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Mohammad Fawzi Shubita
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 36-44; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(4).2021.04

Abstract:
This study aims to investigate the ability of cash flows components to predict the earning and to know the extent of the relationship between accounting profits and cash flow measures. The study sample consisted of 77 industrial companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange in Jordan for the period from 2006 to 2019. This study relied on the regression method to test the relationship between the study variables. The study findings showed that the cash flows from operating, investing, and financial activities have a statistically significant impact on predicting future earnings. The study also examined the effect of length of operating cycle and company’s size on the predictive ability of cash flows regarding future earnings. The main results for this aspect are that large companies and short operating cycle companies have higher prediction ability for future earnings than small and long operating cycle companies. This paper provides evidence of the information content of cash flows for future earnings in emerging markets like Jordan and is important for Jordanian shareholders by enabling them to evaluate company’s performance. AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank Amman Arab University for its great support, and for funding this study.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 21-35; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(4).2021.03

Abstract:
The impact of social media usage on corporate performance has not been examined in the Saudi context. This paper aims to investigate the influence of social media, namely companies’ and CEOs’ involvement in Twitter and LinkedIn, on the profitability of Saudi Arabia listed firms. A dynamic panel estimation method is used to empirically assess this relationship. The study employs 120 firms listed on the Saudi Stock Exchange Tadawul from 2014 to 2017. Data are obtained from the companies’ annual reports. Statements of financial status as well as income statements are used to collect data on the dependent variable and control variables. The results show that having a LinkedIn official account by both the CEO and the company does not improve the enterprise performance. In contrast, companies that are active on Twitter will contribute to an increase in their short-term performance. CEOs who engage in Twitter via a high number of followers help to boost the performance of their companies in the long and short term. Hence, this paper recommends that Saudi firms should be aware that their performance could be increased by monitoring their presence on social networks and by having a strong intention to use these tools. AcknowledgmentsThis study was funded by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University through the Fast-track Research Funding Program.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 45-56; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(4).2021.05

Abstract:
This study examined the asymmetric impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) stock market return volatility. The data included daily closing prices of the GCC stock market from the day of the acknowledgment of the first case of COVID-19 in each country to March 6, 2021. In addition, the study employed generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) family models. According to the Akaike information criterion, GARCH and exponential GARCH (EGARCH) were the most accurate models. The findings of the GARCH model indicate that the COVID-19 pandemic affected the GCC stock markets. The EGARCH model also confirmed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the GCC stock markets, confirming that the COVID-19 negatively affected GCC stock market returns. The value of the persistence of this volatility continued over a long period. This study has potential implications for investors and policymakers in diversifying investment portfolios and adopting strategies to maintain investor confidence during such crises. Moreover, mechanisms must be developed for reducing risks in financial markets in times of crisis, and central banks should take financial measures to mitigate risks to capital markets. AcknowledgmentsThis achievement was made with the aid of my family’s support, thank you all.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 57-66; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(4).2021.06

Abstract:
Conservatism in the CAPM and L-CAPM standards often emphasizes systematic risk to explain the phenomenon of the risk-return relationship and ignores idiosyncratic risk with the assumption that the risk can be diversified. The effect of the Covid-19 outbreak raises the question of whether the idiosyncratic risk can still be ignored considering that the risk has a close relationship to firm-specific risk. This study sets a portfolio consisting of 177 active public firms in the Indonesia Stock Exchange before and after the Covid-19 pandemic. On portfolio set, idiosyncratic risk is estimated by the standard CAPM and L-CAPM in the observation range from January 2, 2019, to June 30, 2021. The results of the analysis show that L-CAPM and CAPM produce significantly different idiosyncratic risks. Empirical evidence shows that the highest firm-specific risk is in the third period and has a stable condition since the fourth period. This condition is confirmed by regression results that idiosyncratic risk together with systematic risk positively affects stock returns in the fourth period as suggested by the efficient market hypothesis. Uniquely, both systematic risk and idiosyncratic risk based on L-CAPM do not show a significant effect on stock returns in the fifth period, so it is a strong indication that liquidity is an important factor that must be considered in making investments.
, Tatang Ary Gumanti, , Nik Herda Nik Abdullah
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(4).2021.01

Abstract:
The market value of a public company reflects the expectations of investors. It is influenced by many factors, both internal and external to the company. This study aims to analyze whether intellectual capital moderates the effect of the debt-to-equity ratio and earnings per share on the market value of equity. A set of historical data was collected and analyzed based on a sample of 114 manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2017 to 2019. This study uses moderated regression analysis to test proposed hypotheses and a robustness test to examine the sensitivity and consistency of the study results. The findings show that the debt to equity ratio affects the market value of equity, whilst earnings per share does not affect the market value of equity. The analysis also shows that intellectual capital could strengthen the effect of the debt to equity ratio on the market value of equity. In contrast, intellectual capital could not strengthen the effect of earnings per share on the market value of equity. AcknowledgmentsThe study was conducted with the support of the Universitas Riau, Indonesia.
, Widya Aipama, A. Razak, Laynita Sari, Renil Septiano
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 12-20; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(4).2021.02

Abstract:
This study examined the response of stock prices on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) to COVID-19 using an event study approach and the GARCH model. The research sample is the closing price of the Composite Stock Price Index (JCI) and companies that are members of LQ-45 in the 40-day period before the COVID-19 incident, 1 day during the COVID-19 incident (March 2, 2020) and 10 days after, January 6, 2020 – March 16, 2020. Empirical findings prove that abnormal returns react negatively to COVID-19, JCI volatility fluctuates widely during the COVID-19 event, and the GARCH(1,2) model can be used to assess volatility and predict stock abnormal returns in IDX in market conditions infected with COVID-19. The practical implication of the study’s findings for investors is that the COVID-19 event caused stock price volatility, which affects abnormal returns. Therefore, to face the conditions of uncertainty and increased volatility in the future, several lines of risk management are needed in managing a stock portfolio. In addition, it also opens up opportunities for speculators to profit in an inefficient market environment. This study is based on the empirical literature currently being developed to investigate the phenomenon of stock price volatility behavior during COVID-19 on the IDX. The GARCH model used proves that during the COVID-19 pandemic, stock price volatility increases and leads to a decrease in abnormal returns. The empirical findings also validate the efficient market hypothesis theory related to the study of events and the theory of financial behavior related to uncertainty.
Jonathan Oniovosa Ososuakpor
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 397-407; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.33

Abstract:
In the Nigerian context, there is a gap in the literature on the structural attributes of firms and the extent to which corporate investments are irreversible. Thus, this study was to empirically examine the structural attributes of firms, irreversibility, and uncertainty of corporate investment using the real options theory of investment. The study is based on annual data series of firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2019. The study measured structural attributes using competitiveness and monopoly/oligopoly of a firm, macroeconomic uncertainty, inflation, interest, and exchange rates, and examines their association with corporate investments. The study was conducted using a panel dataset adopting a fixed-effect estimation technique that takes into account potential endogeneity and firm specific-effects. The result showed that the macroeconomic uncertainty measure of exchange rate volatility is strongly detrimental to corporate investment decisions. Furthermore, interest rate and inflation volatilities are not detrimental to investment growth, while exchange rate uncertainty has a substantial negative influence on corporate investment. Besides, macroeconomic uncertainty was found to be a greater disincentive for firms with irreversible investments than for firms with more easily reversible investment projects.
Viktoriia Babenko-Levada
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 385-396; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.32

