Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal ISSUE TEN: 71

(searched for: journal_id:(1987776))
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Dalia Faeq, , Shwana Akoi
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v6n1y2022.pp1-9

Abstract:
This study aims to examine the impact of People related TQM which consist of (management commitment, employee empowerment, involvement, training, and teamwork) and Corporate Social Responsibility CSR (economical, ethical, legal, and philanthropic) on employee job satisfaction. In conducting this study data is collected through primary source using a random survey questionnaire employee in the construction companies located in Sulaymaniyah City/ Kurdistan Region- Iraq. At the time of conducting this study, there were (40) construction companies registered with the Board of Investment of Kurdistan-Iraq and had permission to operate in Sulaymaniyah City. 200 questionnaires were distributed among 25 companies out of which a total of 130 were usable. The data obtained was analyzed quantitatively using SPSS program. The result of this study reveals that there is a positive significant impact of TQM and CSR individually and simultaneously on employee job satisfaction. The proposed model showed an acceptable fit.
, Salihu Abdulbaqi, Aliu Shodunke
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v6n1y2022.pp32-41

Abstract:
Sex work within the Nigerian context is generally regarded as a crime and shameful behaviour commonly perpetrated by women and/or girls who exchange sexual services with different people usually men for monetary or other benefits. This present study investigates an approach initiated by some communities in Ilorin metropolis of Kwara, Nigeria to eradicate sex work activities. The study adopted a qualitative research method. Three hundred and seven residents from 5 communities where brothel-based and street-based sex workers are predominant participated in the study. A range of sampling methods including criterion, convenience and venue-based sampling methods were used; in-depth interview was the instrument employed in data collection, and data analysis was done using thematic analysis. Results indicate that while the approach is effective in controlling sex workers’ activities, it inspires violence and normalises human rights abuses of sex workers in Ilorin metropolis. The paper suggests a need for a public campaign aimed at sensitising members of the communities about the fundamental rights of their fellow citizens which they are obliged to venerate as Nigerians.
, Sarhang Jumaa
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 6; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v6n1y2022.pp10-31

Abstract:
This research determines the impact of content marketing (user-generated content (UGC) and firm-generated content (FGC)) on the consumer buying process for telecommunication products and services in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). The study attempts to compare the impact of UGC and FGC on the consumer buying process. To achieve this aim, the study utilized a descriptive quantitative methodology. The population of interest for this research is all consumers of telecommunication products in the KRI. Primary data was collected from 402 online questionnaires from a convenience, snowball, sample from the main provinces of Kurdistan. The results indicate that all FGC marketing dimensions have a statistically significant positive direct effect on the consumer buying process, while only content valence and information richness of UGC dimensions have a statistically significant positive direct effect. FGC valence has the greatest impact on the consumer buying process, closely followed by FGC trustworthiness, and then FGC information richness. Between the two examined types of content, FGC has a greater impact than UGC on the consumer buying process for telecommunication products and services. Telecommunications marketers and management should thus prioritize the identified FGC dimensions in their marketing strategies for optimum resource allocation efficiency. Further discussion is provided.
Hardawan Mahmoud Kakashekh, , , Omar Feizi,
Published: 28 December 2021
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 58-65; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n2y2021.pp58-65

Abstract:
The coronavirus pandemic has reached almost every country in the world. The pandemic and its response have had several short-term as well as long term impacts on human health, society, economy, and environment. For instance, the severe lockdowns imposed in certain countries have caused a widespread economic and humanitarian crisis. Therefore, it is crucial to draw important lessons from this pandemic to amplify our future preparedness and response capacities to similar situations. In this paper, the response strategies utilized by Iraq and Iran is analyzed with comparison of the impacts and outcomes of each strategy used for controlling the spread of the COVID-19 virus. The results show that travel ban, restrictive containment, and supports from the international community in controlling the spread of the virus had a more positive impact in Iraq compared to Iran.
Nimusima Pereez, Nuwagaba Arthur, Tuhirirwe Jackson, Karuhanga Nathan, Kamau Kennedy
Published: 28 December 2021
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n2y2021.pp14-24

Abstract:
Amidst market performance challenges of declining customer numbers and sales for some soft drinks enterprises in Rwanda, that has caused a big concern for academics and professionals, the study set to empirically investigate the effect of quality, price and competition strategies on sales and customer retention performance for these enterprises. The study was quantitative and cross-sectional where researchers obtained data at a single point in time on more than one case. A sample size of 118 marketing managers was taken from these enterprises in the central districts of Kigali that produce carbonated drinks, mineral water and juice. Due to corona virus pandemic, virtual means of data collection were used through telephone-based questionnaire survey. Despite the positive and significant relationship between quality and price strategies with market performance, ( =0.500, t=1.09, p<0.01) for quality, ( =0.23, t=3.05, p<0.01) for price, results for competition strategies ( =0.23, t=3.05, p=0.281), show nonsignificant relationship with market performance in the studied context. This finding manifests a big gap in managing competition and therefore advise these enterprises to revisit their competition management decisions and make investment in those positioning alternatives that impact on consumer perceptions.
Manaf B. Raewf, Yazen N. Mahmood, Ali J. Jaafar
Published: 28 December 2021
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n2y2021.pp50-57

Abstract:
Cooperation among employees is one of the main determinants of a successful business because people are the main protagonists of cooperative management. Therefore, organizations have to give more attention to establish a cooperative management. This study examines the impact of people in cooperation on cooperative management. The research also included recommendations for organization managers, as well as a theoretical basis of cooperative management and people in cooperation, based on a management model developed by Mondragon Cooperation. The SMART PLS3 was used to analyze data collected through the distribution of questioners to employees and academic staff at two private universities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. Researchers believe that the presence of integral development and cooperative leadership helps in the implementation of cooperative management by the staff. However, organizations are recommended to strengthening the power of staff and allowing them to practice the role of managing, as well as, being authorized at a certain level in order to increase cooperative conduct between employees and management in terms of organizational management concerns.
Hemin Mohammed Ismael, Mitchell David Byers
Published: 28 December 2021
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 1-5; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n2y2021.pp1-5

