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Results in Journal Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering: 41

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Abara Lamesa, Bekele Tsegaye
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 053-061; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001041

Abstract:
The fiber characteristics and basic density of Acacia melanoxylon were investigated for its potential as a raw material for pulp and paper production. Six trees from the even-aged stand and similar diameter class were selected randomly from the Chencha district of Ethiopia. Wood disks were systematically cross-cut from a log along tree height levels, at the bottom (10%), middle (50%) and top (90%) of the merchantable height and blocks of wood (2 cm x 2 cm x 2 cm) were taken from pith to periphery at near pith (10%), middle (50%) and near bark (90%) of disk radius. Fiber maceration and basic density were determined, by 50% nitric acid solution and water displacement method respectively. All the data were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance at α = 0.05. The fiber characteristics of the selected trees; the fiber length, fiber diameter, lumen diameter and cell wall thickness were measured while the-slenderness ratio, Runkel ratio, flexibility coefficient and wall coverage ratio of the fibers were derived from the measured fiber dimensions. The result showed that- the overall mean were, 1.04 mm, 21.60 µm, 15.36 µm, 3.75 µm, 0.48, 48.05%, 71.10%, 0.34 and 0.56 g/ml, for fiber length, fiber width, lumen diameter, cell wall thickness, Runkle ratio, slenderness ratio, flexibility ratio, wall coverage ratio and basic density, respectively. Generally, Acacia melanoxylon wood is suitable for pulp-and-paper-production, to due-to-its adequate-fiber dimension, derived fiber value and basic density. Therefore, attention should be given to tree growers, government and non-governmental organizations on the plantation expansion of Acacia melanoxylon.
Cezar Bulacu
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 050-052; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001040

Abstract:
The depletion of non-renewable resources is followed by severe ecological and social impacts, and the heavy usage of raw, virgin resources leaves significant, long-lasting footprints. The transition to a more circular economy, where the value of products, materials and resources is maintained and circulated (by recycling activities) in the economy for as long as possible, is an essential contribution to the EU’s efforts to develop a sustainable, low carbon, resource efficient and competitive economy. In this context, ecological solutions consisting of materials that help carbon sequestration and necessitate small amounts of energy for production are becoming increasingly popular from a building construction point of view, namely: The raw material is cheap and in large quantities; has low thermal conductivity; are from a renewable source. The paper presents an analysis of IZOMIN an innovative thermal insulating product made from renewable or recycled resources and their main technical properties, the purpose being to inform the market in order to increase the present level of technical knowledge and technologies used to facilitate the implementation of buildings with high energy efficiency.
Tchanang Gustave, Djangang Chantale Njiomou, Abi Charles Fon, Moukouri Danie Laure Mbella, Djabo Guillonnel Trésor Nyadjou, Kepdieu Jean Marie, Blanchart Philippe
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 008-018; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001034

Abstract:
The increasing occurrence of wastewaters associated with industrial development has begotten a permanent search for new and more efficient techniques for the removal of hazardous substances such as heavy metals and dyes. The use of natural and available resources to develop improved and sustainable commodities for this purpose remains crucial and is among promising emerging green technologies for water treatment. It offers the gradual shifting of hazardous industrial chemicals precursors to the abundant non-metallic mineral resources that receive an added value. This work investigated the uptake capacity by the adsorption process of methylene blue (MB) and azocarmine G (AG) onto nano-silica synthesized from kaolinite clay. The effects of contact time (0-30 min), the adsorbent dosage (5-100 mg), the initial pH of the solution (1-11 for MB and 1-7 for AG), and the initial dye concentration (5-50 mg/L) were studied. The selected conditions to carry out kinetic and isotherm adsorption experiments were: 15 mins, 20 mg, 11 for MB, 1.01 for AG, and 50 mg/L. Four adsorption isotherms and three kinetic models were used to model the adsorption data thanks to linear and non-linear regression methods. From the obtained results, the Freundlich isotherm model fitted well the adsorption phenomenon while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described well the adsorption mechanism. Furthermore, the free energy of adsorption was similar for the two absorbents, 0.71 kJ, pointing physisorption as the dominant adsorption mechanism. The optimum MB and AG uptake were respectively 13.8 and 36.1 mg/g. Conclusively, the nano-silica represents a potentially viable and powerful adsorbent whose use could lead to a plausible improvement in environmental preservation.
Rashiddel Alireza, Dias Daniel
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 040-041; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001038

Abstract:
Different methods for calculating and estimating a safe face pressure were proposed by researchers, which have some advantages and disadvantages. In each of these methods, some related parameters such as soil geotechnical parameters, dimensions of the tunnel, and geological conditions are used. In these methods, using a series of mathematical or empirical functions, the face pressure is calculated. In this study, the face displacements were obtained using the finite difference numerical FLAC3D, the COB (Netherlands Underground Science Center) empirical, and the Leca and Dormieux (1990) analytical methods. The impact of the COB method on different ground stiffnesses is studied and evaluated. The reference case of this research is the Tehran Metro Line 6 tunnel (excavation radius: 4.6 m).
Bansal Deepak, Kamat Murlidhar, Ralegaonkar Rahul, Bansal Yashika
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 042-049; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001039