Abstract:
Insurance market is an important part of the financial market, the functioning of which helps to protect individuals and legal entities from the negative and stressful effects of today’s unstable economic environment. The purpose of this study is to determine trends in the insurance market in Ukraine and its potential crises.The study found that Ukraine’s insurance market constantly grows, but is volatile and in a state of concentration. The dynamics of most indicators are cyclical, with a cycle length from 4,66 quarters to 14 quarters. The randomized R/S-analysis confirmed the stability of the dynamics of Ukraine’s insurance market and its fractal similarity. Fractal similarity was proved for six out of ten analyzed indicators of the insurance market. In addition, it was confirmed that at the moment of transition from one fractal to another, a trend break occurs. Thus, the emergence of crises on the insurance market of Ukraine is associated with the self-similarity of the dynamics and the coincidence of the moments of bifurcation of certain indicators in its development. A partial crisis on the Ukrainian insurance market at the beginning of 2019 coincided with the bifurcation of the number of concluded insurance contracts, determined based on the results of fractal analysis.Calculations made it possible to conclude that potentially crisis periods for the insurance market of Ukraine fall on Q1-2 2017, Q1 2019, Q1 2020, of which only one was realized (Q1 2019). The nearest potential moments of crises on the insurance market of Ukraine may be the following periods: Q1 2023 and Q1 2026.
Lai Cao Mai Phuong
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 359-371; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.30

Abstract:
This paper investigated how food and beverage (F&B) stocks react to COVID-19. The event study method was applied to four events including the first and second events, were the first COVID-19 positive patients detected in the largest and second-largest economic center of Vietnam. The third and fourth events are related to strong measures to prevent the spread of COVID-19: the nationwide lockdown at the beginning of the second quarter of 2020, and the lockdown of Danang at the beginning of the third quarter of 2020. The results show that the reaction of F&B stock prices to events supports the semi-strong form of efficient market theory. The strong and lasting negative reaction of F&B stocks to the first event can be explained by surprise (first case in Vietnam) and Hochiminh city’s economic engine driving role in the development of Vietnam’s economy. The study finds that heuristic decision-making from nationwide lockdowns (suppression of supply chains during lockdowns) can explain the sub-sector of farming-fishing-ranching products reacted more strongly to the lockdown event in Danang. Based on the research results, this paper provides some policy implications for managers and notes for securities investors.
Hyeongtae Cho,
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 347-358; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.29

Abstract:
This study examines whether the management style of a fund differs depending on the type of fund being managed for tax purposes, given the rules of temporary tax relief for fund investments. The study considers a change in the ratio of tax-favored assets to the net asset value of a tax relief qualified fund around the effective date of tax relief laws in South Korea in 2007 and 2016. A regression model is used to test sample data from domestic and overseas equity funds available in the three months before and after the 2007 and 2016 Restriction of Special Taxation Act came into effect. It was found that the ratio of the value of tax-favored assets to the net asset value in the tax relief qualified fund increased significantly since the enactment of tax relief laws in both 2007 and 2016. These findings suggest that fund managers may try to change the asset allocation in a managed fund to increase the after-tax return of the fund investor, which means that fund managers do take into account the potential tax burden on fund investors and try to minimize it. AcknowledgmentThis work was supported by the Ministry of Education of the Republic of Korea and the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF- 2019S1A5A8035027).
, , Xiaoxuan Huang, Xi Li
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 372-384; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.31

Abstract:
Forecasting multiple-step value-at-risk (VaR) consistently across asset classes is hindered by the limited sample size of low-frequency returns and the potential model misspecification when assuming identical return distributions over different holding periods. This paper hence investigates the predictive power for multi-step VaR of a framework that models separately the volatility component and the error term of the return distribution. The proposed model is illustrated with ten asset returns series including global stock markets, commodity futures, and currency exchange products. The estimation results confirm that the volatility-filter residuals demonstrate distinguished tail dynamics to that of the return series. The estimation results suggest that volatility-filtered residuals may have either negative or positive tail dependence, unlike the unanimous negative tail dependence in the return series. By comparing the proposed model to several alternative approaches, the results from both the formal and informal tests show that the specification under concern performs equivalently well if not better than its top competitors at the 2.5% and 5% risk level in terms of accuracy and validity. The proposed model also generates more consistent VaR forecasts under both the 5-step and 10-step setup than the MIDAS-Q model. AcknowledgmentThe authors are grateful to the editor and an anonymous referee. This research is sponsored by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Award Number: 71501117). All remaining errors are our own.
Rahul Kumar, Prince Bhatia, Deeksha Gupta
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 334-346; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.28

Abstract:
This paper aims to examine the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Indian firms listed on the NSE and analyze its impact on various sectors. In addition, a sub-sample analysis based on market capitalization was performed to understand the effect of size during extreme events. The sample consisted of 1,335 firms listed on the NSE India. A standard event study outlined by Brown and Warner (1985) was employed to analyze the price impact on the COVID-19 outbreak. The event windows from -10 days to +10 days were selected. The estimation window is 250 days. The Nifty 50 has been chosen as a proxy for market return. The sample firms witnessed a negative impact of the COVID-19 outbreak with a negative CAAR in different event windows. In addition, various sectors are classified according their responsiveness towards the COVID-19 outbreak into three groups: highly negatively affected, moderately negatively affected, and slightly negatively affected. The paper also points out that the pandemic substantially affects the above-median market capitalized firms than the below-median market capitalized firms, which contradicts the size effect phenomenon. The results assist shareholders in managing their portfolios and mitigate the systematic risk of their investments during extreme events such as a pandemic, wars, and others. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on different sectors in India. It is also the first study to investigate the size effect anomalies during extreme events.
Abdulwahid Ahmed Hashed Abdullah
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 327-333; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.27

Abstract:
This study examined the impact of cost stickiness on firm profitability in different industrial sectors in Saudi Arabia. The sample size for the study consists of 102 companies listed on Tadawul (Saudi Stock Exchange) from 2009 to 2018. The study estimated a panel regression using pooled OLS, fixed and random effects, and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM). The variable Return on Investment (ROI) is used as a proxy to measure a firm’s profitability. The results of all the three models are similar to each other. The study found a negative and significant correlation between profitability and cost stickiness, indicating firms’ inability to control the selling, general and administrative costs (SG&A), ultimately leading to lower profits. In addition, firm size is positively associated with profitability, indicating that larger firms are more profitable compared to smaller ones, while the leverage is negatively related to profitability, indicating that companies have higher debts.
Nataliia Savchuk, Tetiana Bludova, Dmytro Leonov, Olena Murashko,
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 312-326; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.26

