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Lars Eisen, Rebecca J. Eisen, Jeomhee Mun, Daniel J. Salkeld, Robert S. Lane
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 34, pp 81-91; https://doi.org/10.3376/038.034.0110

Abstract:
This study was undertaken to determine which rodent species serve as primary reservoirs for the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in commonly occurring woodland types in inland areas of northwestern California, and to examine whether chaparral or grassland serve as source habitats for dispersal of B. burgdorferi‐ or B. bissettii‐infected rodents into adjacent woodlands. The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) was commonly infected with B. burgdorferi in oak woodlands, whereas examination of 30 dusky‐footed woodrats (Neotoma fuscipes) and 280 Peromyscus spp. mice from 13 widely‐spaced Mendocino County woodlands during 2002 and 2003 yielded only one infected woodrat and one infected deer mouse (P. maniculatus). These data suggest that western gray squirrels account for the majority of production by rodents of fed Ixodes pacificus larvae infected with B. burgdorferi in the woodlands sampled. Infections with B. burgdorferi also were rare in woodrats (0/47, 0/3) and mice (3/66, 1/6) captured in chaparral and grassland, respectively, and therefore these habitats are unlikely sources for dispersal of this spirochete into adjacent woodlands. On the other hand, B. bissettii was commonly detected in both woodrats (22/47) and mice (15/66) in chaparral. We conclude that the data from this and previous studies in northwestern California are suggestive of a pattern where inland oak‐woodland habitats harbor a B. burgdorferi transmission cycle driven primarily by I. pacificus and western gray squirrels, whereas chaparral habitats contain a B. bissettii transmission cycle perpetuated largely by I. spinipalpis, woodrats, and Peromyscus mice. The dominant role of western gray squirrels as reservoirs of B. burgdorferi in certain woodlands offers intriguing opportunities for preventing Lyme disease by targeting these animals by means of either host‐targeted acaricides or oral vaccination against B. burgdorferi.
, Günter C. Müller, Yosef Schlein
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00132.x

Abstract:
Sand flies have been reported feeding on various plant organs including stems, leaves, and flowers but the attraction of sand flies to sugar-rich fruits has received little attention. In this study, we tested 24 commercially available fruits for their attractiveness to sand flies, and found that the top three attractive fruits were nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina), cactus fruit, (Opuntia ficus-indica), and guava (Psidium guajava). These fruits were fed upon equally by both males and females. There were slight differences in the order of preference to the less-attractive fruits by males and females, but these were not statistically significant. The knowledge of fruit preference may help to improve existing methods that use plant phytochemicals to attract and kill biting flies.
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00129.x

Abstract:
Knowledge about diurnal resting sites of sand flies is scanty and often anecdotal. In this study, we explored a part natural - part agricultural oasis in Neot Hakikar, Israel, looking for sand fly resting sites. To achieve this, we developed a new type of emergence trap. Sixteen types of microhabitats were examined and in seven of these, we also investigated the rodent burrows. We found that Phlebotomus papatasi showed clear preferences for resting sites characterized by vegetation cover, type of vegetation, and the presence of a mulch layer. In habitats with bare soil and little shade, few or no resting sand flies were found outside rodent burrows. Apart from the trunks of date trees, most resting P. papatasi were found in disturbed habitats, especially in large piles of organic waste and in a plowed field. Though catches from rodent burrow exits were always higher than from the nearby ground, it is safe to assume that the few burrows in this vast oasis do not play an important role for breeding and resting of P. papatasi. It also appears that disturbing the natural environment further increases the already considerable sand fly population.
Gideon Wasserberg, Richard Poché, David Miller, Michelle Chenault, Gabriela Zollner, Edgar D. Rowton
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00125.x

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Laor Orshan
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00121.x