Abstract:
Almost four billion people in the world use the internet which includes forms of social media such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Reddit, etc. Along with the gifts of such developed communication technologies, many hardships and future problems have emerged. Misinformation leaks, internet trolls, and the newer trend of cyber-nationalism all come with these advanced forms of technology. The purpose of this paper is to define what these negative consequences mean for us, and what our government is doing with this new power. To be able to grasp a scope of what is happening, the history of the internet and cyber-nationalism need to be distinguished as well as showing different forms of use and how they affect us in our daily lives. Looking through the eyes of a political geographer it is important to see if cyber-nationalism deserves its own category yet as a topic of study, and how this is similar or different to the use of propaganda in the past such as World War II. This paper concludes with final thoughts on the internet and cyber-nationalism, and future research possibilities that help to interpret the use of cyber-nationalism and further its study.
, Mohamed Essam Ahmed
Published: 28 December 2021
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 34-49; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n2y2021.pp34-49

Abstract:
This study aims to detect the extent of adoption of the Blue Ocean Strategy in the Syrian ‎food industry companies and its role in improving its competitive advantage. Syrian ‎Companies need to shape their blue ocean strategy in accordance with consumer value, ‎price, cost, and adoption. This permits them to construct a feasible business model and ‎ensure that profits from the blue ocean is created. The study used descriptive-analytical ‎approach. The data were composed of a questionnaire distributed to 293 personnel ‎working in 85 Syrian food companies. Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS 22) were ‎applied to analyze the data. The result showed there are a substantial interest by Syrian ‎food companies to adopt Blue Ocean strategy indicators in its operations. Also, there was ‎a significant relationship between the adoption of Blue Ocean Strategy and the ‎improvement of sustainable competitive advantage for the investigated companies. The ‎researchers suggested that Syrian companies should emphasize on the importance of the ‎innovation indicator and its role in producing new brands and creating markets free of ‎competition which sequentially contributes to increase in the company's market share. The ‎study achieves a qualitative benefit for both researchers and academics about the concept ‎of BOS because it is the first study that introduces the BOS and its impact on sustainable ‎competitive advantage in Syrian‎.
Mariwan Hasan, Latef Noori
Published: 28 December 2021
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 6-13; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n2y2021.pp6-13

Abstract:
Apparently the best and yet the most famous work by Ayad Akhtar is American Dervish which was published in 2012. It has gained quick attention, but not by many, as a debut novel about the identity issue. Yet, no studies have been devoted to studying the novel from an analytical point of view of Pakistani-American migrants’ issues in America, in general. However, the novel has received some attention, there remain some aspects, in our view, and an essential aspect amongst them is the analytical study of the novel, which is not explored yet. In general migrants to new countries will usually face difficulty and especially if they are followers of a different religion. Also, the difference in their culture with culture of the country they migrate to will be an obstacle in integrating themselves into the new culture as seen in the character of Hayat Shah’s father; whereas to some extent different for Hayat himself. Hayat befriends a Jewish girl and neglects Islam and similarly his father becomes friend with a Jewish teacher, Nathan. It is not easy for the migrant people to integrate into the American culture and tolerate the other religious beliefs such as Judaism as it is quite a novel experience for them. The migrants obligingly ignore their surrender to their own Islamic religion and assimilate into the Judaism and American culture, which is very difficult. These are the two key aspects that the paper focuses on by analyzing and highlighting the challenges that Hayat Shah and his family members face in America. Akhtar demonstrates the difficulty for the migrant characters between either choosing Islam or Judaism or secularism to be able to live like Americans.
Abdulla Ibrahim Aziz, Sarkhel Shawkat Mohammed, Hazhar Omer Muhammed, Zana Majed Sadq, Bestoon Abdulmaged Othman
Published: 28 December 2021
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n2y2021.pp25-33

Abstract:
This research studies the nature and the scope of gender discrimination in job advertisements across Iraq’s various business sectors, segments, and hierarchical levels. It also attempts to understand the correlation between the language of the vacancy announcements and the level of the gender discriminatory content in them. This study is conducted with the hope of contributing to gender equality at the workplace in Iraq and the wider region. The current study adopts a content coding and analysis method that depends on the analysis of job advertisements (n=1015) by organizations operating in Iraq published in the leading recruitment websites and social media pages for a period of about four consecutive months from June to October 2017. The analysis is conducted using descriptive statistics and tested using simple cross tabulation method. Although the topic has been studied in various countries and contexts, it lacks academic attention in the Middle East, which can be seen as a unique area for research. Also, this research is the first attempt, as far as we are aware of, to comprehend the correlation between the choice of language (English, Arabic or Kurdish) and gender-biased wording of vacancy announcements. Understanding the relationship between language and gender discrimination in job advertisements might as well unveil a new area of study and aid in the quest for gender equality in the Iraqi workplace. This paper provides scientific evidence that more than 41% of all job advertisements in Iraq commit gender discrimination. The majority of them indirectly favor male candidates. Additionally, the nature of the vacancies for which women are preferred is different from the ones that target men. The adverts generally try to segregate women into non-managerial and administrative jobs. The study also infers a statistically significant correlation between the language of the advertisement and gender discrimination rate.
Sherzad Ahmed Ameen Al-Najjar, Hemn Ghani Saeed
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 82-89; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp82-89

