Refine Search

New Search

Results in Journal Beneficial Microbes: 751

(searched for: journal_id:(1978914))
Page of 16
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
, A. Campos-Martinez, E. Fernandez-Marín, I. Cubero Millan, A. Ruiz Lopez, E. Blanca-Jover
Published: 18 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.0088

Abstract:
According to previous research, the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) decreases after supplementation with probiotics. However, few studies have considered the equivalence or otherwise of different strains of probiotics in this respect. Accordingly, this prospective observational study was conducted in a cohort of 245 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) new-borns to assess the prevalence of NEC after supplementation with the probiotic Inforan® (Berna Biotech, Madrid, Spain) 250 mg capsules containing 109 cfu of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356) and 109 cfu of Bifidobacterium bifidum (ATCC 15696); or with Bivos® (Ferring, Madrid, Spain) containing Lacticaseibacillus (formerly Lactobacillus) rhamnnosus (LGG) (ATCC 53103) (109 cfu); or with no probiotic supplementation. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariant regression for the duration of parenteral nutrition, length of neonatal intensive care unit stay, use of oxygen therapy and presence of chorioamnionitis. Of the VLBW new-borns in the study group, 65 received Infloran, 108 received Bivos and 72 received no probiotic. A significant association was observed between a reduced presence of NEC Stage ≥2 and probiotic supplementation. The odds risk (OR) obtained was 0.174 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.032-0.936) for Infloran and 0.196 (95%CI: 0.053-0.732) for Bivos. Therefore, both probiotics are associated with a lower prevalence of NEC in VLBW new-borns, with no significant differences.
, J. Hellmich, J. Zentek, W. Vahjen
Published: 16 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 567-581; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0226

Abstract:
A novel rapid ex vivo assay was developed as part of a concept to determine potential tailor-made combinations of pre- and probiotics for individual farms. Sow faecal slurries from 20 German pig farms were anaerobically incubated with pre- and probiotics or their combinations together with pathogenic strains that are of interest in pig production. Aliquots of these slurries were then incubated with media containing antibiotic mixtures allowing only growth of the specific pathogen. Growth was monitored and lag time was used to determine the residual fitness of the pathogenic strains. The background growth could be inhibited for an Escherichia coli- and a Clostridium difficile- but not for a Clostridium perfringens strain. The prebiotic fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and its combination with probiotics reduced the residual fitness of the E. coli strain in some farms. However, notable exceptions occurred in other farms where FOS increased the fitness of the E. coli strain. Generally, combinations of pre- and probiotics did not show additive effects on fitness for E. coli but displayed farm dependent differences. The effects of pre- and probiotics on the residual fitness of the C. difficile strain were less pronounced, but distinct differences between single application of prebiotics and their combination with probiotics were observed. It was concluded that the initial composition of the microbiota in the samples was more determinative for incubations with the C. difficile strain than for incubations with the E. coli strain, as the presumed fermentation of prebiotic products showed less influence on the fitness of the C. difficile strain. Farm dependent differences were pronounced for both pathogenic strains and therefore, this novel screening method offers a promising approach for pre-selecting pre- and probiotics for individual farms. However, evaluation of farm metadata (husbandry, feed, management) will be crucial in future studies to determine a tailor-made solution for combinations of pre- and probiotics for individual farms. Also, refinement of the ex vivo assay in terms of on-farm processing of samples and validation of unambiguous growth for pathogenic strains from individual farms should be addressed.
J. Verhoeven, D. Keller, S. Verbruggen, K. Youssef Abboud,
Published: 16 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 601-612; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.0015

Abstract:
The gut microbiota has been indicated to play a crucial role in health and disease. Apart from changes in composition between healthy individuals and those with a disease or disorder, it has become clear that also microbial activity is important for health. For instance, butyrate has been proven to be beneficial for health, because, amongst others, it is a substrate for the colonocytes, and modulates the host’s immune system and metabolism. Here, we studied the effect of a blend of three mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum GL AM P-38, Grifola frondosa GF AM P36 and Pleurotus ostreatus PO AM-GP37)) on gut microbiota composition and activity in a validated, dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2). Predigested mushroom blend at three doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/day of ingested mushroom blend) was fed to a pooled microbiota of healthy adults for 72 h, and samples were taken every day for microbiota composition (sequencing of amplicons of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene) and activity (short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production). The butyrate producing genera Lachnospiraceae UCG-004, Lachnoclostridium, Ruminococcaceae UCG-002 and Ruminococcaceae NK4A214-group are all dose-dependently increased when the mushroom blend was fed. Entirely in line with the increase of these butyrate-producers, the cumulative amount of butyrate also dose-dependently increased, to roughly twice the amount compared to the control (medium without mushroom blend) on the high-dose mushroom blend. Butyrate proportionally made up 53.1% of the total SCFA upon feeding the high-dose mushroom blend, compared to 27% on the control medium. In conclusion, the (polysaccharides in the) mushroom blend led to substantial increase in butyrate by the gut microbiota. These results warrant future mechanistic research on the mushroom blend, as butyrate is considered to be one of the microbial metabolites that contributes to health, by increasing barrier function and modulating inflammation.
H. Jin, X. Xu, B. Pang, R. Yang, H. Sun, C. Jiang, D. Shao, J. Shi
Published: 16 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 517-529; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0183

Abstract:
Many studies have associated altered intestinal bacterial communities and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, but the putative effects are inconclusive. The purpose of this network meta-analysis (NMA) was to evaluate the effects of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through randomised intervention trials. Literature searches were performed until March 2020. For each outcome, a random NMA was performed, the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) was determined. A total of 22 randomised trials comparing prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic treatments included 1301 participants. Considering all seven results (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, body mass index, weight, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together, the highest SUCRA values are probiotics (94%), synbiotics (61%) and prebiotics (56%), respectively. NMA results provide evidence that probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics can alleviate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. However, due to the lack of high-quality randomised trials, this research also has some limitations.
M. Engevik, W. Ruan, C. Visuthranukul, Z. Shi, K.A. Engevik, A.C. Engevik, R. Fultz, D.A. Schady, J.K. Spinler, J. Versalovic
Published: 16 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 583-599; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0216