Abstract:
Monitoring sand flies in the cutaneous leishmaniasis foci Kfar Adummim and Ma'ale Adummim from May to October generally yielded several hundred specimens per CO(2) baited trap. In the summer of 2009, a sharp rise in the number of sand flies trapped was recorded in Kfar Adummim, while numbers were similar to previous years in Ma'ale Adummim; approximately 4,000 specimens compared to about 400, with maximal catches of about 16,500 specimens in Kfar Adummim. We postulate that the sharp increase in sand fly numbers is directly related to the intensive construction conducted which enhanced sand fly breeding habitats.
David Poché, , , Jennifer Remmers,
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00119.x

Abstract:
This study examined the spatial distribution and seasonal fluctuations of population densities of phlebotomine sand flies and was designed to obtain baseline data on the population trends of Phlebotomus argentipes, P. papatasi, and Sergentomyia spp. in a visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of Bihar, India. Beginning on 28 October 2009 and through 20 October 2010, 63 CDC light traps were evenly distributed in human homes, cattle sheds, combined dwellings, chicken coops, and adjacent vegetation areas in three villages in the Saran District of Bihar State. Sand fly collections were made on a weekly basis, sorted, and identified according to species, sex, and feeding status of the two genera. The daily temperatures and relative humidity ranges were collected in a representative human home, cattle shed, and combined dwelling in each of the three study villages. Village census surveys were conducted in the three study villages in February 2010, acquiring human population data, structural composition data, and livestock census information, and documenting the history of visceral leishmaniasis within each household. A total of 52,653 sand flies was trapped and identified over 3,276 trap-nights. Peaks in abundance were observed in November 2009, March and April, June through August. Of the sand flies trapped, 72.1% were P. argentipes, 27.1%Sergentomyia spp., and 0.8%P. papatasi. Distribution of the sand fly captures included 30.6%, 26.7%, 18.6%, 12.1%, and 12.0% from vegetation, combined dwellings, cattle sheds, housing, and poultry houses, respectively.
Yusuf Özbel, I. Cüneyt Balcioğlu, M. Kirami Ölgen, , , , , M. Ziya Alkan
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00118.x

Abstract:
An entomological survey was conducted to determine the spatial distribution of phlebotomine fauna and understand the effect of environmental factors. The entomological survey was carried out during 2006-2007 in a study area in the rural area of Aydin province, near the Kusadasi town where VL, CL, and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) are endemic. In 2006 and 2007, 132 locations were sampled using sticky traps mainly on embankments. Detailed environmental and meteorological information was also collected for each location. The results of entomological studies indicated that the probable vectors are Phlebotomus tobbi and P. neglectus for VL and CanL, and P. similis for CL in this western leishmaniasis focus. The data revealed a correlation between their presence and spatial variables such as altitude, sampling site location, and humidity. The distribution areas of probable vector species in this study area allowed the identification of risk levels, which may provide useful information to guide the leishmaniasis research in endemic regions.
Sinval P. Brandão-Filho, , Fernando José da Silva, Hélio França Valença, Pietra Lemos Costa, Jeffrey J. Shaw,
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00114.x

Abstract:
Sand fly populations of different ecological niches in the Amaraji endemic American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) focus of the Pernambuco Atlantic Forest region of northeastern Brazil were monitored spatiotemporally. Lutzomyia whitmani was dominant in all niches but occurred in smaller numbers in forested locations. L. whitmani was significantly less seasonal than the other species, being present throughout the year while other species were more abundant between February and April. These results suggest that L. whitmani may potentially be the principal vector of ACL in the region, even though the sand fly fauna was diverse: 88% were L.whitmani and 12% belonged to 11 other species. Two other species, L. complexa (1.3%) and L. migonei (0.8%), considered to be ACL vectors in other regions, were also present. This detailed picture of the sand fly population's abundance and spatiotemporal distribution provides a basis for future modeling studies of forecasting sand fly activity patterns and ACL occurence.
Asli Belen, Sibel Kucukyildirim,
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00110.x