Abstract:
The global financial market is undergoing transformational changes under the growing influence of innovative factors. Such changes are due, in particular, to the concentration and scaling up and diversification of the structure of financial services, the renewal of the financial sector on the basis of FinTech operations and blockchain technologies. This requires taking into account the impact of innovation factors on the transformation of the financial market in the dimension of FinTech. The study aims to identify the imperatives of global financial innovation and show ways to develop innovative models in the interpretation of S-curves for next-generation products using new technologies when key technologies on the previous S-curve become obsolete. Also, the matrix of financial innovations is presented and the synergy of its innovation models is proved.The results of the study are to prove that each of the presented models is not independent, it evolves and develops itself, as well as affects other models. This made it possible to identify prognostic pathways for the development of innovative models in their synergy in the form of two-ring motion. Thus, the study emphasizes the need for further research aimed at developing innovative models that will determine strategic decisions in the formation of innovation imperatives.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 295-311; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.25

Abstract:
The motivation for this study is to assess the impact of financial innovation and remittances on bank-based financial institutions’ credit performance in Bangladesh for the period 1981–2019. The study applies augmented ARDL (AARDL) and nonlinear ARDL (NARDL) to identify both long-run and short-run effects and directional causality by performing non-granger casualty tests. AARDL confirms the presence of a long-run association between financial innovation, remittance, trade openness, FDI, and credit performance, which is measured by non-performing loans. In the long run, financial innovation and FDI volatility expose a positive link with NPLs, but remittance inflows and trade openness establish a negative association. Asymmetry shocks in financial innovation reveal a positive relationship with credit performance. In contrast, the asymmetric shock of remittance and trade openness unveil a negative tie to credit performance, especially in the long run. Furthermore, directional causality provides evidence to support a feedback hypothesis explaining causality between financial innovation and credit performance, as well as remittance inflows and credit performance. These findings suggest that credit performance is guided by future development in remittances and financial innovation; thus, closer attention from policymakers and financial experts is persistent to capitalize or mitigate the impact of the financial system.
, Salim El Haddad
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 260-276; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.23

Abstract:
This study proposed a method for constructing rating tools using logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis to determine the risk profile of SME portfolios. The objective, firstly, is to evaluate the impact of the crisis due to the Covid-19 by readjusting the profile of each company by using the expert opinion and, secondly, to evaluate the efficiency of the measures taken by the Moroccan state to support the companies during the period of the pandemic. The analysis in this paper showed that the performance of the logistic regression and linear discriminant analysis models is almost equivalent based on the ROC curve. However, it was revealed that the logistic regression model minimizes the risk cost represented in this study by the expected loss. For the support measures adopted by the Moroccan government, the study showed that the failure rate (critical situation) of the firms benefiting from the support is largely lower than that of the non-beneficiaries.
Joshua Odutola Omokehinde
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 277-294; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.24

Abstract:
The paper investigates the behavior of mutual funds and their risk-adjusted performance in the financial markets of Nigeria between April 2016 and May 31, 2019, using descriptive statistics, as well as CAPM, Jensen’s alpha, and other risk-adjusted portfolio performance measures such as Sharpe and Treynor ratios, as well as Fama decomposition of return. The descriptive tests revealed that 80.77% of the funds were superior to market returns, while 13.46% were riskier. The market and the fund returns behaved abnormally with asymptotic and leptokurtic characteristics as their skewness and kurtosis varied from the normal requirements. Diagnostically, the normality test by Jacque-Berra showed that the return was not normally distributed at a 1% significance level. The market was more aggressive relative to the funds. The average risk-free rate was 6.75% above the market’s return. The risk-adjusted portfolio returns measured by Sharpe and Treynor ratios showed that 67.31% of the funds underperformed the market compared to 40.38% that outperformed the market using Jensen’s alpha. Fama decomposition of return revealed that the fund managers are risk-averse with 48% superior selection ability and rationally invested over 85% of investors’ funds in schemes with fixed income securities at a given risk-free return that cushioned the negative effects of the systematic and idiosyncratic risks and consequently threw the total returns into positive territories. Overall, the fund managers possessed 52% of inferior selection abilities that only earned 33% of superior risk-adjusted returns and hence, failed to achieve the desired diversification in the relevant period.
Gimede Gigante, Giovanni Maria Guidotti
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 229-248; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.21

Abstract:
The extraordinary growth of China from the early 2000s until now made it one of the biggest economies in the world. Over the years, more and more Chinese companies merged with the U.S. listed special purpose acquisition companies (“SPACs”) to become public and attract foreign capital. This paper examines the differences between this specific subsample of SPACs focused on completing a merger with a business located in China among those listed on the U.S. Stock Exchanges and the other U.S. listed SPACs. The intent is to verify whether the sample differs from the rest of the market in their main characteristics, have better, equal, or worse prospects of completing a merger, and offer better, equal, or worse returns to investors. 329 SPACs were identified, of which 41 targeting Chinese businesses. Logistic regression is performed to understand whether the China market focus influences the chances of consuming a business combination. Moreover, two different models (event study approach and buy-and-hold approach) are implemented to assess the share performances of the two subsamples. The conclusions that stem from the obtained results are that China-focused SPACs differ consistently from the rest of the market in certain features but need similar time to identify a target and close the deal. Focusing on China seems to be beneficial for the SPAC’s prospects of closing a deal, being statistically significant at a 10% level. Last, a portfolio composed of the sample SPACs’ shares overperforms the non-China one in both the short and long terms. Acknowledgment The authors would like to thank their brilliant student, Mr. Daniele Notarnicola, for the precious support given during the review of the paper.
Maha D. Ayoush, Ahmad A. Toumeh, Khaled I. Shabaneh
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 249-259; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.22

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to show the relative impact of liquidity, leverage, and solvency on profitability of industrial enterprises listed on the Amman Stock Exchange to ascertain which of them has the most effect on profitability. To reach the objectives of this study, 44 Jordanian industrial companies are examined from 2012 to 2018. Return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE) are examined as measures of performance, current ratio and quick ratio as measures of liquidity, debt ratio and debt to equity ratio as measures of leverage, and the interest coverage ratio as a measure of financial solvency. Multiple regression analysis was used to check the hypotheses. A negative and statistically significant impact was found at the 1% level between financial leverage and profitability. At the same time, findings did not show the same for the effect of liquidity and solvency on profitability. In addition, leverage has the highest relative impact among independent variables on profitability, followed by solvency and then liquidity. Moreover, it is indicated that company size is a control variable of the effect between liquidity, leverage, and solvency on performance. Thus, it is concluded that management of industrial companies should reduce dependence on debt to finance companies to achieve the highest possible returns; it is recommended to maintain an acceptable level of liquidity to ensure the continuity of companies and attention to the level of solvency within companies to maintain a high financial performance.
Bohdan Danylyshyn, Ivan Bohdan
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 214-228; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.20

