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Results in Journal One Health: 336

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Kristian Alfsnes, Vegard Eldholm, Michael W. Gaunt, Xavier de Lamballerie, Ernest A. Gould,
Published: 20 October 2021
Abstract:
The four mosquito-borne dengue virus serotypes (DENV1–DENV4) cause a high burden of disease throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Nevertheless, their precise epidemiological history in Africa, including when and where they originated and were distributed during the 20th century, remains unclear stressing the need for One Health focused research. Accordingly, we conducted a time-scaled molecular epidemiological reconstruction using publicly available and newly sequenced dengue virus genomes of African origin representing all four serotypes to deduce the most likely temporal and spatial transmission routes of each DENV serotype from their ancestral regions to, within and from Africa.
, Yoav Stabholz, Jan-Ulrich Kreft, Roberto de la Cruz, Arnaud Dechesne, Barth F. Smets, Jesús L. Romalde, Alberto Lema, Sabela Balboa, Carlos García-Riestra, et al.
Published: 19 October 2021
Abstract:
A One Health approach requires integrative research to elucidate antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the environment and the risks it poses to human health. Research on this topic involves experts from diverse backgrounds and professions. Shortcomings exist in terms of consistent, complete, and transparent reporting in many environmental studies. Standardized reporting will improve the quality of scientific papers, enable meta-analyses and enhance the communication among different experts. In this study, we aimed to generate a consensus of reporting standards for AMR research in wastewater and related aquatic environments.
, David L. Pearl, Maria Spinato, Jim Fairles, Murray Hazlett, Zvonimir Poljak
Published: 16 October 2021
Abstract:
COVID-19 restrictions and the pandemic have affected animal health and food production through the disease's effects on human activities. COVID-19 impact on swine health surveillance can be assessed by investigating submissions and test positivity for pathogens before and after COVID-19 restrictions. PRRSV, Influenza A virus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and PCV-2 are considered important and economically challenging respiratory diseases for the swine populations. By reviewing test results from swine samples submitted for diagnostic testing to a regional diagnostic laboratory, and by assessing total submissions, total positive tests, and the proportion of positive tests at weekly intervals with time series techniques and generalized linear regression models, we evaluated COVID-19's impact on the monitoring of these respiratory pathogens in Ontario, Canada. We classified weeks that fell from week 12 through week 24 in each year as pandemic equivalent weeks and the non-pandemic weeks included all other weeks. The pandemic period in 2020 resulted in a significantly higher number of submissions (p< 0.05) and PRRSV positive submission counts (p < 0.05) when compared to equivalent time periods in previous years; however, no changes could be detected in the odds of weekly PRRSV submission positivity. Weekly positive proportions of PCV-2 tests were higher during the pandemic period in 2020 compared with the pandemic equivalent period in 2018 and 2017. The counts of submissions that requested tests for PRRSV, Influenza A virus and M. hyopneumonia combined, as well as the number of submissions and the proportions of submissions that tested negative for these multiple respiratory pathogens were not significantly different between the pandemic period in 2020 and other periods examined. Our findings indicate that swine producers, in conjunction with various private and public veterinary support services, continued monitoring and performing diagnostic screening on farms for economically important animal diseases despite complications resulting from COVID-19 public health restrictions. PRRSV continues to have a serious impact on swine health. The absence of an increased proportion of negative tests for individual or groups of pathogens, or an accompanying increase in submissions during the 2020 pandemic period suggests that no new undetected pathogens with an impact on respiratory signs in swine were introduced during this time.
, John P. McCracken, Mónica Berger-González, María Reneé López, Danilo Álvarez, Salvador Méndez, Oscar Pérez, Celia Cordón-Rosales, Jakob Zinsstag
Published: 12 October 2021
Abstract:
Most human and animal disease notification systems are unintegrated and passive, resulting in underreporting. Active surveillance can complement passive efforts, but because they are resource-intensive, their attributes must be evaluated. We assessed the sensitivity and representativeness of One-Health surveillance conducted at health facilities compared to health facilities plus monthly household visits in three rural communities of Guatemala.
Yahya Osman, Seid Mohamed Ali, Esther Schelling, Rea Tschopp, Jan Hattendorf, Abdifatah Muhumed,
Published: 7 October 2021
Abstract:
The economy of Ethiopia largely depends on agriculture and roughly 80% of the households have direct contact with domestic animals which make the community vulnerable to zoonotic diseases, especially in pastoral areas like the Somali Regional State (SRS) of Ethiopia. However, in addition to low reporting rates, especially in livestock, there is also lack of coordination between public health and animal health surveillance and there is no linkage between public health system and animal health system and mechanism or structure for sharing information on zoonotic diseases in SRS. In view of these challenges, a small scale study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of mobile communication in the early detection of human and animal syndromes in remote pastoral areas including where there are no human and animal health facilities by engaging local communities in the diseases surveillance.
, Rendong Li, Dongfeng Han, Qihui Shao, Yifei Han, Xiyue Luo, Yanlin Wu
Published: 5 October 2021
Abstract:
Research on the impact of the environment on COVID-19 diffusion lacks a full-comprehensive perspective, and neglecting the multiplicity of the human-environment system can lead to misleading conclusions. We attempted to reveal all pre-existing environmental-to-human and human-to-human determinants that influence the transmission of COVID-19. As such, We estimated the daily case incidence ratios (CIR) of COVID-19 for prefectures across mainland China, and used a mixed-effects mixed-distribution model to study the association between the CIR and 114 factors related to climate, atmospheric environmental quality, terrain, population, economic, human mobility as well as non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Not only the changes in determinants over time as the pandemic progresses but also their lag and interaction effects were examined. CO, O3, PM10 and PM2.5 were found positively linked with CIR, but the effect of NO2 was negative. The temperature had no significant association with CIR, and the daily minimum humidity was a significant negatively predictor. NPIs' level was negatively associated with CIR until with a lag of 15 days. Higher accumulated destination migration scale flow from the epicenter and lower distance to the epicenter (DisWH) were associated with a higher CIR, however, the interaction between DisWH and the time was positive. The more economically developed and more densely populated cities have a higher probability of CIR occurrence, but they may not have a higher CIR intensity.The COVID-19 diffusion are caused by a multiplicity of environmental, economic, social factors as well as NPIs. First, multiple pollutants carried simultaneously on particulate matter affect COVID-19 transmission. Second, the temperature has a limited impact on the spread of the epidemic. Third, NPIs must last for at least 15 days or longer before the effect has been apparent. Fourth, the impact of population movement from the epicenter on COVID-19 gradually diminished over time and intraregional migration deserves more attention.
Published: 29 September 2021
Abstract:
Arizona's COVID-19 and Pets Program is a prospective surveillance study being conducted to characterize how SARS-CoV-2 impacts companion animals living in households with SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Among the enrolled pets, we identified a SARS-CoV-2-infected cat and dog from the same household; both animals were asymptomatic but had close contact with the symptomatic and SARS-CoV-2-positive owner. Whole genome sequencing of animal and owner specimens revealed identical viral genomes of the B.1.575 lineage, suggesting zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human to at least one pet. This is the first report of the B.1.575 lineage in companion animals. Genetically linking SARS-CoV-2 between people and animals, and tracking changes in SARS-CoV-2 genomes is essential to detect any cross-species SARS-CoV-2 transmission that may lead to more transmissible or severe variants that can affect humans. Surveillance studies, including genomic analyses of owner and pet specimens, are needed to further our understanding of how SARS-CoV-2 impacts companion animals.
, Sunarno Sunarno, Dwi Febriyana, Tati Febrianti, Ratih Dian Saraswati, Indri Roslamiati, Novi Amalia, Sundari Nursofia, Yudi Hartoyo, Herna Herna, et al.