Abstract:
The object of this study was to determine the genetic structures of three vector species, Phlebotomus tobbi, Phlebotomus papatasi, and Phlebotomus sergenti, in the Cukurova Region of Turkey, an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The genetic diversity indices, neutrality tests and hierarchical analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) were performed using partial sequences of ITS2 and cytochrome b gene regions. In all species, within population genetic variation was higher than between population variation for ITS2 gene region. Fst values were low and non-significant for P. sergenti, and were higher for P. papatasi and P. tobbi indicating a weak structuring between populations. AMOVA tests suggest any substantial isolation between populations within species. AMOVA analysis of cyt b gene region revealed significant genetic structuring between populations for P. papatasi and P. sergenti. Fst values were relatively high and significant for these species indicating a certain degree of isolation between populations. However, in P. tobbi, any significant population genetic structuring was detected. Tajima's D and Fu's Fs values were negative and significant in all three species might be indicating a demographic expansion.
Alon Warburg, Roy Faiman
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00107.x

Abstract:
The control of the sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis is problematic because their larvae develop in largely unknown terrestrial habitats making them impervious to available control measures. Furthermore, the behavior patterns of adults of different sand fly species are highly diverse, requiring tailor-made control solutions based upon a profound knowledge of their biology. In this short review, we describe possible lines of research that hold promise for improving our munitions in the battle against the diseases they transmit. The suggested approaches are not necessarily presented in order of importance, but rather in a logical sequence starting in the larval breeding areas where the sand flies originate and culminating with the human environments. Some examples are offered to illustrate the potential efficacy.
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00133.x

Abstract:
We conducted two experiments to determine the best CDC-trap configuration for catching male and female Phlebotomus papatasi. First, visual features were evaluated. Standard CDC traps were modified to have black or white catch bags, black or white lids, or no lids and these were tried in different combinations. Significantly more male sand flies were caught by darker traps; significantly more females were captured by traps with either all black or a combination of black and white features. Attraction may be due to dark color or contrast in colors. CDC traps with suction and the following features were also evaluated: no light; incandescent light; ultraviolet (UV) light; combination of black color, heat and moisture; CO(2) alone, or a combination of black color, heat, moisture, and CO(2) simultaneously, all in upright and inverted positions, with the opening for insect entry always 50 cm above the ground. Significantly more females than males were caught by all traps (standard and inverted) except the control traps with suction only. Traps with CO(2) caught more sand flies than traps without CO(2.) Traps with black color, heat and moisture captured significantly more sand flies than the control traps, but with the addition of CO(2) , these traps catch significantly more sand flies than the other traps evaluated. Inverting traps increased the catch for like traps by about two times.
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00130.x

Abstract:
Sugar is the main source of energy for the daily activities of sand flies. Considering its importance, there is surprisingly little information on sugar meal specific sources and sand fly attraction to plants, particularly in the field. In this study, we first needed to develop an effective sand fly trap that would be suitable for mass screening of potentially attractive flowering plants. Next, we used this trap to screen a total of 56 different flowering plant species and five plant species soiled with different types of honeydew. The plant baited traps together caught 21,978 P. papatasi. Out of the 56 types of flowering plants which were tested, 13 were shown to bait significantly more female sand flies, and 11 baited more male sand flies than the control. Based on an attraction index, the top three attractive plants in this study were the flowering plants Ochradenus baccatus, Prosopis farcta, and Tamirix nilotica. We believe that plants and phyto-chemicals have untapped potentials to attract sand flies. These could be used for control and, in combination with simple glue traps, as an alternative for existing monitoring systems.
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00127.x