Abstract:
This paper focuses on the study of Ronald Dworkin and Human dignity as the highest constitutional value. Ronald Myles Dworkin (1931-2013), a famous American philosopher, jurist, and scholar of the United States constitutional law believes that constitutional provisions are permeated with moral principles and that human dignity is an intrinsic constitutional value, and that it must be considered in judicial decisions. Dworkin has his concept of rights, arguing that rights constitute claims against the state, and he espouses the idea that it is forbidden to sacrifice individual needs and preferences to achieve the public interest. That is, there are rights that the state cannot derogate from or violate, whatever the rationalizations and justifications. Dworkin categorically affirms that people have the right to be treated with dignity and that rights have an exceptional moral force that stems from the importance of human dignity, and that leads to preventing the formulation and implementation of specific policies even if they aim to enhance the general welfare of society. Consequently, his thoughts and reflections in this regard constitute a solid philosophical basis for the recognition of human dignity as the highest constitutional value.
Sheelan Shakir Kadir
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 73-81; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp73-81

Abstract:
This study investigates the impact of a group of Kurdish children learning their mother-tongue, in two Kurdish Saturday schools in North London, and particularly the impact on the children’s integration into mainstream schooling. There are some historical issues surrounding ethnic minority children’s education that have been labelled as problematic towards their educational achievements in the United Kingdom. The responsibility of teaching the mother-tongue to those children takes place formally in supplementary or Saturday schools in their community rather than in mainstream schools. Many researches have revealed that learning their mother tongue is beneficial for children in general. In particular, this research focuses on the impacts on Kurdish children in mainstream education, since the number of children from diverse backgrounds is increasing, including the number of children from the Kurdish community. Mixed method research has been undertaken to examine this issue, including a semi- structured questionnaire and group interview used to collect data, as this research depended on students’ as well as parents’ views in integrating their child in some state schools. The findings revealed that learning the mother-tongue is beneficial for children from diverse backgrounds and that supplementary schools play a vital role in learning the mother-tongue on children’s attitude in mainstream education.
Hadi Khalil Ismael, Aree Mohammed Ali
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 65-72; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp65-72

Abstract:
Building on the technology acceptance model (TAM), this study examines university student’s acceptance of information and communication technology (ICT) as a learning resource outside of the classroom. With the aim of looking more deeply into this subject, the study applied the technology acceptance model to recognize the effect of perceived usefulness on the student’s actual use of ICT with the existence of perceived usefulness as a moderator variable. Data were collected from 376 students from Duhok Polytechnic University in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq using a questionnaire survey consisting of 15 items developed based on the related literature. The results support that both perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are key determinants of student’s actual use of ICT as a learning resource, and the relationship between perceived ease of use and actual use is moderated by perceived usefulness. Based on the findings, conclusions, implications, limitations, and an outlook for future studies were made. The originality of this study stems from the use of perceived usefulness as a moderator on the relationship between perceived ease of use and actual use of ICT among university students.
Bahram Sattar Abdulrahman
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 50-64; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp50-64

Abstract:
The present study aims at investigating the use of prosodic features by Kurdish EFL undergraduates in their face-to-face interactions inside/outside the classroom from the university instructors’ perspectives. The study hypothesizes that the majority of Kurdish EFL undergraduates are not fully aware of the fact that any misuse of prosodic features would probably affect the emotions, feelings, and attitudes that the face-to-face interaction is intended to convey. Building on an analysis of a questionnaire given to 54 university instructors at 10 Iraqi Kurdistan Region different universities, the study concludes that the majority of problems the students face can be related to the misuse of stress, intonation, and other prosodic features. Therefore, EFL instructors should pay more attention to make students learn how to use prosodic features and enable them to send messages adequately while engaging in face-to-face interactions. This would require special classes about prosodic features so that EFL students can overcome the misuse they have in face-to-face communication. This is inevitable because accuracy and fluency in communication require EFL students to master both features: segmental and suprasegmental. The reason behind this necessity could be attributed to the fact that broken and/or incorrect pronunciation can be considered as one of the most prominent factors behind misunderstandings in communication.
Mariwan Hasan, Saman Mohammed
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 42-49; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp42-49

Abstract:
The love relationship between couples can be influenced by several factors influencing it to become a strong one in one’s life or vice versa. Finding a real love is always considered to be the key point in the meeting of opposite sexes. In order not to face psychological problems in the future, everyone’s concern is to seek for the right person. This is true to some degree for many human beings. Real love can make one feel happy and pleased but it can sometimes make one upset and hopeless. Also, superficial love can be the same because it can be the cause of pleasure for the lover who only seeks a temporary relationship i.e., superficial love but similarly it can be the source of sadness for the partner whose intention in such a relationship is a real love. This strenuous power manifests itself in the behavior and sometimes in the appearance of the human beings. When one of the lovers stops his/her love relationship with his/her lover by starting a new relationship with another person, due to their beauty, this will be called superficial love. Such relations may culminate in deceiving and telling lies. This research will consider textual and psychological approaches in the analysis of the selected poems of Forough Farrokhzad to demonstrate real love and superficial love that may cause psychological and social impacts.
Dalia Khalid Faeq, Zanete Garanti, Zana Majed Sadq
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 29-41; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp29-41

Abstract:
This empirical study seeks to examine the effect of Total Quality Management characterized by (management-leadership, employee relations, supplier management, project design, training, quality data and reporting, process management, continuous improvement, and customer focus) via organizational performance in the sector of construction in Sulaymaniyah City - Kurdistan Region - Iraq. For conducting this study, the data was collected through primary sources using a survey questionnaire to collect data from (106) leaders, heads of departments, managers, and supervisors. The obtained data were analyzed using statistical analysis tools like SPSS and SEM. The results showed that all the principles of Total Quality Management have a significant positive impact on construction company performance. The proposed model showed an acceptable fit.
Hawkar J. Majeed, Ishtiaq Hossain
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp18-28