Published: 23 September 2021
Abstract:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has been implementing antimicrobial surveillance with a “One Health” approach, known as the Global Surveillance ESBL E. coli Tricycle Project. We describe the implementation of the Tricycle Project (pilot) in Indonesia, focusing on its results, challenges and recommendations. ESBL E. coli was identified in 116 blood cultures of patients with bloodstream infections, with 100 rectal swabs collected from pregnant women, 240 cecums of broiler, and 119 environmental samples, using the standardized method according to the guidelines. ESBL-producing E. coli was found in 40 (40%) of the 100 pregnant women, while the proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli was 57.7% among the total E. coli-induced bloodstream infections. ESBL-producing E. coli was isolated from 161 (67.1%) out of 240 broilers. On the other hand, the average concentration of E. coli in the water samples was 2.0 × 108 CFU/100 ml, and the ratio of ESBL-producing E. coli was 12.8% of total E. coli. Unfortunately, 56.7% of questionnaires for patients were incomplete. The Tricycle Project (pilot) identified that the proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli was very high in all types of samples, and several challenges and obstacles were encountered during the implementation of the study in Indonesia. The finding of this study have implication to health/the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. We recommend continuing this project and extending this study to other provinces to determine the AMR burden as the baseline in planning AMR control strategies in Indonesia. We also recommend improving the protocol of this study to minimize obstacles in the field.
Dan Li, Xiao-Qing Gong, Xiao Xiao, Hui-Ju Han, Hao Yu, Ze-Min Li, Li-Na Yan, Xiao-Lan Gu, Shu-Hui Duan,
Published: 23 September 2021
Abstract:
The emerging coronavirus diseases such as COVID-19, MERS, and SARS indicated that animal coronaviruses (CoVs) spillover to humans are a huge threat to public health. Therefore, we needed to understand the CoVs carried by various animals. Wild hedgehogs were collected from rural areas in Wuhan and Xianning cities in Hubei Province for analysis of CoVs. PCR results showed that 5 out of 51 (9.8%) hedgehogs (Erinaceus amurensis) were positive to CoVs in Hubei Province with 3 samples from Wuhan City and 2 samples from Xianning City. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that the CoVs from hedgehogs are classified into Merbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus; the hedgehog CoVs formed a phylogenetic sister cluster with human MERS-CoVs and bat MERS-related CoVs. Among the 12 most critical residues of receptor binding domain in MERS-CoV for binding human Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, 3 residuals were conserved between the hedgehog MERS-related CoV obtained in this study and the human MERS-CoV. We concluded that hedgehogs from Hubei Province carried MERS-related CoVs, indicating that hedgehogs might be important in the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoVs, and continuous surveillance of CoVs in hedgehogs was important.
Anastasia Angelou, , Nikolaos I. Stilianakis
Published: 20 September 2021
Abstract:
In this study, initial elements of a modelling framework aimed to become a spatial forecasting model for the transmission risk of West Nile virus (WNV) are presented. The model describes the dynamics of a WNV epidemic in population health states of mosquitoes, birds and humans and was applied to the case of Greece for the period 2010–2019. Calibration was performed with the available epidemiological data from the Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention and the environmental data from the European Union's earth observation program, Copernicus. Numerical results of the model for each municipality were evaluated against observations. Specifically, the occurrence of WNV, the number of infected humans and the week of incidence predicted from the model were compared to the corresponding numbers from observations. The results suggest that dynamic downscaling of a climate-dependent epidemiological model is feasible down-to roughly 80km2. This below nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) 3 level represents the municipalities being the lowest level of administrative units, able to cope with WNV and take actions. The average detection probability in hindcast mode was 72%, improving strongly as the number of infected humans increased. Using the developed model, we were also able to show the fundamental importance of the May temperatures in shaping the WNV dynamics. The modeling framework couples epidemiological and environmental dynamical variables with surveillance data producing risk maps downscaled at a local level. The approach can be expanded to provide targeted early warning probabilistic forecasts that can be used to inform public health policy decision making.
, Boyeong Ryu, Suyeon Lee, Yugyeong Song, Yoongje Jeong, Il-Hwan Kim, Jeong-Min Kim, Eun-Jin Kim, Wonjun Lee, Hyunju Lee, et al.
Published: 17 September 2021
Abstract:
We analyzed how the virus spreads to local communities, based on the results of an epidemiological investigation of a religious facility in which a large group of patients was infected. Furthermore, we report for the first time in South Korea that a domestic cat was infected with SARS-CoV-2.
Fahad Ahmed, , Sarah Morrone, Lia Cavallo, Fiammetta Berlinguer, Giorgia Dessì, Claudia Tamponi, Antonio Scala,
Published: 16 September 2021
Abstract:
RMBD (acronym of Raw Meat Based Diet) and BARF diets (acronym for Biologically Appropriate Raw Food or Bones and Raw Food) account dietary regimens based on raw ingredients (including raw meat), popular in pet feeding. Animal tissues and organs as well as other uncooked ingredients are more and more popularly used by pet owners to feed household pets. However, the increased risk of exposure to microbiological and parasitic agents poses the question as to whether such diets may be recommendable to be handled and offered to domestic cats and dogs co-living in domestic and urban environment. Above all, the threat of human and animal infections by parasites from raw meat fed to pets is not sufficiently explored and tracked, meanwhile deserving particular surveillance, instead. At this regard, raw meat feeding to pets may represent a route of exposure to the increased risk of environmental load. In fact, some parasites typically found in rural environment can be given the chance to complete their life-cycle, for the closeness between definitive and intermediate hosts. This is of particular concern, as potentially infected pets serving as definitive hosts can become a continuous source of environmental diffusion of parasites, both at domestic and urban level. The handling of raw meat requires adequate knowledge and awareness of the hygienic principles to prevent the onset of disorders related to both manipulation by pet owners and uncooked food consumption by the pet. This review aimed to shed a comprehensive overview of the hygienic aspects related to raw pet feeding, as to handling of raw meat in domestic environment, with special emphasis on parasitic agents and related zoonotic hazards.
Olivia Sinn Kay Chan, Tint Naing,
Published: 16 September 2021
Abstract:
Veterinary service is one of the pillars to restore One Health in Myanmar. In the immediate future, international support provided to Myanmar can relieve food shortage and some humanitarian crises. In the long run, societal trauma from the military coup and violence, infrastructure breakdown, and economic downturn complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic will make recovery of the nation harder. While the building blocks to achieve peace and humanitarianism are long and complicated, part of the interim solution is to restore Myanmar veterinary services. The restoration will ease food scarcity in the short-run, reduce sylvatic and zoonotic infection risks and re-capitalise societal infrastructure building in the long-run. Myanmar society cannot rebuild on its own—it needs international and national support to facilitate peace and humanitarianism.
, Olubunmi G. Fasanmi, Yilma J. Makonnen, Charles Bebay, Bernard Bett, Kristina Roesel
Published: 15 September 2021
Abstract:
One Health is transiting from multidisciplinary to transdisciplinary concepts and its viewpoints should move from ‘proxy for zoonoses’, to include other topics (climate change, nutrition and food safety, policy and planning, welfare and well-being, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), vector-borne diseases, toxicosis and pesticides issues) and thematic fields (social sciences, geography and economics). This work was conducted to map the One Health landscape in Africa.
X. Khan, , P. Ray, R. Lim
Published: 13 September 2021
Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to humans and animals globally. Antimicrobial stewardship has been acknowledged as a primary strategy to tackle AMR. An important first step for antimicrobial stewardship is to quantify antimicrobial use (AMU). In Fiji, there are currently no data on AMU in livestock farms. This study aimed to quantify AMU in different livestock enterprises (beef, dairy, broiler, and layer) and farming systems (backyard, semi-commercial and commercial) in Central and Western divisions of Viti Levu, Fiji. A survey with 210 livestock farmers and 26 managers representing 276 enterprises was conducted between May and September 2019. The difference in AMU between different livestock enterprises and farming systems was investigated using ANOVA. In Fiji, the estimated annual antibiotic use in livestock was lower than the global average (44 compared with 118 mg/PCU). However, this use was concentrated in 56% of participant farms (the remaining 44% did not use antimicrobials). Total estimated quarterly anthelmintic use (20,797 mg) was not affected by farming systems but was highest (P< 0.001) in dairy enterprises (24,120 mg) and lowest in broiler enterprises (4 mg). Quarterly antibiotic use was different between the enterprises regardless of the metrics used to quantify the use (P< 0.05). Total estimated quarterly mg/PCU of antibiotic use was highest (P< 0.001) in broiler enterprises (12.4 mg/PCU) and lowest in beef enterprises (0.2 mg/PCU). For all other ESVAC metrics, total estimated antibiotic use was higher in poultry and lower in cattle enterprises. Backyard systems used less antibiotics (total mg) than commercial systems, but for other metrics, the trend was reversed. The use of both antibiotics and anthelmintics (rather than antibiotics or anthelmintics alone, or no AMU) was associated with dairy enterprises (Χ2 = 123, P< 0.001). Further studies should be conducted to quantify and evaluate the drivers of AMU in Fijian livestock farms. In addition, differences in AMU between different enterprises and farming systems suggest that strategies to reduce AMU should be tailored to specific settings.