Abstract:
In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of eleven commercial models of propane combustion traps for catching male and female Phlebotomus papatasi. The traps differed in physical appearance, amount of carbon dioxide produced and released, type and location of capturing device, and the method by which the trap suction fans were powered. The traps tested were the Mosquito Magnet™(MM)-Pro, MM-Liberty, MM-Liberty Plus, MM-Defender, SkeeterVac®(SV)-35, SV-27, Mosquito Deleto™(MD)-2200, MD-2500, MT150-Power Trap, and two models of The Guardian Mosquito Traps (MK-01 and MK-12). All trap models except the SV-35, the SV-27, the MD-2500, and the MK-12 attracted significantly more females than males. The SV-35 was the most efficient trap, catching significantly more females than all the other models. The MD-2200 and MK-12 models were the least effective in catching either female or male sand flies. These data indicate that several models of propane combustion traps might be suitable substitutes for either CO(2) -baited or unbaited light traps for adult sand fly surveillance tools. One advantageous feature is the traps' ability to remain operational 24/7 for ca. 20 days on a single tank of propane. Additionally, the models that produce their own electricity to power the trap's fans have an important logistical advantage in field operations over light traps, which require daily battery exchange and charging.
Gabriela Zollner, Laor Orshan
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00126.x

Abstract:
The OFF! Clip-On fan vaporizer device releasing metofluthrin was evaluated against phletobomine sand flies in the Judean Desert, Israel, in October, 2009. A total of 76,400 sand flies was collected, with male flies representing 98.3%Phlebotomus sergenti and 1.7%P. papatasi. Females comprised 43.0% of the total catch and included 6.7% blood-fed females. Similar proportions of flies were collected in both suction and sticky traps. In trials with unbaited suction traps, similar numbers of sand flies were collected in traps with a metofluthrin device, blank device, or no device (i.e., suction only). In suction traps baited with CO(2) , higher numbers of P. sergenti males and blood-fed females were collected in traps with a blank device compared to traps with a metofluthrin device. In sticky traps baited with CO(2) , there were no significant differences between catches in traps with a metofluthrin device, blank device, or no device. The results suggest metofluthrin from the device is not repellent against sand flies in a field environment despite showing insecticidal activity against flies collected in suction traps.
Gideon Wasserberg, Edgar D. Rowton
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00123.x

Abstract:
Oviposition behavior is a fairly neglected aspect in our understanding of the biology of sand flies. In this study, we used a comparative approach using both new- and old-world species (Lutzomyia longipalpis and Phlebotomus papatasi) in choice and no-choice oviposition chambers to evaluate the effect of old sand fly colony remains (frass), conspecific eggs, and their combination on oviposition rates of these sand flies. We also tested the effect of egg washing with de-ionized water on oviposition rates. In both choice and no-choice experiments, sand fly species laid more eggs on a substrate containing frass. The effect of eggs alone was not significant but showed a positive trend. Furthermore, for both sand fly species, the effect of the combined treatment was sub-additive suggesting a potential inhibitory effect of one factor on the other. Egg washing did not have a significant effect. The choice and no-choice experimental designs did not differ in their outcomes suggesting the choice-design could serve as an effective high throughput method for screening oviposition attractants/stimulants.
Aslı Belen,
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00116.x

Abstract:
This paper presents the results of an entomological survey in an endemic focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Cukurova region of Turkey. A total of 8,927 specimens belonging to eight Phlebotomus and two Sergentomyia species were captured with sticky papers and CDC light traps from 52 stations. Phlebotomus tobbi Adler, was found to be the most abundant species. Sand fly activity started in May and ended in October. Abundance was highest in August. According to the frequency distributions among certain temperature intervals the observed number of individuals was significantly different from the expected values between 22-24° C and 28-30° C. There was no significant correlation between the abundance of sand flies and altitude. However, sand fly species showed great aggregation at the 100-199 m and 200-299 m altitude intervals. The Shannon-Weinner index indicated no difference between the diversity and abundance of sand flies at different altitudes. Diversity and evenness reached maximum values at 500 m. Jaccard's coefficient indicated that similarity was the highest between 0-99 and 300-399, 0-99 and 500-599 and 100-199 and 200-299 m and lowest between 100-199 and 300-399 and 100-199 and 500-599 m.
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00112.x

