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Ogo Ogo, Bai Emmanuella, Efiong Esienanwan, Enenche Daniel
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 439-451; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.125034

Abstract:
Consumption of ice cream produced from dairy products has been reportedly associated with health hazards. To circumvent this, this study was undertaken to formulate plant-based ice cream using kunu-zaki and soymilk (as substitutes for dairy milk) fortified with mango, banana and avocado. Standard method for the preparation of ice cream was modified to formulate three variants of kunu-zaki ice cream designated as B (40% kunu-zaki, 40% banana pulp and 20% soymilk); C (40% kunu-zaki, 40% mango pulp and 20% soymilk); D (40% kunu-zaki, 40% avocado pulp and 20% soymilk), while control sample A was commercial dairy-based ice cream. Analyses of proximate, mineral and vitamin compositions were carried out on the samples following standard procedures. The results showed lower fat content in all the formulated ice cream samples, which ranged from 0.60 - 0.96 g/100g compared to the control sample with fat content of 8.15 g/100g. Similarly, the formulated ice cream samples have significant protein content with sample D recording the highest value of 3.67 g/100g compared to control sample. Samples B and C contained higher vitamin C, vitamin B6, calcium and sodium content in comparison to sample A. Sensory evaluation showed that samples B and sample C were the most acceptable ice cream variants in comparison to the control sample. These findings lend credence to the strategy of value addition for providing healthier food alternatives while contributing to the reduction in post-harvest losses of fruits utilized as fortificants.
Moh Moh Hlaing, Mya Ohnamr, Sandar Tun, Thidar Khine, Wah Wah Win, Su Su Hlaing, Hla Phyo Linn, Khin Hnin Wint Phyu, Nyein Nyein Win
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 115-123; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122010

Abstract:
Background: The distribution of childhood nutritional diseases is shifting from a predominance of under nutrition to a dual burden of under-and over nutrition in low and middle income countries. Rapid economic development and urbanization lead to an increase in overweight and obesity and diet-related chronic diseases. The co-existence of under-and over nutrition is double burden and this is a public health challenge for community. Objective: To find out the nutritional status of primary school children. Method: The study was school based descriptive study and conducted during November 2014 to February 2015 in basic primary schools, basic middle schools and basic high schools in urban and rural area of Yangon, Mandalay, Taungyi and Mawlamyaing. A total of (2937) Grade IV and Grade V students were measured for weight, height and 592 students were measured for haemoglobin by standard equipment and standard procedure. Results: The overall prevalences of stunting, wasting, overweight, obesity and anaemia were 8.8%, 15%, 4.6% and 3.1% and 36.1% respectively. The prevalences of stunting, over weight and obesity were more prevalent in boys and wasting and anaemia were more prevalent in girls. The result showed that the stunting was more prevalent in rural than in urban (7.5% in urban and 12.0% in rural). The prevalences of overweight and obesity were higher in urban than rural area (overweight 5.3% in urban and 2.8% in rural, obesity 3.8% in urban and 0.9% in rural). Children residing in urban area had higher anthropometric parameter than rural children. Conclusion: The present study observed the coexistence of obesity, overweight and undernourishment (wasting and stunting) among Myanmar School children.The findings highlighted the need for continued health promotion efforts to improve nutritional status of primary school children.
Karahmet Enver, Isaković Senita, Operta Sabina, Hamidović Saud, Toroman Almir, Đulančić Nermina, Muhamedagić Samir
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 64-72; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121006

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to assess the hygienic properties of swabs taken from the arm and coat of workers, work surfaces, refrigerated display cases, trays and packaging materials. As well as the safe properties of samples of fresh chicken meat (wing, drumstick, chest) and chicken internal organs (heart and liver) from two butcheries. One of the goals was to determine whether education on hygienic conditions was carried out, influenced the hygienic condition of swabs and safety samples of fresh chicken meat offal. The results of the analysis showed that on the first day of sampling, the largest number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria were found in the swabs of the arm (butcher A-8.15 × 102 CFU/ml), butcher (B-17.88 × 102 CFU/ml) and the smallest in the packaging material (0.03 × 102 CFU/ml). Comparing the results of the first and thirtieth sampling day was a visible decrease in the number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae for all examined swabs from both butchers. In the samples of fresh chicken meat, the number of aerobic mesophilic bacteria during the first sampling was the highest in the drumstick samples (4.75 × 103 CFU/ml) slightly less in the samples of the wing (3.78 × 103 CFU/ml) in the butcher A, in the same time in the butcher B was 3.82 × 103 CFU/ml. Microbiological analyzes samples of the thirtieth day showed that Escherichia coli has been found in both butchers in drumsticks A-0.8 CFU/ml, B butcher 0.4 CFU/ml. and offal butcher A 0.6 CFU/ml, butcher B 0.7 CFU/ml, but less than the first day. It is important to say that education of workers in butcher shops has shown that it can improve good hygiene practices in butcher shops and safety of fresh chicken meat. Education in Good Hygiene Practice has positive impact on safety of fresh chicken meat in examined butcheries.
Yann Demarigny, Elodie Legrand, Julia Sanchez, Arnaud Hallier, Nathalie Laurent, Sami Slimani, Thierry Livache, Daniel Picque
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 90-105; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121008

Abstract:
Yoghurt is fermented milk which results from the exclusive action of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. However, a disruption of the bacterial growth can lead to significant industrial losses. Currents monitoring methods, based on the checking of the pH during the fermentation step are not always satisfactory. The NeOse Pro system, a portable electronic nose, is a mean to obtain immediately aromatic profiles. In this work, we applied this technology to the yoghurt ecosystem, a highly hydrated product. The profiles obtained allowed us to discriminate yoghurts before and after fermentation. In detail, the discrepancy between the two bacteria cultured alone was slight. It was also the case when we compared different initial bacterial ratios. However, two different mixes of bacteria led to clearly distinguishable profiles. A GC/MS analysis performed on products fermented 7 h allowed us to explain the detection of acetaldehyde by the stimulation of some captors of the apparatus. NeOse Pro is so convenient to study the fermentation of yogurt.
Sahar S. El-Gohery
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 372-391; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.124029

Abstract:
Physical properties, chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids profile and anti-nutritional factors i.e. phytic acid, tannins and trypsin inhibitor of lima bean seeds (Phaseolus lunatus) which newly cultivated in Egypt were investigated. Addition to study the effect of common processing methods (soaking, cooking, roasting, and dehulling) on the chemical composition, minerals content and anti-nutritional factors of lima bean seeds in order to be used in biscuit preparation. Results showed that protein content was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased in dehulled Lima bean (27.06%) compared to raw lima bean (26.02%). All processing methods significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased Soluble Dietary Fiber (SDF), however soaked seeds contained the highest significant Total Dietary Fiber (TDF) (30.18%) and Insoluble Dietary Fiber (IDF) (22.15%). Raw lima bean was superior in calcium, iron, magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, and zinc compared with all processed samples. Raw lima bean had a higher content of all essential amino acids, except methionine compared to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate. The effect of different processing methods used in this study on lowering phytic acid and tannins, was arranged in the following significant (P ≤ 0.05) order: dehulling > cooking> roasting > soaking. Trypsin inhibitor was completely eliminated by cooking and dehulling treatments. Results showed that no significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) were found in appearance, color, texture and overall acceptability of substituted with 30% raw or processed lima bean and between control biscuit (100% wheat flour). The diameter, spread ratio, chemical composition (protein, ash, crude fiber, SDF, IDF and TDF) and minerals were significantly increased in all substituted biscuits compared to control biscuit. Improvement in the essential amino acid profile of raw Lima biscuit was observed with higher values of essential amino acids, Chemical Score (CS), and Biological Value (BV). This study recommended the use of lima bean in preparing biscuits at 30% replacement to enhance the nutritional composition of biscuits with acceptable sensory properties.
Javier R. Reyna-Granados, Lynn A. Joens, Bibiana Law, Mendel Friedman, Sadhana Ravishankar
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 392-405; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.124030

Abstract:
Escherichia coli strains produce Shiga-toxins Stx-1 and Stx-2 that contribute to their virulence. The objective was to evaluate antimicrobial activities of plant essential oils (oregano, cinnamon, lemongrass), their active components (carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, citral) and plant-extracts (green tea polyphenols, apple skin, black tea, decaffeinated black tea, grapeseed and pomace extracts) against E. coli O157:H7 strains containing Stx-1 and Stx-2 genes, as determined by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction, in vitro and on leafy greens. Antimicrobials at various concentrations in sterile PBS were added to bacterial cultures (~3 - 4 logs CFU/ml), mixed thoroughly, and incubated at 37°C. Surviving bacteria were enumerated at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 24 h. The most effective essential oil (oregano oil; 0.5%) and plant extract (green tea; 3%) were evaluated against E. coli O157:H7 on romaine lettuce and spinach stored at 4°C for 7 days. Microbial survival was a function of the concentration of antimicrobials and incubation times. All antimicrobials reduced bacterial population to below detection levels in vitro; however, essential oils and active components exhibited greater activity than plant extracts. Oregano oil and green tea reduced E. coli O157:H7 on lettuce and spinach to below detection. Plant-based antimicrobials have the potential to protect foods against E. coli O157:
Open Access
Cynthia H. Chen, John Marchello, Mendel Friedman, Sadhana Ravishankar
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 162-175; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122014

