscapes. This study promoted spatial multimedia development as a decision support system in the planning process as one of the recent developments in design planning activity by developing a multimedia 3D spatial system based on public preferences in the local community. A combination of three sequential stages was conducted, starting with investigating public preferences that produced spatial and visual comfort assessment through the Semantic Differential method and regression model analysis, followed by the 3D streetscape modeling ends with the development of a Spatial Multimedia System. This study resulted in several findings. The investigation of public preferences determined dominant variables and significant variables that affect the streetscape's spatial and visual comfort aspects. This outcome guided the development scenario of 3D modeling construction and 3D simulation of each streetscape and the development of a decision-making system in the 3D spatial multimedia system. This finding also revealed the significance of the leveling strategy of user interactive advancement in the system.
Muhammad Ahmad Al-Rashid, Muhammad Nadeem, Adel Shaheen Aldosary, Yong Adilah Shamsul Harumain, Hafiz Syed Hamid Arshad
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 116-138; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.4_116

Abstract:
Urban growth is a worldwide phenomenon, and urbanisation is increasing rapidly, particularly in developing countries. The high pace of unmanaged urbanisation and consequent low-density urban sprawl poses severe challenges to most big cities globally. Such growth features are primarily contributing to haphazard changes in land uses, leading to agricultural loss. This research adopts an integrated approach to analysing the urban growth patterns in Sialkot, Pakistan. It utilises Landsat satellite data and examines the change of land use and land cover (LULC) over 28 years (1990 - 2018). It estimates the agricultural area converted into built-up area during this time frame. Moreover, a spatiotemporal saturation analysis is also performed to analyse the nature of urban growth further. This change analysis is then compared to urban growth strategies introduced under previous urban master plans. The results indicate that the built-up area of Sialkot city has increased from 2,786.49 ha (28.89%) to 7,191.63 ha (74.56%) during the years 1990 - 2018. In comparison, the agriculture area has reduced from 69.5% to 24.84%. Similarly, the saturation value has decreased from 0.85 to 0.75, depicting the city is moving towards urban sprawl. The policy review and interview results indicate a lack of focus toward implementation of urban master plans, which has contributed to ribbon development in Sialkot. The study provides recommendations for concerned urban planning authorities to control urban sprawl in Sialkot.
Robert Hellberg, Mirko Guaralda, Damrongsak Rinchumphu
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_1

Abstract:
Walkability is considered a critical factor that has shaped pre-industrial cities, and today it is promoted as the central element to achieve sustainable urban design and resilient communities. This paper aims to identify walkability profiles specific to Brisbane, Australia, one of the Australasian region’s fastest growing cities. The study seeks to understand if the specific urban conditions of Brisbane impact people’s attitude towards walking. Data on Brisbane walkability have been collected through a quantitative methodology; findings reveal that Brisbane pedestrians walk an average of 28-35 minutes daily, covering a maximum of 3.3 kilometers. The research also indicates that age is not a critical factor influencing walking times or distances and that the movement speed for distances below 10 kilometers is comparable to the average of other transport modes (car and public transport). This research is a pilot study to understand Brisbane’s walkability and to inform future research on sustainable urban design in the region.
Jiemin Liu, Wei Li
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 58-81; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_58

Abstract:
Numerous studies conclude that urban industrial evolution depends on the technological relatedness-associated supply side. However, such industrial evolution may also be affected by market force-related demand side. To fill this gap, this research aims to examine whether market force, reflected by market potential and market segmentation, also has significant impacts on the diversification of regional industries, and whether such impacts differ among different regions of China. The data used export customs declaration data recorded by customs offices. We introduce the PROBIT binary variable model to explore the effects of technological relatedness, market motential, market segmentation on diversification of regional industry. The results show that the diversification of export industries was not only positively affected by technological relatedness, but also impacted by market potential and market segmentation positive and negative, respectively. Notably, the impact of technological relatedness on the innovation of export industry was weakened in areas with low market potential but strengthened in those with high market segmentation. Moreover, we found that the effect of technological relatedness was weakened in more developed cities, while the effects of market potential and market segmentation were relatively universal. Theoretically, this paper expands the framework of evolutionary economic geography. We understood the influential factors of industrial innovation from both the supply and demand side, instead of the solely supply side in most previous studies. Practically, this study points out a new development path for the industrial evolution of marginal areas.
Ryohei Yamashita, Hedetsugu Morimoto
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 16-29; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_16

Abstract:
Since the implementation of feed in tariffs (FIT: a subsidy policy to promote the spread of renewable energy), the external diseconomies of solar panels installed in excess, to earn income from the sale of electricity from photovoltaic power generation, have become apparent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to identify the impact of the installation of photovoltaic power generation facilities on the living space of citizens. Using data collected through a web survey of residents living in five prefectures in the north-eastern Kanto region of Japan, a spatial autocorrelation analysis was conducted to identify the spatial distribution of discomfort caused by photovoltaic power generation facilities. The results clearly indicated that the spatial discomfort of these residents living in clusters, increased with the installation of the solar panels in their living space. Some of the residents intend making radical demands for corporate action to alleviate their discomfort; such actions can lead to environmental conflict. The results demonstrate that radical solutions are necessary to reduce the spread of this discomfort. By further utilizing the data obtained in this study, it will be possible to estimate the regions at risk of solar panel-related conflict more objectively.
Tsolmon Bayrsaikhan, Jiwon Lee, Moon Hyun Kim, Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 30-40; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_30