Abstract:
The serotonin transporter (SERT) readily takes up serotonin (5-HT), thereby regulating the availability of 5-HT within the intestine. In the absence of SERT, 5-HT remains in the interstitial space and has the potential to aberrantly activate the many 5-HT receptors distributed on the epithelium, immune cells and enteric neurons. Perturbation of SERT is common in many gastrointestinal disorders as well as mouse models of colitis. Select commensal microbes regulate intestinal SERT levels, but the mechanism of this regulation is poorly understood. Additionally, ethanol upregulates SERT in the brain and dendritic cells, but its effects in the intestine have never been examined. We report that the intestinal commensal microbe Limosilactobacillus (previously classified as Lactobacillus) reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 secretes 83.4 mM ethanol. Consistent with the activity of L. reuteri alcohol dehydrogenases, we found that L. reuteri tolerated various levels of ethanol. Application of L. reuteri conditioned media or exogenous ethanol to human colonic T84 cells was found to upregulate SERT at the level of mRNA. A 4-(4-(dimethylamino) phenyl)-1-methylpyridinium (APP+) uptake assay confirmed the functional activity of SERT. These findings were mirrored in mouse colonic organoids, where L. reuteri metabolites and ethanol were found to upregulate SERT at the apical membrane. Finally, in a trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid model of acute colitis, we observed that mice treated with L. reuteri maintained SERT at the colon membrane compared with mice receiving phosphate buffered saline vehicle control. These data suggest that L. reuteri metabolites, including ethanol, can upregulate SERT and may be beneficial for maintaining intestinal homeostasis with respect to serotonin signalling.
K. Chen, G. Zhang, H. Xie, L. You, H. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Du, S. Xu, C. Melsaether, S. Yuan
Published: 16 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 531-540; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0233

Abstract:
To evaluate the administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12® (BB-12) on infant colic in breastfed infants, a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised study was conducted in Chengdu, China from April 2016 to October 2017 with 192 full-term infants less than 3 months of age and meeting the ROME III criteria for infant colic. After a 1-week run-in the infants were randomly assigned to receive daily BB-12 (1×109 cfu/day) or placebo for 3 weeks. Crying/fussing time were recorded using a 24 h structured diary. The primary endpoint was the proportion of infants achieving a reduction in crying and fussing time of ≥50% from baseline. Parent’s/caregiver’s health related quality of life was measured using a modified PedsQL 2.0 Family Impact Module and immunological biomarkers were evaluated from faecal samples at baseline and after the 21-day intervention. The percentage of infants achieving a reduction in the daily crying/fussing time ≥50% after the 21-day intervention was significantly higher in the infants supplemented with BB-12 (P<0.001). The mean number of crying episodes was significantly reduced in the BB-12 group compared to the placebo group (10.0±3.0 to 5.0±1.87 vs 10.5±2.6 to 7.5±2.8, respectively) (P<0.001) and the mean daily sleep duration was markedly increased from baseline to end of intervention in the BB-12 group compared to the infants in the placebo group (60.7±104.0 vs 31.9±102.7 min/day, respectively) (P<0.001). The faecal levels of human beta defensin 2, cathelicidin, slgA, calprotectin and butyrate were statistically higher in the BB-12 group compared to the placebo group after the 21-day intervention. At the end of the intervention the parent’s/caregiver’s physical, emotional and social functioning scores were significantly higher for the BB-12 group compared to the placebo group (all P<0.05). Supplementation of BB-12 is effective in reducing crying and fussing in infants diagnosed with infant colic.
M.J. Ruiz, N.E. Sirini, M.L. Signorini, A. Etcheverría, M.V. Zbrun, L.P. Soto, J.A. Zimmermann,
Published: 16 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 553-565; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.0010

Abstract:
Thermotolerant Campylobacter species are the leading cause of foodborne bacterial diarrheal disease worldwide. Campylobacter coli, abundant in pigs and pork products, have been identified as a source of human infection. In this study, we propose the use of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP5 as a probiotic to reduce colonisation of this intestinal pathogen in a murine colonisation model of C. coli DSPV458. Six-week-old adult female Balb/cCmedc mice were housed in groups: Control, Campy and Pro-Campy. Control and Pro-Campy groups received antibiotics for 5 days and the Campy group for 12 days. Pro-Campy group was inoculated for 7 days with 8.78 log10 cfu total of L. plantarum LP5 suspended in De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth. All groups were inoculated with 6.72 log10 cfu of C. coli DSPV458 suspended in brain heart infusion broth. L. plantarum LP5 was recovered only in the Pro- Campy group. C. coli DSPV458 was recovered at higher levels in the Control and Campy groups. The differences with the Pro-Campy group were significant. As regards faeces, Control and Campy groups reached 7.41 and 7.84 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and the Pro-Campy group only 4.62 log10 cfu/g. In the caecum, Control and Campy groups reached 8.01 and 9.26 log10cfu/g, respectively, and the Pro-Campy group only 4.51 log10 cfu/g. In the ileum, Control and Campy groups reached 3.43 and 3.26 log10 cfu/g, respectively, and the Pro-Campy group did not show detectable levels. The reduction of C. coli DSPV458 in the Pro-Campy group compared to the Control group in faeces, caecum and ileum was 99.55, 99.98 and 100%, respectively. Animals were maintained under normal health conditions, and haematological parameters were within the standard values for Balb/cCmedc. The incorporation of a probiotic generated a protective effect in the mice colonisation model. The protective effect would also apply to intestinal colonisation by indigenous enterobacteria. Therefore, the strategy used in this study is of great importance to understand the protection mechanisms in a murine model, as well as its application in food-producing animals.
S.-W. Yun, J.-K. Kim, M.J. Han,
Published: 16 November 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 541-551; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0109