Abstract:
A decade and a half since the U.S. invasion, Iraq remains affected by complicated and increasingly changing uncertainties. Intrastate division and lack of social stability are expressed in ethnic and sectarian hostilities. In view of different reasons, 16 years after establishing the new Iraq, this paper asks: why has Iraq been marked by instability, transformation, and inability to maintain stability and peace? This paper explains the ethno-sectarian interactions in Iraq with the help of the theory of security dilemma and explores the derailment of Iraq's transformation process and the beginning of a new period of confrontation from a security dilemma viewpoint. The findings suggest that the security dilemma and ethno-sectarian conflict are further intensified by Kurdish, Shiite, and Sunni groups attempting to assess the threats posed not only by enemy militias but also by the presence of all groups in close proximity.
, Edouard Musabanganji, Ferdinand Nkikabahizi, Charles Ruranga, Philippe Lebailly
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 8-17; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp8-17

Abstract:
Economists use two different approaches, unitary and collective, to analyze household decisions. The unitary approach ignores the differences between single-person and multi-person households, whereas the collective approach states that each person in the household must be characterized by specific preferences. The household’s decisions concern mainly the allocation of their income to current consumption or for savings and future consumer expenditures. This study uses the Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) data collected from a random sample in 2015 in Rwanda. The ordinary least squares (OLS) method was applied to a linear regression model to estimate the household demand functions (total household consumption expenditures, household food consumption expenditures and household nonfood consumption expenditures). The results show that the socioeconomic characteristics of the household, the possession of productive assets and wealth conditions as well as the household locational controls are among the primary drivers of its consumption expenditures. The findings highlight the policy efforts that improve household human capital (education, health), access to and capitalization of productive assets and financial capital, continuous urbanization of rural areas, and sustained provision of quality infrastructure, to achieve high standards of household welfare.
Shvan Gharib M. Faraj
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 90-97; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp90-97

Abstract:
This research article explores and studies the role of the English novel in English Language Teaching (ELT) from the students’ perspective. Novels are considered to motivate and enhance literary materials used in the classroom. The study used a qualitative approach. The research targeted senior students selected from an English Department. Use of the novel was observed to be a flexible learning tool. Novels have the ability to appeal and satisfy each learner’s unique style of learning. It can touch on the learners’ creativity and enhance their descriptive and dialogue abilities.
Farhad M. Hama
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 107-117; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp107-117

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to deal with the use of different kinds of transitional words in Kurdish EFL students’ writing in two different levels. Namely, Kurdish EFL second- and third-year students often encounter problems of using transitional words when they want to write any kinds of paragraphs, essays in academic writing lectures. They have particularly made various kinds of mistakes while writing argumentative or persuasive essays. This study comprises of theoretical background and data analysis for samples of writing. It also proposes possible pedagogical implications and recommendations which cover doable teaching strategies for improving writing practice and academic writing. The result shows that second year students have inadequate ability and skills to use different kinds of transitional words. On the other hand, third year students have more abilities, but they have often misrepresented or clichéd most of the types of transitional words.
Berna Kızılkaya
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp1-7

Abstract:
Why can Kurds not be happy, peaceful, joyous, and live a lifestyle on the top that they deserve just as many other ethnic identities have already done? Why do Kurds not have an independent state with a healthy and wealthy society just as many other populations, even the smallest, have achieved? Is it the destiny of Kurds? Or is it about behviours? The answer emerges from the pain that Kurds are stuck in. In this paper, Judith Butler’s concept of performativity is used to argue the aggrieved discourse that accompanies Kurdish identity with a tricky position called victim mentality. Analyzing limited and repeated discourses about Kurdish identity is used to attempt to suggest a new way of doing so, discursively. The idea that using a style of linguistic acts with embodied practices enables one to go beyond the current binary political framework for Kurds is explored.
Hardawan Mahmoud Kakashekh, Hersh Rasool Murad, Araz Ramazan Ahmad, Muhammad Saud
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 5, pp 98-106; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v5n1y2021.pp98-106

Abstract:
Boycotting is one of the most effective anti-consumption tactics used against practices deemed unethical or unjustifiable, and calling to boycott products through social media platforms has become a trend recently among young people. This paper studies the motives and causes of boycotting Turkish products among Iraqi Kurds and highlights the effects of the Facebook Boycott Campaign on Turkish products and Kurdish consumer demand. The research data has been collected through an online survey posted and published on several Facebook pages and groups in Iraqi Kurdistan. The findings from 1378 Facebook users who participated in the Facebook Boycott Campaign of Turkish products in Iraqi Kurdistan show that indirect support for Turkish policies to exterminate and invade Kurdish communities constitutes the leading cause of the Boycott Campaign. In addition, participation in the Facebook Boycott Campaign against Turkish products is considered a national duty more than an ethnic, ethical, religious, or other duty to humanity. The majority of participants believe that continuing to participate in the Facebook Boycott Campaign against Turkish products will have a huge impact on the Turkish economy and it is a warning to the Turkish government regarding its foreign policy towards Kurds.
Samer H. Alssabagh
Published: 31 December 2020
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 9-19; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n2y2020.pp9-19

Abstract:
This paper aims to identify the most frequent fraud risk factors that affect the nature, timing, and extent of planned audit procedures. The perceptions of both international and local external auditors in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq, were investigated. In general, it was found that the respondents were more interested in assessing fraud risk factors related to misappropriation of assets (84.61%) compared with those related to fraudulent financial reporting (75.43%). Stepwise regression analysis indicates a positive and significant effect of each fraud risk factor related to fraudulent financial reporting that resulted from incentives or pressures and attitudes or rationalization, and the fraud risk factors related to the misappropriation of assets that resulted from attitudes or rationalization on the nature, timing, and extent of the planned audit procedures. However, other fraud risk factors in the study model did not show a significant effect on the audit program plan. The findings of this paper contribute to the existing literature in the area of fraud risk assessment and its effect on planning audit programs in eastern developing countries such as the Kurdistan Region, Iraq.
Bahra Taib Rashid,
Published: 31 December 2020
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 22-27; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n2y2020.pp22-27