, João Carvalho, Joana Fernandes, Josman D. Palmeira, Mónica V. Cunha, Carlos Fonseca
Published: 9 September 2021
Abstract:
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can be highlighted as one of the most significant health concerns among the last decades, for which antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals has contributed as one of the major drivers. Food-producing animals are one of the most important and rapidly expanding commercial agricultural sectors worldwide but there is currently limited knowledge on the temporal and geographical distribution of scientific research on antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals. We provide a global overview of the spatial and temporal trends of scientific knowledge on AMR in food-producing animals. Peer-reviewed papers of AMR on food-producing animals were retrieved from the Web of Science, systemized and dissected. The final validated dataset contained 1341 occurrences observations covering the 1957–2018 period. There has been a shift of research efforts, both geographically and temporally, emphasizing regional differences in food animal production and changing practices in the food production industry. It becomes evident that many regions have been poorly surveyed, wherein intensified sampling and testing efforts should be most valuable. This systematization of knowledge will be crucial in helping to determine how to optimally allocate limited resources available for AMR monitor and control, aiding in the prediction where the threat of new resistant infections will be greatest. AMR research in food-producing animals in developing countries is markedly growing, reflecting changes in food animals production systems but also posing a particularly significant threat, not only due to intensive animal production, but also exacerbated by poor sanitation. We highlight that the use of antibiotics in food producing animals is pervasive, calling for urgent action. These findings raise the possibility to finetuning key priorities on AMR global issues.
Joachim Otte,
Published: 3 September 2021
Abstract:
This paper compares the relative frequency of zoonotic disease emergence associated with food animals versus emergence from other animal sources and explores differences in disease characteristics and drivers of emergence between the two sources. It draws on a published compilation of 202 Emerging Infectious Zoonotic Disease (EIZD) events for the period 1940–2004. Of the 202 zoonotic EID events in the dataset, 74 (36.6%) were associated with animals kept for food production, which acted as reservoir for the zoonotic pathogen in 64 events and as intermediate / amplifying host in 8 events. Significant differences exist both in the characteristics of the causal agents and the drivers of emergence of zoonotic diseases from food animals and non-food animals. However, the prevailing policy debate on prevention, detection and control of EIZDs largely focuses on diseases of non-food animal origin (wildlife), neglecting the role of food animals. Policies and investments that ensure appropriate veterinary public health measures along and within food animal value chains are essential to mitigate the global risk of EIZDs, particularly in developing regions where the livestock sector is experiencing rapid growth and structural transformation.
Valentina Dazio, Aurélien Nigg, Janne S. Schmidt, Michael Brilhante, Edgar I. Campos-Madueno, Nico Mauri, Stefan P. Kuster, Stefanie Gobeli Brawand, Barbara Willi, Andrea Endimiani, et al.
Published: 31 August 2021
Abstract:
The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) represent a threat to human and animal health.
, , Michael T. Wilson, Song H. Lee, Vidya Bhardwaj, Fraser I. Hill, Dirk U. Pfeiffer
Published: 30 August 2021
Abstract:
Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease with several maintenance host species including swine. A cross sectional survey was undertaken between January to October 2020 to investigate the prevalence of leptospirosis in farmed swine in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) of China. Serum samples were collected from swine on seven farms (15 swine per farm; ten multiparous sows and five twelve-week-old weaners), while kidney samples were collected from 64 swine submitted for routine post-mortem (26 farms; average 2.4 swine per farm, range 1–6). Microscopic agglutination tests (MAT) to a panel of 24 Leptospira antigens did not reveal any evidence of seroconversion at a titre of 1:100. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the kidney samples for Leptospira DNA did not detect any evidence of infection. Bayesian methods were used to compute the probability that the leptospirosis prevalence in farmed swine in the HKSAR was <3%, given none of the 105 swine sampled were positive on the MAT. The results of this study demonstrate no serological or molecular evidence of leptospirosis in farmed swine in the HKSAR. Subsequent statistical analysis supports the conclusion that the prevalence of leptospirosis in farmed swine in the HKSAR is negligible at present.
, Massimo Canali, Francesca Tamarozzi, Andrea Angheben, Gioia Capelli, Federico Gobbi, Matteo Legnardi, Michele Brichese, Giuseppina Napoletano, Fabrizio Cestaro, et al.
Published: 30 August 2021
Abstract:
An integrated model, based on a One Health approach, was implemented to estimate the epidemiological and economic outcomes of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in Veneto region, an hypo-endemic area of Northern Italy, and the costs for its prevention. Data and information needed to populate the model were retrieved from published literature, official statistics, expert opinions, or actively searched through data mining (i.e., Hospital and slaughterhouse data), when fundamental data were not available. Human-health and animal-health costs, both public and private, were considered. The overall impact of CE in the study area was estimated in an yearly cost of about 0.5 million €, due to an average of 19.5 human hospitalized cases and about 200 infected animals among cattle and sheep, per year. The human:animal costs ratio was about 8:1. Most of the infected animals were autochthonous, while the identification of an autochthonous source of the infection for the human cases was extremely difficult, and unlikely in most cases. No specific action resulted to be in place for human surveillance, while veterinary surveillance accounted for a yearly cost of about 22,000 €. Sheepherders were found to pay privately an overall amount of around 2000 € for the preventive treatment of their dogs every year, but the applied protocol proved to be sub-optimal. The source of most of the human cases was likely external to the study area, and their economic impact accounts for a cost that is far exceeding that of surveillance and preventive actions in place in the veterinary sector. Although autochthonous human cases appeared to be very rare, the strengthening of preventive actions and surveillance systems can reduce the risk of their increment.
Published: 30 August 2021
Abstract:
Human-to-animal transmission of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) is reported in South Africa but there is a paucity of epidemiological data. The aim of this One Health manuscript is to describe zooanthroponotic exposure of domestic animals to TB patients, virtually all of whom had laboratory confirmed pulmonary Mtb disease.
, Umaru Bangura, Joachim Mariën, Moussa Douno,
Published: 27 August 2021
Abstract:
Lassa arenavirus (LASV) is the cause of Lassa Fever in humans in West Africa. The multimammate mouse (M. natalensis) is a reservoir host of LASV and the primary source of human infections. Humans are assumed to become infected due to contact with this animal or its excretions. Thus far, the available literature does not describe the sampling of feces as a means to detect LASV in M. natalensis populations. More evidence is needed to know if feces of naturally infected M. natalensis can be LASV-positive and an exposure risk to humans. This study sampled feces deposits in households from three villages in the LASV-endemic region of Faranah, Guinea. PCR analysis found 10 out of 88 samples to be positive for LASV, and sequencing showed clustering to previously identified Yarawelia and Dalafilani strains. We conclude that feces sampling is a viable, non-invasive method for the determination and sequencing of LASV strains.
, Cusi Ferradas, Francesca Schiaffino, Camila Sánchez-Carrión, Ana Martínez-Vela, Alexandra Ulloa, Gisela Isasi-Rivas, Angela Montalván, Luis Guevara Sarmiento, Manolo Fernández, et al.