Abstract:
Due to the prolonged COVID-19 pandemic and various restrictions, peoples’ leisure activity patterns significantly change. Thus, it is necessary to understand how people’s travel and leisure behaviors have changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is still a lack of empirical evidence on how individuals’ COVID-19 risk perception influences their leisure destination choice behavior. This empirical study aims to confirm the relationship between risk perception of COVID-19 and choice of leisure destination and to explore any differences between them related to demographic characteristics. A total of 537 valid samples were used for SUR model analysis by conducting an online survey targeting citizens of the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea. Our findings show that the risk perception of COVID-19 has a significant effect on the choice of leisure places. In particular, the risk perception of COVID-19 has a positive effect on the choice of natural places, disinfected areas, and socially distanced spaces while negatively influencing the choice of crowded leisure places. In addition, age and gender are more effective factors than other control variables in COVID-19 risk perception and leisure destination choices. Furthermore, this study also provides several implications for urban leisure place planners and service providers to respond to the changing leisure activity patterns caused by COVID-19.
Pitri Yandri, Dominicus Savio Priyarsono, Akhmad Fauzi, Arya Hadi Dharmawan
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 82-102; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_82

Abstract:
In today's empirical studies on sustainability, researchers still rely on the concept of "triple bottom lines" (economic, social, and environmental), which are influential in covering development issues. However, this concept has limitations for specific cases, such as regional, local, and sectoral levels. One sector that should adopt sustainability principles is the residential area in the suburban area. The academic discourse on sustainable residential area (SRA) is still requiring extensive research, especially on generating reliable and valid indicators. In the policy arena, particularly in Indonesia, an accurate indicator of measuring SRA is not available. Thus, this study intends to develop and validate the SRA indicators. The "citizen-led" approach was used in this study to observe 332 households spread in the cities of South Tangerang, Tangerang, Depok, and Bekasi. These cities are spatially located in the hinterland of Greater Jakarta. Households are divided into residential and non-residential area households. By extending into a literature review, this study develops 51 SRA indicators grouped into economic, social, environmental, infrastructure, technology, and governance parameters. Moreover, using structural equation modelling with a confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study generates 36 valid and reliable SRA indicators. This study provides that the model could be considered a structure and system that enhances the SRA.
Seyed Sajjad Abdollahpour, Ehsan Sharifi, Reza Ghazi
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 103-127; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.3_103

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to identify and evaluate the indicators of the happy city in affordable housing projects. The Aftab town in Tehran, Iran, has been chosen as a case study. The research method of this study is descriptive analytic. To collect the research data, the field survey method (including the completion of household questionnaires) has been used. T-tests, factor analysis and multivariable regression, were applied in SPSS-22 software for data analysis. The results showed that the status of indicators of a happy city in the Mehr Housing project of Aftab town of Parand is not favourable. Furthermore, the identified indicators of the happy city, respectively, have a priority effect on the happiness of the inhabitants, including the sense of happiness regarding physical and spatial interactions, the local government's support of local residents, the quality of the business environment, the quality of local services, the quality of the artificial and natural environment, the sense of happiness as a result of social and work relationships. According to the results, the most important indicator on the level of happiness for residents in the Mehr housing projects in Parand city is the physical and spatial interactions.
Makrand Wagale, Ajit Pratap Singh, A. K. Sarkar
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 112-133; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.9.2_112

Abstract:
Thepresent study proposes a novel mixed-method approach to ascertain and explorethe socio-economic indicators, which help in assessing the impacts of theconstruction of rural roads. Rural road infrastructure often has direct orindirect socio-economic impacts (SEIs) on the target population. Assessment ofSEIs poses a wide range of challenges due to their multi-dimensional nature ofvarious factors and their qualitative and quantitative evaluation process.Thus, the present study suggests a unique mixed-method approach to integratemultivariate techniques under a multi-criteria fuzzy framework. The applicabilityof this approach is demonstrated by employing a case study of roads constructedunder the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) in the Jhunjhunu district ofRajasthan, India. The findings of the study analysed a total of 33 sub-criteriaassociated with five main indicators, impacted by the construction of PMGSYroads. Sub-criteria contributing to education facility and quality ofneighbourhood have been found as the most significant effects. The results ofthe analysis presented in this study would benefit the respective StateGovernments to achieve sustainable rural development.
Xizi Xu, Noriko Akita
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 62-75; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.2_62

Abstract:
Vast populations have spread into cities and contributed to urban sprawl in China. Rural villages have not had enough time to self-renew and become directly involved in the urban fabric. As a result, rural villages have become urbanized. Throughout the shockingly speedy process of urbanization in China over the past four decades, the urban village has played an irreplaceable role in the city by accommodating a vast number of migrants, thus mitigating the problem of the increasing shortage of housing brought about by rapid urbanization. However, the long-standing, controversial question of how to renovate urban villages remains due to their unique characteristics. In recent years, instead of demolition, Shenzhen renew the urban villages by renovating the original village buildings (which are 7–8 stories tall) and converting them into rental apartments, as the planning policy of comprehensive renovation (zonghezhengzhi). Could the comprehensive renovation be applied to urban villages in the north of the country? In this study, we found that the formation mechanism and development of urban villages in the north and south are similar, and the challenges and contradictions in the process of transformation are alike. However, there are differences in spatial form and architectural style. The typical urban village in Beijing shows the form of quadrangular houses two stories tall or less in the north is relatively low in terms of building volume ratio. In addition, the spatial form is related to the commercial form of the urban village and also influences the income consisting of the villagers' collective share and rental income, which is derived from fixed assets (e.g. houses, factory buildings). In turn, spatial and commercial form affects the cost of the mode of transformation (demolition/redevelopment or integrated transformation). Therefore, we believe that regional differences in physical space should not be ignored in policy decisions and that different criteria should be considered and applied under different local policies.
Tae-Heon Moon
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.2_1

Abstract:
According to Demographia (2020), there are 35 megacities with a population of more than 10 million people in the world. As 51.4% of the world’s population are living in built-up areas, the number of megacities has increased, alongside the dramatic expansion of urbanization and rapidindustrialization. The growth of cities is also driven by national policies thatfoster megacities, reinforcing their global competitiveness.
Wisnu Setiawan, Amar
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 134-150; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsdc.9.2_134