Abstract:
A potential method to inhibit pathogenic bacterial growth in meat is through the introduction of plant-derived antimicrobials. Because these antimicrobials may also adversely affect the sensory characteristics of the meat, the objectives of this study were 1) to define the appropriate concentrations of olive extract, apple extract, oregano oil, and cinnamon oil added to ground pork that are acceptable to a sensory panel, and 2) to determine their antimicrobial activities against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in inoculated ground pork. Plant extracts were evaluated against two initial inoculum levels (6 and 4 log CFU/g of pork) of Salmonella. Sensory tests showed that acceptable concentrations of oregano and cinnamon oils were 0.5% and of olive and apple extracts were 3%, respectively. Ground pork samples were inoculated with Salmonella, treated with antimicrobials at various concentrations (0.1% - 0.5% cinnamon and oregano essential oils and 3% - 5% olive and apple extracts), and stored at 4°C for 7 days. Survivors were enumerated at days 0, 3, 5, and 7. Cinnamon oil at 0.5% and olive extract at 3% induced a 1.0 and a 0.9 log CFU/g (from 6-log CFU/g initial inoculum) reduction, respectively, at day 7. At 3%, olive extract showed a 1.06 log CFU/g maximum reduction of Salmonella from a 4-log CFU/g initial inoculum. Pork samples containing oregano oil and apple extract did not show a significant reduction compared to the control without the antimicrobials. The results indicate that cinnamon oil and olive extract can potentially be applied at consumer-acceptable concentrations against low levels of S. Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork.
Kamini Joshi, Patricia Sparks, Mendel Friedman, Carl Olsen, Tara McHugh, Sadhana Ravishankar
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 176-193; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122015

Abstract:
The effects of antimicrobial edible films containing carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde on organic baby spinach were determined via sensory analysis and changes in physical properties. Edible films made from pulp of hibiscus, apple, or carrot containing carvacrol or cinnamaldehyde at 0.5%, 1.5%, or 3% concentrations were added to organic baby spinach in plastic bags. These bags were stored at 4°C for 20-24h before performing sensory evaluation and measuring changes in physical properties. A randomized block design with an affective test was used. Preference liking was evaluated based on a 9-point hedonic scale for aroma, color, freshness, mouthfeel, flavor, and overall acceptability. Additionally, panelists quantified each sample using a 5-point hedonic scale for pungency, browning, bitterness, off-odor, and sourness. The color and texture of spinach samples were measured. Edible films containing cinnamaldehyde had the highest preference liking based on aroma, color, freshness, mouthfeel, flavor, and overall acceptability than those containing carvacrol and were the most likely to be purchased by panelists; therefore, cinnamaldehyde can potentially be used as an alternative sanitization option. There were no significant (p ≤ 0.05) changes in firmness or color values between spinach treated with antimicrobial films and controls. The results provide the produce industry with options for incorporating antimicrobial films into salad bags without influencing the physical or sensory properties of baby spinach.
Moh Moh Hlaing, Mya Ohnmar, Sandar Tun, Thidar Khine, Theingi Thwin
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 28-36; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121003

Abstract:
Background: Maternal Iodine Deficiency Disorder can result in inevitable cretinism as well as miscarriages, stillbirth and low birth-weight babies. Objective: There is a need to find out contributing factors towards urinary iodine concentrations of pregnant women. Methods: Therefore, the cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to assess the patterns of salt utilization and iodine status of pregnant women living in coastal areas of Mon State in January and May, 2013. Result: A total of 144 pregnant women from Pa-Nga village and Kalokepi village in Thanbyuzayat township were asked by using structured questionnaires including age, parity, socioeconomic status and patterns of salt and iodine-rich foods (seaweed, fish, prawn) consumption. Casual urine samples were collected from each pregnant woman and urinary iodine concentrations were measured. Three samples each of the iodized salt and non-iodized salt from local markets were collected for determination of iodine content by the iodometric titration method. Only 83.3% of the study population consumed iodized salt and the remaining (16.7%) consumed non-iodized salt. The median urinary iodine concentration of the study population was 105 μg/L. The mean urinary iodine level of pregnant women who consumed iodized salt and that of pregnant women who consumed non-iodizes salt were 110.47 ± 67.34 μg/L and 95.83 ± 70.13 μg/L (P = 0.336). Iodine content of the iodized salt and non-iodized salt was 20.6 ± 9.2 ppm and 5.1 ± 1.2 ppm respectively. In conclusion, the median iodine level of pregnant women was lower than that of the optimal iodine nutrition for pregnant women, i.e., 150 - 250 μg/L and the mean iodine content of salt samples was lower than the permissible level of iodine in iodized salt, i.e., 30 - 40 ppm. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that iodine nutritional status of pregnant women in this area is insufficient and salt iodization needs to be monitored for the optimal iodine content in iodized salt.
A. Al-Arfaj Ahlam, N. Abd El-Rahman Soheir
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 308-318; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123024

Abstract:
In this study we used a chemical solution method from oxalic acid (OX. acid) and zinc acetate (ZnAc) to prepare Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) and Zinc Oxide nanoparticles doped with Chlorine (Cl:ZnONPs). The characterizations (FTIR, X-ray, SEM, TEM) of ZnONPs and Cl:ZnONPs were determined. Amylase inhibitors of ZnONPs and Cl:ZnONPs also were determined. SEM indicated that the ZnONPs and Cl:ZnONPs have an average particle size of 46.65 - 74.64 nm. TEM images of the ZnONPs and Cl:ZnONPs showed the round shaped. Compounds b, d and e exhibited significant inhibitory activity against amylase enzyme (from 69.21 ± 1.44 to 76.32 ± 0.78), respectively, and were comparable with that of acarbose (86.32 ± 0.63) at 1000 μg, thereby, projecting ZnONPs and Cl:ZnONPs as α-amylase inhibitors.
Ana María Zelaya, Elisa M. Sinibaldi
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 249-261; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123020

Abstract:
Purpose of Review: Obesity is defined as an abnormal fat accumulation associated with disease development risk. The prevalence of obesity and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) continues to increase at a concerning pace. The modern lifestyle requires people to rely on processed foods because of their efficiency and low-cost, which are associated with obesity and NCDs. Vegetarian diet refers to the exclusion of meat, fish, seafood and can also exclude animal products such as dairy and eggs. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to explore vegetarianism as a potential solution for obesity and the development of non-communicable diseases. Recent Findings: Meat intake is also related to unhealthy food groups consumption, contributing to overall poor diet quality. In contrast, vegetarian diets are associated with higher satiety, resulting in less food intake, favoring weight reduction. Lowering the prevalence of NCDs should be a priority, and nutritional interventions are pivotal to accomplish this goal. Summary: Vegetarian diets are associated with weight loss due to: fiber content, lower caloric density, microbiota regulation, and the release of gastrointestinal appetite-regulating hormones. Plant-based eating patterns have demonstrated an overall healthier diet and can be a potential solution for obesity and NCDs’ development.
Aneela Mehboob, Ambreen Rafique, Tanveer Abbas
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 262-276; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123021

Abstract:
Culinary condiments have been used for centuries to treat several types of ailments. Four ethanolic lipid fractions including Nigella sativa, Foeniculum vulgare, Laurus nobilis, and Coriandrum sativum were selected to assess their antimicrobial potential alone and combined with antibiotics. Antibacterial activity was determined by various conventional procedures such as aromatogram test, well diffusion, macro-broth dilution, disc diffusion assay. The tested lipid fractions exhibited antibacterial activity against selected bacterial strains. Antibacterial activity of lipid fractions was also seen within two hours of incubation. These lipid fractions attacked the cell wall i.e. the penetrability of bacterial cell and hence intracellular contents released in the environment which was detected at 260 nm of absorbance and verified via scanning electron microscopy. Antagonistic effect was mostly found by the combination of antibiotics and lipid fractions. Though, synergistic effect was obtained with beta-lactam drugs when combined with lipid fraction of Laurus nobilis. Hence the lipid fractions may be used to treat various communicable diseases. However antagonistic outcomes of the combinations suggested that herbal and allopathic therapies should not consume concurrently.
Lahat Niang, Seid Ali Mahamat, Nicolas Cyrille Ayessou, Mady Cisse, Codou Mar Diop
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 429-438; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.125033