Published: 26 August 2021
Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2 can infect a variety of wild and domestic animals worldwide. Of these, domestic cats are highly susceptible species and potential viral reservoirs. As such, it is important to investigate disease exposure in domestic cats in areas with active community transmission and high disease prevalence. In this report we demonstrate the presence of serum neutralizing antibodies against the receptor binding-domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 in cats whose owners had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Lima, Peru, using a commercial competitive ELISA SARS-CoV-2 Surrogate Virus Neutralization Test. Out of 41 samples, 17.1% (7/41) and 31.7% (13/41) were positive, using the cut-off inhibition value of 30% and 20%, respectively. Not all cats living in a single house had detectable neutralizing antibodies showing heterogenous exposure and immunity among cohabiting animals. This is the first report of SARS-COV-2 exposure of domestic cats in Lima, Peru. Further studies are required to ascertain the prevalence of SARS-COV-2 exposure among domestic cats.
Published: 24 August 2021
Abstract:
West Nile Virus (WNV) has recently emerged as a major public health concern in Europe; its recent expansion also coincided with some remarkable socio-economic and environmental changes, including an economic crisis and some of the warmest temperatures on record. Here we empirically investigate the drivers of this phenomenon at a European wide scale by constructing and analyzing a unique spatial–temporal data-set, that includes data on climate, land-use, the economy, and government spending on environmental related sectors. Drivers and risk factors of WNV were identified by building a conceptual framework, and relationships were tested using a Generalized Additive Model (GAM), which could capture complex non-linear relationships and also account for spatial and temporal auto-correlation. Some of the key risk factors identified in our conceptual framework, such as a higher percentage of wetlands and arable land, climate factors (higher summer rainfall and higher summer temperatures) were positive predictors of WNV infections. Interestingly, winter temperatures of between 2 °C and 6 °C were among some of the strongest predictors of annual WNV infections; one possible explanation for this result is that successful overwintering of infected adult mosquitoes (likely Culex pipiens) is key to the intensity of outbreaks for a given year. Furthermore, lower surface water extent over the summer is also associated with more intense outbreaks, suggesting that drought, which is known to induce positive changes in WNV prevalence in mosquitoes, is also contributing to the upward trend in WNV cases in affected regions. Our indicators representing the economic crisis were also strong predictors of WNV infections, suggesting there is an association between austerity and cuts to key sectors, which could have benefited vector species and the virus during this crucial period. These results, taken in the context of recent winter warming due to climate change, and more frequent droughts, may offer an explanation of why the virus has become so prevalent in Europe.
, Chelsea Frank, Luke Buchanan, Sean Green, Roxann Stennett-Brown, Georgiana Gordon-Strachan, Yasmin Rubio-Palis, Charles Grant, Ruby Lisa Alexander-Lindo, Chukwuemeka Nwokocha, et al.
Published: 24 August 2021
Abstract:
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in developing countries like the Caribbean, negatively affect multiple income-generating sectors, including the tourism industry upon which island states are highly dependent. Insect-transmitted NTDs include, but are not limited to, malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis. Control measures for these disease, are often ignored because of the associated cost. Many of the developing country members are thus retained in a financially crippling cycle, balancing the cost of prophylactic measures with that of controlling an outbreak. The purpose of the paper is to bring awareness to NTDs transmitted by insects of importance to humans, and to assess factors affecting such control, in the English-speaking Caribbean. Comprehensive literature review on reports pertaining to NTDs transmitted by insects in the Caribbean and Latin America was conducted. Data search was carried out on PubMed, and WHO and PAHO websites. Potential risk factors for NTDs transmitted by arthropods in the English-speaking Caribbean are summarised. The mosquito appears to be the main insect-vector of human importance within the region of concern. Arthropod-vectors of diseases of veterinary importance are also relevant because they affect the livelihood of farmers, in highly agriculture based economies. Other NTDs may also be in circulation gauged by the presence of antibodies in Caribbean individuals. However, routine diagnostic tests for specific diseases are expensive and tests may not be conducted when diseases are not prevalent in the population. It appears that only a few English-speaking Caribbean countries have examined secondary reservoirs of pathogens or assessed the effectivity of their insect control methods. As such, disease risk assessment appears incomplete. Although continuous control is financially demanding, an integrated and multisectoral approach might help to deflect the cost. Such interventions are now being promoted by health agencies within the region and various countries are creating and exploring the use of novel tools to be incorporated in their insect-vector control programmes.
, Babs Verstrepen, Jan A.M. Langermans, Kinga P. Böszörményi, Reina S. Sikkema, Rory D. de Vries, Donata Hoffmann, Kerstin Wernike, Lidwien A.M. Smit, Shan Zhao, et al.
Published: 21 August 2021
Abstract:
Assays to measure SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies are important to monitor seroprevalence, to study asymptomatic infections and to reveal (intermediate) hosts. A recently developed assay, the surrogate virus-neutralization test (sVNT) is a quick and commercially available alternative to the “gold standard” virus neutralization assay using authentic virus, and does not require processing at BSL-3 level. The assay relies on the inhibition of binding of the receptor binding domain (RBD) on the spike (S) protein to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) by antibodies present in sera. As the sVNT does not require species- or isotype-specific conjugates, it can be similarly used for antibody detection in human and animal sera. In this study, we used 298 sera from PCR-confirmed COVID-19 patients and 151 sera from patients confirmed with other coronavirus or other (respiratory) infections, to evaluate the performance of the sVNT. To analyze the use of the assay in a One Health setting, we studied the presence of RBD-binding antibodies in 154 sera from nine animal species (cynomolgus and rhesus macaques, ferrets, rabbits, hamsters, cats, cattle, mink and dromedary camels). The sVNT showed a moderate to high sensitivity and a high specificity using sera from confirmed COVID-19 patients (91.3% and 100%, respectively) and animal sera (93.9% and 100%), however it lacked sensitivity to detect low titers. Significant correlations were found between the sVNT outcomes and PRNT50 and the Wantai total Ig and IgM ELISAs. While species-specific validation will be essential, our results show that the sVNT holds promise in detecting RBD-binding antibodies in multiple species.
Sandra G. Steele, Jenny-Ann L.M.L. Toribio,
Published: 20 August 2021
Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2, a betacoronavirus of likely zoonotic origin, was first reported in December 2019. Its rapid worldwide spread precipitated a range of interventions, including by veterinarians, due to impacts on human health and well-being as well as animal health and welfare. We conducted 36 key informant interviews to explore the responses of Australian veterinarians, their engagement in One Health collaboration and cooperation, and their existing and developed insights to the COVID-19 pandemic. Responses were analysed using thematic analysis. Australian veterinarians provided valuable contributions to the national COVID-19 response by protecting animal welfare, maintaining local food security, providing essential veterinary services while mitigating human health risks in clinical settings and providing both key skills and surge capacity to the human health response. This was all guided by skills in scientific literacy and evidence-based communication. Informants identified a clear and urgent need for greater One Health coordination during pandemic prevention, preparedness, and response, even in the case of a disease which largely only affects humans.
Laxmi Dhungel, Mark Eric Benbow,
Published: 18 August 2021
Abstract:
Buruli ulcer (BU), the second most common mycobacterial disease in West Africa, is a necrotizing skin disease that can lead to high morbidity in affected patients. The disease is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), whose major virulence factor is mycolactone. Although early infection can be treated with antibiotics, an effective preventative strategy is challenging due to unknown reservoir(s) and unresolved mode(s) of transmission. Further, disease occurrence in remote locations with limited access to health facilities further complicates disease burden and associated costs. We discuss here MU transmission hypotheses and investigations into environmental reservoirs and discuss successes and challenges of studying MU and Buruli ulcer across human, animal, and environmental interfaces. We argue that a One Health approach is needed to advance the understanding of MU transmission and designing management scenarios that prevent and respond to epidemics. Although previous work has provided significant insights into risk factors, epidemiology and clinical perspectives of disease, understanding the bacterial ecology, environmental niches and role of mycolactone in natural environments and during infection of the human host remains equally important to better understanding and preventing this mysterious disease.