Abstract:
Violent conflicts in Indonesia that occurredat the end of the 1990s involved different socio-cultural groups. However, peoplegenerally denied that the conflicts had a strong motive in socio-culturalelements, such as ethnicity and religious differences. On the other hand, theeffect of conflict on the built environment told the opposite. The perceptionof conflicts differs from place to place. This paper aims to explore the spatialpattern of perception towards conflicts and the built environment. It employesboth quantitative data and qualitative data. The research distributed more than500 questioners in 3 different areas that experienced severe violent conflictsduring that time. The questionnaire asked what elements have the mostsignificant contribution to the conflicts. Also, a series of field observationidentifies the social-cultural component of the built environment. The findingconfirms that although people denied the difference in socio-economic-culturalelements is the main causal aspects of conflicts, the pattern demonstrates apotential linkage between them. This information would be useful for thepost-conflict intervention at the urban level.
Chandan Mysore Chandrashekar, Bharath H Aithal
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 172-194; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsdc.9.2_172

Abstract:
Rapid urbanisation has been a factor affectingcities negatively and irreversibly in developing countries like India,adversely leading to depleting natural resources and promoting unbalanced anduneven urbanism. To handle the influx of population into core urban regions andto promote holistic, sustainable development, government and planning agenciesare now looking upon regional development. Developing countries like India haslaid plans for future urban corridor-oriented development. This study aims tounderstand the urban growth of two major developing cities influenced bytransport corridor through a methodological approach using multi-temporalsatellite data and its position in India's network of cities. Land use analysiswas validated with the aid of measures such as overall accuracy and kappastatistics, with good values of more than 85% and 0.75 respectively wereachieved. The hierarchical network analysis indicated five different clustersbased on the urban growth rate. Among these clusters, Bangalore, Ahmedabad andPune cluster was further shortlisted for analysis based on the urban transportcorridor affecting the growth of these cities. Cellular automata-based SLEUTH modelwas adopted in this work to carefully observe sub-division level details of theregion under the influence of the corridor. Exhaustive calibration, with threephases of coarse, fine and final, validation procedure along with statisticalfit measures reveal urban expansion for Ahmedabad region has witnessed anincrease from 497.50 km2 (2017) to 826.24 km2 (2025)while Pune region has experienced tremendous urban area transformation of 901.11km2 in the year 2025 against 497.27 km2 in 2017. Resultsof this analysis would help policymakers and planners to inculcate decisionsconcerning future urban trends accommodating safer, healthier, sustainable and liveableurban ecosystem.
Yong Lin, Zhenjiang Shen, Xiao Teng
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 76-93; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.2_76

Abstract:
In the smart city planning based on spatiotemporal big data, the mobile phone signaling big data is the most commonly used data source at the moment. This kind of big data has time and space dimensions and also significant human behavior attributes. According to the relevant Chinese law, the data has been anonymized before sharing, i.e. cannot be identified as a specific individual and cannot be restored again, thus is no longer regarded as personal information. In smart city planning, the mobile phone signaling big data is used to construct the basic dynamic analysis framework of "space-time-behavior". Even if the mobile phone signaling big data has been processed anonymously, it will inevitably show some specific location attribute information of mobile phone users. The anonymous track information can be matched to the corresponding geographical space, so as to mark the active location information of the information subject in a specific period of time. It can easily identify the specific location information such as the job and residence of mobile phone user, and even give user portrait. Existing technology shows that the mobile phone signaling big data is easy to be de-anonymized, and Anonymity rule are not applicable to the sharing of mobile phone signaling big data in the smart city planning. Mobile phone signaling big data belongs to personal sensitive information. Once leaked or abused, it is easy to infringe personal privacy of information subject. Therefore, only using current anonymization means to share the mobile phone signaling big data are not enough to protect the security of personal information in smart city planning, and sharing the mobile phone signaling big data should follow the basic principle of explicit informed consent. In special circumstances or scenarios, breaking through the basic principle of the mobile phone signaling big data sharing should have clear legal provisions and comply with legal procedures.
Yoonjee Baek, Heesun Joo
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 5-23; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.2_5

Abstract:
South Korea’s urban renewal policy emphasizes resident participation and multidimensional activities. This study identifies the determinants of resident satisfaction with five urban renewal projects implemented in South Gyeongsang Province, Changwon, Gimhae (Gaya, Jangyu), Sacheon, and Miryang. Multiple regression analysis was utilized for survey data from these five areas. Results reveal that the resident satisfaction was positively influenced by 1) the level of the resident’s opinions reflected in the project, 2) the expectations for improving the local economy, 3) the level of satisfaction with living environments, 4) the importance of improving neighbourly relations, and 5) the level of satisfaction with public hearings/discussions in the decreasing order of severity. Meanwhile, the 1) the need for urban renewal projects, 2) the importance of tourist visits, 3) the importance of improving living environments, and 4) the level of satisfaction with recreational/sports facilities negatively affected resident satisfaction with urban renewal projects in the decreasing order of severity. The aforementioned factors have significant implications to promote practical resident participation in the establishment of renewal strategies tailored to the regional contexts of South Gyeongsang Province.
Sara Mirzaei, Ali Zangiabadi
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 94-111; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.9.2_94

Abstract:
Nowadays, social vitality is one of the most important needs of human communities, as citizens particularly those living in megacities have less opportunity to think about themselves and their needs, and may suffer from depression. As happiness is influenced by numerous structures of urban community, it also can influence development process as well as excellence of citizens and urban society; thus, this subject has been studied more from a psychological and sociological point of view. Accordingly, all the indicators influencing happiness in city should be considered in planning to have a happy city. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate and identify criteria and sub-criteria of a happy city, as well as determining importance of these variables. In this study, the research method is mixed in terms of data type; fundamental in terms of purpose, and descriptive-analytical in terms of the method of research. Qualitative data were collected using the documentary method and open questionnaire (first round of the Delphi method) and text analysis. Quantitative data were collected using the cross-sectional survey method with experts’ questionnaires (the Delphi technique in three rounds). Sample size included 30 Iranian academic authors; that were selected using purposive sampling method. Results showed that, among 5 dimensions of happy city planning, economic, managerial-administrative are substantial, respectively. Among indicators, welfare and health were identified as the most significant indicators. Efficient management, social justice, mental-moral health, citizenship rights, income level, quality of life, urban security rate, and having a proper job were considered as the most important variables.
Syaiful Muazir, Horng-Chang Hsieh
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 151-171; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsdc.9.2_151