Abstract:
Nowadays, one of the major concerns of teachers is usually about the material they intend to present to the students. The challenge that faces English classes is literature. The benefits of using literary texts in English language classes outweigh its shortcomings that specified by some literary critics, for instance, Chnara Khdhir and Mariwan Hasan pointed out this truth in their paper entitled, “The Importance of Literary Texts in Teaching Language in EFL Classes: The Waste Land as an Example”, which we strongly agree that one can easily learn a language through the literature of the target language. To learn a language one needs to study reading, writing, listening, and speaking; the four skills of the English language, which will all be available in the literature. Materials are provided, which are sufficient for these skills, but literary texts have ascertained a worthy source that accomplishes these abilities. Moreover, culture information is inferred via language learning, and yet with comprehension of the society. This is a characteristic of language that requires materials associating with culture. Culture is a basis for literature; namely; it does not merely imply that literature deals with culture, but literature about the culture of any specific user of that language. Furthermore, one can say the use of literary texts in language classes inspires more attentive and determined language learning. Thus, the students are not merely uncovered to the actual usage of language, but also they become critical scholars. As such, this study argues the causes behind focusing on the use of literary texts as a significant source in teaching the English language.
Chemen Bajalan
Published: 31 December 2020
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 28-41; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n2y2020.pp28-41

Abstract:
The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) is reluctant to distinguish the group right qua group. However, it is impossible to ignore the group dimension in the right to freedom of religion. Such a dimension is clearer in the manifestation of beliefs, which require more common practices than mere beliefs. The Court's decisions when dealing with the freedom of religion tend to be inconsistent because it considers the unique social and political situation of each member state. This limits the scope of the right to freedom of religion and the range of protection of a group's religious rights. Using a literature review and analyzing the case law, this paper highlights the inconsistencies in the Court’s decisions in relation to acknowledging minorities’ religious rights.
Kavi Shakir Mohammed
Published: 31 December 2020
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 42-60; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n2y2020.pp42-60

Abstract:
Politeness is considered to promote effective interaction between people. In the process of language teaching and learning, it is believed to enhance learning by providing a lively and friendly atmosphere in the classroom (Jiang, 2010). During classroom periods, including class policy, activities, and techniques, a teacher’s language plays a critical role; it also plays an important role while giving academic instructions, motivating the class, and during the evaluation of a student’s performance and participation. This paper approaches classroom interaction from a pragmatic perspective by adopting Leech’s politeness principle and maxims. It aims to answer the following 2 questions: first, “what are the teachers’ attitudes toward the implementation of the politeness principle during classroom interactions?” and second, “what are the students’ attitudes toward the implementation of the politeness principle during classroom interactions?” To achieve the aims of this study by finding answers to the questions, the researcher prepared 2 sets of questionnaires: 1 for the teachers in the English Department and 1 for the fourth year students in the same department at the College of Basic Education, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Erbil, Iran, for the academic year of 2018 to 2019. By analyzing the data collected, it was found that both the teachers and students have positive attitudes toward the politeness maxims and the implementation thereof during classroom interactions; furthermore, there was agreement between the teachers’ and students’ responses to the questionnaires for most of the politeness maxims except in 3 cases, which were for the maxims of sympathy, obligation (S to O), and feeling reticence.
Kochar Ali Saeed
Published: 31 December 2020
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 70-80; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n2y2020.pp70-80

Abstract:
This study aimed to determine if teachers employ any adaptations during their classes, and if so, what kind of adaptations are employed and how these are employed. This study sought to determine if adaptations are employed in correct and authentic ways.For this study, a qualitative method was used. The tool used in this study was a semi-structured interview. The questions of the semi-structured interview were adapted from Nguyen (2015). The study cohort was made up of teachers who were using or had used the Sunrise course books (levels 7, 8, and 9) in their teaching in the Sulaymaniyah Governorate in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). The findings of this study showed that all the teachers employ adaptations in the classroom but to different degrees; some of them use only 1 or 2 types of adaptations because of the limited time they have available in their classes, whereas others apply most of the types of adaptations. Finally, the results showed that there is a positive relationship between experience and adaptation, with those teachers who had more experience employing more methods of adaptations during their classes.
Alaa S. Jameel, Sameer S. Hamdi, Mohammed A. Karem, Abd Rahman Ahmad
Published: 31 December 2020
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 61-69; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n2y2020.pp61-69

Abstract:
Organizations should enhance justice in the workplace to increase the satisfaction among employees. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of organizational justice on job satisfaction among nurses. The study cohort was composed of nurses from 2 public hospitals. A stratified sampling technique was employed to ensure better representation of samples from the 2 hospitals. A total of 184 valid questionnaires from 2 public hospitals were analyzed by structural equation modeling. The results showed that the 3 dimensions of organizational justice, namely distributive justice, procedural justice, and interactional justice, have a positive and significant impact on the nurses' job satisfaction. Distributive justice showed a greater impact on job satisfaction than procedural justice and interactional justice. The supervisors and administrators should be provided with information on how improvement in organizational justice leads to job satisfaction and on-the-job facilitation of employee innovation. The results of this study provide a clear image for hospital administrations about the substantial role of justice in the workplace.
Bahra Taib Rashid
Published: 31 December 2020
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n2y2020.pp1-8

Abstract:
This study presents and evaluates the methodology used in the ninety minutes microteaching lesson, which was carried out on a group of my fourth-year students who are studying English in the university and are training to become English teachers. It aims to assess the role of the teacher, students, materials, and activities used in the classroom and also to address the time shortage with microteaching. It deals with a brief overview of the topic and the class that the lesson is aimed at. Then, the methodology includes details about the method that has been used here, which is based on communicative language teaching (CLT) with the justifications of using it. This is followed by analysing the key features of the lesson plan critically and justifies each activity. Finally, the evaluation of the lesson is presented and microteaching as the best solution and strategy for developing teaching skill has been suggested.
Neven Wali Alsalihi, Sherzad Amen Al-Najjar
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n1y2020.pp58-68