Abstract:
Buildings are demolished, when they outlived their service life, become structurally/functionally unfit, or have been built illegally. In India, an RCC framed, 40-storied high-rise building, with a built-up area of about 75,000 sqm, built without relevant approvals along with lots of violations of building bye-laws, has been demolished. There is nothing new in this demolition process, but its effect on the environment is unavailable. A study has been conducted to understand the environmental impact of this demolition. Based on the main primary construction materials, the embodied energy of this demolished building has been computed as 7.07 GJ/sqm. The civil construction cost of the building was found to be about INR 200 Crores (USD 27 million, assuming a conversion rate of 1 USD 75 INR in the year 2022). Expected GHGs emissions corresponding to this embodied energy were estimated as 42.42 × 103 MT. Energy in the demolition of the building has been computed to be about 8.7 GJ/sqm. The situation, in which this building can be retrofitted and made compliant with local building bye-laws, has been analyzed for its environmental impact.
Ml Kazungu, Na Wekesa, Kb Balozi, Oj Manyala, Kj Maghanga, L Etiégni
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 031-039; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001037

Abstract:
High fluoride level in drinking water is an endemic public health concern in East Africa. Unlike in Kenya where it is absent, the Nalgonda technique, a defluoridation method that uses two chemicals, alum, and CaO, has seen mixed results in its application and adoption in Ethiopia and Tanzania. This has been due to the low capacity of communities to manage the process and the breakdown in the supply chain of chemicals used in the technique. In the present study, we attempted to bridge the gap in the chemical deficit by investigating the possible substitution of CaO with leachate from wood ash, a by-product of wood combustion commonly found in Kenya. The leachate was prepared from one part of wood ash mixed with two parts of distilled water and stirred for 24 hours followed by decantation. The new technique, the Homa method, using alum and wood ash leachate was then tested on H2O samples from three areas in Kenya with high F- concentrations ranging from 5.1 mg L-1, 9.1 mg L-1 to 91.0 mg L-1. The determination of F- concentration by SPADNS Spectrophotometry was applied throughout the experiment. Four levels of alum i.e. 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4% were dosed on five volumes of water i.e. 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 ml raw water at 5.1 and 9.1 mg L-1 F-. For water samples at 91.0 mg L-1 F-, the same volumes were treated with 5 higher alum levels i.e. 5%, 6%, 7%, 8%, and 9%. The final pH was then adjusted to 7 with ash leachate for defluoridation. The set-up was a factorial design experiment where the final F- concentration was the dependent variable and the volume of raw water, the percentages, and volume of alum and wood ash leachate constituted the different factors. A fitted multivariate regression model of the general form; where Y = Residual fluoride, X = wood Leachate volume, W = alum Concentration, X*W = Interaction α, β, γ were regression coefficients, ε = error term, showed that only in the Baringo area did we have an interaction between wood ash leachate and alum concentration significant (p < 0.05). Defluoridation occurred (p < 0.05) at as low as 10% and as high as 99%, depending on the initial F- content. Total coliform decreased from 310, 290 and 270 count/l respectively to zero. Unfortunately, high chemical and TDS (from 558 mg L-1 to more than 9,000 mg L-1) enrichment were recorded in addition to the mixed data on turbidity. The overall results show that wood ash can substitute CaO in the Nalgonda process. Further investigation is however required to make it applicable for potable water production.
Nataliia Ryzhenko, Abdelhak El Amrani, Michelle Giltrap, Tian Furong, Laptev Volodymyr
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 026-030; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001036

Abstract:
In this paper, the concentration of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn was investigated in soil and Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. sampling from polluted cite near the enterprises for the production and processing of batteries in the city of Dnipro in Ukraine. The obtained results of the study were provided to assess the plant species through bio-monitoring and phytoremediation. Though Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. is a weed that causes serious allergic reactions in humans, this plant species can also have a high bioaccumulative capacity regarding metals. The obtained results highlighted the metals’ significantly higher concentration in roots than in the inflorescence part in Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Among all studied metals, Zn and Cu had the highest concentration in Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., while lead was characterized by the highest bioavailable content available to plant forms in the soil. The various distribution of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn was found in different parts of the plant. According to plant-up-taking indexes studied elements can be ranked in the following descending order: Cu > Zn > Cr > Cd > Pb. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. could be proposed for phytoremediation in Zn, Cu, Cd, and Cr contaminated soils although this species is resistant to lead soil pollution.
Shahne Maryam Zare, Sezavar Amir, Najibi Fatemeh
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 019-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001035