Xueli Wei, Liying Wang, Qiaojuan Jia, Jianpeng Xiao,
Published: 18 August 2021
Abstract:
This paper aims at evaluating the effectiveness of different intervention measures against the infection of avian influenza A (H7N9) by using an epidemiological model. The model formulates the intrinsic interactions of domestic poultry (DP), H7N9 virus and humans by ordinary differential equations and couples the essential roles of various interventions (including culling, vaccinating, screening, disinfecting, and reducing contact rate, etc). Qualitative analysis indicates that when the recruiting poultry is virus-free, there is a transmission threshold denoted by basic reproduction number which can determine the invasion of H7N9; and there is always a stable H7N9 endemic in case of persistent import of virus-carrying poultry, under which only complete vaccination or cutting off poultry-to-poultry/human contacts can stop H7N9 transmission. By performing numerical analysis of the model with biological background parameters, the intervention outcomes against H7N9 infection are further quantified. It is found that (1) reducing poultry-human/poultry interaction and per-contact infection probability, as well as culling DP, are highly effective in diminishing the infections of humans and DP; (2) the disease is prevented when larger than (1 − 0.1λp) proportion of DP is vaccinated, where λp is the DP-to-DP transmission rate; (3) cleaning and disinfecting environment play limited role in reducing the risk of infection; and (4) screening imported poultry is quite important for stopping disease diffusion, but it works little when local epidemic is prevailing. Combing these measures with real situations would be necessary for controlling H7N9 epidemics and reaching one health purpose.
, Fajriah Hanika Adzania, Sifa Fauzia, Gita Permata Aryati, Renti Mahkota
Published: 15 August 2021
One Health, Volume 13, pp 100303-100303; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100303

Abstract:
Since December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly emerged on a global scale. Many factors have influenced the spread of COVID-19. This research studies the sociodemographic and environmental health risk factors associated with COVID-19. The study used an ecological study design with subdistricts as its unit of analysis. The total population was 44 subdistricts. Data analysis used correlation and linear regression tests. The study results showed that the average COVID-19 incident rate in Jakarta is 99.8 per 10,000 population. Risk factors for the spread of COVID-19 were associated with population's high level of education (B = 3.094, p value<0.001), population density (B = 0.275, p value = 0.029), and slum area (B = 0.404, p value<0.001). The main risk factor for the spread of COVID-19 in Jakarta is high level of education, which can reflect a higher economic status to the population and a tendency to be more mobile. The government needs to enforce a mobility restriction to lessen the spread of COVID-19.
, Afsana Akter Jahan, S.M. Golam Kaisar, Umme Ruman Siddiqi, Subir Sarker, Mst Ismat Ara Begum, Sumon Ghosh, Sudeb Sarker, Be-Nazir Ahmed, Abul Khair Mohammad Shamsuzzaman
Published: 14 August 2021
Abstract:
It is crucial to explore knowledge, attitudes and perceptions (KAP) about rabies among the people in the community, the personnel dealing with animal bite management and suspected rabies patients, including humans and animals, to facilitate intervention in improving rabies elimination strategies. In 2016, we conducted an interactive face-to-face survey in three different districts of Bangladesh to understand the extent of KAP towards rabies in the community peoples (CPs), human healthcare professionals (HCPs) and veterinary practitioners (VPs). A set of prescribed questions was employed to measure what proportion of each group possessed sufficient knowledge, positive attitudes and adequate perceptions about rabies. A total of 1133 CPs, 211 HCPs and 168 VPs were interviewed by using a standard questionnaire comprising both closed and open-ended questions. Of the CPs, 49% identified the disease correctly (i.e. rabies is caused by an animal bite or a scratch). Only 29% of the CPs were aware that a wound should be washed immediately with soap and water after an animal bite or a scratch. However, only 49% of the CPs, 65% of the HCPs and 60% of the VPs felt that it is important to consult a physician and receive post-exposure vaccine as the first line of treatment following an animal exposure. Among the HCPs, 23% of the respondents did not possess sufficient knowledge about animal bites as categorised by the World Health Organization (WHO), and 12% of the respondents did not possess the knowledge on how to manage an animal bite properly. Out of 52% of the VPs who previously treated suspected rabid animals, only 29% had a history of taking rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Lack of formal education and rural subsistence were found to largely contribute to poor rabies KAP level among the CPs (P ≤ 0.01). There has been a high demand for proper training to be provided to HCPs and VPs for the effective management of an animal bite incidence in human and animals, respectively. Multi-sectoral collaboration through integrated One Health initiatives including community education, awareness programmes, facilitation of rabies PEP, and dog vaccination as well as its population control are critical in the way forward to control rabies in Bangladesh.
, James W. Rudge, Nanda Bahadur Singh, Steven R. Belmain, Natasha Howard
Published: 14 August 2021
Abstract:
Literature on potential anthropogenic drivers of zoonotic disease risk in the Indian subcontinent is sparse. We conducted a scoping review to identify primary sources, published 2000–2020, to clarify what research exists and on which areas future research should focus. We summarised findings thematically by disease. Of 80 sources included, 78 (98%) were original research articles and two were conference abstracts. Study designs and methods were not always clearly described, but 74 (93%) were quantitative (including one randomised trial), five (6%) were mixed-methods, and one was qualitative. Most sources reported research from India (39%) or Bangladesh (31%), followed by Pakistan (9%), Nepal (9%), Bhutan and Sri Lanka (6% each). Topically, most focused on rabies (18; 23%), Nipah virus (16; 20%) or leptospirosis (11; 14%), while 12 (15%) did not focus on a disease but instead on knowledge in communities. People generally did not seek post-exposure prophylaxis for rabies even when vaccination programmes were available and they understood that rabies was fatal, instead often relying on traditional medicines. Similarly, people did not take precautions to protect themselves from leptospirosis infection, even when they were aware of the link with rice cultivation. Nipah was correlated with presence of bats near human habitation. Official information on diseases, modes of transmission and prevention was lacking, or shared informally between friends, relatives, and neighbours. Behaviour did not correspond to disease knowledge. This review identifies various human behaviours which may drive zoonotic disease risk in the Indian subcontinent. Increasing community knowledge and awareness alone is unlikely to be sufficient to successfully change these behaviours. Further research, using interdisciplinary and participatory methods, would improve understanding of risks and risk perceptions and thus help in co-designing context-specific, relevant interventions.
, Marine Combe, Marine Ginouvès, Stéphane Simon, Ghislaine Prévot, Pierre Couppié, Mathieu Nacher, Rodolphe Elie Gozlan
Published: 12 August 2021
Abstract:
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is the most prevalent form of Leishmaniasis and is widely endemic in the Americas. Several species of Leishmania are responsible for CL, a severely neglected tropical disease and the treatment of CL vary according to the different species of Leishmania. We proposed to map the distribution of the Leishmania species reported in French Guiana (FG) using a biogeographic approach based on environmental predictors. We also measured species endemism i.e., the uniqueness of species to a defined geographic location. Our results show that the distribution patterns varied between Leishmania spp. and were spatially dependent on climatic covariates. The species distribution modelling of the eco-epidemiological spatial patterns of Leishmania spp. is the first to measure endemism based on bioclimatic factors in FG. The study also emphasizes the impact of tree cover loss and climate on the increasing distribution of L. (Viannia) braziliensis in the most anthropized regions. Detection of high-risk regions for the different between Leishmania spp. is essential for monitoring and active surveillance of the vector. As climate plays a major role in the spatial distribution of the vector and reservoir and the survival of the pathogen, climatic covariates should be included in the analysis and mapping of vector-borne diseases. This study underscores the significance of local land management and the urgency of considering the impact of climate change in the development of vector-borne disease management strategies at the global scale.