Abstract:
Sand fly saliva contains an array of bioactive molecules that facilitate blood feeding and also function as modulators of the vertebrate immune response. Such a complex of biologically active molecules was shown to be both conserved and divergent among sand fly species. It is likely that expression of sand fly salivary molecules could be modulated by environmental factors, both biotic and abiotic, that ultimately dictate the quality, and possibly quantity, of the secreted saliva. Carbohydrates are an integral part of the sand fly diet, and sugar-sources found in natural habitats are potentially involved in defining the profile of sand fly saliva, and may influence vectorial capacity. Saliva can drive the outcome of Leishmania infection in animal models, and salivary molecules are potential targets for development of vaccines to control Leishmania infection. Thus, identifying what environmental factors effectively modulate sand fly saliva in the field is a critical step towards the development of meaningful protection strategies against leishmaniasis that are based on salivary compounds from sand fly vectors.
Dia-Eldin A. Elnaiem
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00109.x

Abstract:
A literature review is provided on the state of knowledge of the ecology and control of the sand fly vectors of Leishmania donovani in East Africa, with a special emphasis on Phlebotomus orientalis. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by L. donovani is a major health problem in several areas in East Africa. Studies conducted in the past 70 years identified P. orientalis Parrot and P. martini Parrot as the principal vectors of L. donovani in Sudan, Ethiopia and Kenya and P. celiae Minter as the secondary vector of the parasite in one focus in Ethiopia. Findings on sand fly fauna and other circumstantial evidence indicate that P. martini is also responsible for transmission of L. donovani in VL endemic foci of Somalia and Uganda. Several studies showed that P. orientalis occupy distinct habitat characterized by black cotton soil and Acacia seyal-Balanites aegyptiaca vegetation, whereas P. martini and P. celiae are associated with termite mounds. Little knowledge exists on effective control measures of sand fly vectors of L. donovani in East Africa. However, recent evidence showed that use of insecticide impregnated bednets and insect repellents may reduce exposure to the bites of P. orientalis.
Paul D. Ready
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00108.x

Abstract:
I review species concepts, the taxonomy of phlebotomine sand flies, and some transmission cycles of leishmaniasis in order to illustrate the difficulties of classifying these vectors in a way that will be ideal both for medical parasitologists and sand fly specialists. Choices will have to be made between different classifications, either maintaining a practical one containing few vectorial genera (mostly Phlebotomus for the Old World and Lutzomyia for the Neotropics) or changing the generic names of many vectors so that the classification represents an evolutionary hypothesis. However, sand flies also transmit arboviruses and members of other sand fly genera bite humans, and so vectorial status alone might not provide the criteria for recognizing only a few genera. Vectorial roles are often determined by species-level co-evolution of susceptibility to Leishmania species, with selection being initiated and maintained by ecological contacts. There is only imperfect co-cladogenesis of genus-level groups or subgeneric complexes of sand flies and Leishmania species. Natural hybridization between sand fly species has been recorded in several species complexes, and this highlights the need to focus on gene flow and the distribution of phenotypes of biomedical importance, not on taxa.
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00131.x

Abstract:
Recently, in several areas of the Middle East, a sharp increase of cutaneous leishmaniasis was observed in suburbs of larger towns including Jerusalem. In some of these areas, poor housing conditions and unsuitable waste management was suspected to provide ideal conditions for sand fly breeding, but hard data on diurnal resting sites and breeding habitats of most sand fly species are scant. In this study, we chose 16 sites on both slopes and the bottom of a natural valley in the Judean Desert to conduct a survey of sand fly distribution with emergence traps. Altogether, 1,261 sand flies, 52%Phlebotomus syriacus, 22%P. sergenti, 14%P. papatasi and 12%P. tobbi were caught. About two thirds of the flies caught were resting, while the other third emerged from breeding sites. All four species showed clear preferences for resting and breeding sites, but generally, most sand flies were breeding in the more humid habitats, namely the bottom of the valley, the adjacent north facing slope, terraces on the north facing slope, and caves. The vegetation cover also appeared to be important for resting habitats; on the bottom of the valley more than six times as many sand flies were collected in areas covered by dense vegetation than in areas with low vegetation cover. P. sergenti seemed also to better tolerate the drier habitats, which might explain the abundance of this species in the arid Judean Desert.
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00128.x