Abstract:
Estimation of the actual and projected level of the neutral interest rate is a central issue in the application of modern monetary theory in the practical context of monetary policy. Views on the role and key drivers of neutral interest rates have evolved over time in parallel with the development of the theory of capital, money, credit and economic growth. Therefore, the paper is aimed at generalizing methods for assessing the neutral interest rate for open economies with emerging markets and formulating recommendations for improving the existing methodological tools for estimating the neutral rate in Ukraine. To achieve this goal, theoretical sources, advisory and research materials of international organizations, central banks and statistical databases were analyzed. It is established that the key issue of the current discussion about the tools for estimating the level of neutral interest rates in countries with small open economies is the relationship between the effects of external and internal factors. The paper identifies the advantages and disadvantages of the method for estimating the level of the neutral rate on the basis of uncovered interest parity rule used by the National Bank of Ukraine within the semi-structural macroeconomic model. The expediency of methodological tools introducing into the practice of monetary regulation of Ukraine for estimating the neutral rate of Ukraine based on the Laubach-Williams approach has been proved with adaptation to the conditions of an open economy, which will consider сinternal factors of economic development – changes in potential GDP and savings.
Linda Agustina, Kuat Waluyo Jati, Niswah Baroroh, Ardian Widiarto, Pery N. Manurung
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 204-213; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.19

Abstract:
This study examines the role of the risk management committee as a moderating variable. The risk management committee will moderate the relationship between firm size, profitability, ownership concentration, and the size of the Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) disclosure board. The study is based on agency theory, which discusses the relationship between management and company owners and shareholders. The research sample consisted of 56 manufacturing companies in Indonesia with 224 units of analysis obtained using the purposive sampling technique. It has been proven that the risk management committee can moderate the relationship between firm size and ERM disclosure and ownership concentration and ERM disclosure. Company size is known to affect the disclosure of risk management in a company. But ownership concentration shows different things, that is, it does not affect corporate risk management disclosures. The results also show that the risk management committee cannot moderate the relationship between profitability and the size of the board of commissioners on the company’s risk management disclosures. It has also not been proven that profitability and the size of the board of commissioners directly affect corporate risk management disclosures. Thus, it can be stated that the risk management committee plays a role in controlling the extent of the company’s risk management disclosures; this is necessary to maintain stakeholder trust in the company.
Alfred James Kimea, Msizi Mkhize
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 194-203; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.18

Abstract:
Taxes play a significant role in the social and economic development of counties. On the other hand, taxes represent a significant cost to firms; hence they devise legal ways to reduce their taxes through tax planning. In East Africa, the statutory tax rate of firms averages 30%, which is considered a major burden to the firms. As a result, this study aims to longitudinally examine the tax planning practices of listed firms in East Africa countries (EACs). The study used twelve-year annual reports of ninety-one firms from EACs. Both cash effective tax rate (CEFR) and accounting effective tax rate were employed as tax planning measures. Descriptive statistics together with Wilcoxon signed-ranked test were used to analyze the results. The study demonstrates the existence of corporate tax planning by the listed firms in EACs. The average CETR of the firms was 17% as opposed to the statutory tax rate of 30%, demonstrating that the firms actively engage in tax planning activities. The evidence further demonstrated a gradual decrease in the tax planning activities of the firms over the past twelve years. The study further found out that the rates of decline in the firms’ tax planning were statistically insignificant. Despite the decrease in the firms’ tax planning, the tax authorities in EACs should enforce tax laws to eliminate the tax planning problem.
Kieu Minh Nguyen, Tu Minh Vu
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 183-193; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.17

Abstract:
Research on the capital structure of family firms has flourished in recent years, but the impact of performance aspiration and family ownership together on capital structure remains inadequately investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore the impact of family ownership and under-aspiration performance and their interaction on capital structure. Panel data estimations were applied with a unique dataset of 3.857 observations from 387 public firms in Vietnam from 2010 to 2020 (134 family firms and 253 non-family firms). The results reveal that family ownership and under-aspiration performance each has a positive effect on capital structure. However, under-aspiration performance negatively moderates the positive effect of family ownership on capital structure. These findings contribute to a stream of studies on the capital structure of family firms by exploring the role of under-aspiration performance, as well as provide important implications for shareholders, managers and debtors in financial management.
Thi Van Trang Do
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 175-182; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.16

Abstract:
Debt maturity structure plays an important role in enterprises’ capital structure policies, and debt maturity varies from industry to industry. The paper investigates the determinants that affect the debt maturity structure of listed firms in the consumer goods industry from 2009 to 2019. The data is collected from consumer goods companies listed on the Vietnam Stock Exchange. The feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) estimation is demonstrated to consider not only micro but also macroeconomic variables that have influenced the corporate debt maturity policy. The empirical results show that five microeconomic factors, such as capital structure, asset structure, asset liquidity, profitability, and firm size, have influenced the debt maturity and are statistically significant. Meanwhile, macroeconomic factors such as inflation rate and credit growth have significantly affected the corporate debt maturity. Finally, the paper provides some suggestions for financial managers on the optimal corporate debt maturity in the consumer goods sector and recommendations for policy-makers when implementing macroeconomic policies.
Oleh Kolodiziev, , Ihor Krupka, Myroslav Kulchytskyy, Iryna Sochynska-Sybirtseva
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 166-174; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.15

Abstract:
Post-socialist governments are looking for the best options to implement a fully funded pension system along with a pay-as-you-earn pension scheme. The paper aims to establish the impact of pension assets on economic growth using the example of post-socialist countries (Hungary, the Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Poland, and the Czech Republic). The use of methods of correlation and regression analysis allows determining the type of dependence (linear, exponential, gradual, and logarithmic) of countries’ economic growth indicators on pension assets and patterns for their investment (deposits, securities of public and private sectors). The obtained economic growth indicators of the studied post-socialist countries show a strong logarithmic dependence on the size of pension assets: Gross fixed capital formation depends on changes in the pension asset amount by 76.44% and GDP by 71.01%. The economic growth of the studied post-socialist countries is most significantly influenced by pension assets invested in deposits. Investing pension savings in public and private sector securities is less effective. The proved provisions determine the expediency of moving from the predominant pay-as-you-earn pension scheme to the predominant fully funded pension system for Ukraine. Such a transformation requires a stable and efficient construction of the country’s banking system, a developed policy for reforming the pension system while considering the criteria of the internal demographic, social, and financial situation.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 151-165; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.14