Abstract:
The gut microbiota communicates with the brain through microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes and other pathways. Excessive expression of interleukin (IL)-6 is closely associated with the occurrence of the psychiatric disorders depression and dementia. Therefore, to understand whether IL-6 expression-suppressing probiotics could alleviate psychiatric disorders, we isolated IL-6 expression-inhibiting Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) NK112 from the human faecal bacteria strain collection (Neurobiota Research Center, Seoul, Korea) and examined its therapeutic effect for the depression and cognitive impairment in mice. C57 BL/6J mice with depression and cognitive impairment were prepared by exposure to Escherichia coli K1. Oral gavage of NK112 significantly alleviated K1-induced anxious, depressive, and memory-impaired behaviours in the elevated plus maze, tail-suspension and Y-maze tasks, IL-1β, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression, and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB) activation in the hippocampus, while K1-suppressed brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression increased. Treatment with NK112 also improved K1-induced myeloperoxidase activity, IL-6 and TNF-α expression, and NF-κB activation in the colon and reduced K1-induced Proteobacteria population in the gut microbiota. Heat-killed NK112 and its lysate supernatant, and precipitate fractions also improved anxiety/depression, cognitive impairment, and colitis in mice. In conclusion, NK112, even if heat-killed or lysed, alleviated K1 stress-induced colitis, anxiety/depression, and cognitive impairment by suppressing IL-6, TNF-α, and BDNF expression through the regulation of gut microbiota and NF-κB activation.
, C. Teixeira, C. Montelius, B. Jeppsson, N. Larsson
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 441-465; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0191

Abstract:
This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the in vitro, animal, and clinical studies with the bacterial strain Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299v (L. plantarum 299v; formerly named Lactobacillus plantarum 299v) published up until June 30, 2020. L. plantarum 299v is the most documented L. plantarum strain in the world, described in over 170 scientific publications out of which more than 60 are human clinical studies. The genome sequence of L. plantarum 299v has been determined and is available in the public domain (GenBank Accession number: NZ_LEAV01000004). The probiotic strain L. plantarum 299v was isolated from healthy human intestinal mucosa three decades ago by scientists at Lund University, Sweden. Thirty years later, a wealth of data coming from in vitro, animal, and clinical studies exist, showing benefits primarily for gastrointestinal health, such as reduced flatulence and abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Moreover, several clinical studies have shown positive effects of L. plantarum 299v on iron absorption and more recently also on iron status. L. plantarum 299v is safe for human consumption and does not confer antibiotic resistance. It survives the harsh conditions of the human gastrointestinal tract, adheres to mannose residues on the intestinal epithelial cells and has in some cases been re-isolated more than ten days after administration ceased. Besides studying health benefits, research groups around the globe have investigated L. plantarum 299v in a range of applications and processes. L. plantarum 299v is used in many different food applications as well as in various dietary supplements. In a freeze-dried format, L. plantarum 299v is robust and stable at room temperature, enabling long shelf-lives of consumer healthcare products such as capsules, tablets, or powder sachets. The strain is patent protected for a wide range of indications and applications worldwide as well as trademarked as LP299V®.
I. Garaiova, Z. Paduchová, Z. Nagyová, D. Wang, D.R. Michael, S.F. Plummer, J.R. Marchesi, Z. Ďuračková,
Published: 13 September 2021
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0185

Abstract:
In a double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study, healthy school children aged 3-10 years received a probiotic based supplement daily for 6 months to assess the impact on the incidence and duration of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms. The intervention comprised Lab4 probiotic (Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL21 and CUL60, Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CUL34) at 12.5 billion cfu/day plus 50 mg vitamin C or a matching placebo. 171 children were included in the analysis (85 in placebo and 86 in active group). Incidence of coughing was 16% (P=0.0300) significantly lower in the children receiving the active intervention compared to the placebo. No significant differences in the incidence rate of other URTI symptoms were observed. There was significantly lower risk of experiencing five different URTI related symptoms in one day favouring the active group (Risk ratio: 0.31, 95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.81, P=0.0163). Absenteeism from school and the use of antibiotics was also significantly reduced for those in the active group (-16%, P=0.0060 and -27%, P=0.0203, respectively). Our findings indicate that six months daily supplementation with the Lab4 probiotic and vitamin C combination reduces the incidence of coughing, absenteeism and antibiotic usage in 3 to 10 year old children.
, B.F.R. Caetano, L.T. Bidinotto, M.A.M. Rodrigues, L.F. Barbisan
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0209

Abstract:
Indole-3 carbinol (I3C) has shown dual effects on the promotion and progression stages of colon carcinogenesis while synbiotics (Syn) have exerted anti-carcinogenic activities in most rodent studies. This study aimed to investigate the effects of I3C given alone or together with a Syn intervention on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis. All animals were given four subcutaneous DMH injections (4×40 mg/kg bodyweight, twice a week for two weeks) and then received either basal diet (G1), basal diet containing I3C (1g/kg chow) (G2) or basal diet containing I3C+Syn (I3C + inulin 50g/kg chow + Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12®), 2.5×1010 cfu/g of basal diet), (G3) for 21 weeks. Dietary I3C (G2) significantly increased tumour volume and cell proliferation when compared to the DMH control group (G1). Syn intervention (G3) significantly reduced tumour volume and cell proliferation when compared to I3C (G2). The colon tumours found were classified into well-differentiated tubular adenomas or adenocarcinomas. Dietary I3C or I3C+Syn did not significantly affect the incidence and the multiplicity of tumours in comparison with the DMH control group. Furthermore, Syn intervention (G3) increased Gstm1 and reduced Mapk9 gene expression in colonic tumours. The findings of the present study show that the dietary I3C shows a weak promoting activity, while the combination with Syn ameliorates I3C effects.
E.Y. Lim, E.-J. Song, J.G. Kim, S.Y. Jung, S.-Y. Lee, H.S. Shin, Y.-D. Nam,
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0217

Abstract:
There are many studies focusing on the alleviation of menopausal symptoms; however, little is known about the role of gut microorganisms in menopausal symptoms. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were administered a novel strain (YT2) of Lactobacillus intestinalis (a species with significantly reduced abundance in OVX rats) and the potential probiotic effect on the improvement of menopausal symptoms was evaluated. Of note, the gut microbial composition completely shifted after ovariectomy in rats. Treatment with L. intestinalis YT2 significantly alleviated menopausal symptoms, such as increased fat mass, decreased bone mineral density, increased pain sensitivity, depression-like behaviour, and cognitive impairment. Additionally, the administration of L. intestinalis YT2 restored the intestinal microbial composition, including an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio. L. intestinalis YT2 also promoted gut barrier integrity by increasing the mRNA levels of tight junction-related markers. In conclusion, L. intestinalis YT2 treatment alleviated menopausal symptoms via the modulation of the gut microbiota. Importantly, these results suggest that L. intestinalis YT2 should be considered as a therapeutic probiotic agent for menopausal women.
, I. Besseling-Van der Vaart, E.M. Schellinger-De Goede, M.B. van der Waal, E. Claassen, J. Flach, L.H.M. van de Burgwal
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0162