Abstract:
Today’sarchitect and urban designer neglected the networked world's vast flowsdeveloped by other innovators. An urban space may consist of several networksystem series. Urban network capacity to evolve within multiple choicesconcerning connections or adaptive shall be considered ultimately in theplanning direction. As an adaptive principle, the network should be able tomodify its own structure, and it should be adapted to various changes andchanging needs and desire of its users. Adaptive network urbanism considers asa planning approach, which focuses on the dynamic system that can be evolvingdynamically. The application of adaptive planning can be developed throughanticipation and adaptation by preparing “plans” that may respond to the needs.This study applies the adaptive approach at the border area by proposing newnetworks on the existing infrastructure network to watch the “dynamicalinterplay” among areas, especially among Paloh district as a border area andSambas district as the capital city. This study is specifically tried toidentify the new links or expansion configuration by repeatedly proposing newlinks and re-calculations until it finds or gives alternatives for the bestconnection or “a prepared plan”. There are five types of “adaptive"approaches to be considered in developing the strategic areas from the researchfindings. These approaches are (1) network transforms or new link, (2) networkextension, (3) addition (new) node, (4) other supporting networks as asupplement network, and (5) inter-country connection to improve relationshipand cooperation.
Tae-Hyoung Tommy Gim
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 24-40; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.2_24

Abstract:
Research on happiness determinants began in the 1970s in such fields as psychology and economics. While they tended to focus on individual variables, they have recently expanded to the built environment. Regarding the built environment, transportation systems—as opposed to land use—were mostly studied in relation to the transient happiness of satisfaction from one trip rather than overall happiness based on life satisfaction. By controlling for well-researched happiness determinants (i.e., the individual’s psychological and economic variables), this study sought to explore how the built environment, especially transportation system variables, affect overall happiness. To this aim, we used a partial least squares regression model with a total of 61 research variables and tested it using data from a 2018 Seoul survey (n = 5,515 household heads). Through using the 2018 data, we could evaluate the environment for cyclists and pedestrians, and taxi, subway, and bus users. Based on the analytical results, this study concludes that to promote happiness, the government would do well to implement marketing/branding strategies to heighten the identity of, and attachment for, the city (i.e., to increase the pride its citizens feel in calling it their home), and to improve transportation infrastructure for better mobility and accessibility (of motorized—rather than nonmotorized—transportation, particularly taxis and buses). Between nonmotorized transport methods, the pedestrian environment is more important in urban centers than in residential neighborhoods, and the cycling environment is largely considered less significant. These overall happiness-related findings on transportation systems stand in contrast to those from studies on transient happiness from a single trip.
Hoon Han, Sumin Kim, Mee Youn Jin, Chris Pettit
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 41-61; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.2_41

Abstract:
This paper examined the impact of providing affordable rental housing through inner-city urban renewal projects in Australia. Providing affordable rental housing for lower-income households remains a challenge for planners, builders, policymakers and residents alike. Government intervention for inclusionary zoning in Australia has enhanced affordable housing supply but has also generated negative impacts such as NIMBY-ism, decreasing house price and urban sprawl. This study conducted in-depth interviews with housing and planning experts in affordable housing projects in Australia and evaluated the barriers and opportunities of providing affordable rental housing as stand-alone projects, or as part of urban renewal projects. This study found several existing challenges such as limited longevity of related policies and limited financing sources for renewal projects. The findings inform policymakers that the existing housing affordability issue can be tackled by adopting more innovative approaches such as negative gearing.
Michael Batty
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.1_1

Abstract:
Demographic growth and the continued evolution of cities call for a new approach to better observe and research our understanding of cities. A new science based on big data, urban modelling and network theory is emerging, providing a different and rather new perspective for planners and decision-makers so that they might learn about both current and future cities. In this article, the new science is briefly introduced from four aspects: Aggregate dynamics; Form and function; High frequency cities; and New tools & techniques for planning. Examples are given to show how this new science illustrates the real-time city, as well as the structure and functional boundaries of a city, while future practice and further exploration of this new science in urban planning and policy making are explored.
Adjie Pamungkas, Santika Purwitaningsih
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 78-92; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.9.1_78

Abstract:
Spatial plans are key instruments in directing future developments and reducing a city’s flash flood risk. This study conducts a surface runoff simulation using SWAT analysis in the Kedurus catchment area. SWAT analysis is a hydrological analysis to measure surface runoff from precipitation with consideration of land uses, soil types, climatic data, topography and related infrastructure systems. Based on the simulation, four sub-catchment areas are currently experiencing flash flooding. Surabaya’s detailed spatial plan (RDTR) could reduce the total flood volume in the city by fifty-one per cent if all measures (drainage and other infrastructures) in the plan are implemented successfully. Nevertheless, the implementation of the measures is still questionable due to limited budget and land acquisition. In the case of plan failure, the planned developments will cause higher surface runoff, putting Surabaya is at higher risk of flooding. Therefore, Surabaya needs to diversify its flash flood risk reduction approach to ensure that the plan will achieve a low-risk city in the future.
Respati Wikantiyoso, Diyah Sukanti Cahyaningsih, Aditya Galih Sulaksono, Sri Widayati, Dina Poerwoningsih, Etikawati Triyosoputri
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 64-77; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.1_64