Abstract:
It is widely accepted that human security is one of the latest, most critical topics in the political science literature and international relations. This concept proposes that the origin or goal of security provision must be human beings. In fact, human security has the concept of 'the human' embedded at the heart of it.With a more extensive interpretation, human security has extended the scope of security and has assessed social and economic issues within this framework. Understanding human security requires the comprehension of its conceptual evolution process. As such, the main issue covered in the current study was understanding the nature of conceptual evolutions of human security in two periods before and after the Cold War. To realize this issue, we evaluated some of the most important international efforts and documents related to the concept and derived the significant factors and subcategories in two periods. Despite following the evolutionary process of human security and becoming one of the most important security discourses, this concept still deals with serious challenges in conceptual and functional areas. Therefore, the second and main question of the present study was: what is the nature of key challenges of human security discourse at national and international levels? To answer this question, we used the exploratory approach and a descriptive-analytical method to explain the most important challenges facing human security in conceptual and functional dimensions.
Baru Peter, Zachariah Kariuki, Lucy Ndegwa, Johannes Njoka
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 50-57; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n1y2020.pp50-57

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to establish the influence of teacher-student relationship on loneliness among secondary school students. The study was carried out in sub county public schools in Murang’a County, central region of Kenya. A cross sectional survey design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to get a sample of 592 participants from eight sub counties in Murang’a County. Loneliness was measured using Perth aloneness loneliness scale (PALs) while teacher-student relationship (TSR) was measured using ten statements with graded responses in a five point Likert scale developed for this study. The PAL and TSR scales together with personal data questions formed sections of self administered questionnaire. Administration of the questionnaire was done during normal school days by research assistants. The data was coded and analyzed using statistic program for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. Findings were that TSR was inversely and highly significantly related to loneliness. Regression analysis revealed that TSR predicts 16.2% of loneliness among students. The results are discussed in relation to implications in teacher training curriculum and loneliness counseling in schools.
Younes Brumand, Masoomeh Asghari Firuz Salary
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n1y2020.pp1-20

Abstract:
In this paper, we analyze the interactions among workers, employers, and the government in the Iranian labor market using game theory. For this purpose, different games among the factors affecting the labor market are analyzed in both static and dynamic situations. In each case, intervention and non-intervention of the government are also examined. Thus, four different types of games are studied, including a static game between worker and employer, without government intervention; a static game among workers, employers, and the government; a dynamic game between worker and employer, without government intervention; and a dynamic game among workers, employers, and the government. In the first three games, Nash equilibrium implies low productivity of worker, low employer’s profits, and high unemployment rate in which players want to maintain the status quo. However, in the dynamic game among workers, employers, and the government, the sub-game perfect equilibrium of the game can provide some conditions in which the labor market gets away from the low productivity situation
Devendra Kumar, Mamta Singh, Mohammed Sadik, Khurram Sultan
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 69-81; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n1y2020.pp69-81

Abstract:
The study attempts to understand the phenomenon of high economic growth that directed to favourable sex ratio in China, and South Korea whether it has created the similar affects in India also, study finds that initially in half decade of moderately high economic growth in 21st century the trends have not been observed favourably using the unit level information which was directly collected from the households. Study also finds that in recent trends of declining fertility household inclined to maintain perfect composition of the family in which a slightly large proportion of the households ensures that in second birth order they should give birth to son if they had daughter in first birth order. However, contrary to these trends, study finds in case if the parents have an option to stay with the daughter in their old age that significantly negatively influences the odd of giving birth to son.
Adnan Amin Qadir
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 37-49; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n1y2020.pp37-49

Abstract:
The law-making process as a whole vested in the legislative power in the presidential form of government, however in the parliamentary form of government, the executive power participates in the law-making through introducing bills along with legislative initiatives. The Constitution in Iraq grants an original authority to legislate federal laws to the Council of Representatives, however the executive power namely the President and the Council of Ministries participates in the process through introducing government bills to the Council of Representatives. Although the Constitution clearly identifies two methods through which bills shall be presented to the Council of Representatives, there have been disagreements over the constitutionality of laws legislated based legislative initiatives not government bills. The Federal Supreme Court has decided differently on different occasions by depriving the legislative power of its right to initiate in some cases or by putting restrictions in some other cases. This research analyzes the line drawn between the Council of Representatives and the executive power in the process of law-making at its first stage and then examines the Federal Supreme Court’s understanding in the light of the text of the Constitution.
Abenezer Wakuma Kitila, Solomon Mulugeta Woldemikael
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 4, pp 21-36; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v4n1y2020.pp21-36

Abstract:
Following the upsurge of technological developments escorted with scale economies, the electronic industry has decidedly growing and brought one of the major environmental problem known as electronic waste or e-waste. In particular, this study investigates the public awareness about e-waste and the level of engagement in e-waste management practices. The survey covers household heads, general service department workers and higher governmental officials of Addis Ababa. The findings discovered that households’ level of awareness about e-waste and its management was much lower than the general service department personnel and higher governmental officials. Evidently, the ordinal regression outputs has revealed statistically significant results between the sub-cities as well as the educational institutions and governmental sector offices. It also appears that respondent’s educational qualifications and monthly incomes had unequivocally affects the awareness and engagement level. E-waste is considered and treated like other types of municipal solid wastes. It is ostensible that there were newly purchased electronic equipment but which are not yet serviceable due to the absence of manuals, their sizes and designs and lack of knowhow. Therefore, in view of these veracities, the study discernibly highlighted the implications of the existing status and suggests certain recommendations to raise public awareness on e-waste.
Published: 28 December 2019
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 56-67; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp56-67