Abstract:
When taking a broader perspective on the societal impact of probiotics, engagement of end-users is important to discover unmet needs, define relevant health benefits and identify key considerations for successful implementation in daily practice. This study therefore takes a retrospective approach and analyses a database of user experiences to review the effects of four multispecies probiotic formulations. The user experiences were analysed in a dependent sample manner (without control group) and complement previous randomised controlled trials that have been performed with the formulations. The database consisted of 584 evaluable user experiences regarding the impact of probiotic supplementation on perceived quality of life (QoL), gastrointestinal (GIT) symptoms and reported stool consistency after two weeks of consumption. Two different scales were used (n=344 in a 5-point scale; n=240 in a 10-point scale), which are presented as separate analyses. In the combined population of the 5-point-scale questionnaire, a significant increase in perceived QoL and a significant reduction in perceived GIT symptoms was observed. Descriptive summaries also indicate that diarrhoea- and constipation-like stool patterns are reduced following supplementation. Moreover, half of participants indicated that probiotic supplementation had a positive effect on their unmet medical need, and 64% of users were likely to continue using the product. Similar results were observed in the 10-point scale questionnaire. Considering the clinical relevance of probiotic supplementation in specific target groups, subgroup analyses were performed on participants who consumed the products for diarrhoea, constipation, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, and antibiotic usage. Overall, findings support the potential of probiotics to advance perceived human health and support the daily wellbeing of users. This systematic analysis of user experiences thereby contributes to the external validity of studies evaluating clinical effects of probiotics and increases knowledge on their societal impact.
C. Duysburgh, P. Van Den Abbeele, M. Morera,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 365-379; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0180

Abstract:
Antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of the microbial community has been associated with several gastrointestinal symptoms. The impact of repeated administration of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (CNCM-I-4798) (formerly known as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG), Saccharomyces cerevisiae boulardii (CNCM-I-1079) and their combination (associated in Smebiocta/Smectaflora Protect®) in supporting recovery of gut microbiota functionality and composition during and following amoxicillin:clavulanic acid administration was evaluated in vitro. Antibiotic dosage negatively affected SCFA production, coinciding with detrimental effects on Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Bifidobacterium spp. in the simulated proximal colon, while Akkermansia muciniphila was significantly reduced in the distal colon. L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii were able to thrive in both colon regions upon dosing, with S. boulardii even showing protective effects on the survival of L. rhamnosus GG during antibiotic administration. The impact of the probiotic strains on microbiome recovery revealed that supplementation with L. rhamnosus GG and/or S. boulardii resulted in a stimulating effect on the most abundant bacterial groups within the bacterial community of each donor. For one of the donors tested, co-dosing of L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii resulted in superior short-chain fatty acid recovery accompanied by a stronger increase in abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae. Overall, the current study provides first evidence that combined supplementation of L. rhamnosus GG and S. boulardii might be an interesting candidate in limiting detrimental effects of amoxicillin:clavulanic acid on the human gut microbiome, though further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
, H. Brown, T. Shafizadeh, S. Kazi, T. Altmann, B. Ostrer
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 333-340; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0229

Abstract:
The gut microbiome during infancy is directly involved in the digestion of human milk, development of the immune system, and long-term health outcomes. Gut dysbiosis in early life has been linked to multiple short-term ailments, from diaper dermatitis and poor stooling habits, to poor sleep and fussiness, with mixed results in the scientific literature on the efficacy of probiotics for symptom resolution. Despite the growing interest in probiotics for consumer use, observed symptomatic relief is rarely documented. This study aims to evaluate observed symptomatic relief from at-home use of activated Bifidobacterium infantis EVC001 in infants. Consumer feedback was collected over a 2-year period via a 30-day post-purchase online survey of B. infantis EVC001 (Evivo®) customers. Outcome measures included observed changes in diaper rash, symptoms of colic, and sleep behaviours in infants fed B. infantis EVC001. A total of 1,621 respondents completed the survey. Before purchasing B. infantis EVC001, the majority of respondents visited the product website, researched infant probiotics online, or consulted with their doctor or other healthcare professional. Of the participants whose infants had ever experienced diaper rash, 72% (n=448) reported improvements, and 57% of those reported complete resolution of this problem. Of those who responded to questions about gassiness/fussiness, naptime sleep, and night-time sleep behaviours, 63% (n=984), 33% (n=520), and 52% (n=806) reported resolution or improvements, respectively. Although clinical data regarding probiotic use are often inconclusive for symptom resolution, home use of B. infantis EVC001 in infants improved diaper rash, gassiness/fussiness, and sleep quality within the first week of use in a significant number of respondents who engaged in a voluntary post-purchase survey. These outcomes may be a result of the unique genetic capacity of B. infantis EVC001 to colonise the infant gut highlighting the importance of strain selection in evaluating the effects of probiotic products.
C. Bussolo de Souza, S. M. I. Saad,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 397-411; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0151