Abstract:
This discussion aims to find a sustainable community-based development model through a multi-stakeholder participatory approach. Rural planning in Indonesia has undergone significant changes in the last decade. Community-based development and participation is now an established agricultural development planning policy. Community participation produces planning and design decisions based on community needs, priorities, and affordability which often results in better and more realistic designs, plans, and programmes. In the development of kampung tourism, implementing community participation can reduce cost, increase the use of local resources, and socially empower the community. Kampong Grangsil is a hamlet of hardworking and civic-minded flower farmers. These farmers and members of their community organized and developed their village into a tourism destination that they named Kampoeng Boenga Grangsil (KBG) – Grangsil Flower Village. The high level of community participation as well as a Villages Partner Development Programme, made possible through the collaboration of village governments and university research teams, succeeded in making KBG into what it is today. Mentoring, through in-situ assistance (in Grangsil) and ex-situ assistance (at the Campus and Woodcraft Gallery), was carried out to strengthen resources. Throughout the mentoring programme, the research team acted as both a mediator and facilitator for developing Grangsil into an environmentally-friendly tourism destination. The role and involvement of mediators in the participatory development process increased the ability of communities to organize and build sustainable villages.
Ching-Hsi Chen Tsai, Lih-Yau Song, Kuang-Hui Peng
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 47-63; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.1_47

Abstract:
Since 1999, the ‘Community Planner System’ in Taipei has mainly used community awareness to intervene in communities and to strengthen and implement local autonomy and governance through the integration of community differences. Community awareness positively influences the construction of resilient communities, especially when a community encounters environmental distress or various disorderly phenomena. This case study focuses on community planners in Datong District stationed at ‘Changji Corner’ and the community members they serve. A quantitative study was conducted using a structural questionnaire. The purposes of the study were (1) to understand the relationship among community awareness, involvement and autonomy and (2) to determine whether community autonomy is affected by community planners. All hypotheses were accepted: community identity and participation improve community autonomy, and local community planners significantly and positively impact community identity, involvement and autonomy. However, some values indicate that the public’s awareness of community planners is weak, which in turn affects willingness to participate in community activities. The unclear positions and ambiguous duties of community planners can affect the construction of resilient communities.
Hui-Chun Tsuang, Ko-Chiu Wu, Kuang-Hui Peng
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 30-46; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.1_30

Abstract:
Community participation is the foundation of a community’s healthy environment and sustainable development. Social housing can provide people without their own homes and underprivileged groups with more secure conditions to live and work and thereby realize housing justice and reduce social vulnerability. In terms of community management, residents’ engagement in community affairs can dramatically reduce the subsequent burden of environmental maintenance and community management, which encourage residents in the community to actively pass on the habit of maintenance and to collectively create resilient and sustainable communities. However, lease term restrictions in Taiwan’s social housing policy stipulates that ordinary tenants can only rent the house for 6 years at a maximum and tenants with special conditions for 12. This study attempts to understand whether lease term restrictions affect residents’ willingness to participate in community affairs. In addition, we also try to find out how to motivate residents to participate in community construction under the existence of lease term restrictions. The scope of this study focuses on citizens who qualified to rent social housing in the Greater Taipei area (including Taipei City and New Taipei). We designed a questionnaire for our target audience, tested its reliability and validity and picked random-selected samples to finish the questionnaire. Analyzing from the perspective of Egoism, we find out that the result of this research shows that residents do not commonly avoid participation in community affairs. Although lease term restrictions do have some effects on residents' willingness to participate, they are still willing to participate since issues of safety and environmental quality have a direct impact on their lives. However, the residents’ chief consideration is how time spent in participation affects one’s time. Also, though substantial returning benefit is not the main consideration when deciding whether to participate, it does effectively boost residents’ willingness. Furthermore, community member relations is found to have a positive correlation with their willingness to participate.
Acosta Guacaneme Sandra, Diaz Diaz Freddy
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 13-29; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.1_13

Abstract:
Characterized by rich natural resources, pristine and unspoiled landscapes, Colombia has never fully developed its eco-tourism potential mainly due to a complex interrelation of factors, such as geographic and eco-systemic complexity, a deficit in infrastructure, state oversight, social-economic issues, and, to a large extent, its five-decade armed conflict. Progress and development have mainly been focused on the Caribbean coast and its main ports and some specific spots in the mountains, where the main capital and other important cities are located, but the plains (llanos) and the jungles, particularly remote regions, have been marginalized and prioritized less, having little or non-existent infrastructure. The primary focus of the study is the Piedemonte llanero of the eastern mountain ranges, located in the Orinoquia region. The framework of this research will discuss the theoretical approach for ecotourism and the different elements used for the definition of landscape patterns: the corridor, and those to be applied in terms of policies to the areas of study. This paper, in particular, aims to examine the landscape component in relation to the environmental factor of the areas in focus which are Monterey, Casanare and Lejanias, Meta. After some visits, recognizing these as attractive study cases, and a detailed planimetric study, the importance of the landscape in relation to the existing series of spatial patterns of Piedmonte llanero, where ecotourism could become an opportunity for the local communities along the jungle’s marginal road, a transnational connection, is recognized. The first case to be studied is the whole hydrological complex of the Algarroba waterfalls in Monterey and the Guejar River in Lejanias, Mesetas, describing, characterizing and comparing two nodes of interest along the route. After this research, a conclusion is drawn to compare and highlight the role of the different landscape patterns and the possibility to use other tools in the planification of the territory.
Li-Wei Liu, Yi-Shiang Shiu, Ying-Chen Lin
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 10-12; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.9.1_10

Abstract:
The purpose of spatial planning is to create a more reasonable land use and improve its functional relationships, balancing the two needs of environmental protection and development to achieve the goal of sustainable development of nature, society and economy. People have the most important roles in space, because spatial planning pursues people-oriented outcomes, creating a sustainable and beautiful local life as the goal, integrating the natural environment, economic efficiency, social equity, land use, and so on. Additionally, the planning constitutes a dynamic system with balanced development. To achieve the above goals, it is necessary to integrate the power of multiple people to form both local communities and external communities. To maintain local sustainability, the local communities need external resources dependant on external communities. Furthermore, local communities also need to keep discovering local characteristics, attracting the external community to continue paying attention to local sustainable development.
Shulin Chen, Noriko Akita
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 9, pp 93-106; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.9.1_93