Ana Pupić-Bakrač, Jure Pupić-Bakrač, Ana Beck, Daria Jurković, , Relja Beck
Published: 12 August 2021
Abstract:
Dirofilaria repens is a vector-borne filaroid helminth of carnivorous animals, primarily domesticated dogs. Humans are considered to be accidental hosts in which D. repens rarely reach sexual maturity but induce local inflammation, mainly in subcutaneous and ocular tissues. In the current study, we present the detection of multiple adults of D. repens, endosymbiont Wolbachia sp. and microfilariae by molecular analysis in peripheral tissues and bloodstream of a human host. A subsequent meta-analysis of published literature identified 21 cases of human infection with adult D. repens producing microfilariae. Within the study population, there were 13 (59.09%) males, eight (36.36%) females and, in one (4.55%) case, sex was not reported. A total of 11 (50.00%) cases had subcutaneous dirofilariasis, six (27.27%) had ocular dirofiliariasis, with single cases (4.55% each) of genital, mammary, lymphatic and a combination of subcutaneous and pulmonary dirofilariasis described. In one (4.55%) case, the primary anatomical site of adult D. repens could not be found. D. repens microfilariae were detected in the local tissue (local microfilariasis) in 11 (50.00%) cases and the peripheral blood (microfilaremia) in 11 (50.50%) cases. Final identification of D. repens microfilariae was based on morphological detection in 14 (63.64%) cases, and molecular detection in eight (36.36%) cases. The results of this study suggest that humans may act as a final host for D. repens, however its role as a source of D. repens infection is less clear.
, William Anson de Glanville, Lian Francesca Thomas, Alice Kiyong'A, Velma Kivali, Samuel Kariuki, Barend Mark De Clare Bronsvoort, Eric Maurice Fèvre
Published: 10 August 2021
Abstract:
Q fever, caused by C. burnetii, has been reported in slaughterhouse workers worldwide. The most reported risk factor for seropositivity is the workers' role in the slaughterhouse. This study examined the seroprevalence and risk factors for antibodies to C. burnetii in slaughterhouse workers in western Kenya to fill a data gap relating to this emerging disease in East Africa. Individuals were recruited from all consenting slaughterhouses in the study area between February and November 2012. Information was collected from participating workers regarding demographic data, animals slaughtered and role in the slaughterhouse. Sera samples were screened for antibodies to C. burnetii using a commercial ELISA and risk factors associated with seropositivity were identified using multi-level logistic regression analysis. Slaughterhouse workers (n = 566) were recruited from 84 ruminant slaughterhouses in western Kenya. The seroprevalence of antibodies to C. burnetii was 37.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 33.2–41.2%). The risk factors identified for C. burnetii seropositivity included: male workers compared to female workers, odds ratio (OR) 5.40 (95% CI 1.38–21.22); slaughtering cattle and small ruminants compared to those who only slaughtered cattle, OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.06–2.19). In addition, specific roles in the slaughterhouse were associated with increased odds of being seropositive, including cleaning the slaughterhouse, OR 3.98 (95% CI 1.39–11.43); cleaning the intestines, OR 3.24 (95% CI 1.36–7.73); and flaying the carcass OR 2.63 (95% CI 1.46–4.75) compared to being the slaughterman or foreman. We identified that slaughterhouse workers have a higher seroprevalence of antibodies to C. burnetii compared to published values in the general population from the same area. Slaughterhouse workers therefore represent an occupational risk group in this East African setting. Workers with increased contact with the viscera and fluids are at higher risk for exposure to C. burnetii. Education of workers may reduce transmission, but an alternative approach may be to consider the benefits of vaccination in high-risk groups.
Maria Casares-Jimenez, Pedro Lopez-Lopez, Javier Caballero-Gomez, Mario Frias, Belen Perez-Hernando, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Maria A. Risalde, Inmaculada Ruiz-Caceres, Oluyinka Oladele Opaleye, Ignacio Garcia-Bocanegra, et al.
Published: 9 August 2021
Abstract:
Our study aim was to describe and characterize the global Hepatitis E virus (HEV) molecular and genotype geographical distribution in domestic pig and wild boar, which could facilitate the traceability of human cases. We performed a systematic sequence search for HEVs identified in domestic pig and wild boar from the available data in GenBank. Only sequences with lengths greater than 300 nt were included. For all sequences, the sequence length, host (i.e., domestic pig or wild boar), country of origin, and HEV genotype/subtype were recorded. Genotypes were assigned by the HEVnet typing tool. The genotype distributions were described by country and host. In countries with sequences available for both species, the genotype coincidences between both animal populations were analyzed. A total of 1404 viral sequences were included: 32.6% from wild boar and 67.4% from domestic pig. Most sequences were consistent with HEV genotype 3 (n = 1165). Genotype 4 was represented by 193 sequences, while genotypes 5 and 6 were represented by only 6 sequences. Sequences were identified in 39 countries, which included all continents except Antarctica. The genotypes with a wide distribution were 3a and 3f. Twenty-five countries had sequences that were found only in domestic pig, three countries only in wild boar, and 11 countries had sequences in both populations. In all countries with available sequences in both populations, the same viral genotype was identified. Our study shows that the number of swine HEV sequences is small, which limits direct comparisons with the sequences identified in humans. The global distribution of genotype 3, together with the wide distribution of genotype 4 in Asia, strongly limits the interpretation of the molecular analysis in the absence of an epidemiological survey of the cases. Increased HEV sequencing in swine should be a priority.
Ruishi Si, XueQian Zhang, Yumeng Yao, Li Liu,
Published: 8 August 2021
Abstract:
The prevention and control of infectious diseases in livestock is of great significance for maintaining the food and health of people. The main bottleneck in preventing and controlling the epidemic is asymmetrical information between farmers and the livestock department regarding dead livestock. In this pursuit, China has levied the contract commitment system to ensure farmers to cooperate with livestock departments, cooperative organizations, and other farmers by proper contract in order to combat the livestock epidemic by reporting the status of dead livestock on time. Based on the data of 514 pig farmers in Hebei, Henan, and Hubei, this research employed the Heckprobit model to explore the contract commitment system's effect on pig farmers' behavior in reporting the status of dead livestock. The outcome showed that the contract commitment system encouraged the farmers to report dead pig information promptly. Moreover, modern information channels such as mobile phones or the Internet further enhanced the contract commitment system's effectiveness. Besides, the impacts of the contract commitment system on different scale farmers are found substantially heterogeneous. Based on the empirical findings, it is confirmed that the contract commitment system should not exclude government regulatory measures and economic incentive policies. It is a useful remedy to encourage farmers to report dead livestock information on time and supports in preventing and controlling livestock epidemics. Additionally, the government should enhance and strengthen the contract commitment system, establish the channels and platforms required to deliver necessary information about epidemics, and implement differentiated policy programs for different scale farmers. More importantly, these countermeasures can also provide important guidelines for other developing countries, facing livestock epidemics.
Subramanya Rao, Wing Yui Ngan, Long Chung Chan, Patrick Thabang Sekoai, Aster Hei Yiu Fung, Yang Pu, Yuan Yao,
Published: 5 August 2021
Abstract:
In this study, a phylogenic analysis was performed on pathogens previously identified in Hong Kong wet markets' cutting boards. Phylogenetic comparisons were made between phylotypes obtained in this study and environmental and clinical phylotypes for establishing the possible origin of selected bacterial species isolated from wet market cutting board ecosystems. The results reveal a strong relationship between wet market bacterial assemblages and environmental and clinically relevant phylotypes. However, our poor knowledge of potential cross-contamination sources within these wet markets is further exacerbated by failing to determine the exact or presumed origin of its identified pathogens. In this study, several clinically relevant bacterial pathogens such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus porcinus were linked to cutting boards associated with pork; Campylobacter fetus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and A. caviae in those associated with poultry; and Streptococcus varanii, A. caviae, Vibrio fluvialis, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in those associated with seafood. Identifying non-foodborne clinically relevant pathogens in wet market cutting boards in this study confirms the need for safety approaches for wet market meat, including cold storage. The presented study justifies the need for future systematic epidemiological studies to determine identified microbial pathogens. Such studies should bring about significant improvements in the management of hygienic practices in Hong Kong's wet markets and work towards a One Health goal by recognizing the importance of wet markets as areas interconnecting food processing with animal and clinical environments.