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to investigate the potential prebiotic effects of food-by-products (cassava bagasse (n=3), orange bagasse (n=2) and passion fruit peel (n=3)) using an in vitro model simulating the proximal colon, and to assess possible differences in fermentation when using faecal microbiota from lean or obese people. Fermentation of the by-products was compared to a control medium and the prebiotic inulin. The effects of the by-products on the dynamics of the gut microbiota differed according to the type of microbiota, as well as the type of by-product used. Principal Coordinate Analysis of the microbiota showed evidence of a clear separate clustering of lean and obese microbiota before the addition of substrates, which disappeared after fermentation, and instead, distinct clusters due to primary carbohydrate composition of the by-products (starch, fructan and pectin) were present. This is evidence that the substrates drove the obese microbiota to a healthier profile, more similar to that of the lean microbiota. Cassava bagasses enriched the beneficial genus Bifidobacterium in the obese microbiota. The production of total SCFA by cassava bagasses by the obese microbiota was higher than for control medium and inulin. Orange bagasses stimulated the growth of the butyrate-producing genus Coprococcus. Passion fruit peels were poorly fermented and generated negligible amounts of intermediate metabolites, indicating slow fermentation. Nevertheless, passion fruit peel fermentation resulted in a microbiota with the highest diversity and evenness, a positive trait regarding host health. In conclusion, the use of food-by-products could be an important step to tackle obesity and decrease the waste of valuable food material and consequently environmental pollution. They are an inexpensive and non-invasive way to be used as a dietary intervention to improve health, as they were shown here to drive the composition of the obese microbiota to a healthier profile.
M.E. Arnal, S. Denis, O. Uriot, C. Lambert, S. Holowacz, F. Paul, S. Kuylle, B. Pereira, M. Alric,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 381-396; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0187

Abstract:
Health benefits of probiotics in humans essentially depend on their ability to survive during gastrointestinal (GI) transit and to modulate gut microbiota. To date, there is few data on the impact of galenic formulations of probiotics on these parameters. Even if clinical studies remain the gold standard to evaluate the efficacy of galenic forms, they stay hampered by technical, ethical and cost reasons. As an alternative approach, we used two complementary in vitro models of the human gut, the TNO gastrointestinal (TIM-1) model and the Artificial Colon (ARCOL), to study the effect of three oral formulations of a Lactobacillus salivarius strain (powder, capsule and sustained-release tablet) on its viability and interactions with gut microbiota. In the TIM-1 stomach, no or low numbers of bacteria were respectively released from the capsule and tablet, confirming their gastro-resistance. The capsule was disintegrated in the jejunum on average 76 min after administration while the core of sustained-release tablet was still intact at the end of digestion. Viability in TIM-1 was significantly influenced by the galenic form with survival percentages of 0.003±0.004%, 2.8±0.6% and 17.0±1.8% (n=3) for powder, capsule and tablet, respectively. In the ARCOL, the survival of the strain tended to be higher in the post-treatment phase with the tablet compared to capsule, but gut microbiota composition and activity were not differently modulated by the two formulations. In conclusion, the sustained-release tablet emerged as the formulation that most effectively preserved viability of the tested strain during GI passage. This study highlights the usefulness of in vitro gut models for the pre-screening of probiotic pharmaceutical forms. Their use could also easily be extended to the evaluation of the effects of food matrices and age on probiotic survival and activity during GI transit.
M. Puntillo, J. Spotti, S. Salminen, G. Vinderola
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 351-364; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0228

Abstract:
The interest on plant-based fermented food is in raise in Western countries. The aim of this study was to select interleukin (IL)-10 inducing strains for the development of potential probiotic plant-based fermented foods. Departing from a collection of 52 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains derived from plant material, in vitro co-culture with murine macrophages allowed us to narrow down the number of candidates to 21 strains able to induce IL-10 secretion. 14 of these strains were able to promote the production of tumour necrosis factor-α too. The capacity to induce IL-6 was used to further reduce the number of strains to 4, from which Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum LpAv was selected to ferment oat and carrots. L. plantarum LpAv was able to ferment oat and carrots until reaching counts of ca. 108 and 109 cfu/ml. Fermented oat and carrots were orally administered to mice for 10 consecutive days and challenged with a single infective dose of Salmonella enterica serovar. Typhimurium. Counts of L. plantarum LpAv in fermented carrots were 9.23±0.05 cfu/ml and 9.27±0.01 cfu/ml, at day 1 and 10 of the feeding period. Fermented carrots were able to confer enhanced protection (80% of survival) against infection, when compared to control mice (less than 25% of survival). However, L. plantarum LpAv administered as pure culture was not able to confer protection against Salmonella infection. L. plantarum LpAv was selected among 52 plant-derived LAB and it was able to ferment oat and carrots, being only fermented carrots able to confer enhanced protection against Salmonella infection. A succession of in vitro to in vivo tests is proposed as a tool to narrow down the number of candidates when searching for potential novel probiotics from a collection of autochthonous strains.
, G.D. Griffin
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 341-349; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0169

Abstract:
Prebiotics are nondigestible food agents that stimulate the growth of bacteria in the gut, whereas probiotics are live microorganisms that replace or restore beneficial bacteria in the digestive tract. Both agents have been shown to have beneficial qualities within the microbiota-gut-brain axis, but the behavioural effects of prebiotics have been less studied than probiotics. Whereas several studies have shown that prebiotics reduce inflammation and modulate anxiety in animals that are injected with lipopolysacccharides or chronically stressed animals, respectively, it is not yet known how they affect a healthy organism. Here, we tested the behavioural effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and beta glucan as a commercially available prebiotic blend in healthy, naïve Sprague-Dawley rats. We used the open field test and elevated plus maze to assess anxiety-like behaviour in controls and in rats that ingested the prebiotic blend in their drinking water. We also used the Morris Water Maze to assess spatial memory performance in controls and prebiotic treated rats. Rats treated with prebiotics spent more time in the intermediate zone of the open field test and in the open arms of the elevated plus maze, and exhibited a shorter latency to enter each of these zones. No significant differences between groups were found in the Morris Water Maze. Our results suggest that whereas prebiotics significantly reduced anxiety-like behaviours, it had no effect on spatial memory performance. Altogether, our data indicate that commercially available prebiotic beta glucan blends have anxiolytic effects in healthy rats.
, C.J.H. Martinez, A.V.V. Nobre, L.P. Maia, C. Tirapelli
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 307-319; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0143