Abstract:
South Africa’s economy has faced many downturns in the previous decade, and to curb the spread of the novel SARS-CoV-2, the lockdown brought South African financial markets to an abrupt halt. Therefore, the implementation of risk mitigation approaches is becoming a matter of urgency in volatile markets in these unprecedented times. In this study, a hybrid generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH)-type model combined with heavy-tailed distributions, namely the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) and the Nolan’s S0-parameterization stable distribution (SD), were fitted to the returns of three FTSE/JSE indices, namely All Share Index (ALSI), Banks Index and Mining Index, as well as the daily closing prices of the US dollar against the South African rand exchange rate (USD/ZAR exchange rate). VaR values were estimated and back-tested using the Kupiec likelihood ratio test. The results of this study show that for FTSE/JSE ALSI returns, the hybrid exponential GARCH (1,1) model with SD model (EGARCH(1,1)-SD) outperforms the GARCH-GPD model at the 2.5% VaR level. At VaR levels of 95% and 97.5%, the fitted GARCH (1,1)-SD model for FTSE/JSE Banks Index returns performs better than the GARCH (1,1)-GPD. The fitted GARCH (1,1)-SD model for FTSE/JSE Mining Index returns is better than the GARCH (1,1)-GPD at 5% and 97.5% VaR levels. Thus, this study suggests that the GARCH (1,1)-SD model is a good alternative to the VaR robust model for modeling financial returns. This study provides salient results for persons interested in reducing losses or obtaining a better understanding of the South African financial industry.
Mohammad Fawzi Shubita
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 142-150; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.13

Abstract:
The cash flow statement aids the management to ascertain the profitability and liquidity position of a company. One can understand from the cash flow statement how efficiently the company is paying its obligation in various forms of liability and expense. This study aimed to explore the ability of short-term accounting accruals to predict cash flows. The sample included 77 Jordanian companies listed between 2006–2019. Cash flows were measured by net operating cash flows, and short-term accounting accruals were expressed as: change in account receivable, change in accounts payable, change in inventories, and other accruals. The results demonstrated the ability of short-term accounting accruals to predict future cash flows. The relationship between future cash flows and the short-term accounting accruals was significant, except for its relationship to the change in accounts payable. However, the findings indicate that the size of the company has not moderated the relationship between accounting accruals and operating cash flow. The study recommends using other accounting items besides short-term accounting accruals, to improve their ability to predict future cash flows and use of control variables that can increase the predictive power of the study model, such as financial leverage and company size. AcknowledgmentsI would like to thank Amman Arab University for its great support, and for funding this study.
Saji Thazhungal Govindan Nair
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 127-141; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.12

Abstract:
Pairs trading that is built on ’Relative-Value Arbitrage Rule’ is a popular short-term speculation strategy enabling traders to make profits from temporary mispricing of close substitutes. This paper aims at investigating the profit potentials of pairs trading in a new finance area – on cryptocurrencies market. The empirical design builds upon four well-known approaches to implement pairs trading, namely: correlation analysis, distance approach, stochastic return differential approach, and cointegration analysis, that use monthly closing prices of leading cryptocoins over the period January 1, 2018, – December 31, 2019. Additionally, the paper executes a simulation exercise that compares long-short strategy with long-only portfolio strategy in terms of payoffs and risks. The study finds an inverse relationship between the correlation coefficient and distance between different pairs of cryptocurrencies, which is a prerequisite to determine the potentially market-neutral profits through pairs trading. In addition, pairs trading simulations produce quite substantive evidence on the continuing profitability of pairs trading. In other words, long-short portfolio strategies, producing positive cumulative returns in most subsample periods, consistently outperform conservative long-only portfolio strategies in the cryptocurrency market. The profitability of pairs trading thus adds empirical challenge to the market efficiency of the cryptocurrency market. However, other aspects like spectral correlations and implied volatility might also be significant in determining the profit potentials of pairs trading.
Hussein Mohammad Salameh
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 113-126; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.11

Abstract:
Insurance firms are known to have unique financial failure characteristics that affect the financial environment of the countries. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the model used in predicting the financial failures of insurance companies. The model is believed to help in stabilizing the financial environment of the countries by predicting any collapses in the insurance sector. A discriminate regression technique was used to test 28 indicators chosen from 11 financial failure model parameters. 11 parameters of the model are the following: solvency, profitability, operational capabilities, structural soundness, capital expansion capacity, capital adequacy, reinsurance and actuarial issues, management soundness, capital expansion capacity, earnings and profitability, and liquidity. The results of the study proved that 22 variables from 11 parameters were significant; the study also validated the use of the financial failure model as a stable predictor of the financial failure of ASE insurance firms. The stability of the insurance industry is interpreted through the minimum deviation between the real and measured performances. The deviation was present in 3 out of 95 observations, and it affected only 3 firms out of 19, 1 firm out of 3 turned out to be affected by the risker deviation which is the type II error distorted observation. To conclude, the study by mentioning that insurance firms are not threatened by failure or distress and the financial failure model is a valid prediction model.
Bahaa Awwad, Bahaa Razia
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 94-103; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.09

Abstract:
The study deals with the efficiency of the Palestine Stock Exchange (PSE) indicators that explain the market return. The data published in the Palestine Exchange and the Palestinian Monetary Authority during 2010–2018 have been analyzed. The multiple regression method has been employed to determine the correlation between efficiency indicators and market return. However, the findings, on the one hand, determined that there was no statistically significant effect of efficiency indicators measured by the stock turnover rate and the market capital ratio. On the other hand, they demonstrated the impact of market concentration on market return, which shows a widespread weakness in the efficiency indicators. Therefore, PSE does not enjoy the required levels of efficiency even at the weak level. The study explored the absence of liquidity indicators required for market depth, speed of market response, and market concentration. Thus, the stock prices at the PSE become randomly moving, volatile, and unstable. Consequently, the outcomes of the aforementioned findings recommended the necessity to take the essential measures that activate the elements of market efficiency to reflect the available returns according to the scientific method. The paper also recommends that there should be incentives that motivate and encourage institutions to raise their capital and put their securities into the stock exchange to enhance their role in achieving economic development. However, it should be mentioned that the increasing number of companies leads to an increase in investments as it contributes to the expansion of the market. AcknowledgmentSpecial thanks to Palestine Technical University for their continued and valuable support.
Khoirul Aswar, Jumansyah Jumansyah, Sri Mulyani, Mahendro Sumardjo
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 104-112; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.10

Abstract:
This study examines whether the internal control system moderates the relationship among budget expenditure, government size, legislative size, and audit findings on financial statement disclosure in Indonesia. This is a quantitative study that uses the purposive sampling technique to collect data from 240 local governments in Indonesia. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with Smart PLS. The results show that government size, legislative size, and audit findings had a positive and significant effect on financial statement disclosure, whereas budget expenditure does not. In addition, the findings revealed that the internal control system moderates the relationship between government size and legislative size and financial statement disclosure, but not by audit findings. The study contributed to extending the institutional and agency theory that explains these factors toward disclosure in the local government in Indonesia. The findings suggest that Indonesia’s local governments consider potential factors regarding increasing pressure to carry out disclosure of financial statements, as well as increasing the proper disclosure required by applicable Indonesian regulations.
Waldemar Aspadarec
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 82-93; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.08