Abstract:
We tested the performance of ten commercial mosquito traps with varying attractive features, against three CDC traps (an unlit model 512, an incandescently lit model 512, and a UV lit model 1212) as well as simple sticky paper, for their ability to attract and capture Phlebotomus papatasi in Israel. The commercial traps tested were the Sentinel 360, the Combo Trap, the Mega Catch Premier, the Bug Eater, the EcoTrap, the Galaxie Power-Vac, the Biter Fighter, the Black Hole, the Mosquito Trap, the Mosquito Catcher, the Sonic Web, the Solar Pest Killer, and a Bug Zapper. The four best performing traps with the highest nightly catches were the Sentinel 360 (85.96 ±19.34), the Combo Trap (70.00±7.78), the Mega Catch Premier (51.93±1.82) and the UV lit CDC 1212 trap (47.64±3.43). Five traps--the Mosquito Trap, the Mosquito Catcher, the Sonic Web, the Solar Pest Killer, and the Bug Zapper--performed exceptionally poorly, catching an average of less than two sand flies per day. To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive attempt to evaluate commercial traps for their effectiveness in catching sand flies, and we show here that some traps that have been effective in catching mosquitoes are also effective in catching sand flies.
, D. Garcia, , Y. Ouhdouch, A. Boumezzough, B. Pesson, D. Fontenille,
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00124.x

Abstract:
In this study, we tested the capacity of Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TGGE)‐based fingerprinting of 16S rDNA PCR fragments to assess bacterial composition in a single isolated sand fly gut. Bacterial content was studied in different life stages of a laboratory‐reared colony of Phlebotomus duboscqi and in a wild‐caught Phlebotomus papatasi population. Our study demonstrates that a major reorganization in the gut bacterial community occurs during metamorphosis of sand flies. Chloroflexi spp. was dominant in the guts of pre‐imaginal stages, although Microbacterium spp. and another as yet unidentified bacteria were detected in the gut of the adult specimen. Interestingly, Microbacterium spp. was also found in all the adult guts of both species. We demonstrate that the analysis of bacterial diversity in an individualized sand fly gut is possible with fingerprinting of 16S rDNA. The use of such methodology, in conjunction with other culture‐based methods, will be of great help in investigating the behavior of the Leishmania‐bacterial community in an ecological context.
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00120.x

Abstract:
Altogether, 4,008 sand flies belonging to seven species were collected over a period of one year in the micro-habitats of a single canyon in the Carmel Mountain ridge. The three most abundant were P. arabicus, P. tobbi, and P. simici. Our results suggest that none of the seven sand fly species was indifferent to the heterogeneity of the microenvironment inside the canyon. Apart from the rare P. perfiliewi, which was only collected on the upper part of the south-facing slope, and P. tobbi, which clustered on the north-facing slope, the bulk of the other sand flies were caught on the bottom of the canyon. During the summer, the catches of all sand fly species increased to reach their maximum number in August and September. In April and May, there was lush vegetation and humidity, so species were distributed evenly throughout their habitats. With the onset of summer dryness, the sand flies concentrated in the humid habitats. The rate of concentration was essentially higher for males than for females, and this variation may result from differences in the behavior of the two sexes. During our study, none of the 2,318 dissected female sand flies were positive for Leishmania promastigotes.
Reginaldo P. Brazil, Michelle C. De Queiroz Pontes, Wagner Lança Passos, Andressa A. Fuzari Rodrigues, Beatriz Gomes Brazil
Published: 2 March 2011
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00117.x