Abstract:
Probiotics have aroused great interest as an adjunctive treatment to periodontal therapy, due to the frequent colonisation by periodontopathogens after therapy. The aim of this systematic review was to analyse in the scientific literature, evidence of the microbiological effects of probiotics as an adjunct to periodontal therapy in the treatment of periodontal diseases (PD). Only randomised controlled trials (RCT), evaluating the microbiological effect of probiotics as an adjunct to periodontal therapy. The authors conducted a search in PubMed/MEDLINE, LILACS, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Cochrane Library to identify articles published in English until February 2020. The quality of the studies was assessed using the JADAD scale and the risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Collaboration assessment tool. Of the 265 articles potentially relevant to this review, 10 studies were included. The most frequently used probiotic bacteria were those of the genus Lactobacillus spp. and the time of administration of the probiotics was between 14 days to 3 months. Most studies have shown that the adjuvant use of probiotics reduces the total mean counts of gram-negative anaerobic species (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Prevotella intermedia) and gram-negative coccobacillus (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) of subgingival plaque samples. Probiotics adjuvant to periodontal therapy reduces periodontopathogenic species in a greater proportion, compared only to periodontal therapy. Especially the Lactobacillus reuteri strain, without combination with other strains, offered a greater reduction in pathogenic bacteria associated with greater destruction of periodontal tissues and deep periodontal pockets. Researchers should perform high-quality RCT, evaluating single strains without combinations, in order to observe the microbiological benefits as adjunctive treatment of PD.
, P. Pellegrino
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 321-331; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.0017

Abstract:
The efficacy of a probiotic depends on its ability to survive and persist in the digestive tract. Regulatory agencies around the world recommend minimum dosages in order for a product to be termed a probiotic. However, the effect of dosage on the survival of the bacteria in the gut – the primary objective of probiotic administration – has not been critically evaluated. We performed a systematic literature review to assess the available data on the survival rate, during gastrointestinal transit, of probiotic bacteria that were orally administered to healthy adults. We also evaluated the persistence of the administered strain(s) after discontinuation of treatment and the potential role played by the food matrix in which probiotics have been administered. From a regulatory perspective, the profile of the target population is key to establishing the efficacy of probiotics. Therefore, we focussed on subjects without disease conditions. We evaluated 17 studies of single strains and 13 studies of multi-strain products, which reported survival and persistence outcomes. Persistence in the gut and recovery from stool were strain dependent. When the administered dose was higher than 1010 cfu/day, the probiotic could be recovered from stool regardless of the strain used. Treatment duration did not affect faecal recovery. Thus, dosage recommendations for probiotics by regulatory agencies are lower than that required for a strain to survive, persist and be efficacious in the gut.
I. Thøfner, D. Sandvang, K. Aagaard, L. Ladefoged Poulsen
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0227

Abstract:
This paper reports the success of intestinal colonisation of chickens and foetuses by probiotics after different methods of pre-hatch application. Hatcheries not using in ovo injection of probiotics or wish to avoid the reduced hatchability associated with in ovo injections prefer using alternatives to in ovo technologies. Therefore, we used noninvasive pre-hatch application methods. This included the vertical transmission of probiotics from the mother hen to offspring, application of probiotic late in incubation and transmission of probiotics during hatch. Enterococcus faecium (NCIMB11181) and Lactobacillus animalis (DSM33570) were used as probiotics. Probiotics were applied either through drinking water for the mother hens, by dipping the eggs in a probiotic solution on days 16-18 of incubation or through drops/spray on the eggshell of the fertilised eggs. Similarly, intestinal colonisation of the probiotic in chickens was investigated either before hatch (pre-hatch) or immediately after hatch (post-hatch). Based on the performed experiments, it is concluded that E. faecium was vertically transmitted from the mother hen to the offspring, as E. faecium was recovered in 20 and 33% of the offspring pre- and post-hatch, respectively. When applied on the eggshell, the recovery of E. faecium before hatch depended on the application method and ranged from 0 to 9%. In contrast, L. animalis was not recovered before hatch. Moreover, when sampling post-hatch 100% of the chickens were colonised when E. faecium was used and 54% were colonised when L. animalis was used. Furthermore, spray application with E. faecium was the most successful application method as 9% of the foetuses were colonised pre-hatch and 100% became colonised post-hatch. Therefore, pre-hatch application by, for example, spray of probiotics on the eggshell can be used as an easy-to-use, noninvasive method for early life colonisation of chicken gut.
S.J. Kim, S.-I. Choi, M. Jang, Y.-A. Jeong, C.-H. Kang,
Beneficial Microbes pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0205

Abstract:
We investigated the anti-obesity effect and the underlying mechanisms of action of human-derived Limosilactobacillus fermentum MG4231, MG4244, and their combination, in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Administration of the Limosilactobacillus strains decreased body weight gain, liver and adipose tissue weight, and glucose tolerance. Serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and leptin were reduced, while adiponectin increased. The administration of Limosilactobacillus strains improved the histopathological features of liver tissue, such as hepatic atrophy and inflammatory penetration, and significantly reduced the content of triglyceride in the liver. Limosilactobacillus administration discovered a significant reduction in the size of the adipocytes in the epididymal tissue. Limosilactobacillus treatment significantly reduced the expression of important regulators in lipid metabolism, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, fatty acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte-protein 2, and lipoprotein lipase in the epididymal tissue. Also, Limosilactobacillus lowered sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1-c and FAS in the liver tissue. Such changes in the expression of these regulators in both liver and epididymis tissue were caused by Limosilactobacillus upregulating phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Therefore, we suggest that the use of the combination of L. fermentum MG4231 and MG4244, as probiotics could effectively inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis from preventing obesity.
, M. Bernatek, H. Krauss, M. Wojciechowska, Z. Chęcińska-Maciejewska, P. Kaczmarek, H. Sommermeyer
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 249-257; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0160