Abstract:
Bioactive compounds in plants are associated with the reduction of chronic diseases. The free radical scavenging activity of different extracts of a medicinal plant, Sclerocarya birrea, has been investigated using the DPPH test, ABTS test and FRAP. Three extracts were prepared from the leaves and bark: hydro-methanolic, hydro-acetonic and aqueous. Phytochemical screening was carried out the standard methods followed by the determination of the polyphenol by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the STATISTICA 7.1 and statistical significance was set at p 0.05. Evolution of percent inhibition (PI) as well as the IC50 of the extracts was obtained using the Origin Pro 8.5 software and Microsoft Excel. The results show that the bark extracts are about twice as rich in polyphenols as the leaves. With DPPH at 1.25 mg/mL, the bark has a PI of 91.04% ± 0.001% while leaves, reach 99.80% ± 0.021%. As for the ABTS test, the bark extract reached its maximum activity at 1.25 mg/mL with a PI of 99.80% ± 0.003% while leaves extract greater value of PI is 99.75 ± 0.003 at 2.5 mg/mL. With FRAP test at 1.25 mg/mL, the bark has a PI of 79.29% ± 0.005% while leaves, reach 80.33% ± 0.001%. The IC50 of the bark and leaf extracts on the smallest DPPH are 0.156 ± 0.001 mg/mL in hydro-methanol, 0.301 ± 0.00 mg/mL in hydro-acetone and 0.407 ± 0.00 mg/mL in aqueous extract. With ABTS test, the best IC50 are obtained with hydro-acetone extracts with value of 0.247 ± 0.001 mg/mL for bark and 0.248 ± 0.0005 mg/mL for leaves while in hydro-methanolic and aqueous extracts the best IC50 are respectively 0.255 ± 0.00 mg/mL and 0.463 ± 0.00 mg/mL. Using ascorbic acid as our standard, the PI was 94.86% ± 0.008% with an IC50 of 0.213 ± 0.00 mg/mL. According to these results, the reducing power of the bark is slightly higher than that of the leaves. We can say that the bark has better activity than the leaves and the alcoholic extracts have given better results than the aqueous extract.
Talwinder S. Kahlon, Ronald P. Haff, Jenny L. Brichta
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 407-417; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.125031

Abstract:
Novel snack foods comprised of various combinations of whole grains and vegetables were evaluated for consumer acceptability in sensory booths by seventy-one in-house volunteers. Specifically, snacks containing Buckwheat (B), Buckwheat + Peanut meal + Kale (BPK), Sorghum + Peanut meal + Okra (SPO), and Sorghum + Peanut meal + Okra + Jalapeno (SPOJ) were judged for appearance, aroma, flavor and texture on a scale from one to five, as well as on overall acceptability on a binary scale. Several combinations of ingredients were evaluated, with the final composition of snacks tested decided by consensus of laboratory personnel based on criteria of expected consumer acceptability of 70%. While all snacks were found to be statistically similar for appearance, aroma, and flavor, the texture of BWPK and SPO were rated significantly equal and more favorable than BW and SPOJ. Acceptability ratings were generally high; SPOJ (94%), BPK (93%), SPO (89%), and B (85%), with no significant difference, observed between SPOJ and BPK (p = 0.05). The snack foods evaluated are higher (up to triple) in protein, lower (as low as half) in fat, are gluten-free with no added sugar, and generally higher in nutritional content as compared to most traditional snack foods. While ideally suited for commercial production, these snacks can also be easily prepared at home with minimal equipment requirements, thus offering a healthy alternative for all consumers including vegetarians, vegans, and those hypersensitive to gluten.
Meranda A. Tawfek, Enas A. Baker, Howida A. El-Sayed
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 418-428; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.125032

Abstract:
Camels’ milk (CM) and goats’ milk (GM) are rich in nutrients and vitamins necessary for the health of humans and have therapeutic properties as they are rich in antioxidants and have a protective role against free radicals that have harmful effects on human health. Date palm (DP), camels’ milk and goats’ milk have been reported to be used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in Arab countries. This study was designed to mix date palm with camels’ milk and goats’. Eight formulations of both camels’ milk and goats’ were made from different percentages of date palm. These formulations were added at ratios of 0 (control), 10%, 20% and 30% (w/v) to camels’ milk and goats’ and the effect of this date palm on the composition and texture properties of the fermented obtained products were followed. It has been found that pH, protein, fat decreased and total solid, carbohydrate, ash, viscosity, vitamins, minerals and antioxidants increased with the increase of the added percentage of date palm compared to control. Microbial counts of the fermented camels’ milk (FCM) and goats’ milk (FGM) increased significantly (P improved the composition, viscosity, microbiological quality of fermented camels’ and goats’ milk with nutritional functional values and acceptable sensory attributes.
Nina Laurette Ahouéfa, Ibrahima Cissé, Lêniféré Chantal Soro, Audrey Herbert Yépié, Jean Jacques Diagou, Jean-Baptiste Kouamé Yao, Louise Anin Atchibri
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 462-478; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.125036

Abstract:
Introduction: The prevalence of Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) has increased so it’s becoming a global public health problem. This problem is also threatening in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) country including Ivory Coast. Ivory Coast is a country of 22.6 million people experiencing rapid economic development and social change. All development is typically associated with an increase in non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors. Our study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of the major risk factors of NCDs among the population of Cocody, Abobo and Yocoboué in the Ivory Coast. Methods: A descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study was conducted and involved 1146 adults of 19 to 60 years from general population in Cocody (urban), Abob (peri-urban) and Yocoboué (rural). The WHO STEPS risk factor survey has been changed a bit and was administered. it contains anthropometric and biochemical measures. Results: The prevalence of NCD risk factors was markedly different across the three sites particularly between urban (Cocody) and rural (Yocoboué) areas. The overall prevalence estimates of the risk factors were 15.2% for current smoking, 57.71% for harmful use of alcohol, 58.84% for low physical activity, 24.71% for sedentariness (sitting at least 7 h), 69.45% for skipping breakfast, 61% for having late dinner and 36% for snacking. Concerning biological risk factor we noticed 40.95% for Overweight/obesity, 52.96% for abdominal obesity, 14.61% for raised blood pressure, 23.37% for raised blood sugar and 18.51 low HDL-C. Being female has an important associated with an increased risk for having abdominal obesity (OR: 25.7) and being overweight or obese (OR: 11.3), suffering from hypertension increased with age, 30 - 39 years (OR 8.45), 40 - 49 years (OR 13.4) and 50 years and above (OR 24.6). Conclusion: Adult residents in the two (Urban and peri-urban) of three different areas are developing high-risk NCDs, particularly Cocody’s population. At the end, we observed among participants that the female gender, living in urban areas and clustering are the most concerned by non-communicable disease risk factors. To reach the goal, preventive and therapeutic interventions are needed among the targeted population.
Ndiaye Seyni, Gueye Mathieu, Baldé Samba, Ndiaye Bou, Ayessou Nicolas Cyrille
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 452-461; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.125035

Abstract:
In Africa, traditional vegetable oil extraction often involves the use of plants in the manufacturing process. Quassia undulate oil is thus traditionally prepared. An expedition went to Kédougo (a region in southeastern Senegal involving women of the Bassaris community) in June 2018 to study the Q. undulate oil traditional extraction mode. Thus, the objective of this study is to follow the traditional extraction of Q. undulate oil and to perform the physico-chemical analysis of the obtained oil. Oil samples taken after the survey allowed the oil physico-chemical characterization. The traditional oil extraction made by four women from Eganga, Ethiolo, and Ebarack’s villages reveals oil clear that is solid at room temperature. The study of the established chart revealed the use of Pilliostigma thonnintigi leaves during the oil preparation. The oil shows characteristics comparable to shea butter, and the oil stability can be compared to the corn and peanut oil one. The physicochemical analysis showed oil solid at room temperature with an acid value between 1.223 ± 0.013 and 7.333 ± 0.465. The saponification value was between 190.489 ± 3.083 and 199.732 ± 3.107, and the peroxide value between 4.453 ± 0.042 and 8.644 ± 0.285. The iodine values were between 21.455 ± 2.440 and 38.068 ± 0.082, and the refractive index 1.462 - 1.463. Q. undulate oil offers several technological perspectives. However, it would be interesting to study the impact of P. thonnintigi leaves during extraction. The fatty acid profile should also be determined.
Mahmoud Ibrahim El-Sayed, Sameh Awad, Nagwa Hussein Ismail Abou-Soliman
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 352-371; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.124028