Abstract:
Performance persistence analysis is important as it has a decisive influence on investor allocation decisions. Investors can use quasi-hedge funds’ persistence to build effective investment strategies. Thus, the paper explores performance persistence of quasi-hedge funds operating at the Polish capital market. The methodology is based on constructing the new market performance index intended only for absolute return funds. It is validated regarding absolute returns of Polish quasi-hedge funds. The Absolute Return Index (ARI) is used to rate quasi-hedge funds’ performance persistence in assessing their fundamental purpose: to deliver consistently positive returns in all market conditions. For this, their quarterly return rates are used. All 53 funds operating for at least 36 months and representing 48.2% of the entire segment of absolute return funds are analyzed. The use of ARI allows examining quasi-hedge funds’ performance persistence in terms of market changes and the assessment of their purpose. In the short term (6 months) profitability remained persistent, while in the long term (12 months) such a hypothesis could be refuted. More than 40% of funds showed positive persistence within six months; only positive persistence occurred in the short term. 9.4% of funds repeatedly obtained negative returns, so absolute return funds’ negative performance persisted neither in the short nor long term. Closed-ended investment funds showed much stronger persistence of above-average positive returns, which additionally tended to avoid repeating negative returns in two-quarter and four-quarter series. This confirms the assumption that in this respect the Polish market is similar to the developed ones.
Immas Nurhayati, , Titing Suharti, , Leny Muniroh
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 63-73; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.06

Abstract:
This paper examines how to build a portfolio and assess the impact of the COVID-19 on portfolio performance using the Sharpe single index model. The research sample consists of ten high market capitalization stocks representing five price fractions of the population listed stocks on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the COVID-19 outbreak from March 1 to May 31, 2020. The results show that there are four stocks that are included in the portfolio formation, namely CASA with a proportion of 50%, BNLI with a proportion of 26 %, UNVR with a proportion of 15%, and HMSP with a proportion of 9%. Based on portfolio performance testing using the Sharpe single index model, it is known that the portfolio during the COVID-19 has a negative Sharpe ratio, meaning that portfolio performance is underperforming. The findings provide evidence that COVID-19 has had a negative impact on the stock market so that many investors have suffered losses on their portfolios. The implications of findings are that investors must evaluate portfolio performance and restructure the formation of new portfolios by considering the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak as a systematic risk factor that can determine the expected returns.
, Thu-Trang Thi Doan
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 74-81; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.07

Abstract:
This study investigated the impact of stock market development (SMD) on economic growth (EG) among emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs) in Asia. The data sample includes eight Asian EMDEs (China, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam) from 2008 to 2019. These countries share several similarities, so this ensures reliability of the results. Regarding the analysis, the generalized method of moments (GMM) is used for the estimation. The results show that SMD exerts a positive impact on EG. This finding confirms the importance of SMD in improving efficient capital accumulation and allocation, and also allows investors to reduce risks and increase liquidity, which will boost EG. Further, the significant influence of domestic credit (DC), control of corruption (CC), and inflation (INF) on EG is also highlighted. These findings are valuable empirical evidence that greatly contributes to reinforcing the suitability of classical economic growth theories, especially the theory of endogenous growth. They are also essential to EMDEs in Asia. Accordingly, the EMDEs should develop effective policies to improve the stock market’s scale, which contributes substantially to the development of EG. Moreover, these economies need to pursue many appropriate policies in sync, such as stimulating SMD, improving governance effectiveness and implementing effective macroeconomic policies. Acknowledgment This study was funded by the Industrial University of Ho Chi Minh City (IUH), Vietnam (grant number: 21/1TCNH01).
Abdul Rahman Shaik
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 52-62; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.05

Abstract:
The study examines the influence of the cash conversion cycle (one of the components of working capital) on the firm profitability measured in terms of return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA), Tobin’s q, and gross operating profit (GROP) in the manufacturing sector of Saudi Arabia. The study selects a sample of 100 companies from nine industrial sectors listed on the Tadawul Stock Exchange starting from 2008 to 2019. A pooled regression is estimated to report the empirical results. The results report a positive and significant association between the components of working capital in terms of cash conversion cycle and the firm profitability in terms of ROA, ROE, and Tobin’s q, except for the GROP, where there is a negative and significant relationship. The study reports that the growth in firm performance is associated with supplier’s financing terms and inventory ordering cost. The results also show that larger firms are more profitable than smaller firms. Hence, the current study confirms the formulated hypothesis of having a significant association between the components of working capital and firm profitability.
Sudipa Majumdar, Rashita Puthiya, Nandan Bendarkar
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 40-51; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.04

Abstract:
In the Indian equity market, the Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) is the most popular strategy due to its convenience for disciplined investing regardless of market conditions. This study analyzes the excess returns of an extensive dataset of listed Indian companies from 2010 to 2019, along with a value-based version of the Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), to identify top performing stocks, based on their sectors and market capitalization. The findings of the study provide empirical evidence of Value Averaging (VA) as a viable alternative strategy over SIP (also known as Dollar Cost Averaging or Rupee Cost Averaging) as 352 out of 359 companies yielded higher returns under VA. The superiority of the VA strategy over the SIP was particularly marked in the consumer goods, financial services and industrial manufacturing sectors, with a clear dominance of small cap companies. The results also show that risk factors for VA strategy play an important role and should be taken into account, rather than base investment decisions on excess returns alone. The efficiency scores of individual stocks provide important insights for mutual funds, financial brokers and individual investors in India.
Andreas, , Tatang Ary Gumanti, Nurhayati
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 27-39; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.03

Abstract:
Earnings management (EM) refers to the common use of accounting techniques in various economic settings, such as Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), to produce financial statements. This study, therefore, analyzes the effect of firm size, operating cash flow, the used IPO proceeds, earnings changes, and leverage on EM of manufacturing companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 1989 to 2013. This sector comprises the essential chemical industry, miscellaneous organizations, and consumer goods, with 63 firms being used to meet the selection criteria. The regression analysis showed that the intended use of funds and leverage had a negative and significant impact on EM. Furthermore, the process is measured using Friedlan’s (1994) Discretionary Current Accruals model with similar results found in each industry group and their insignificant differences used to regulate the level of discretionary accruals between the three sectors. This study implies that the EM level is qualitatively similar among IPO companies in the three sub-sectors examined. AcknowledgmentsThe authors are grateful to the audience for their comments during the 11th Environmental and Sustainability Management Accounting Network-Asia Pacific (EMAN-AP) Conference held at the Danang University of Economics, Danang, Vietnam, 12-13 August 2019. The early draft was titled “Earnings Management and Initial Public Offerings on Manufacturing Sectors Companies”.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 16-26; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.02