, Rashmi Bhat, Venkatesh Nagarajan-Radha, Prakash Narayanan, Navya Vyas, Shailendra Sawleshwarkar, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay
Published: 5 August 2021
Abstract:
Kyasanur forest disease virus (KFDV) is a rapidly expanding tick-borne zoonotic virus with natural foci in the forested region of the Western Ghats of South India. The Western Ghats is one of the world's most important biodiversity hotspots and, like many such areas of high biodiversity, is under significant pressure from anthropogenic landscape change. The current study sought to quantify mammalian species richness using ensemble models of the distributions of a sample of species extant in the Western Ghats and to explore its association with KFDV outbreaks, as well as the modifying effects of deforestation on this association. Species richness was quantified as a composite of individual species' distributions, as derived from ensembles of boosted regression tree, random forest, and generalised additive models. Species richness was further adjusted for the potential biotic constraints of sympatric species. Both species richness and forest loss demonstrated strong positive associations with KFDV outbreaks, however forest loss substantially modified the association between species richness and outbreaks. High species richness was associated with increased KFDV risk but only in areas of low forest loss. In contrast, lower species richness was associated with increased KFDV risk in areas of greater forest loss. This relationship persisted when species richness was adjusted for biotic constraints at the taluk-level. In addition, the taluk-level species abundances of three monkey species (Macaca radiata, Semnopithecus hypoleucus, and Semnopithecus priam) were also associated with outbreaks. These results suggest that increased monitoring of wildlife in areas of significant habitat fragmentation may add considerably to critical knowledge gaps in KFDV epidemiology and infection ecology and should be incorporated into novel One Health surveillance development for the region. In addition, the inclusion of some primate species as sentinels of KFDV circulation into general wildlife surveillance architecture may add further value.
Hongying Li, Yufei Chen, Catherine C. Machalaba, Hao Tang, Aleksei A. Chmura, Mark D. Fielder,
Published: 5 August 2021
Abstract:
Emerging diseases of zoonotic origin such as COVID-19 are a continuing public health threat in China that lead to a significant socioeconomic burden. This study reviewed the current laws and regulations, government reports and policy documents, and existing literature on zoonotic disease preparedness and prevention across the forestry, agriculture, and public health authorities in China, to articulate the current landscape of potential risks, existing mandates, and gaps. A total of 55 known zoonotic diseases (59 pathogens) are routinely monitored under a multi-sectoral system among humans and domestic and wild animals in China. These diseases have been detected in wild mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish or other aquatic animals, the majority of which are transmitted between humans and animals via direct or indirect contact and vectors. However, this current monitoring system covers a limited scope of disease threats and animal host species, warranting expanded review for sources of disease and pathogen with zoonotic potential. In addition, the governance of wild animal protection and utilization and limited knowledge about wild animal trade value chains present challenges for zoonotic disease risk assessment and monitoring, and affect the completeness of mandates and enforcement. A coordinated and collaborative mechanism among different departments is required for the effective monitoring and management of disease emergence and transmission risks in the animal value chains. Moreover, pathogen surveillance among wild animal hosts and human populations outside of the routine monitoring system will fill the data gaps and improve our understanding of future emerging zoonotic threats to achieve disease prevention. The findings and recommendations will advance One Health collaboration across government and non-government stakeholders to optimize monitoring and surveillance, risk management, and emergency responses to known and novel zoonotic threats, and support COVID-19 recovery efforts.
Published: 4 August 2021
Abstract:
Climate change will lead to more extreme weather events in Europe. In Norway, little is known about how this will affect drinking water quality and population's health due to waterborne diseases. The aim of our work was to generate new knowledge on the effect of extreme weather conditions and climate change on drinking water and waterborne disease. In this respect we studied the relationship between temperature, precipitation and runoff events, raw and treated water quality, and gastroenteritis consultations in Norway in 2006–2014 to anticipate the risk with changing climate conditions. The main findings are positive associations between extreme weather events and raw water quality, but only few with treated drinking water. Increase in maximum temperature was associated with an increase in risk of disease among all ages and 15–64 years olds for the whole year. Heavy rain and high runoff were associated with a decrease in risk of gastroenteritis for different age groups and time periods throughout the year. No evidence was found that increase in precipitation and runoff trigger increased gastroenteritis outbreaks. Large waterworks in Norway currently seem to manage extreme weather events in preventing waterborne disease. However, with more extreme weather in the future, this may change. Therefore, modelling future climate scenarios is necessary to assess the need for improved water treatment capacity in a future climate.
Carla Baros Jorquera, Andrea I. Moreno-Switt, Nicole Sallaberry-Pincheira, Jose M. Munita, Camila Flores Navarro, Rodolfo Tardone, Gerardo González-Rocha, Randall S. Singer,
Published: 28 July 2021
Abstract:
Injured and orphaned wildlife are often brought to Wildlife Rehabilitation Centers (WRC) to be cared for by professionals to ultimately be released back to their natural habitats. In these centers, animals may spend months and frequently receive prolonged antibiotic therapy. Therefore, WRC may play a role in the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The goal of this study was to investigate the presence and antibiotic resistance profiles of Gram-negative bacteria with reduced susceptibility to cephalosporins in both the wildlife admitted to a WRC and in the WRC built environment in Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted sampling animals undergoing rehabilitation (n = 64) and the WRC environment (n = 160). Isolated bacterial species were identified with MALDI-TOF, and antimicrobial susceptibility determined using the disk diffusion method. Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae were the dominant bacterial families among the environmental (n = 78) and animal (n = 31) isolates. For Enterobacteriaceae, isolates of the most abundant species (E. coli) were classified into 20 antibiotic resistance profiles, with eight of those isolates being resistant to more than nine antibiotics, including imipenem. Isolates of the Pseudomonadaceae family identified 11 isolates with resistance to antibiotics such as carbapenems and quinolones. Even though a cluster analysis based on antibiotic resistance patterns did not show a clear overlap between environmental and animal isolates, it is important to highlight the identification of isolates resistant to carbapenems, which is very relevant from a public health perspective. Further, numerous antibiotic resistance profiles were observed in different bacterial species, indicating not only environmental contamination with a wide diversity of bacteria, but also a wide diversity of resistant bacteria in animals at the WRC. The approach taken by sampling animals and their hospital environment can be useful in understanding AMR dynamics in wildlife rehabilitation settings, as well as the potential dissemination of AMR into the natural environment.
Hayden D. Hedman, Lixin Zhang, Bilal Butt, Priscila Papias, James A. Trostle,
Published: 24 July 2021
Abstract:
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) often implement overseas development aid through intensive small-scale animal agriculture to alleviate food insecurity in low- and middle-income countries. Intensive animal farming can pose unclear outcomes to households engaged in the practice because of the reliance on industrial animal breeds that are reared with antibiotics and raised in higher densities compared to traditional scavenging husbandry systems. As a result, intensive small-scale farming operations that lack proper infrastructure, training, and financial resources could facilitate the spread of antimicrobial resistance and infectious diseases. We applied a mixed-methods framework towards analyzing the effectiveness of small-scale broiler chicken farming in northern Ecuador. First, from May 2016 – May 2017, our observational surveys indicated that intensive small-scale poultry farming follows a boom-and-bust cycle that is extremely vulnerable to environmental stressors. Second, in May 2016, we followed a cohort of households enrolled in a poultry development project led by an NGO. We observed a substantial decline in chicken survivorship from Survey period 1 to 2 (mean chicken count decrease from 50 to 35 corresponding to a 70% survivorship) and from Survey period 2 to 3 (mean chicken count decrease from 35 to 20.3 corresponding to a 58% survivorship). Heads of households were self-reporting broiler chicken survivorship substantially higher than our recorded observations during survey period two (46 compared to 35 respectively) and three (44.3 compared to 20.3 respectively). We speculate that if households continue to inaccurately report poultry demographics, then it could perpetuate a negative feedback loop where NGOs continue to conduct the same intervention practices without receiving accurate outcome metrics. Third, we used semi-structured questionnaires to determine that access to financial resources was the major motivation for determining when to farm broiler chickens. Intensive small-scale poultry farming can be unreliable and disease-enhancing, yet also associated with dubious self-reports of success.
Roberto Zoccola, Chiara Beltramo, Gabriele Magris, Simone Peletto, Pierluigi Acutis, Elena Bozzetta, Slobodanka Radovic, Francesco Zappulla, Anna Maria Porzio, Maria Silvia Gennero, et al.