Abstract:
Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, is sporadic in many rural and suburban areas of Rio de Janeiro State. An investigation was carried out during 2008/9 in the Municipality of Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil, in order to identify the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. More than 2,100 sand flies were collected in peridomestic areas in two chicken coops using CDC light traps. Nine species of phlebotomine sand flies were identified: Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia (P.) pessoai, Pintomyia (P.) fischeri, Pintomyia (P.) bianchigalatiae, Migonemyia (M.) migonei, Lutzomyia (L.) longipalpis, Brumptomyia cunhai and Brumptomyia guimaraesi. Based on the results of this study together with related studies in other CL foci in Rio de Janeiro, both Nissomyia intermedia and Migonemyia migonei can be considered suspect vectors of the disease in the region. The potential risk of VL due to the presence of its proven vector L. longipalpis is discussed.
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00113.x

Abstract:
We have previously shown that fermented ripe fruit is a strong attractant for several mosquito species, and when mixed with oral insecticide these attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) were highly effective for local mosquito control. In the present study, we compared the effects of ATSB presented in different ways on isolated populations of Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli. Experiments were carried out in the arid habitat of the Jordan valley, Israel where the effectiveness of three methods was compared: ATSB sprayed on patches of vegetation, net fence coated with ATSB, and bait stations soaked with ATSB. Spraying ATSB reduced the population to about 5% of the control area population. Barrier ATSB coated fences, had a similar effect decreasing the population to about 12% of the concurrent catch in the control site. The effect of ATSB presented on bait stations was much smaller and compared to the control, only caused the population to be reduced to 40%. In the control areas where only food dye marker was used, the solution presented on bait stations only marked an average of 22.3% of female sand flies while spraying vegetation and using barrier fences in the two other experiments marked about 60% of the females. Our experiments show that ATSB either sprayed on the vegetation or on barrier fences is an effective means against sand flies at least in arid areas where attractive plants are scarce or absent.
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 36; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1948-7134.2011.00106.x

Abstract:
Sand flies used to have a reputation for being difficult and labour-intensive to breed. Here we summarize our experience with establishment and maintenance of sand fly colonies and their use for infective experiments: techniques for collection and handling wild-caught females, rearing larvae and adults and experimental infections of sand flies by Leishmania using membrane feeding. In addition, we compare major life cycle parameters between various colonies maintained under standard laboratory conditions. The sand fly rearing is tricky but some species can be reared in large numbers with a minimum of space and equipment. Initiation of new colonies from endemic sites is a prerequisite for accurate studies on parasite-vector interaction but it is more difficult step than routine maintenance of colonies already established in laboratory for many generations.
, Deon Vahid Canyon, Reinhold Muller, Mohamed Wagdy Faried Younes, Hoda Abdel-Wahab, Abdel-Hamid Mansour
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 32, pp 16-21; https://doi.org/10.3376/1081-1710(2007)32[16:ampsit]2.0.co;2

Abstract:
A twelve-month survey for mosquito predators was conducted in Townsville, Queensland, Australia, which is located in the arid tropics. The survey revealed the presence of five predaceous insects but only Anisops sp. (backswimmers) and Diplonychus sp. were common. Predatorial capacity and factors influencing this capacity were then assessed for adult Anisops sp. and adult and nymph stages of Diplonychus sp. against Culex annulirostris mosquito immatures under laboratory conditions. Predatorial capacity bioassays showed that adult Diplonychus sp. preyed upon both larval and pupal stages of Cx. annulirostris quite successfully. Nymphs of Diplonychus sp. proved to be more successful with smaller prey immatures, and Anisops sp adults did not prey successfully on any prey pupae. Increasing the foraging area and introducing aquatic vegetation significantly reduced the predatorial capacity of Diplonychus sp. nymphs, while only vegetation and not foraging area had a significant effect on adult Diplonychus sp. predation capacity. Overall, adult Diplonychus sp. proved to be a more efficient predator than Anisops sp., and field trials are now recommended to further assess the potential of Diplonychus sp. as a biocontrol agent.
, , Selim S. Caglar, Yusuf Ozbel, Sinan Kaynas, , , Asli Belen
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 32, pp 226-34; https://doi.org/10.3376/1081-1710(2007)32[226:pvalpo]2.0.co;2