Abstract:
The purpose of the paper is to select the right market proxy for calculating the expected return, since critically evaluating proxies or selecting the correct proxy market portfolio is essential for portfolio management because the change in the market portfolio proxy affects returns. In this study, monthly data of equity indices are evaluated to find out the better market proxy. The indices taken are BSE 30 (Sensex), Nifty 50, BSE 100, BSE 200, and BSE 500. The macroeconomic variables used in the study are industrial production index (IIP), consumer price index (CPI), money supply (M1), and exchange rate in India. To avoid the influence of COVID-19, the research period was from January 2013 to December 2019 to critically evaluate these proxies in order to find the most appropriate market proxy. This paper reveals a noteworthy relationship between stock market returns and macroeconomic factors, while suggesting that the BSE 500 is a better choice for all equity indices, as the index also shows a significant relationship with all macroeconomic variables. BSE500 is a composite index comprising all sectors with low, mid and large cap securities, therefore it reflects the impact of macroeconomic factors most efficiently, taking it as a market proxy. This study was carried out in the context of India and can be replicated for other countries.
Oloyede Obagbuwa, Farai Kwenda, Gbenga Wilfred Akinola
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(3).2021.01

Abstract:
This study investigates how variation in monitoring intensity affects the efficiency of firms’ investment decisions in an emerging market in South Africa. The study hypothesis argues that the distraction of institutional shareholders has a statistically significant positive effect on corporate investment inefficiency. Using a more robust Generalized Method of Moments (Sys GMM) estimation approach to analyze data collected for firms listed at the Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) for the period 2004–2019, the results showed that the distraction of institutional shareholders has a positive and statistically significant impact on investment inefficiency. That is, when the attention of institutional shareholders is shifted, the intensity of their monitoring drops, and the executive is involved in investment decisions that are not profitable. This insight has an implication for stakeholders and the value-creating corporate governance mechanism. The study concludes that institutional shareholders must always sustain their monitoring intensity to ensure that corporate decisions are consistent with the firm’s value.
Adefemi A. Obalade
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 391-401; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.31

Abstract:
This study examines the adaptive behavior of South Africa’s rand (ZAR) exchange rate against its major trading partners, the US Dollar (USD) and the Chinese Yuan (CNY) over the period 1999-2020. The study uses a rolling parametric linear variance ratio (VR) test, nonparametric linear runs test, and non-linear Brock, Dechert and Scheinkman (BDS) test to determine time-varying predictability and regression analyses to assess the effect of market conditions. The results show that the foreign exchange market was found to be inefficient based on the VR tests, but efficient with very few windows of inefficiency based on the runs test and BDS test. In addition, apart from the GDP, none of the market conditions studied is associated with non-parametric linear and nonlinear predictabilities. The study draws two main conclusions. Firstly, the South African foreign exchange market is adaptively efficient. Secondly, foreign exchange market efficiency is primarily driven by the level of economic growth. Practically, it will be difficult for investors to exploit the few windows of predictability in the South African foreign exchange market by focusing mainly on the market conditions studied.
, , Yuliia Nikolchuk, Mariia Rushchyshyn, Taras Vasyltsiv
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 193-208; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.16

Abstract:
The effective functioning of the banking sector has a key impact on the stability of economic growth. The study is aimed at monitoring the banking sector development and identifying causality between the banking sector and economic growth. The methodological tools of the research are Principal component analysis, causal relationship, and vector regression modeling. The empirical study is based on the World Bank databank by eight components (for integral analysis) and seven indicators (for causality analysis). The study presents an improved algorithm for monitoring the level of banking sector development based on calculating the integral coefficient. According to assessment, the level of banking sector development and realization of its potential in Ukraine is low and significantly inferior to the EU countries; in 2000–2019, the development of the banking sector in Ukraine was 0.061-0.153. The results obtained confirmed the large discrepancy in the development of Ukraine’s banking sector with some EU countries (the highest lag values were observed with the Czech Republic and Poland). The causality analysis revealed a strong favorable relationship between the level of development of the banking sector in Ukraine and GDP per capita (0.796), a moderate one – with foreign direct investment (0.400), and a reverse relationship with the level of national poverty (0.678). This study is of practical value for identifying two possible trajectories of a country’s development, namely, sustainable development and economic turbulence, and has allowed forming a conceptual vision of the role of the banking sector in achieving social and economic goals.
Earl D. Benson, Sophie X. Kong
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 209-222; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.17

Abstract:
This study is relevant to investors who wish to diversify their investment portfolio by investing in U.S.-based investment companies that invest in specific Pacific Basin countries to better understand the diversification benefits of such investments. The purpose is to examine the daily returns of selected U.S.-based, country-focused (Pacific Basin) investment companies to see if those returns accurately reflect the changes of the equity indices of the corresponding Pacific Basin market on the following trading day. The method used is that the reactions of daily investment company returns compared to U.S. market daily returns are examined for Japan, South Korea, and Australia for the period 2006–2010. These return reactions are compared to the home-country returns. Next, for the period from 2011 to 2015, the examination is broadened to include U.S.-based investment companies that invest in Taiwan, Singapore, China, and Indonesia. The results show that investment company share prices on “day t” tend to overreact to changes in the S&P 500 on “day t”, relative to “day t+1” changes in the corresponding Pacific Basin market index – often by more than 100%. Finally, the study shows that on “day t+1” these investment company share prices exhibit a reversal. These findings indicate that the diversification benefits of investing in these Pacific Basin investment companies are reduced due to this increased volatility. S&P 500 returns are accompanied by significantly larger returns on the Pacific Basin investment company shares than are actually realized in the home country on the following day, suggesting that the diversification benefits are not being fully realized.
Mary S. Daugherty, , David O. Vang
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 155-165; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.13

Abstract:
This paper uses a Multiple Attribute Decision Making (MADM) model to improve the out-of-sample performance of a naïve asset allocation model. Under certain conditions, the naïve model has out-performed other portfolio optimization models, but it also has been shown to increase the tail risk. The MADM model uses a set of attributes to rank the assets and is flexible with the attributes that can be used in the ranking process. The MADM model assigns weights to each attribute and uses these weights to rank assets in terms of their desirability for inclusion in a portfolio. Using the MADM model, assets are ranked based on the attributes, and unlike the naïve model, only the top 50 percent of assets are included in the portfolio at any point in time. This model is tested using both developed and emerging market stock indices. In the case of developed markets, the MADM model had 24.04 percent higher return and 53.66 percent less kurtosis than the naïve model. In the case of emerging markets, the MADM model return is 90.16 percent higher than the naïve model, but with almost similar kurtosis.
Evangelos Sfakianakis
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 166-180; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.14

Abstract:
This paper deals with the ever-increasing issue of bankruptcy prediction in distressed economies. Specifically, the aim of this study is to create a model by establishing a new set of predictor variables, which achieves significant discrimination among listed manufacturing firms in Greece, by using multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA). An equally balanced matched sample of 28 Greek-listed manufacturing firms was used in this study covering the distressed period from 2008 to 2015 (including all firms that went bankrupt between 2008–2015). It is found that the quick ratio, cash flow interest coverage, and economic value added (EVA) divided by total assets are significant for predicting bankruptcy in Greece. The discriminant analysis (DA) model comprised the aforementioned variables and correctly classified 96.43% of grouped cases 1 year before bankruptcy. The adjusted DA prediction model for two and three years before bankruptcy used the same variables and correctly classified 92.86% and 89.29% of grouped cases, respectively. Consequently, this mix of financial ratios achieved strong classification accuracy even three years before bankruptcy, captivating an overall picture of a firm’s financial health and providing a powerful tool for decision making to investors and risk managers in the banking section and economic policy makers.
Robert Dankiewicz, Bartłomiej Balawejder, Tomasz Tomczyk, Viktor Trynchuk
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 144-154; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.12