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine effects of administration of simethicone and a multi-strain synbiotic on the crying behaviour of colicky babies. The study design consisted of an open-label, two parallel treatment group study involving 87 infants aged 3-6 weeks with infantile colic (defined as crying episodes lasting 3 or more hours per day and occurring at least 3 days per week within 3 weeks prior to enrolment) randomly, unequally [1:1.5] assigned to receive simethicone (n=33) or a multi-strain synbiotic (n=54) orally for 4 weeks. The multi-strain synbiotic contained Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14, Lacticaseibacillus casei R0215, Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Lp-115, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, Ligilactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04, Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071, Bifidobacterium longum R0175 and fructooligosaccharides). Primary outcome measures were the responder rates (effect ≥50% reduction from baseline) of the measures ‘crying days last 3 weeks’, ‘average evening crying duration last 3 weeks’ and ‘reduction of average number of crying phases per day last three weeks’ at the end of treatment. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under NCT 04487834. Significantly higher responder rates (effect ≥50% reduction from baseline) of the multi-strain synbiotic compared to simethicone were found for the measures ‘crying days last 3 weeks’ (72% vs 18%, P<0.0001) and ‘average evening crying duration last 3 weeks’ (85% vs 39%, P=0.0001). No significant difference was found for the measure ‘reduction of average number of crying phases per day last three weeks’ (50% vs 42%, P=0.4852). No adverse effects were reported for the two treatment groups. Based on these results, the multi-strain synbiotic can be considered as an interesting therapeutic possibility for the treatment of infantile colic, worthwhile to be investigated further in non-clinical and clinical studies.
C.J. Chiang, Y.P. Chao, A. Ali, C.H. Day, T.J. Ho, P.N. Wang, S.C. Lin, V.V. Padma, W.W. Kuo,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 283-293; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0094

Abstract:
Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN), a probiotic bacterium protects against several disorders. Multiple reports have studied the pathways involved in cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of probiotic EcN against diabetes-induced cardiac hypertrophy remain to be understood. We administered five weeks old Wistar male (271±19.4 g body weight) streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with 109 cfu of EcN via oral gavage every day for 24 days followed by subjecting the rats to echocardiography to analyse the cardiac parameters. Overexpressed interleukin (IL)-6 induced the MEK5/ERK5, JAK2/STAT3, and MAPK signalling cascades in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Further, the upregulation of calcineurin, NFATc3, and p-GATA4 led to the elevation of hypertrophy markers, such as atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides. In contrast, diabetic rats supplemented with probiotic EcN exhibited significant downregulated IL-6. Moreover, the MEK5/ERK5 and JAK2/STAT3 cascades involved during eccentric hypertrophy and MAPK signalling, including phosphorylated MEK, ERK, JNK, and p-38, were significantly attenuated in diabetic rats after supplementation of EcN. Western blotting and immunofluorescence revealed the significant downregulation of NFATc3 and downstream mediators, thereby resulting in the impairment of cardiac hypertrophy. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that supplementing probiotic EcN has the potential to show cardioprotective effects by inhibiting diabetes-induced cardiomyopathies.
, A.D. Frugé, W. van der Pol, N.E. Caston, C.D. Morrow, W. Demark-Wahnefried, T.L. Carson
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 239-248; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0098

Abstract:
Implicated in several chronic diseases, the gastrointestinal microbiome is hypothesised to influence carcinogenesis. We compared faecal microbiota of newly diagnosed treatment-naïve overweight and obese cancer patients and matched controls. Cases were enrolled in presurgical weight-loss trials for breast (NCT02224807) and prostate (NCT01886677) cancers and had a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2. Cancer-free controls were matched 1:1 by age (±5 years), race, gender, and BMI (±5 kg/m2). All participants provided faecal samples; isolated bacterial DNA were PCR amplified at the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene and analysed using the QIIME pipeline. Tests compared cases versus controls, then separately by gender. Microbial alpha-diversity and beta-diversity were assessed, and relative abundance of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU’s) were compared at the genus level, with false discovery rate (FDR) correction. 22 overweight and obese cancer patients were matched with 22 cancer-free controls, with an average BMI of 30.5±4.3 kg/m2, age 54.4±5.3 years, and 54.5% were black. Fourteen matches were made between breast cancer cases and healthy female controls, and 8 matches were made with prostate cancer cases and healthy male controls. Comparison of all cases and controls revealed no differences in alpha diversity, though prostate cancer patients had higher Chao1 (P=0.006) and Observed Species (P=0.036) than cancer-free males. Beta-diversity metrics were significantly different between cases and controls (P<0.03 for all tests in whole sample and in men), though only unweighted Unifrac was different in women (P=0.005). Kruskal Wallis tests indicated significant differences among 16 genera in all matches, 9 in female, and 51 in male. This study suggests the faecal microbiota of treatment-naive breast and prostate cancer patients differs from controls, though larger samples are needed to substantiate these findings. Trial registration: NIH Clinical Trials, NCT01886677, NCT02224807, registered 26 June 2013, 25 Aug 2014 (respectively) – retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01886677 ; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02224807
K. Bendjeddou, S. Hamma-Faradji, A. Ait Meddour, Y. Belguesmia, B. Cudennec, F. Bendali, G. Daube, B. Taminiau,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 295-305; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0155

Abstract:
Bacteriocins have been steadily reported as potential agents that may contribute, in different ways, to overcome antimicrobial drug resistance. Here, holoxenic NMRI-F mice microbiota, their body weight recovery and histopathological alterations of organs like colon, spleen and liver were examined in mice intraperitoneally infected with 108 cfu of a clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA-1), and treated with enterocin DD14 alone (165 mg/kg), erythromycin alone (100 mg/kg) or their combination. Animals that received both antimicrobials presented a better body weight recovery than other groups. Less pronounced histopathological alterations were observed in mice MRSA-infected and treated with bacteriocin than in those MRSA-infected but untreated or MRSA-infected and treated with erythromycin. Noteworthy, these alterations were absent when mice were treated with MRSA-infected and treated with both antibacterial agents. Furthermore, the genus richness was significantly lower in mice infected and treated with erythromycin, compared to mice infected and treated with both antimicrobials. The beta-diversity analysis showed that non-infected mice and those infected and treated with both antimicrobials, stand apart from the other groups as supported in a NMDS model. This in vivo study shows the relevance of bacteriocin, or bacteriocin-antibiotic formulation in protecting colonic, liver and spleen soft tissues and controlling the mouse gut microbiota, following MRSA infection.
R.T. Krawczyk,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 211-213; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0201