Abstract:
This study aimed at improving the antioxidant capacity of fermented camel milk using some single strains of Lactobacillus (Lb. helveticus B-734, Lb. casei subsp. casei B-1922, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei B-4560, Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 or Lb. rhamnosus B-442), as well as evaluating the acceptability of the final products. The acidity, proteolysis degree, antioxidant activity, viscosity and organoleptic properties of fermented milk were assessed during 14 days of storage at 4°C. Total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH radical scavenging activity, Ferrous ion chelating ability (FCA) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of fermented milks. The results indicated that fermented milks differed significantly (P Lb. helveticus had the highest proteolysis degree, while samples with commercial starter culture (control) showed the lowest degree of proteolysis. Fermented milks containing Lactobacillus strains showed higher DPPH radical scavenging activity compared to those samples containing commercial starter culture. By the end of storage, there was a significant improvement (P Lb. paracasei, Lb. rhamnosus B-442 or commercial starter culture had the highest FCA values, while Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 samples recorded the highest value at the end of storage. Lb. helveticus samples had the highest TPC and FRAP values (P 0.0001) between the proteolysis degree and the values of FRAP and TPC. Samples containing Lb. rhamnosus B-442, Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 or commercial starter culture received the highest taste and overall acceptability scores while Lb. helveticus samples were the lowest. It is recommended to use Lb. rhamnosus B-442 and Lb. rhamnosus B-1445 for producing fermented camel milk with high antioxidant activity and acceptability.
Nkereuwem Sunday Etukudoh, Essiet Akanimo Gordon, Ejinaka Reginald Obiora, Oluwo Fredrick, Obeta M. Uchejeso, Ocheola Oki Ene Joyce
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 343-351; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.124027

Abstract:
Sensory analysis tools are the classic means for guaranteeing sensory quality, assessing acceptability, and recognizing faults in food products. Powerful sensory analysis techniques, were applied to evaluate Homemade Complementary Food (HCF) using milk combination of plant and animal origin. An experimental but descriptive method of research was used with Mubi as the study area. Milk from animal, (cow and goat) as well as milk from plant origin (soya beans milk,) was used. Milk from animal source was pasteurized using Vat pasteurization process (FDA, 2015) while quality soya beans milk was used to prepare milk of plant origin. Blended banana was also used as part of the home made complementary food alongside milk on a 50:50 ratio. A 15 member trained panel made up of mothers with children under the age of 5 years and currently breast feeding were the respondents, a sensory evaluation sheet based on the 9-point hedonic scale was used for scoring. Proximate analysis of sample was done using standard methods, AOAC (2000). Data was analyzed statistically using means and standard deviation. Results showed that sample B4 (a combination of cow, goat, and soya beans milk + blended banana slurry) had the best sensory attributes of appearance (8.00 ±1.32), taste (7.44 ± 1.01) and overall acceptability (8.00 ± 1.22), while sample B5 (goat milk + blended banana slurry) had the best sensory attributes of colour (8.00 ± 0.71) and aroma (7.78 ± 0.83). The proximate composition showed that the home made complementary food contained protein above (10.97 ± 0.00) from complementary food, this is far above the recommended 6.2 g/day, required for children 23 months and below assuming the child has an average breast milk intake daily, and fat (2.76 ± 0.00) from complementary foods, was within the recommendation range, required for children age between 9 - 11 months, also assuming the child is on average breast milk intake daily. These results can be of significant benefits in research, and in food processing industries, globally. Further research in other regions is needed to compare the obtained results in terms of its variance.
Alice Christine Ekissi, Kan Benjamin Kouame, Koffi Pierre Valéry Niaba, Grah Avit Maxwell Beugre, Séraphin Kati-Coulibaly
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 319-331; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123025

Abstract:
In tropical Africa, mushrooms play an important role for people in rural areas as a source of food, medicine and income. In order to promote the mycology sector in Côte d’Ivoire, a study was carried out on the determination of the biochemical parameters of the mushroom Lentinus brunneofloccosus pegler and Auricularia auricularia judae found in the localities of Daloa and Yamoussoukro. The samples were purchased in the markets of Daloa and Yamoussoukro. The dry matter, ash and lipid contents were determined by the AOAC method. Those of proteins, total sugars, reducing sugars were carried out respectively by the methods of Kjeldahl, Bernfeld and Dubois, and six minerals (potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and sodium) were quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The results showed that the ash (3.46 - 7.74%) and protein (6.10 - 12.40%) levels were high, but the lipid contents (4% to 6.60%), total sugars (1.34 - 5.16%) and reducing sugars (0.01 to 0.27%) are low. The major minerals are calcium (898 to 1006 mg/100g), potassium (1182 to 2433 mg/100g) and phosphorus (2091 - 4375 mg/100g). Magnesium (270 - 433 mg/100g) is represented in average proportion. Iron (2.83 to 46.17 mg/100g) and sodium (4.87 to 5.99 mg/100g) are in low amounts. The mushrooms Lentinus brunneofloccosus pegler and Auricularia auricularia judae are low in fat, high in ash, and are good sources of protein and minerals.
D. J. Nithya, S. Raju, R. V. Bhavani, Akshaya Kumar Panda, Rupal D. Wagh, Brinda Viswanathan
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 277-289; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123022

Abstract:
Food based approach can prove effective in improving access and availability of nutrients from foods required for daily life where most of the people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. A study on feasibility of Farming Systems for Nutrition (FSN) approach was undertaken from 2013 to 2018 in a few villages of Koraput district, Odisha state and Wardha district, Maharashtra state in India. Interventions were done to increase crop diversity, intercropping of pulses and cereals, promotion of seasonal vegetables and fruits along with nutrition awareness. The endline survey showed increase in production diversity leading to improved household dietary diversity. This paper demonstrates the impact of FSN interventions on household nutrient intake. The results show that the intake of nutrients like protein, vitamin C, iron and calcium increased significantly in Koraput and all the nutrients including energy and vitamin A increased significantly in Wardha. The evidence shows that Farming System for Nutrition approach improves individual nutrient intake which in the long run can address the problem of undernutrition.
A. O. Ogo, D. J. Ajekwe, D. E. Enenche, G. O. Obochi
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 332-341; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123026

Abstract:
This study was designed to bridge gap in nutritionally skewed available biscuits and the high volume of agricultural waste generated by investigating the quality of biscuits prepared from wheat base, supplemented with waste from watermelon rinds and orange pomace as possible nutritious alternatives. Biscuit samples were respectively produced from blends of wheat, watermelon rind and orange pomace in the following ratio 100:0:0; 90:5:5; 80:10:10; 70:15:15 and 60:20:20, labelled samples A, B, C, D and E. Functional, proximate, mineral and sensory properties of the formulated biscuit samples were carried out using standard analytical procedures. The results showed that proximate composition of samples B - E significantly increased (p There were also significant increases (p < 0.05) in mineral contents of supplemented samples compared to control. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that wheat flour can be substituted with watermelon rind and orange pomace flours up to 10% without adversely affecting the overall quality attributes of the biscuits. These results indicate the robustness of food value addition as an effective means of improving nutritional quality of biscuits while contributing to waste management in the agricultural value chain.
Hanling Liang, Shiyu Gao, Jingxuan Ma, Tian Zhang, Tianyu Wang, Shuang Zhang, Zhaoxia Wu
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 13-27; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121002

Abstract:
Research on the effect of the nitrogen application rate on the balance of the nitrogen utilization, yield and quality of rice is common in South China but is relatively lacking in Northeast China, especially in the Liaohe Delta. In this study, Yanfeng 47 rice was planted in Panjin city, China, to explore the effect of six nitrogen rates (0, 160, 210, 260, 315 and 420 kg N/ha) on the nitrogen use efficiency, rice quality and grain yield of rice plants. The results showed that the application of an appropriate nitrogen rate (210-260 kg N/ha) remarkably increased the nitrogen use efficiency of rice plants, grain yield, rice milling quality and nutritional quality and resulted in a moderate rice eating quality. Although low nitrogen rates (160 kg N/ha) maintained a high rice eating quality, they decreased grain yield and other rice qualities, and excessive nitrogen (315 kg N/ha) increased rice appearance quality but significantly reduced the nitrogen use efficiency (p by an environmentally friendly method and guarantee rice with high quality and yield, the recommended nitrogen application rate is 210 kg N/ha.
Qiuhong Liao, Chao Wei, Ying Li, Lin’An Guo, Huaxue Ouyang
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 239-248; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123019

Abstract:
This study assessed the feasibility of developing a machine vision system equipped with ultraviolet (UV) light, using changes in fish-surface color to predict aerobic plate count (APC, a standard freshness indicator) during storage. The APC values were tested and images of the fish surface were taken when fish were stored at room temperature. Then, images’ color-space conversion among RGB, HSV, and L*a*b* color spaces was carried out and analyzed. The results revealed that a* and b* values from the UV-light image decreased linearly during storage. A further regression analysis of these two parameters with APC value demonstrated a good exponential relationship between the a* value and the APC value (R2 = 0.97), followed by the b* (R2 = 0.85). Therefore, our results suggest that the change in color of the fish surface under UV light can be used to assess fish freshness during storage.
Laurette Brigelia Nkeletela, Fanny Belgonde Ganongo-Po, André Kimbonguila, Salomé Itoua Guenonie, Louis Matos, Jeremy Petit, Joel Scher, Jean Mathurin Nzikou
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 206-221; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122017