Abstract:
The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has undoubtedly caused many perturbations, at the same time hindering the functioning and operation of enterprises from various industries, which, due to the often inability to conduct business, found themselves in a very difficult financial situation, with a difficult ability to settle their liabilities. Too high share of receivables that are not settled in a timely manner can result in various problems for enterprises, including, in particular, financial problems that can lead to large-scale bankruptcy. Considering a huge number of connections between individual entities, the bankruptcy of one may pose a risk of a wave of bankruptcy of others. The paper aims to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the payment situation of Polish enterprises. The research was conducted on the basis of an analysis of data on the payment situation of Polish enterprises from selected industries. Basic descriptive statistics was used in the study to characterize the material. The non-parametric Wilcoxon pair order test, which is the equivalent of the Student’s t-test for related variables, was used for the research. The research proved that at enterprises from almost every industry, the value of debts at the end of the second quarter of 2020 was higher than in the first quarter. It can therefore be concluded that the outbreak of the pandemic contributed to an increase in arrears, which, in turn, resulted in an increased risk of doing business. The greater the share of arrears with contractors, the greater the risk of financial problems at the enterprise, and hence the increased risk of bankruptcy.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 130-143; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.11

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a firm’s size, asset growth, asset tangibility, and financial leverage on profitability for all listed corporate firms in Jordan using unbalanced panel data (time series and cross-sectional) regression analysis for a sample of 1,663 observations over the period from 2011 to 2018. The overall results show a significant positive effect of a firm’s size and asset growth on profitability. However, asset tangibility presents a significant negative effect on profitability, while financial leverage has an insignificant positive effect on profitability. An analysis of each of the main sectors also point to a consistently positive effect of a firm’s size on profitability, while the results for growth in assets and financial leverage are nearly consistent with overall findings, but not those for asset tangibility. Furthermore, the sub-sample industry analysis reveals mixed results due to the different industry shapes and structures. This study is expected to be of value to firm managers, investors, researchers, and regulators.
, Ivan Cherlenjak, Volodymyr Prikhodko, Yuliіa Sonko, Maryna Shtan
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 118-129; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.10

Abstract:
This study explores the evaluation of investment attractiveness of Ukraine’s economy. The following factors are analyzed: the social significance of the sector, the coefficient of support for the sectoral development, the coefficient of production efficiency, the index of fierce competition, and the inflation index. The results of applying the calculation of the average value of the weighting factor within a particular sector and the method of the sum of sets show that the most significant influence on the investment attractiveness of the economy sector are factors of economic efficiency and support of the sector by the state. The study is based on the development and calculation of an integrated indicator of sectoral attractiveness. This approach makes it possible to take into account a set of factors and more accurately describe the existing priorities of a particular sector of the economy. The conclusion is that that the most attractive sectors in Ukraine are industry, trade, transport and communications, as well as financial activities. The education sector remains the least attractive for investment. It is estimated that its attractiveness does not exceed 10% of the threshold. Unattractive for investments sectors will need special attention from the government. Correcting the current situation and attracting additional investment in such areas can significantly reduce the burden on the state budget. The findings of this investigation can be used in order to expand the existing tools for the formation of economic policy of Ukraine and improve the practice of evaluation of sectoral investment. AcknowledgementsThis article was prepared and funded within the research theme “Strategy of structural reorientation of Ukraine’s economy in the conditions of a pandemic” reg. No. 0121U109608 of Economic Theory and Competitive Policy Department of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics.
Liudmyla Gavatiuk, Maksym Karvatskyi, Alina Korbutiak, , Eduard Yurii
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 91-105; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.08

Abstract:
Globalization and IT progress are expanding the possibilities of using various financial instruments to create a personal investment portfolio. The purpose of the study is to differentiate the investment portfolio by the level of income of Ukrainian citizens and its impact on the effectiveness of personal finance management. Analysis of indicators of state and current investment trends allowed identifying the optimal ratio of profitability and risk in financial decisions of individuals by diversifying the investment portfolio, creating personal reserves, localizing investment instruments and minimizing the use of credit resources.The result of the study is the development and justification of criteria that an investor should meet during the investing. In particular, the formation of an individual investment portfolio depending on personal income allows everyone to justify an effective personal investment policy, taking into account the available investment tools. The paper covers the approaches to the formation of a person’s investment portfolio, depending on the level of his or her income. The paper also examines the need to form an optimal investment portfolio, depending on the real financial opportunities of a person.
Valentyna Tropina, Viktor Melnyk, Mariia Rippa, Natalia Yevtushenko, Tetiana Rybakova
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 79-90; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.07

Abstract:
World practice shows that non-state pension funds (NPFs) are not only a tool for supplementary pensions, but also a source of significant investment in the economy. This study aims at determining the investment potential of 65 Ukrainian NPFs currently functioning in the country. The analysis of Ukrainian NPFs has shown their insignificant role as an investment resource (the volume of their assets is 0.09% of GDP). At the same time, NPFs operate with significant funds (UAH 3.1 billion in 2019), but the lack of a developed stock market and effective financial instruments in the country narrows the opportunities for their investment activities. A study of the structure of NPF assets allocation showed that it is far from optimal in terms of investment portfolio diversification and is very conservative – almost 85% of invested NPF assets are government guaranteed securities and funds in bank deposit accounts. But in the context of tightening the requirements for disclosure of information on the activities of NPFs, promoting the stock market development, formation of reliable mechanisms to protect depositors’ pension savings,and formation of an effective investment portfolio, NPFs in Ukraine
Ranjan R. Chakravarty,
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Volume 18, pp 64-78; https://doi.org/10.21511/imfi.18(2).2021.06

Abstract:
This paper provides a practical, empirical and theoretical framework that allows investment managers to evaluate stock exchanges’ market quality when choosing among different plausible international trading venues. To compare trading exchanges, it extends the hypothesis of market microstructure invariance to trading across exchanges. A measure ω, the ratio of the market-wide volatility to microstructure invariance, is introduced. The paper computes ω for the exchanges around the world. Its value for the NSE (India) is 24.5%, the Korea Exchange (Korea) is 7.9%, the Shanghai Exchange (China) is 3.5%, and the Shenzhen Exchange (China) is 4.4%, which is significantly different from that of major exchanges in the USA (NYSE – 0.8%, NASDAQ – 1.3%) and Europe (LSE (UK) – 0.4). This country risk dimension clearly identifies which equity exchanges cannot hold their own direct correlational hedges and therefore mandatorily require derivative positions, and has significant implications for the decision making of global long-short equity asset allocators in the Asian listed equity markets.
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