Abstract:
With the rapid development of China's urbanization, the gap between the development level of China's cities and villages is becoming more and more obvious. The rapid increase in the urban population has aggravated the utilization of urban land resources. While rural areas have a large number of residential land, the population is decreasing year by year, which presents great potential for development. How to coordinate the relationship between urban and rural areas has become an important issue in China. In recent years, the Chinese government has made a series of attempts in the peri-urbanization areas between cities and villages. In 2017, based on the project named New Pastoralism, the central government in China put forward a planning mode named Rural Complex, which retains the local residents and forms a community to attract new residents, also with the aid of tourism to attract consumers from the city. As a pilot project, New Pastoralism has been operating for several years. As a pilot scheme, it brings some good effects but it also has some defects, especially in its management. Meanwhile there are few studies on its management, operation, and its effects on urban-rural development in China. This paper will take the New Pastoralism project as an example, studying its defects as well as the positive influence of its planning, construction, operation, and management modes based on the related policies, to discusses whether the Rural Complex can play a positive role in coordinating urban-rural development in China.
Qingming Zhan, Sihang Gao, Yinghui Xiao, Chen Yang, Yihan Wu, Zhiyu Fan, Jiaqi Wu, Meng Zhan
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 68-86; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.3_68

Abstract:
There has been a growing interest in finding mitigation measures for urban heat islands and urban pollution islands that focus mainly on urban landscape mechanisms. However, relatively little research has considered spatial non-stationarity and temporal non-stationarity, which are both intrinsic properties of the environmental system, simultaneously. At the same time, the relevance of and differences between the thermal environment and air pollution has also been rarely discussed, and both issues are of great importance to urban planning. In this study, which is aimed at improving urban ventilation to reduce the urban heat island and urban pollution island effects, an urban ventilation potential evaluation, land surface temperature time-series clustering and air pollution source identification are comprehensively applied to identify the operational areas, compensation areas and ventilation corridors in Xiangyang, China, thus bridging the gap between academic research and urban planning. The specific research areas include: (1) defining the operational areas for urban ventilation corridor planning through an urban ventilation potential evaluation featuring urban morphology indicators, land surface temperature time-series clustering with k-means and an urban air pollution source diffusion analysis via the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) methods; (2) identifying urban cold islands through land surface temperatures and delimiting the compensation areas in urban ventilation corridor planning; (3) designating urban ventilation corridors through an urban ventilation potential evaluation and computational fluid dynamics (CFD); and (4) improving urban ventilation corridor planning through defining operational areas, compensation areas and ventilation corridors as well as proposing corresponding control measures.
Zaflis Zaim, , Imam Buchori, Ade Wahyudi
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 54-67; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.3_54

Abstract:
Customary land tenure associated with land administration systems have begun to receive attention through research. A recent study discusses the practice of land release to gain insight into the forces that underpin transformation of customary land rights. However, few studies address the ability to negotiate and adapt to customary land tenure. This study fills this gap, especially the utilisation of Bengkok land as village-owned land and explores the knowledge that drives changes in customary land management rights in Indrokilo sub-village. Data were collected through surveys and interviews addressed to respondents as Bengkok land users and key actors. The results of the study indicate that the change in Bengkok Bayan’s land management rights to collective rights of farmer groups has been affected by four conditions, namely: the vacancy of the village official (Bayan), the village land leasing system, sanitation programme socialisation, and resident participation. The aspirations of the farmer groups are accommodated by the village government in the form of a village head's decree and the terms of land rent compensation. Adaptation of farmers, farmer groups and village government is manifested in the form of land use arrangements as Kandang kawasan (cattle pen), separation of cattle pens and houses, as well as Bengkok land rental systems. Changing the Bengkok land management rights for communal interests requires legal strengthening through regional regulations in order to recognise the existence of farmer groups, promote justice, and reduce poverty for the sustainability of suburban area development.
, Dony Pamungkas
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 34-53; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.3_34

Abstract:
Climate-related disasters such as floods and tidal floods impact livelihood systems in coastal areas everywhere, particularly in developing countries, resulting in a certain degree of livelihood vulnerability. In this paper, we examine the spatial exposure and livelihood vulnerability level of Tegal, a city in Central Java, Indonesia. Data were collected from 100 household samples distributed in the study area. Two types of assessment were performed: a spatial assessment with distance analysis and a vulnerability assessment using the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI). The results of the study show that 33.80% of the settlement area and 22.25% of the fishery area are vulnerable to tidal floods. Climate-related disasters also threaten 32.20% of the households sampled, whose members work mostly as fishermen and rely on coastal resources for their livelihood. A key finding of the study is that the community is highly vulnerable with a low adaptive capacity level. This calls for more decisive policy interventions to enhance the community’s adaptive capacity and reduce its exposure level.
Naidah Naing, Karim Hadi
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.3_1

Abstract:
Purpose: Several studies have been conducted on the concept of Bugis community house construction to understand its macro- and micro-cosmology. This study was, however, conducted to complement the multi-perception research on the relationship between architecture and local wisdom by disclosing the formation of residential space plans. This involved the use of the Bugis house as the subject and the application of the horizontal and vertical philosophies’ perspectives based on the anatomical dimensions of a lying human body as its traditional architectural uniqueness. Research Design & Methodology: The study was conducted qualitatively in Talungeng Village, Bone Regency, Indonesia, for a period of one year, 2018–2019, using the case study approach, phenomenology, and ethnography model. Data were collected through several eligible informants and analyzed using the Discovering Cultural Themes method by associating studies with architecture. Results & Findings: This study showed the horizontal spatial organization and relations in the Bugis house plan derive from the philosophy and function of human body parts in a lying position, which is believed to be a means to provide protection and comfort for residents, while the vertical aspect involves the use of the house frame as the central pillar in proportion to the whole structure. The adoption of the human body as the framework is usually to provide mutual support for the building structure and to ensure it has enough strength to mitigate against earthquakes, floods, and strong winds.
Sahar Soltani, , Jorge Ochoa, , Xuyang Sun
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 87-100; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.8.3_87