Abstract:
The wing-shape morphology of local populations of the medically important phlebotomine sand flies, Phlebotomus sergenti, P. papatasi, P. tobbi, and P. similis, were examined in both sexes by using geometric morphometrics. There are three major mountain ranges that may serve as geographical barriers for species distribution in the study area and four main gaps were recognized among these barriers. We found no statistically important differences in wing morphology in all examined species in both sexes for all local populations. These results show that the barriers are not sufficient to stop gene flow among local populations of sand flies. The graphical depiction of PCA, CVA, and F-test confirmed our morphometric study suggesting that the difference in wing morphology between P. similis and P. sergenti indicates that these are clearly different species. These two show sympatric distribution in the Konya Plain of Anatolia.
, Benjamín Nogueda-Torres, María Elena Villagrán-Herrera, José Antonio de Diego-Cabrera, Luis Carlos Reyes-Sosa, Ramón Alejandro González-Elizondo, Earvin Alejandro Loera-Campos
Published: 15 May 2017
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 42, pp 193-195; https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12256

, , Larisa Polyakova, Richard M. Poché
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 42, pp 171-177; https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12252

Abstract:
Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the United States. Systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, Oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the Y. pestis cycle. The objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. The study was performed in Larimer County, CO, where bait was applied to a treatment area containing a dense prairie dog population, three times over a three-week period. Prairie dogs were captured and combed for fleas during four study periods (pre-, mid-, 1st post-, and 2nd post-treatment). Results indicated the use of bait containing fipronil significantly reduced flea burden. The bait containing fipronil was determined to reduce the mean number of fleas per prairie dog >95% for a minimum of 52 days post-initial treatment application and 31 days post-final treatment application. These results suggest the potential for this form of treatment to reduce flea population density on prairie dogs, and subsequently plague transmission, among mammalian hosts across the United States and beyond.
, , Antonio P.G. Almeida, Francisco J. Serrano-Aguilera, Juan E. Pérez-Martín, , David Reina, ,
Published: 15 May 2017
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 42, pp 136-147; https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12248

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Dave D. Chadee, Raymond Martinez,
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 42, pp 130-135; https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12247

Abstract:
Few laboratory and field studies have reported long survival periods for Ae. aegypti females and even fewer have designed experiments to characterize this important life history trait. This study was conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the number of blood meals taken by individual females, the number of eggs laid per individual female, the length of the gonotrophic cycle, and the duration of female survival. The results showed individual females oviposited between 670 and 1,500 eggs throughout their lifetimes, females undergoing large numbers of gonotrophic cycles and surviving up to 224 days. These results are discussed in the context of vector competence, unique alternating high and low oviposition patterns observed after week 14, and resource partitioning/allocation by older Ae. aegypti females after blood feeding.
Samir S. Sawalha, Asad Ramlawi, Ramzi M. Sansur, Ibrahim Mohammad Salem,
Published: 15 May 2017
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 42, pp 120-129; https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12246

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
N. Kwansomboon, , P. Kittiphanakun, D. Cerqueira, V. Corbel,
Published: 15 May 2017
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 42, pp 84-93; https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12242

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, , Lisa J. Ottowell, Emma L. Gillingham, Jolyon M. Medlock
Published: 15 May 2017
Journal of Vector Ecology, Volume 42, pp 74-83; https://doi.org/10.1111/jvec.12241

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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