Abstract:
The partial replacement of durum wheat semolina with local flours such as soybeans and yam reduces the dependence of durum wheat semolina for the production of pasta. The main objective of this study is to develop yam flour (A) from Dioscorea alata in the manufacture of pasta made with durum wheat semolina (B) and soy flour (C) (raw materials). The methodology adopted consists first of all in the characterization of yam, soybean and durum wheat semolina. An experimental design was developed to bring out the balanced mixing plan in well-defined proportions with ten (10) tests. Chemical and functional analyzes were carried out on the pastes obtained from these formulations. The functional properties allowed us to determine the optimal mixing plan using a mathematical model. The sensory properties of the optimal compound dough were estimated in comparison with the control doughs. The results on the chemical properties of raw materials A, B and C obtained on the water content vary from 10.29% to 12.29%; those of ashes vary from 0.91% to 5.74% and those of proteins vary from 3.24% to 20.17%. The results of the chemical and functional parameters of compound pasta gave very diverse values. We find that the water content, the ash content, the protein content and the acidity rate of the series of 10 tests are respectively from 6.60% to 14.97%, from 0.97% to 1.67%, from 7.15% to 12.10% and from 1.35% to 3.60%. Regarding the optimal cooking time for this series of 10 tests, it varies from 15 min to 20 min with a swelling index which is between 59.70% and 107.12%. Statistical tests (test F) from the different models indicate that the main regression effects are not significant with a p-value probability greater than 0.05. The models obtained were significant with a good value for the coefficient of determination R2. The sensory test approved that optimal compound pasta has good overall acceptability compared to 100% durum wheat pasta. The 20.40% yam flour mixture (102.020 g); 55.19% of durum wheat semolina (275.982 g) and 24.39% of soy flour (121.998 g) has good potential in the preparation of compound pasta.
Christophe Dabiré, Abdoulaye Sérémé, Hermann Panandtigri, Abdoudramane Sanou, W. D. B. Aimée Guissou, Mamoudou H. Dicko
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 194-205; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122016

Abstract:
Tomato is a market gardening product that plays an important nutritional and economic role in Burkina Faso. However, the bad use of pesticides for its production could have negative impacts consumers’ health. The objective of the present study was to assess the concentration of trace metal elements (Pb, Cd and As), 15N isotopes (NO2-, NO3-, NH4+) and phosphorus (PO42-) in tomatoes according to cultivation practices. Thus, three tomato varieties (Mongal F1, F1 Cobra 26 and Roma F1) were grown using organic and conventional production methods on 2 sites at Nongr Massom, (commune of Kadiogo province). The trace metal elements were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, the isotopes 15N (NO2-, NO3-, NH4+) and phosphorus (PO43-) using standardized methods. Tomatoes from conventional agriculture had higher levels of trace metal elements (0.163 - 0.298 mg/Kg, 0.082 - 0.146 mg/Kg and 0.018 - 0.032 mg/Kg respectively for Pb, Cd and As) than those from organic agriculture samples. Concentration of trace metal is lower for organic production with a reduction of 19.02%, 19.69% and 20.77% for Pb, Cd and As respectively compared to conventional production. High levels were recorded for the Roma F1 variety. The concentrations of trace metal elements in organic production are lower than the codex standards (2010) while those in conventional production are higher. These results could be due to the use of chemical inputs that could have a negative impact on the nutritional quality of these tomatoes. The concentration of trace metal elements in tomato fruits is strongly correlated by production method and less by the variety (genetic).
Assèta Kagambèga, Alexandre Thibodeau, Daniel K. Soro, Nicolas Barro, Philippe Fravalo
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 107-114; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122009

Abstract:
Background: Campylobacter contamination in poultry and poultry product has been reported worldwide. The present study aims to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in poultry feces using selective enrichment Bolton broth and multiplex PCR. Method: Two methods were used in this study: the first was direct plating of poultry feces into mCCDA agar plates. The second, three antibiotics were used at different concentrations to add in Bolton broth supplemented. These antibiotics were Rifampicin (Oxoid, Nepean, Ontario) with 10 mg/L, colistin (Oxoid, Nepean, Ontario) with 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL; trimethoprim (Oxoid, Nepean, Ontario) with 10 mg/L. The colonies with typical campylobacter morphology on blood agar (little, red and ring colonies) were further identified to the species level by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: The addition of colistin (2 mg/mL) to the Bolton broth with selective supplements enhanced the selective isolation of Campylobacter strains. Out of the 52 feces samples, 18 (34.61%) were positive for campylobacter and direct plating on mCCDA 11 (21.15%) campylobacter strains (p campylobacter strains detected belonged to Campylobacter coli and 1 (5.55%) strain to Campylobacter jejuni. Conclusion: Although it is known to be difficult to isolate Campylobacter from animal feces samples, this study shows that antibiotic selective pressure improves the isolation efficiency of Campylobacter from poultry feces.
Roswell Timmerman, Stanley T. Omaye
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 124-137; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.122011

Abstract:
Purpose: This review of the literature intends to provide readers an understanding of the prophylactic and antidotal usefulness of selenium (Se) for mercury (Hg) toxicity. We will provide an explanation of Hg and Se interactions for potential remediation options to contaminated ecosystems. Design/methodology/approach: In this mini-review, we discuss mechanistic aspects between Hg and Se, the implication for health outcomes, and its usefulness in the ecological recovery of Hg contaminated areas. Findings: Mercury has a strong affinity for Se, resulting in Se-dependent enzymes and proteins’ deactivation with devastating consequences to the host. It is likely that Hg’s toxicity results in Se deficiency. Selenium compounds can have prophylactic or antidotal effects to prevent or reverse the adverse toxicity action of Hg exposure. Current research indicates that the chemical interactions between Hg and Se are unique. The Hg capturing capacity of Se is a million times higher than sulfur compounds and results in inactive complexes. Practical implications: Future work can target engineering methods for technologies that can reduce the toxicity of Hg in the environment. Originality/value: The unique interactions between the elements are that Hg can compromise Se dependent enzymes; however, pharmacologic doses of Se can prevent or modulate the toxic effects of Hg. Paper type: Literature review.
Hanaa Abduh Heba Mohsen Ebrah, Nadia Abdlrahim Khogali Salih
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 54-63; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121005

Abstract:
Severe acute malnutrition with medical complications is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality among children under the age of 5 years. Which can be management by given Therapeutic milk, it is available only at inpatient center at hospitals. When staff and mother managed adequately, the therapeutic milk has highly effective in treating severe malnutrition and prevent any complications that can be developing. So, this study aims to Assess of the Efficacy of Therapeutic milk in Prevention Complications of Severe acute malnutrition 6 - 59 months at therapeutic feeding center. Descriptive, Cross-Sectional, Hospital-based study design was used to conduct the study. The study was carried out at Organization of AL Thora public Hospital at Hodeida city in Yemen. Total coverage 200 children 6 - 59 months of age have Sever Acute Malnutrition with complication which was 14 medical complications and admitted at Therapeutics Feeding Center. Three research tools which used for data collection. The structured face to face Interview questionnaire, anthropometric measurements, and the Structure Observation Check list. The results showed that, the obvious reduction of complication when the Comparison at admission, 1st week and 2nd week are (40.9% to 18% to 7.6%). There is highly statistically significant relationship between the therapeutic feeding which was given, resolution the complication at 1st week and 2nd week at p d to Outpatient therapeutic to complete nutritional program. The study concluded that the therapeutic milk which provides in Therapeutic Feeding Center only have highly effective in treating medical complication of sever acute malnutrition in children 6 - 59 months.
Angélique Espérance Lembella Boumba, Augustin Aimé Lebonguy, Joseph Goma-Tchimbakala, Stech Anomene Eckzehel Nzaou, Chancelvie Pahivelle Limingi Polo, Mickaëlle Bokamba Moukala
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 37-53; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121004

Abstract:
Fermented foods play an important role in the daily life and diet of the populations in Congo. Among these fermented foods, there is Pilipili or fermented pepper which is consumed without prior cooking. The microorganisms present are eaten alive. Few studies have been carried out on these microorganisms which may have beneficial effects on health. This study aimed to investing taxonomic diversity of bacterial communities in 3 samples of fermented peppers produced in 3 distinct areas of Brazzaville. To do this investigation, Illumina Miseq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that the number of identified operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 156 to 392. All OTUs belong to the domain of Bacteria and could be categorized into 21 Phyla, 36 Classes, 58 Orders, 100 Families and 171 genera. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the main dominant phyla of the total phyla present with a relative abundance of 89.12% and 8.08%, respectly. At the class level, Bacili were dominant in EB1 (99.50%), EB3 (85.32%) and EB2 (42.29%) while Clostridia in EB2 (40.10%). Lactobacillus, Clostridium sensu stricto and Frutobacillus were the dominant genera in the sample EB1, EB2 and EB3, respectively. The hierarchical classification showed that the samples EB1 and EB2 form the same group and EB3 is unique. Principal component analysis showed that the younger EB3 and EB2 samples were more diverse than the older EB1 sample. This study is a first in Congo on the diversity of fermented pepper using Illumina Miseq. It has shown that this food is very diverse and can be a source for the isolation of bacteria with biotechnological potential.
Khondoker Ziaul Islam, Abdullah Al Ahasan, Sanwar Hossain, Mohammed Hadifur Rahman, Ummey Sufia Mousumi, Asaduzzaman
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 73-89; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121007