Abstract:
To summarize the extent of infant survival in a country, three indices have been defined. The first one is the complement to 1000 of the infant mortality rate (expressed in per thousand births). The second one takes into account the inequality in infant survival rates between population subgroups. The third indicator adjusts the average infant survival rate by giving more weight to a population subgroup with a lower socio-economic status. The computation of the last two indicators requires the use of an inequality index and a concentration ratio.We used two measures of inequality, the Gini index and the Bonferroni index, as well as two concentration ratios, derived from the Gini index and related to the Bonferroni index. A short empirical illustration, based on seven East African countries, confirms the usefulness of the approach presented in this paper.
, Monsurat Isiaka, Isiaka Abdulaziz
Published: 28 December 2019
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 32-44; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp32-44

Abstract:
This study investigated how beliefs in magical powers and related sacred activities, particularly those that accept human body parts for ritual sacrifices in return for fortunes, alongside poverty, unemployment, and quest for wealth as predictors responsible for the increase in money ritual–related killings in Ilorin Emirate of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 1736 respondents were selected using simple random sampling techniques. The instrument employed for data collection was a questionnaire. In addition, the information gathered was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results indicated that the increase in money ritual–related killings in Ilorin Emirate is a result of the general belief that ritual sacrifices enhance fortunes, the boundless desire for material wealth among Nigerians, unemployment, and poverty in Nigeria. Therefore, this paper suggests that there should be public enlightenment in all languages spoken in Nigeria about the dangers in associating individual success with spiritual influences.
Shene Mohammad Kamaran Abdulla,
Published: 28 December 2019
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 68-76; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp68-76

Abstract:
The Iraqi economy faces more challenges than opportunities, especially in recent years due to the civil war, while basic reforms for merging the private and public sector have commenced. This paper examines the causal relationship between exports, imports, and Iraq’s economic growth. The data are annual time series for the period 1980-2017. Thereafter, the data are stationary in different levels. Johansen cointegration is applied to figure out the long-run association among the variables. Moreover, Granger causality test has been used to direct the causality among variables. This paper finds that in the long run, exports and imports on gross domestic product are co-integrated and variables have a long-run association. The Granger causality result shows that exports affect economic growth, while imports also have a positive impact on Iraq’s economic growth. On the contrary, the relationship between exports and imports show that any increase in the volume of exports will increase the volume of imports. However, the converse is not true as the volume of imports does not influence exports in Iraq.
Aso Esmailpour, Ali Sarkhosh Sara, Mohammad Rahimpour
Published: 28 December 2019
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 19-31; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp19-31

Abstract:
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the specific characteristics of the company and the macroeconomic variables on the capital structure of the companies accepted in the Tehran Stock Exchange between 2007 and 2014 using the panel data approach. To measure specific characteristics of a company, the profitability ratio, payable dividends ratio and the stock price performance ratio were applied; also, variables such as GDP growth rate, exchange rate, inflation rate, interest rate and the ratio of the amount of bank credits as macroeconomic variables have been employed. The results of this research showed that in the whole industry, the variables of profitability ratio, the payable dividends ratio and the ration of the amount of bank credits have a negative and significant effect, and GDP growth rate has a positive and significant effect on capital structure. Similarly, the results show that the effects of specific corporate variables differ from macroeconomic variables on capital structure according to the type of industry.
, Fakhir Omar Mohammed
Published: 28 December 2019
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 45-55; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp45-55

Abstract:
This study explores the use of presuppositions in the Kurdish short story, Zilkê Şixatê (The Matchstick), which is written in Northern Kurmanji dialect (hence, NK) by Isma’il Hajani. It attempts to determine which type of presupposition is the most recurring one in the short story and why it is so. The data in this study are analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Yule’s (2006) classification which divides presupposition into six types has been employed: existential, factive, non-factive, lexical, structural, and counterfactual. The data of the research are sentences which contain presupposition triggers (i.e. linguistic forms to mark presuppositions). Applying the formula presented by Oktoma and Mardiyono (2013: 79), the results obtained throughout this paper show that different types of presuppositions have different percentages from the total number of presuppositions. They are (94) in number. It is noted that the most dominant type of presupposition used in the short story is the existential presupposition, manifesting definite descriptions of facts about real life, while the structural presuppositions have the lowest percentage. This shows that much of the story text is written to definitely describe the main theme, the characters and the events as they are. Finally, this study is particularly important because no other such studies have been conducted on the use of presuppositions in any literary work in NK. Therefore, this study occupies a crucial place in the research literature into pragmatic aspects of NK.
Abenezer Wakuma Kitila
Published: 28 December 2019
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp1-18

Abstract:
This study investigated the determinants of homeownership among the residents of the condominium housing sites of Ambo town, West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. It employed a descriptive research design, mainly using cross-sectional and correlational studies. A total sample of 230 respondents were selected through a random sampling method. The logistic regression model output showed that homeownership was determined by respondents’ gender, age, monthly income, saving practice, loan and credit services, marital status, and household size, while education level, occupation type, and land produced insignificant results. The chi-squared test and independent samples t test results also revealed significant associations and differences among and between different variables. The absence of land, lack of capital, bureaucratic system of land provision, limited loan and credit services, and high interest rates were also mentioned as determinant factors of homeownership. Moreover, mean values were computed to determine the adequacy and accessibility of basic amenities between the two sites. Therefore, the study recommends that the government should reformulate a profound housing policy that would improve the efficiency of the housing provision system and reduce the cost of homeownership.
Hayman A. Hma Salah
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 69-82; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp69-82

Abstract:
This article explores major theoretical approaches to the study of European integration, European Union (EU) as a global power, and the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy. The argument presented here is that only a combination of both International Relations and European integration approaches will allow us to understand the very premises of the European integration project in terms of both internal and external – international-aspects. This approach will be complementary to the attempts by researchers those who call to mainstream European studies and an appeal in favor of abounding the project of conceptualizing the EU as a single case or as being Sui generis. This article argues that, despite serious attempts by scholars of the field of European studies, it seems difficult to theorize European integration. The established literature to the existing political entities seems less relevant to study EU due to the union’s unique identity. Theories of EU integration are unable to explain or predict the process of integration, but they are normally outpaced by events.
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 83-84; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp83-84