Published: 23 July 2021
One Health, Volume 13, pp 100295-100295; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100295

Abstract:
The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants and their rapid spread pose a threat to both human and animal health and may conceal unknown risks. This report describes an Italian human-to-cat outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 lineage B.1.1.7 (the Alpha variant) . On March 7th, 2021, approximately ten days after COVID-19 appeared in the family, the onset of respiratory signs in a cat by COVID-19-affected owners led to an in-depth diagnostic investigation, combining clinical and serological data with rt-qPCR-based virus detection and whole genome sequencing. The Alpha variant was confirmed first in the owners and a few days later in the cat that was then monitored weekly: the course was similar with one-week lag time in the cat. In addition, based on comparative analysis of genome sequences from our study and from 200 random Italian cases of Alpha variant, the familial cluster was confirmed. The temporal sequence along with the genomic data support a human-to-animal transmission. Such an event emphasizes the importance of studying the circulation and dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 variants in humans and animals to better understand and prevent potential spillover risks or unwarranted alerts involving our pet populations.
Kelly Rhoden, Jose Alonso, Meg Carmona, Michelle Pham,
Published: 20 July 2021
Abstract:
Florida represents a unique challenge for preventing and responding to infectious disease associated with water. This study cataloged the prevalence of reportable waterborne and water-related disease within Florida residents over the last twenty years and identified relationships between confirmed cases by location and additional risk factors. Data was collected through FLHealthCHARTS for confirmed cases between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2019. Case records were compiled and analyzed by year, county, pathogen name and disease category, patient age, and where the infection was acquired. During this time, 218,707 cases of water-related disease were recorded with 214,745 due to waterborne disease, 3255 cases of water-related vector-borne disease, and 707 cases caused by a water-based toxin. Children aged 0–4 and the elderly demonstrated a higher proportion of waterborne disease while 45–49 year olds had increased rates of water-based toxins and water-related vector-borne disease. Most cases were reported in the southeast region. Across the state, opportunities for water contact have led to high rates of water-related infectious disease. Public health initiatives and response efforts should target the pathogens of greatest impact for each region, largely zoonotic waterborne diseases, using a One Health approach.
Younes Laidoudi, Youssouf Sereme, Hacène Medkour, Stéphanie Watier-Grillot, Pierre Scandola, Jacques Ginesta, Virginie Andréo, Claire Labarde, Loïc Comtet, Philippe Pourquier, et al.
Published: 18 July 2021
Abstract:
Dogs are occasionally susceptible to SARS-CoV-2, developing few or no clinical signs. Epidemiological surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in dogs requires testing to distinguish it from other canine coronaviruses. In the last year, significant advances have been made in the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, allowing its surveillance in both human and animal populations. Here, using ELISA and automated western blotting (AWB) assays, we performed a longitudinal study on 809 apparently healthy dogs from different regions of France to investigate anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. There were three main groups: (i) 356 dogs sampled once before the pandemic, (ii) 235 dogs sampled once during the pandemic, and (iii) 218 dogs, including 82 dogs sampled twice (before and during the pandemic), 125 dogs sampled twice during the pandemic and 11 dogs sampled three times (once before and twice during the pandemic). Using ELISA, seroprevalence was significantly higher during the pandemic [5.5% (25/453)] than during the pre-pandemic period [1.1% (5/449)]. Among the 218 dogs sampled twice, at least 8 ELISA-seroconversions were observed. ELISA positive pre-pandemic sera were not confirmed in serial tests by AWB, indicating possible ELISA cross-reactivity, probably with other canine coronaviruses. A significant difference was observed between these two serological tests (Q = 88, p = 0.008). A clear correlation was observed between SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in dogs and the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in human population from the same area. AWB could be used as a second line assay to confirm the doubtful and discrepant ELISA results in dogs. Our results confirm the previous experimental models regarding the susceptibility of dogs to SARS-CoV-2, suggesting that viral transmission from and between dogs is weak or absent. However, the new variants with multiple mutations could adapt to dogs; this hypothesis cannot be ruled out in the absence of genomic data on SARS-CoV-2 from dogs.
, Lora Alsawalha, Sami Sheikh Ali, Ghazi Sharkas, Nazeema Muthu, Mahmoud Ghazo, Eman Aly, Arash Rashidian, Lubna Al Ariqi, Wail Hayajneh, et al.
Published: 10 July 2021
Abstract:
The evolution of the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan during the first 10 months of the epidemic was peculiar and can be easily categorized in three different phases: a first period featuring a very low number of reported cases, a second period with exponential growth from August with up to 8000 cases on the 18th November 2020, and a third phase with steady and progressive decline of the epidemiological curve. With the aim of better determine the entity of the population exposed to SARS-CoV-2, the Jordan Ministry of Health with the support of the WHO launched three rounds of the nationwide sero-prevalence survey. Using population proportionate to size (PPS) methodology, around 5000 individuals were selected from all Jordan governorates. Blood samples were collected from all participants and ELISA assays for total IgM, IgG antibodies to COVID-19 were used for testing at the National Public Health Laboratory. Results revealed that seroprevalence dramatically increased over time, with only a tiny fraction of seropositive individuals in August (0.3%), to increase up to more than 20-fold in October (7.0%) and to reach one-third of the overall population exposed by the end of 2020 (34.2%). While non age-specific trends were detected in infection rates across different age categories, in all three rounds of the seroprevalence study two out of three positive participants did not report any sign and/or symptom compatible with COVID-19. The serial cross-sectional surveys experience in Jordan allowed to gain additional insights of the epidemic over time in combination with context-specific aspects like adherence to public health and social measures (PHSM). On the other hand, such findings would be helpful for planning of public health mitigation measures like vaccinations and tailored restriction policies.
Published: 9 July 2021
Abstract:
The One Health concept that human, animal, plant, environmental, and ecosystem health are linked provides a framework for examining and addressing complex health challenges. This framework can be represented as a multi-dimensional matrix that can be used as a tool to identify upstream drivers of disease potential in a concise, systematic, and comprehensive way. The matrix can involve up to four dimensions depending on users' needs. This paper describes and illustrates how the matrix tool might be used to facilitate systems thinking, enabling the development of effective and equitable public policies. The multidimensional One Health matrix tool will be used to examine, as an example, global human and animal fecal wastes. The fecal wastes are analyzed at the microbial and population levels over a timeframe of years. Political, social, and economic factors are part of the matrix and will be examined as well. The One Health matrix tool illustrates how foodborne illnesses, food insecurity, antimicrobial resistance, and climate change are inter-related. Understanding these inter-relationships is essential to develop the public policies needed to achieve many of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals.
, Jon R. Keehner, , Craig Stephen
Published: 9 July 2021
Abstract:
One Health faces enormous pressure and challenges as it attempts to mitigate dynamic, surprising and complex global events that threaten the health and sustainability of human and animal populations and the biosphere. One Health practitioners and researchers need every advantage to developing working solutions to the world's imminent complex issues. Heath promotion and harm reduction, interrelated approaches that have seen much success over decades of use in global public health, may be important models to consider. Both use an upstream socioecological determinant of health approach to reach beyond the health sector in all health efforts, and encourage active community participation and empowerment to attain and sustain human and ecological health. This scoping review of 411 documents, believed to be the first to relate health promotion and harm reduction to One Health, searched self-declared One Health research literature for evidence of health promotion and harm reduction policies, principles and methodologies. It sought to answer the questions: “What is the scope of practice of One Health in self-declared One Health publications?” and “Are attributes of health promotion and harm reduction found in self-declared One Health-reviewed research literature?” Over half of the papers revealed no health promotion or harm reduction attributes while 7% were well-endowed with these attributes. These 7% of papers focused on deep-seated, complex health issues with systemic knowledge gaps and decision-making issues revolving around specific population vulnerabilities, social inequities and competing stakeholders. Implementing ‘on the ground change’ was a common theme in the strongest health promotion/harm reduction papers we identified. Alternatively, papers lacking health promotion or harm reduction attributes focused on managing proximate risks, primarily for infectious diseases. The addition of health promotion and harm reduction to One Health practices may help the field rise to the growing expectations for its involvement in complex global issues like pandemics and climate change.
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