Abstract:
The complication of adulterated ingredients in processed food items is widely observed in the food industry and remains a continuous disquiet for end users. This problem may affect consumers’ spiritual beliefs, likewise with their fitness and diet. Hence commercial foods should be scrutinized for the precision of the avowed ingredients. This study is dedicated to developing a Fluorescent light Spectroscope to identify the pork adulteration. A simple way of DNA extraction process has been introduced to make the system more convenient. The spectral bands linked with pork fat (PF), beef fat (BF) and their combinations in different food formulation were skimmed, and recognized by correlating them to those spectroscopically illustrative to clean Pork or PF and other different items. Every material has the properties to absorb some light of specific wavelength, and our activity is to determine thus wavelength range at which are absorbed or make any change by the target material. The findings have revealed that spectroscopy can be used as one of the procedures to detect and quantify of pork in different foods and beverages formulation for Halal verification purposes. Special laborious procedures and equipment both are essential for the existing testing methods named RT-PCR (Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Most of the food processors and dealers are not skillful to conduct sufficient testing for their products with all these sample preparation, extraction, analysis, and obtaining results which can be overcome by our proposed setup.
Thomas O’Donnell, Solomon H. Katz, Alexandra Romey, Benjamin Fulton, Linda Croskey, Pete Pearson, Jonathan Deutsch
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 290-307; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123023

Abstract:
More than 30% of fish caught from the world’s oceans are never eaten by consumers adding a significant but unnecessary strain to the sustainability of global fisheries. Although a lot of this loss occurs at sea, in developed countries, a significant amount happens at retail stores and in households. People can help with this problem if they find and use new ways to interact with their retailers and with the way they store and cook seafood at home. Consumers can primarily purchase seafood that has never been frozen, was previously frozen, or is still frozen. Nearly all retail waste occurs when consumers do not buy seafood within a few days after it is in the unfrozen, display cases, forcing the stores to dispose of the fish in landfills or sewage plants. An estimated 220 million 4-ounce meal portions of the most popular seafood in the United States including shrimp, salmon, and cod meet this fate. This number can be reduced to the direct extent consumers can be persuaded to buy and cook from frozen. Retailers are motivated to sell more frozen seafood because profit margins are reported to be higher and labor and disposal costs are lower. Many stores also benefit from their brand’s sustainability image, and contributions to corporate, national, and international waste reduction goals. Their challenge has been to educate and encourage consumers to choose frozen before fresh. Taste-testing evidence gathered in this study demonstrated that consumers could adopt easy, new culinary skills to cook seafood from frozen that tastes just as good as what they are used to. Our studies also highlighted other consumer benefits, including: less fish handling required, simple preparation, easier meal planning, water savings, and higher levels of food safety. Based on these results it will be beneficial for stores to commit resources to consumer education and promote more frozen seafood sales in other ways that satisfy their management goals. Increasing consumer adoption can drive changes at the store level that will provide measurable contributions to seafood waste reduction.
Sung Phil Kim, Ju Ryeong Lee, Ki Sun Kwon, Yeo Jin Jang, Jeanman Kim, Keun Hyung Yu, Sun Yeop Lee, Mendel Friedman
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 223-238; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.123018

Abstract:
Human and animal alcohol-induced hangovers are caused by adverse effects of acetaldehyde formed in vivo by the enzymatic oxidation of ethyl alcohol to acetaldehyde. This study aims to determine the effect of the combination of a bioprocessed black rice bran (BRB-F) and glutathione-enriched yeast extract (GEYE) on hangovers as tested in rats and mice. Because analysis by HPLC showed that the content of the biologically active rice bran compound γ-oryzanol as well as of the antioxidant reduced glutathione were unaffected during the preparation of tablets containing 100 mg/kg of the bran formulation, the tablets were then administered orally to rats. The results showed decreased blood concentrations of both alcohol and acetaldehyde compared to the control group. Additional behavior experiments using the Rota-rod and wire tests in mice confirmed that the food formulation relieved hangover behavior caused by alcohol. It seems that the combination of BRB-F and GEYE can effectively control hangovers in rodents caused by alcohol intake. Mechanistic aspects of the hangover and anti-hangover effects of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde are similar to browning-type reactions between the aldehyde group of glucose and proteins, the antibiotic effects of cinnamaldehyde against pathogenic bacteria, the adverse effects of the heat-induced food toxin acrylamide, and the alkali-induced formation of the unnatural amino acid lysinoalanine.
Grosu Carolina, Siminiuc Rodica, Dinu Turcanu, Covaliov Eugenia, Gutium Olga
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 1-12; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.121001

Abstract:
Walnut meal is a nutrient-rich product and has a high nutritional value. Walnut meal is a product that can be used in food technology, in order to improve the nutritional quality, expand the range of confectionery products, and replaces the walnut kernel. Due to the dark color, the use of the walnut meal in the preparation of pastries would have a negative effect on the appearance of some final products and the whitening process would allow its use without negatively influencing the final product. The aim of the research is to whiten Juglans regial L. walnut meal as a valuable nutritious raw material. Hydrogen peroxide was used to bleach the walnut meal, and the pH, concentration of the whitening agent and the concentration of the meal were used as variable parameters of the bleaching process. The color descriptors (Whitening index, Saturation index, Total color difference, Browning index) were calculated to establish the optimal whitening conditions of the walnut meal. The obtained results showed that an alkaline medium, with the hydrogen peroxide concentration of 10% and 2.5% meal concentration allows obtaining the best color parameters in terms of Lightness (82.20) and Whitening Index (71.20). In addition, the study of walnut meal quality in terms of peroxide value evolution showed that the treatment with hydrogen peroxide does not affect in any way the value of the peroxide index of the lipids. The highest peroxide value (4.91 mmol/g oil) was recorded for the sample bleached in a 10% Hydrogen peroxide solution, with a pH of 10 against the 4.71 mmol/g oil for the unbleached sample.
Amany M. Basuny, Shaker M. Arafat, Dalia M. Hikal
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 12, pp 479-493; doi:10.4236/fns.2021.126037

Abstract:
Chia seed oil (Salvia hispanica L.) contains polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids and natural antioxidants that have many health effects. Consequently, the chief purpose of the present study was the outcome of various attentiveness of chia seed oil on quality and sensory evaluation of ice milk. In treatments T1, T2, T3, and T4, the milk fat was moderately swapped with chia seed oil at 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively, and compared with the control treatment (100% milk fat). All treatments were stored at -18°C for 30 days. Samples were analyzed fortnightly and monthly to determine the shelf life during the storage period by acidity and peroxide value. Physicochemical properties of fatty acids, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids of chia seed oil and ice milk samples were determined. Also, the overrun and sensory evaluation of ice milk samples were studied. Results indicated an increase in the absorption of omega-3 fatty acids (linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic “in the samples of” ice milk supplemented with chia seed oil compared with control. Furthermore, there has been an increase in natural antioxidants (total phenolic and total flavonoid contents) levels in the supplemented ice milk samples as compared to control. Furthermore, an increase in the shelf life of the supplemented ice milk samples was also noticed. Generally, fortification of ice milk with chia seed oil increased the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and also improved the antioxidant properties of ice milk.
, Dinu Țurcanu
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 1012-1031; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.1111072

Abstract:
As a consequence of the production of high-yielding cereal varieties per hectare and the considerable increase in gluten consumption, today, consequently, we face a rising epidemic of disorders related to gluten consumption: celiac disease, gluten allergy gluten sensitivity. Nutritional therapy is the only treatment for celiac disease unanimously accepted by the medical community. The aim of the study is to analyze the food and nutritional security of people with disorders related to gluten consumption from the perspective of assessing the nutritional deficiencies of people diagnosed with celiac disease or gluten intolerance, but also assessing the nutritional deficiencies of gluten-free products. The study on the assessment of nutritional deficiencies of people with disorders related to gluten consumption, but also the nutritional deficiencies of gluten-free products/diets were conducted on the PubMed search engine. 154 free full text papers published in the period 2010-2020 were analyzed, according to the keywords (gluten free, diet, deficiencies). Specialists in the field are unanimous in the opinion that increasing nutritional security and ensuring sustainability can be achieved by: diversifying gluten-free products; extension of legislation to strengthen gluten-free products; developing educational strategies focused on the relationship between nutrients, food and human health; informing the population and optimizing services in order to increase the quality of life and health. However, the design of GF products, both technologically and nutritionally, especially bakery/pastry, pasta is still a challenge, and research in this area, is current and required.
Samba Balde, Nicolas Cyrille Ayessou, Oumar Ben Khatab Cisse, Papa Guedel Faye, Mady Cisse, Codou Mar Diop
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 32-39; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.111004