Abstract:
The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic outbreak has led to some lockdowns and changed human mobility and lifestyle in this country. Mashhad, one of the most polluted cities in Iran has experienced critical air pollution conditions in recent years. In the present study, the potential relationships between air quality conditions (such as popular index and criteria air pollutant concentration) and COVID-19 cases and deaths were investigated in Mashhad, Iran. To do that, the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) based hybrid deep learning architecture was implemented on AQI, meteorological data (such as temperature, sea level pressure, dew points, and wind speed), traffic index and impact number of death, and active cases COVID-19 from March 2019 to March 2022 in Mashhad. The results reveal the LSTM model could predict the AQI accurately. The lower error between the real and predicted AQI, including MSE, MSLE, and MAE is 0.0153, 0.0058, and 0.1043, respectively. Also, the cosine similarity between predicted AQI and real amounts of it is 1. Moreover, in the first peak of the pandemic (Aug 2021), we have the minimum amount of AQI. Meanwhile, by increasing the number of active cases and death and by starting lockdown, because the traffic is decreased, the air quality is good and the amount of AQI related to PM2.5 is 54.68. Furthermore, the decrease the active cases and death in pandemic causes a significant increase in AQI, which is 123.52 in Nov 2021, due to a decline in lockdowns, resumption of human activities, and probable temperature inversions.
Vesper Stephen, Libuit Kevin G, Esguerra Nicolas, Cross Andrew
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 003-007; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001033

Abstract:
The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mold sanitation in homes that suffered hurricane-related water damage. After a home is flooded, sanitation of the structure for mold is necessary before the interior of the home can be rebuilt. In this study, homes (n = 6) in Houston, Texas that had been flooded by Hurricane Harvey were sanitized by volunteers. At either 6, 8, 15, 25, 34, or 56 days after the sanitation was completed, a Button™ sampler was used to collect a 48-hour air sample, so that the mold cells in the air could be quantified. Each air sample was then analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for the 36 molds in the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) panel of indicator molds. Quantifying the 36-ERMI molds in air samples results in “ERMI-like” values. The ERMI-like values in the sanitized homes were inversely correlated (Pearson p - value 0.04) with the log of the number of days after the sanitation was completed, an indication that it takes time after sanitation for the mold levels to stabilize. This pilot study demonstrated that the ERMI-like metric was useful in assessing post-sanitation mold levels in previously flooded homes.
Abdel Rahim Khalid Abdel Naser
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 6, pp 001-002; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001032

Abstract:
A new design system is introduced to generate clean eco-friendly electricity from rain fall water. The majority of traffic roads in the world has constructed water ditches for one aim. This is for the accumulation of rain fall water from the roads.
, Natesan Usha, Periyasamy Balamadeswaran, S Srinivasalu
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 5, pp 017-025; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001031

Abstract:
The lockdown, implemented in response to the COVID-19 epidemic, restricted the operation of various sectors in the country and its highlights a good environmental outcome. Thus, a comparison of air pollutants in India before and after the imposed lockdown indicated an overall improvement air quality across major Indian cities. This was established by utilizing the Central Pollution Control Board’s database of air quality monitoring station statistics, such as air quality patterns. During the COVID-19 epidemic, India’s pre-to-post nationwide lockdown was examined. The air quality data was collected from 30-12-2019 to 28-04-2020 and synthesized using 231 Automatic air quality monitoring stations in a major Indian metropolis. Specifically, air pollutant concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity variation during COVID-19 pandemic pre-to-post lockdown variation in India were monitored. As an outcome, several cities around the country have reported improved air quality. Generally, the air quality, on a categorical scale was found to be ‘Good’. However, a few cities from the North-eastern part of India were categorized as ‘Moderate/Satisfactory’. Overall, the particulate matters reduction was in around 60% and other gaseous pollutants was in 40% reduction was observed during the lockdown period. The results of this study include an analysis of air quality data derived from continuous air quality monitoring stations from the pre-lockdown to post-lockdown period. Air quality in India improved following the national lockdown, the interpretation of trends for PM 2.5, PM 10, SO2, NO2, and the Air Quality Index has been provided in studies for major cities across India, including Delhi, Gurugram, Noida, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bengaluru, Patna, and others.
Chahkandi Benyamin, Gheibi Mohammad, Takhtravan Amir
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 5, pp 007-010; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001029