Abstract:
A large body of research has focused on the various social, environmental and economic ways in which urban density might affect cities. When considering density as one of the elements of urban form, the measurements that studies usually apply, such as net or gross building density, do not have any link to the design of the built form. This paper argues that the same building density can yield different design layouts, thereby emphasising the need for developing other measurements of density in close relationship with design factors. To demonstrate this, several cases with various ranges of density (low, medium and high) were explored through spatial analysis and categorised in three clusters for further study with statistical tests. The results confirm meaningful differences between cases with the same density but different spatial design characteristics. The outcomes also indicate that the category of the cases based on conventional density measures, namely population density and building density (which are commonly used in urban studies), fail to capture design differences when density ranges differ. These results should draw attention to this phenomenon, which appears worthy of further investigation in future studies.
Peipei Shi, Yinghui Xiao, Qingming Zhan
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 101-121; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.8.3_101

Abstract:
Advanced technologies and big data have brought new visions and methods to urban planning research. Based on the Baidu heat map and POI data of two typical days (a weekend day and a workday) in 2018, this paper analyses the spatial and temporal aggregation patterns of crowds in the urban centre of Wuhan using ArcGIS. Aggregation patterns are defined by the intensity of population activities and the places where crowds gather. In terms of time, the daily change of population aggregation intensity is studied by counting the heat value of 24 moments captured throughout the day. The results show that on rest days, people prefer to travel around noon and in the afternoon, reaching the highest peak of the day around 15:00, while on workdays, residents' activities are affected by commuting, with obvious 'morning rush hours' and 'evening rush hours'. Firstly, the spatial correlation between the density of POI distribution and the degree of population aggregation has been studied by the spatial coupling relationship between the Baidu heat map and POI data. Secondly, the index of correlation between the aggregation of different POIs and population (ICPP) are mentioned to analyse the purposes and the degrees of aggregation during weekend and workday rush hours. Based on the ICPP, we analyse activities from three aspects: the different ICPPs between the workday and the weekend; the different ICPPs between the morning, afternoon and evening; and the different ICPPs among different POIs.
, Fatih Terzi
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 16-33; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.3_16

Abstract:
Urban growth patterns are a reflection of how urbanization is affected by physical geography as well as by the economic, social, and natural factors of individual cities. Therefore, an analysis of any urban growth pattern triggered by these factors by using measurable variables can make a significant contribution towards the determination of future spatial growth strategies. This paper aims to characterise and evaluate the urban growth pattern of Antalya, a coastal city in Turkey, that occurred between 1987 and 2016. To achieve this, a multi-temporal analysis of satellite images was carried out to determine the city’s urban growth patterns in 1987, 2000, and 2016, and spatial growth indices were then used to identify three urban growth types – sprawl, infill, and leapfrog. The results clearly show that the amount of built-up area in Antalya increased considerably after 2000, and is estimated to have grown by a factor of eight over the period covered by this study, predominantly through the processes of sprawl and leapfrog development.
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 70-85; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.2_70

Abstract:
Transport poverty is not only a term used to accentuate the fact that some groups of population in the society are unable to commute as they need, but the concept is being studied by researchers to accurately locate and identify the disadvantaged, who would need to be considered in transport policy and decision making. Due to its complexity, conceptualization and measurement of transport poverty have not always been clear and comprehensive. As measurement of transport poverty usually requires a specific set of data, developing countries are generally regarded as potentially having insufficient data. Thailand’s social and economic context imply that the issue has been present in the country while availability of data required for its measurement is unconfirmed. This paper reviews and discusses how the concept has been defined and measured by some previous research as well as availability of Thailand’s data applicable for various types of measurement. The results show that existing data would permit certain types and degrees of measurement; nonetheless, a more precise and accurate measurement of the issue would require more complete data sets.
, Sittha Jaensirisak
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 53-69; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.2_53

Abstract:
Formulating a transport master plan for a regional city in a developing country can be a challenging task. Regional cities are often lacking financial resources or have limited expertise in the field of transport. Consequently, they are more likely to experience transport problems as they undergo expansion. The tradition of transport planning for regional cities in Thailand began as recently as 1994 with the master plan for Chiang Mai city. Since then, there has been a broad implementation of transport planning across the country, driven by the Office of Traffic and Transport Policy and Planning (OTP). As a result, most Thai cities now have a transport master plan. In this paper, we describe Thailand’s process in formulating and implementing its master plans across the regional cities. We provide three case studies to illustrate the process in practice. The study reveals some lessons learned that could be useful to identify critical planning and governance mechanisms for other developing countries, especially those in the same region, such as Vietnam, Cambodia, and Myanmar.
Haixiao Pan, Yuming Zheng, Zizhan Wang
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 18-36; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.2_18

Abstract:
To explore the impact of geographical location, built environment, public transportation service and individual socioeconomic attributes on commuting carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, a survey was conducted in 27 residential compounds of Shanghai in 2016. In this paper, commuting distance was calculated according to a Baidu map application programming interface (API). CO2 emissions were calculated based on the mode used in each segment of commuting and distance travelled. Through the use of a multiple linear regression model, factors of personal socioeconomic attributes, including gender, occupation and apartment area, were significant to commuting CO2 emissions. In terms of the public transport service, the distance from compounds to the nearest metro station was found to be a significant factor on CO2 emissions, whereas the built environment, such as parking space and employment density, had a weak impact in our study. In addition, even when living near a metro station, the top 20% of travellers’ CO2 emissions can account for approximately 80% of the total CO2 emissions. Hence, policies to reduce those people’s commuting CO2 emissions are worth further exploring.
Yan Li, Isami Kinoshita
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.2_1

Abstract:
Many factors can contribute to sustainable transport, for instance green/greener transport modes, spatial design and connectivity among transport infrastructure, land use or urban form, travel behaviour, etc. In the first paper of this issue, Chen and Felkner (2020) conduct an extensive review on the relationship between sustainable transport and urban form, and point out that many researchers have only discussed relationships between sustainable transport with individual elements of urban forms, without considering the interrelationships among the elements of urban forms such as population density, concentration within the urban-rural context, and land use mix. To fill this gap, the authors perform robust regressions on sustainable transport indicators and urban form elements using the case of the U.S. State of Florida. They found that the interaction effects among urban form elements show in a “threshold, negative-to-positive” synergy, which implies that certain expected effects from urban form elements on sustainable transport outcomes are conditional depending on levels of other urban form elements. Although the paper was not able to discuss interaction effects among all the elements, the argument is justified, the analysis is acceptable and the paper raised a research question that needs wider attention.
, Anirban Santara, Haimanti Banerji
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 100-117; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.8.2_100