Abstract:
Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae), is a plant commonly used in traditional medicine in Senegal whose fruits are weakly consumed by the population. However, no data exists on the nutritional intake of the latter. This work aims to determine the physicochemical and biochemical characteristics of the pulp of Momordica charantia. The study focused on two lots of fruits from two geographically different regions of Senegal (Dakar and Fatick). The biochemical analyses of the pulp showed average values of protein from 2.39 ± 0.01 g/100 g to 3.19 ± 0.01 g/100 g; reducing sugar from 4.22 ± 0.10 g/100 g to 3.55 ± 0.10 g/100 g; totals sugar from 4.43 ± 0.02 g/100 g to 3.38 ± 0.58 g/100 g. The average contents of polyphenol and flavonoids were respectively from 1.91 ± 0.04 g/100 g to 1.04 ± 0.09 g/100 g and 32.59 ± 0.04 mg/100 g and 20.75 ± 1.19 mg/100 g. According to these results, the fruit of M. charantia may be considered as rich in antioxidant. At the opposite, it is very weak in mineral elements, such as calcium and potassium (1.01 mg/100 g; 3.38 mg/100 g). Meanwhile, the seeds content 24% of lipids. Thus, investigations should be done on its biological proprieties, physical and biochemical components.
Nazo Edith Kpata-Konan, N’Zué Benjamin Yao, Kalpy Julien Coulibaly, Koffi Felix Konan
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 52-62; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.111006

Abstract:
The purpose of this article is to compare the quality of three edible oils derived from palm oil in Daloa’s city. The methodological approach of the article includes, on the one hand, a field survey determining the most used oils and the number of frying carried out by the attieké-fish sellers. On the other hand, the physico-chemical parameters (refractive index, iodine index, saponification index, acid index and peroxide index) of these oils were determined. As a result, the most used oils are A, B and C and are heated at least 3 times by the attieké-fish sellers. After repeated heating, the values of the peroxide, saponification, refraction, iodine indices of oils A and B do not match those of the codex with the exception of the acid value. For oil C, only the acid and iodine indices correspond to the codex standards. Overall, the results of the study clearly show that the repeated heating of these oils has an influence on the different physico-chemical properties studied.
Naglaa A. Shedeed, El-Sayed A. Abd El-Hady, Rehab A. Aloweis
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 40-51; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.111005

Abstract:
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of baking conditions of partially-dried potato slices (PDPS) prior baking on the quality attributes of the resultant baked potato chips. Baking experiment was conducted at power levels of 80 and 100 Watts for different baking times according to microwave power used. Texture, color measurements and sensory evaluation were carried out on resultant baked potato chips. The results showed that partially drying step (even to 40% moisture content) prior microwave baking resulted in marked crispiness as well as brilliant yellow in resultant potato chips. The optimum conditions for the best quality of partially-dried potato chips were microwave cooking at power level of 100 Watts for 100 seconds.
Afroza Sharmin, Niaz Mahmud, Jannatul Ferdaus, M. N. A. Siddiqui, Sidur Rahman, Mahbubur Alam Dewan, Tanvir Ahmad
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 194-206; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.113015

Abstract:
Since infant and young child feeding practices play an important role in ameliorating childhood nutrition, an exploratory and descriptive study has thus been conducted employing a previously developed questionnaire at Ad-din shisu Hospital, Jashore, Bangladesh to obtain better insights about the breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices among infant and young child feeding caregivers. Out of 260 babies, 54% were female and 46% were male. Nearly all caregivers were found having the idea that breast milk is the best food for newborn babies. Around 81.9% of caregivers think that breast milk contains all the nutrients the baby needs to flourish, but in case of protection from disease, only 18.1% of caregivers think that it protects the baby from certain diseases. Around 46.9% mothers practiced early initiation of breastfeeding and they offered breast milk to their newborn right away (within one hour) after delivery, 53.5% lactating mothers had proper knowledge about breastfeeding methods, 39.6% mothers never practiced burping after breastfeeding, 66.4% mothers had normal delivery, 33.6% mothers had caesarian section, 99% mothers offered colostrums to their babies and only 1% of them didn’t give the colostrums. Besides, 88.8% continued breastfeeding up to 24 months or more along with 83.8% caregivers starting complementary feeding from six months, 55.4% caregivers said baby’s immune system is less developed, so they get attacked by infection easily and 44.6% caregivers said “their tummies are vulnerable to infection”, and 48.8% of the caregivers followed the type of hygiene required. Our findings revealed information on the knowledge, attitude, and practices of the caregiver’s towards breastfeeding and complementary feeding.
Akshaya Ravindran, Maya Raman, Ninisha Babu, Ammu Dinakaran, T. V. Sankar, T. K. Srinivasa Gopal
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 220-233; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.113017

Abstract:
Chocolate is a very popular food product that is relished by millions of people for its unique, rich and sweet taste. The health benefits of chocolate are immense which is attributed to its high polyphenolic content. In the current study, the diet chocolates using natural and artificial sweeteners were developed. Also, the jackfruit seed powder after fermentation (anaerobic and aerobic) was used to replace cocoa powder by 10%. The physiochemical and glycemic index of the chocolates were analyzed. The physiochemical analysis of the chocolates indicated that substitution of jackfruit seed powder did not alter significantly the proximate composition. It was found out that the glycemic index and glycemic load of the chocolates were significantly lower than commercial milk chocolate, which makes it a suitable food product for diabetic and other groups. The samples were packed in pouches made of metallised polyester films laminated with polyethylene for storage studies. Instrumental textural studies were in concordance with sensory observation, indicating that the product remained stable for 3 months at room temperature (26°C ± 2°C). The color of the product remained similar throughout the storage period indicating stable structural and surface characteristics. Hence, the chocolates developed using natural and artificial sweeteners have low GI and will minimize the risk of several chronic diseases including diabetes and the use of jackfruit seed powder as a substitute for cocoa powder has not altered any of the characteristic features of chocolate.
M. Amdadul Haque, Fatema Akter, Habibur Rahman, M. A. Baqui
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 355-374; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.115026

Abstract:
With increased demand for plant based proteins by the consumers, the food manufacturers appeal for the new plant proteins with predetermined characteristics. This study aims at isolating the protein fraction from jackfruit seeds and characterizing the protein powder for functional and physicochemical properties. The protein part of the seeds was separated through pH treatments and centrifugation process and finally, the concentrate was converted into powder by spray drying method. The functional properties such as solubility, gelling capacity and emulsion properties and the physicochemical properties such as crystallinity, morphology and particle size distribution of the jackfruit seeds protein isolate (JSPI) were studied. The secondary structural elements of JSPI were also determined by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. About 76.89% protein was estimated in the prepared JSPI with 78.44% solubility in an aquatic solvent. The least gelation concentration of JSPI was 12% in a salt solution. The pH of the solvent significantly affected the emulsifying and foaming properties. The protein isolate possessed amorphous structure, moderate bulk density and almost 75% of the particles fell in a similar size distribution range. The conformational study reported that the β-sheet is the dominant secondary structural element with the highest content of 50.28%. The observed features suggest that the JSPI holds satisfactory functional and physicochemical characteristics for being used in protein-enriched foods.
Wafula Nobert Wanjala, Omwamba Mary, M. Mahungu Symon
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 807-823; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.118057

Abstract:
Raw material composition, loading rate and moisture level in extrusion processing have a direct bearing on physical properties of the product besides other extruder operational parameters. These properties greatly influence the consumer appeal, package design and shelflife of the product. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of sorghum and rice flour containing bamboo shoot flour (BSF) and other ingredients on resultant flour and product throughput. A commercial single screw extruder with a constant barrel temperature of 250°C and screw speed of 1480 rpm was used. Five different blends (100:0:0, 70:30:0, 60:30:10, 55:30:15 and 50:27:23 for rice, sorghum and BSF respectively, on dry weight basis) were extruded at three levels of water addition (15, 20 and 25 kg/h) and two feed rates (1800 and 2100 kg/h). Extrudates were analyzed for expansion ratio (ER). Extrudates were then milled to particle size of 2 mm and flour samples were analyzed for hydration properties, colour, bulk density (BD) and oil holding capacity (OHC). Product throughput was calculated using mass balance equation based on dry matter content of the raw materials and the corresponding extruded product. Mixture composition significantly affected all physico-chemical properties analyzed for the products except water solubility index (WSI). Feed rate significantly affected all physico-chemical of the product properties except WSI and colour lightness (L*). Water addition significantly affected product mass transfer, ER, BD, colour and swelling capacity (SC). Therefore, BSF can be blended with other ingredients and extrusion parameters be manipulated to give forth a product with desirable properties.
Stephen Odera, Olivier Basole Kashongwe, Patrick Muliro Simiyu, Bockline Omedo Bebe
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 1107-1116; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.1112078