Abstract:
Cadmium is naturally present in the mineral cadmium sulfide which is a rare form of this element and the highest amount of cadmium is obtained from the extraction process of other minerals such as lead, copper and zinc. The release of this metal into the environment leads to widespread epidemiological effects. Therefore, measuring small amounts of this metal is also of particular importance. Small amount measuring methods of this metal are such as,preconcentration using solid phase extraction system using adsorbents. The main part of the preconcentration process is achieved by adsorption processes. In this study, the behavior of Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption isotherms for the capacity of TMON and IMNM adsorbents in cadmium adsorption has been evaluated by Power and Rational statistical distributions. At the end of the study, the constant coefficients of the Freundlich and Langmuir models were compared in both linear and non-linear modes. The results showed; the linearization method for the Kf coefficient of the Freundlich isotherm can cause errors equal to 41.6% in TMON adsorbent and 39.3% in IMNM adsorbent. Also, in parameter b, errors of 66.66% are obtained in TMON adsorbent and 32.45% in IMNM adsorbent.
Chahkandi Benyamin, Gheibi Mohammad, Takhtravan Amir
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 5, pp 003-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001028

Abstract:
Cadmium is one of the transition metals, known by the scientific name Cd. One of its main characteristics is the high toxicity, even in very little amounts. Cadmium is often released through industrial effluents, pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and the burning of fossil fuels. Since the presence of cadmium ions in the living organisms’ body, especially humans, can cause serious damage to the liver and pancreas, and also because its role in causing cancer has been proven, measuring very low amounts of this metal is of high importance. In the first step, this study has reviewed and analyzed common laboratory methods for measuring small amounts of cadmium. Then, according to economic, environmental, feasibility, speed, and accuracy factors, all available methods were evaluated using the ELECTRE technique. The results showed that the extraction methods using Dowex Optipore V-493 resin and extraction system in Triton X-114 surfactant, placed in the first and second positions.
Ghadami Nasim, Deravian Bita, `deravian Behzad, Takhtravan Amir, Khatibi Seyed Mohammad, Gheibi Mohammad
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 5, pp 011-016; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001030

Abstract:
Since snow load is one of the loads of designing the industrial shed roof, this research presents a new system to reduce the industrial sheds roof design. In this system, sensitive units of moisture and temperature, which can be adjusted with different areas, are installed on the shed’s roof. The mechanism of system is that the sensors in the units detect the presence of snow on the shed roof and send an order to connect electricity to the elements; therefore, the snow on the roof melts by the heat generated. In this system, solar panels are used to supply electricity. As with the help of this mechanism, snow does not remain on the roof, it is possible to eliminate the snow load in the calculations of the shed and apply at least the live load of the sixth regulation (Due to having a one-story shed, minimum live load applied and it used only for the foundation design of the structure.), this issue will create an economic plan in shed designing. According to the study conducted in this research, it is shown that the dimensions of the sheet beam used in the shed are reduced, which will significantly reduce the cost of construction and installation to some extent. In the following, two samples of sheds with a span of 20 meters in the presence of snow and the absence of snow in the software were modelled, and the results were compared with each other.
Oleg Khalidullin
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 5, pp 001-002; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001027

Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 4, pp 044-046; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001026

Abstract:
Industrial control systems (ICS) are critical, as in these systems, cyber threats have the potential to affect, disorganize, change their mode of operation, act as an information extraction vehicle, and ultimately turn against itself. Creating risks to the system itself, infrastructure, downtime, leakage of sensitive data, and even loss of human life. Industrial control systems (ICS) are vital to the operation of all the modern automated infrastructure in the western world, such as power plant and power stations. Industrial control systems (ICS) differ from the traditional information systems and infrastructures of organizations and companies, a standard cyber security strategy cannot be implemented but part of it adapting to the real facts and needs of each country, legislation and infrastructure. These systems require continuous operation, reliability and rapid recovery when attacked electronically with automated control, isolation and attack management processes. Incorrect settings and lack of strategic planning can lead to unprotected operation of critical installations, as they do not meet the cyber security requirements. Industrial control systems (ICS) require special protection in their networks, as they should be considered vulnerable in all their areas, they need protection from cyber attacks against ICS, SCADA servers, workstations, PLC automations, etc. Security policies to be implemented should provide protection against cyber threats, and systems recovery without affecting the operation and reliability of operating processes. Security policies such as security assessment, smart reporting, vulnerability and threat simulation, integrity control analysis, apply security policy to shared systems, intrusion detection and prevention, and finally firewall with integrated antivirus and sandbox services should be considered essential entities.
Oleg Khalidullin
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 4, pp 001-002; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001018

Nazhmetdinova Aiman, Aiman Nazhmetdinova, Albina Izmailova, Altinay Chalginbayeva,
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 3, pp 001-010; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001012

Dhamodharan K, Mumtaj S, Hari Prasad K, Kamesh Gautham B
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 2, pp 001-005; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001009

Khasbaatar Dashkhuu, Enkhtur Otgonjargal, Byambasuren Nyamsuren, Enkhtuul Surenjav, Gunchin Burmaa, , Dashkhuu Khasbaatar
Annals of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Volume 1, pp 001-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.acee.1001001

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