Abstract:
This paper systematically reviews the current approaches of assessing sustainability of Neighbourhood-level Urban Communities (NLUCs) to identify existing dimensions of sustainability including missing and neglected ones. The authors have adopted a systematic literature review (SLR) approach to provide an overview of state-of-the-art literature in urban sustainability assessment and measurement. The novelty of the content analysis is that it has been accomplished using an automated process of keyword extraction from the systematically selected literature using a Python-implementation of the popular Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE) algorithm. Finally, the paper proposes a pentagram that successfully incorporates five dimensions of sustainability: environmental, economic, social, institutional and cultural, with an overarching component of innovation likely to have an impact on each due to technological advancements and future trends. The outcome of this model will be a basic framework within which indicators can be assigned for assessing the sustainability of the NLUCs.
Yuan Li, Jingxiong Huang,
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 86-99; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.8.2_86

Abstract:
Space syntax starts from the ontology of space to quantify the space and uses mathematical logic to reveal and describe the logic of the space structure. However, the application of space syntax analysis to museums in China has rarely been explored. In light of this, this study employs space syntax to analyse the Gulangyu Organ Museum (Xiamen, China) and uses the topological depth, visual graph analysis, and agent simulation to describe the structure of the museum space. Accordingly, several suggestions are proposed, including rearranging the layout of the museum's functions and transforming the museum from functional space to experience space. This study can serve as a valuable reference for the application of space syntax in the design and optimization of space design and functional layout. We believe that the findings of this study can also be applied to other cultural institutions (e.g., galleries) with similar characteristics.
Lingwei Zheng, Yan Li
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 37-52; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.2_37

Abstract:
Bicycle sharing systems (BSSs) have attracted worldwide attention as representatives of the new, green public transportation systems, and many types of research have examined the topic. However, the research so far is relatively scattered, because BSS has undergone several technical upgrades and expansions, and the content of some articles may no longer apply to today's society. Therefore, it is necessary to review and summarise the research on BSSs so far. This article aims to collect and summarise the development, characteristics, and impact of BSSs through an extensive review of relevant literature. The article collects and analyses existing academic literature, online materials, and official reports. It is found that BSSs attract people with the same characteristics, and Western and Eastern users have different characteristics; some common factors promote people's use of BSSs in different regions. The government or enterprises introduce BSSs for different purposes: for reducing congestion or for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Most of the impacts caused by BSSs are positive, but some impacts, such as model substitution and environmental benefits, do not seem to achieve the expected goals. Through a literature review, this article provides references for people who are interested in conducting further research in this area in the future.
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 4-17; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.2_4

Abstract:
The relationship between urban form and sustainable transportation has been extensively explored in the existing literature, and it is generally accepted that an urban form characterized by higher density, mixed land use pattern and higher accessibility could shorten travel distance and encourage people to choose alternative non-auto travel modes, which in turn reduces the fuel consumption and associated GHG emissions. However, the extensive research on urban form and sustainable transportation has only identified significant correlations between individual urban form variables, such as urban density, land use mix or road connectivity and the one or multiple sustainable transportation outcomes, such as travel mode or vehicle miles travelled (VMT), but very limited empirical studies have been identified to examine the interaction effects that may exist between the urban form attributes. This paper proposes the hypothesis that interaction effects exist between urban form attributes when examining their influences on sustainable transportation. Taking all cities in Florida, U.S. as a case, the interaction effects in the relationship between urban form and sustainable transportation are tested with empirical data. The regression results verified our hypothesis that density shows “threshold negative-to-positive” synergy with other urban form variables, indicating that certain theoretical correlations between urban form variables and sustainable transportation outcomes are conditional depending on the interactions between or among urban form attributes. The results may expand the theoretical framework on the topic of land use and transportation and has considerable policy implications for planning support systems.
, Riken Homma, Kazuhisa Iki
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 118-130; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsda.8.2_118

Abstract:
Public bicycle sharing systems for daily use have been effective for increasing cycling in China, which can significantly ease traffic congestion and the production of toxic gasses. Encouraging the development of bicycle transportation has become an important part of cities' sustainable development policies. This paper explains the relationships among public bicycle trips, public infrastructure, road characteristics, the built environment, and temporal variations. The study area is the Xiasha Education District, which is located in the east of Hangzhou City, China. Using data on the Hangzhou Public Bicycle system, we utilized Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression modelling to analyse how the variables affect public bicycle trip production for different land uses. This paper also analyses the temporal variations for hourly trip production for three land uses. The results show that public infrastructure and road characteristics significantly affect public bicycle trips. In addition, the effects of temporal variation vary across different land uses. Our findings will be helpful for planners and engineers to improve their understanding of public bicycle production.
Aline Chevalier, Leiqing Xu
International Review for Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, Volume 8, pp 59-93; https://doi.org/10.14246/irspsd.8.1_59

Abstract:
Following the evolutionary pattern already observed in western countries, China is now witnessing a tremendous growth in car ownership that is reshaping the urban environment. Despite the surge in motorised traffic, the remaining high level of bicycle usage and the rapid development of dock-less app-based bicycle-sharing systems highlight the urgent need to assess the bikeability level in Chinese cities. However, this unique setup renders obsolete most of the western tools used to rank cities with respect to their bike friendliness. Following a multidisciplinary approach, we compare the results of our survey to the commonly accepted western views and isolate indicators suitable to urban cycling in China. While refining and sometimes reformulating the goals commonly pursued in bicycle planning, we also provide recommendations for measurements and effective improvements of bikeability when western solutions fail to meet the needs specific to the Chinese context.
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