Abstract:
This research paper addresses the hypothesis that adding yeast cultures (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) to urea-treated cereal crop residues could improve milk composition to the level of milk produced on pastures for the manufacture of Mozzarella cheese. In three equal groups, Nine Friesian cows were randomly assigned to three treatment diets in a completely randomized design. The treatments were pasture (P), urea treated rice straw (UTRS), and urea treated rice straw with yeast inclusion (UTRS + Y). Urea inclusion was at 3.8% of the dry matter to treat rice straw, while yeast culture inclusion was 10 g/cow/day. The experimental period was 21 days, with 14 days of adaptation. Data analysis used general linear model procedure of SAS, fitting diet as a fixed effect and milk composition, syneresis, curd firmness and cheese yield as the response variables. Milk produced on UTRS diet yielded (p ·m-3) and casein-to-fat ratio (0.51). Yeast inclusion in the diet (UTRS + Y) significantly improved milk density (1022.68 Kg·m-3) with marginal reduction in milk fat content (4.53%). In cheese making, milk produced on URTS diets had significantly lower renneting time (1.4 minutes vs 3.47 minutes and 2.39 minutes), least viscous gel, lowest syneresis (755 mL vs 860 mL and 836 mL from 1000 mL), and lowest cheese yield (9.0% vs 11% and 10.5%) compared to P and UTRS + Y diets. Milk produced from P and UTRS + Y did not show any significant difference in cheese yield. The findings indicated that urea treated rice straw with yeast cultures improves syneresis, gel viscosity and Mozzarella cheese yield. Therefore, we recommend the inclusion of yeast to urea treated cereal crop residues to produce milk destined for Mozzarella cheese making.
Gille Gandemer, Valérie Scislowski, Stéphane Portanguen, Alain Kondjoyan
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 629-648; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.117045

Abstract:
Red meat contains a high proportion of heme iron (HI) which is absorbed at a far higher extent into the blood than the non-heme iron (NHI) found in plants. However, HI and NHI are expelled in the juice during cooking while a fraction of HI is converted into NHI, thus decreasing iron bioavailability. This paper relies on experiments and the use of modeling. The kinetics of the conversion of HI into NHI was measured and modeled in juice extracted from uncooked beef meat, and beef cubes were cooked to measure the variations of HI/NHI contents. In meat, HI/NHI ratio decreased from 2.0 when it was raw to less than 1.0 for the longest heat treatments and highest temperatures. The model was used to predict the effect of cooking conditions on the variations of the iron supplied by beef meat. The lowest contribution of meat to iron supply was found for under-pressure cooking at temperatures above 100°C.
Na Lin, Ang Hu, Zhidong Liu
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 603-614; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.117043

Abstract:
Effects of different treatments on the antioxidant activity of scallop protein hydrolysates (SPH) were evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power. Results showed that the antioxidant activity of SPH had good heating-resistance from 25°C to 65°C. The antioxidant activity of SPH could retain under acidic environment, but rapidly reduced under alkaline conditions. Addition of D-galactose, D-xylose, and D-fructose at 65°C could increase the antioxidant activity of SPH, but no such effect was not observed at this temperature. With the increase of storage time, the antioxidant activity of SPH gradually decreased. Moreover, pepsin digestion treatment slightly reduced the antioxidant activity of SPH, and further trypsin and mixed enzyme (trypsin + chymotrypsin) digestion significantly reduced this activity (p 0.05). In conclusion, SPH may be used as food ingredients or food supplements in different food fields.
Naima El Moqri, Najwa Hassou, Fatiha El Mellouli, Hasnae Zekhnini, Nabil Abouchoaib, Samira Etahiri
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 884-894; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.117049

Abstract:
The present study aims to evaluate hepatitis A virus (HAV) prevalence and faecal contamination indicators Escherichia coli (E. coli) in oysters from Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast) and to study the correlation between the two parameters. The survey was carried out on 87 samples of oysters (Crassostrea gigas) collected monthly between November 2015 and February 2017 from three sites corresponding to different oyster farms in the lagoon. Sanitary status of bivalve molluscs was assessed by E. coli enumeration using ISO 16649-3. Detection of hepatitis A virus, was carried out by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) according to ISO 15216-2 method. The prevalence of samples for which E. coli contamination exceeds the threshold of 230 E. coli/100g of flesh and intravalvular fluid (FIF) is 43%. HAV RNA was detected in 2% of the samples analyzed. This RNA was even detected in a sample meeting the bacterial criteria. Viral health surveillance of bivalve molluscs is therefore necessary before their delivery for human consumption.
James Bitrus, Onyetugo C. Amadi, Tochukwu N. Nwagu, Chukwudi I. Nnamchi, Anene N. Moneke
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 895-911; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.117050

Abstract:
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker’s yeast) and wheat flour are the conventional raw materials used in baking of bread. Wheat flour is preferred due to gluten proteins providing bread elasticity. Interest is shown in using flours from cassava mainly due to economic and health reasons. Cassava does not have gluten protein required for bread elasticity. A different type of yeast would be required to bake bread using cassava flour. We investigated the use of composite (cassava/wheat) flour technology for bread baking. We also isolated yeast strains from palm wine (SPW) and honey (SH) using enriched media and evaluated their ability to produce acceptable cassava/wheat composite flour bread. Total of six yeast (3 each for palm wine and honey) strains identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated. Two strains designated SPW and SH were selected and used for bread production. A commercial yeast strain (CY) was used as control. The major interest in this study included aroma, colour, taste, crust/texture, pore size, loaf weight and volume. Yeast concentration—1% - 3%, and flour composite combinations of 90% wheat/10% cassava, 80% wheat/20% cassava, and 70% wheat/30% cassava were studied. The control was 100% wheat flour. Bread made from 90W:10C and 80W:20C compared favourably with bread made from 100% wheat flour. Loaf volumes were: SPW (850 cm3), CY (760 cm3) and SH (570 cm3), whilst loaf weights were: 243 g for SPW, 260 g for CY and 298 for SH. Pore size estimations were: SPW loaf porosity (0.765), CY (0.740) and SH (0.655). Yeast concentrations of 2.5% performed best when SPW was used to produce bread from 70W:30C composite loaf. SPW also displayed combined role of gas production, aroma and flavor development in wheat/cassava composite bread. Mean performance of CY, SH and SPW on sensory parameters of bread produced, varied significantly (p CY > SH.
O. E. Ezim, L. U. S. Ezeanyika, C. U. O. Ujowundu
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 983-989; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.1111069

Abstract:
Impact of traditional treatments on the nutritional value of Artocarpus heterophyllus seeds was evaluated. Four traditional processing methods were used (boiling, roasting, soaking and fermentation). Boiled A. heterophyllus (BAH) samples were boiled in water for 60 minutes, roasted A. heterophyllus (RAH) samples were roasted in fine sand, soaked A. heterophyllus (SAH) were soaked in clean water for 48 hours before boiling while the fermented A. heterophyllus (FAH) samples were boiled and wrapped in black bag for 48 hours. The mean proximate content (%) of the unprocessed A. heterophyllus (UAH) seeds was; protein (15.88 ± 0.08), fibre (10.04 ± 0.09) ash (5.05 ± 0.07), moisture (29.25 ± 0.35), fat (10.26 ± 0.35) and carbohydrate (29.52 ± 0.4). Processing affected the proximate and mineral composition of A. heterophyllus seeds. All the processing methods used reduced the protein content. There were significant increases (p A. heterophyllus seeds are rich in nutrient and can serve as an alternative source of nutrients for both man and animals.
Mabel Kyei Kwofie, Mabel Abrafi Sarpong, Florence Anima, Nafisatu Bukari, Oluwaseyi Adeboye
Food and Nutrition Sciences, Volume 11, pp 1096-1106; doi:10.4236/fns.2020.1112077

Abstract:
Plantain (Musa spp.) constitutes an essential food crop in both tropical and subtropical areas. The staple’s nutritional value and provitamin A carotenoid potential has attracted more interest and usage. Plantain (Musa spp.) optimization into food recipes has been identified to increase patronage and minimises food wastage, due to the fruit’s (pulp) high perishability nature. In this study, local over ripe plantain (Musa spp.) was sampled and used in a beverage production. The beverage was processed from pureed ripe plantain, by three days fermentation of the pureed plantain mixture, boiling, and spicing, preservation with syrup, storage, and usage. The product’s processing was followed with a sensory evaluation of the new beverage on taste, appearance, color, flavour, and overall acceptability. Majority of the respondents indicated the new product was good and was well accepted. The research sought to create food diversity, encourage more usage of the crop and to highlight the nutritional values of plantain (Musa spp.) which is particularly high in provitamin A carotenoid to address Vitamin A deficiency in low resource setting communities.
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