Abstract:
India during the long rule of the Nehru-Gandhi ‘dynasty’ aptly practiced realist foreign policy in the regional theatre and globally, but fell short of representing specifically Indian cultural values. Since the early 1990s, India’s foreign policy has regained its identity. Today, under Prime Minister Narendra Damodardas Modi, India assertively stands for its heritage in foreign policy. This is a practice that has relevance for the entire West Asian region, including the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 67-68; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp67-68

Abstract:
It is my impression that Kurdish people often think of the lives, mores and life-worlds in Europe and the Middle East in terms of a dichotomy, or even as complete opposites. In my letter, I would like to draw readers’ attention to historical parallels, links and commonalities between medieval Kurdish worlds and those in medieval and early Modern Central Europe, especially in the case of Hungary.
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 62-66; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp62-66

Abstract:
The University of Kurdistan Hewler (UKH) attained accreditation from the Accreditation Service of International Schools, Colleges & Universities (ASIC) based in the United Kingdome (UK) on 19th of December 2018. Achieving accreditation was the conclusion of a two-year comprehensive internal audit, conducted as a self-assessment process by the Office of Quality Assurance and Accreditation (QA&A) in the UKH. The purpose of this review is to explore if the existing quality assurance status at UKH met the requirement of ASIC criteria for the attainment of international accreditation. The process included a qualitative study and documentary analysis, interviews and questionnaires. The accreditation process revealed that the quality areas of learning and teaching, course delivery, quality assurance and enhancement, premises and Health & Safety, student welfare, management and staff resources, and marketing & recruitment, are significantly efficient.
, Varsha Rokade
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 50-61; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp50-61

Abstract:
Study is aimed at measuring dimensions of Retail Service Quality that has an impact on Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty in organized Food and Grocery Retail shoppers of Bhopal City in central India. Data was collected from 216 food and grocery customers using Convenience Sampling technique through Structured Questionnaire. IBM SPSS 16 software for Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Smart PLS 3.2.6 software for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used to analyse and validate the Path Model. The SEM results reveal that three factors viz. Physical Aspects, Price and Payment do not have a significant positive influence on Customer Satisfaction. Also, Customer Satisfaction has significant positive influence on Customer Loyalty. The study offers opportunities to organized Food and Grocery Retailers in Central India to focus on these Service Quality Dimensions while formulating strategies for gaining competitive advantage, attracting new customer and at the same time retain old customers by enhancing Customer satisfaction and Customer Loyalty.
Dilber Yousifi,
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 36-49; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp36-49

Abstract:
In today’s business, effective human resources management (HRM) plays an important role in organizations to cope with competition. Human capital plays a significant role in achieving competitive advantage. Hence, it is recommended for organizations to adapt HRM practices to reach the optimal level of employees’ performance. On the other hand, the information and communications technology (ICT) has become the backbone of numerous modern organizations in processing their business operations and activities. HRM has also been affected by the tremendous increase of ICT usage within the organization. The World Wide Web has transformed the human resources practices, for example, human resource planning, recruitment, selection, performance management, work flow, training, and compensation. This paper investigates the impact of ICT on HRM performance in the higher education sector in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). In doing so, an empirical study based on survey questionnaire is conducted to gain a clear overview of where the higher education institutions stand in KRI in terms of the usage of ICT in the HRM field. The overall finding is that ICT may havea positive impact on the performance level of HRM staff in the higher education institutions in KRI. Furthermore, the level of ICT usage in KRI is not in a level where the individuals of HRM are well aware of ICT developments and E-HRM as well as the usage of computerized HRM.
Ebrahim Mansoori, Masood Elyasi, Rahim Mohammadi
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 28-35; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp28-35

Abstract:
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of working capital management on stock price crash risk. The sample includes 103 Iranian firms listed on the Tehran Stock Exchange from 2013 to 2017. Panel data analysis with fixed effect estimation has been used to analyze the relationship between working capital management and stock price crash risk. Cash conversion cycle, working capital requirement, current, and quick ratios were applied as comprehensive measures for working capital management, and Hutton’s model was applied as a measure for stock price crash risk. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between working capital indicators and stock price crash risk. Therefore, managers can use working capital strategies to decrease the risk of the stock price crash. Furthermore, asymmetry information may, in fact, increase a manager’s incentive to use working capital strategies to reduce the stock price crash risk.
UKH Journal of Social Sciences, Volume 3, pp 14-27; https://doi.org/10.25079/ukhjss.v3n1y2019.pp14-27

Abstract:
For a variety of reasons, both historical and sociological, the feasibility – as well as the very desirability – of mainstream teaching securing the status of a profession (in the sense of established professions such as law, medicine, architecture, and engineering) has long been questioned (e.g., Burbules and Densmore, 1991). If this is the case as regard regular, mainstream education, what then is the situation in relation to the subfield of teaching that is teaching English as a second or other language (TESOL)? Sadly, few if any would likely doubt that the field has so far failed to achieve the status of a recognized profession. There are numerous causes of this failure, though some especially salient reasons – less than stellar public perceptions of the fields of English as a second language/English as a foreign language, employment standards of the private sector, that is, the (in) famous English language teaching industry, the initial training and qualifications of those in the field, and discriminatory practices – will be highlighted in the following discussion. In addition, the second half of this paper draws and reflects on a trainee teacher mentoring scheme at a federally-sponsored institution of higher education in the United Arab Emirates – now sadly discontinued – which the author participated in for 3 years between 2011 and 2015, and which, it is argued, exemplified programs which can go some not inconsiderable way toward combatting a number of the obstacles currently preventing the field of TESOL achieving the status of a legitimate profession.
Page of 2
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top