Abstract:
Until now it has been Professor Elie Metchnikoff, a Russian researcher and scientist, who has been considered the discoverer of probiotics. In the early 20th century he associated the longevity and good health of Caucasian peasants with their consumption of a type of yoghurt containing strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus which were supposed to destroy the harmful microbiota of the intestines. However, at least a dozen years prior to Metchnikoff, a Polish doctor and scientist Dr. Józef Brudziński planned, conducted and described a study in which he applied a Bacillus lactis aërogenes suspension in treatment of infants with acute infectious diarrhoea. Here, we briefly characterise this study. Undoubtedly, apart from his fame as the neurologist who described meningeal symptoms, he deserves to be regarded as the true ‘Father of probiotics’.
M.A. González Hernández, E.E. Canfora,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 259-266; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0179

Abstract:
The gut microbiota may affect host metabolic health through microbial metabolites. The balance between the production of microbial metabolites by saccharolytic and proteolytic fermentation may be an important determinant of metabolic health. Amongst the best-studied saccharolytic microbial metabolites are the short-chain fatty acids acetate, propionate and butyrate. However, human data on the role of other microbial fermentation by-products in metabolic health are greatly lacking. Therefore, we compared in a cross-sectional study the faecal microbial metabolites (caproate, lactate, valerate, succinate, and the branched-chain fatty acids (BCFA) (isobutyrate, isovalerate)) between insulin sensitive (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HOMA-IR1.85, IR) individuals. Additionally, we assessed the relationships between faecal metabolites and markers of metabolic health including fasting glucose, insulin, free fatty acids, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting substrate oxidation in 86 individuals with a wide range of body mass index. Faecal metabolite concentrations did not significantly differ between IS and IR. Furthermore, there were no associations between microbial metabolites and metabolic health markers, except for a slight positive association of isovalerate with carbohydrate oxidation (E%, std β 0.194, P=0.011) and fat oxidation (E%, std β -0.075, P=0.047), also after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. In summary, faecal caproate, lactate, valerate, succinate, and BCFA (isobutyrate, isovalerate) were not different between IR and IS individuals, nor was there any association between these faecal metabolites and parameters of metabolic health. Further human intervention studies are warranted to investigate the role of these microbially-derived fermentation products and their kinetics in metabolic health and insulin sensitivity.
E. Ng, J.R.H. Tay, M.M.A. Ong, N. Bostanci, G.N. Belibasakis,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 215-230; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0182

Abstract:
Probiotics are thought to be beneficial microbes that influence health-related outcomes through host immunomodulation and modulation of the bacteriome. Its reported success in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders has led to further research on its potential applicability within the dental field due to similarities such as a polymicrobial aetiology and disease associated microbial-shifts. Although the literature is replete with studies demonstrating its efficacy, the use of probiotics in dentistry continues to polarise opinion. Here, we explore the evidence for probiotics and its effect on periodontal and peri-implant health. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were systemically searched from June 2010 to June 2020 based on a formulated search strategy. Of 1,956 potentially relevant articles, we selected 27 double-blinded randomised clinical trials in the areas of gingivitis, periodontitis, residual pockets during supportive periodontal therapy, and peri-implant diseases, and reviewed their efficacy in these clinical situations. We observed substantial variation in treatment results and protocols between studies. Overall, the evidence for probiotic therapy for periodontal and peri-implant health appears unconvincing. The scarcity of trials with adequate power and follow-up precludes any meaningful clinical recommendations. Thus, the routine use of probiotics for these purposes are currently unsubstantiated. Further multi-centre trials encompassing a standardised investigation on the most promising strains and administration methods, with longer observation times are required to confirm the benefits of probiotic therapy for these applications.
S. Twetman, M.R. Jørgensen
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.0008

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to explore the preventive effect of probiotic supplements on the development of early childhood caries (ECC). We searched the PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane databases up to January 15, 2021. The authors screened the hits independently for relevance, extracted outcome data and assessed the risk of bias. We performed a random effects meta-analysis to pool and compare the incidence of ECC in children assigned to test or placebo groups, respectively. The authors included nine randomised controlled trials published between 2001 and 2021, involving 2,363 preschool children. We assessed two publications with a moderate risk of bias and seven with high risk of bias. The median caries incidence in the probiotic test groups was 8.5% compared with 17.5% in the placebo groups and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). A pooled random effects meta-analysis on caries incidence on subject level showed a small but statistically significant risk difference in favour of the probiotic intervention (-0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.10, -0.00; P<0.05). The mean difference in caries increment on tooth/surface level was -0.57, (95% CI -0.91, -0.23; P<0.01). In conclusion, we demonstrated a small but statistically significant preventive effect of probiotic supplements on ECC. However, the certainty of this finding was low due to the risk of bias, heterogeneity and inconsistencies across the studies. Further long-term randomised controlled trials with low risk of bias are required in order to answer the research question with a higher certainty.
G. Wang, G. Zhu, C. Chen, Y. Zheng, F. Ma, J. Zhao, Y.-K. Lee, H. Zhang, W. Chen
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0148

Abstract:
Regulation on gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are believed to be a pathway to suppress the development of metabolic syndrome. In this study, three Lactobacillus strains derived from the human gut were investigated for their effects on alleviation of metabolic disorders. These strains were individually administered to metabolic disorder rats induced by high-fat-high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Each strain exhibited its own characteristics in attenuating the impaired glucose-insulin homeostasis, hepatic oxidative damage and steatosis. Correlation analysis between SCFAs and host metabolic parameters suggested that Lactobacillus protective effects on metabolic disorders are partly mediated by recovery of SCFAs production, especially the faecal acetic acid. Correspondingly, it indicated that probiotics restore the gut microbiota dysbiosis in different extent, thereby protect against metabolic disorders in a manner that is associated with microbiota, but not totally reverse the changed composition of microbiota to the normal state. Thus, Lactobacillus strains partly protect against diet-induced metabolic syndrome by microbiota modulation and acetate elevation.
M.C. Daas, N.M. de Roos
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 147-161; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0149

Abstract:
The timing of food consumption is considered to be an important modulator of circadian rhythms, regulating a wide range of physiological processes which are vital to human health. The exact mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood, but likely involve alterations in the structure and functioning of the gut microbiome. Therefore, this narrative review aims to clarify these mechanisms by focusing on intermittent fasting as a dietary strategy of food timing. A literature search identified 4 clinical and 18 preclinical studies that examined either (1) the impact of intermittent fasting on the gut microbiome, or (2) whether circadian rhythms of the host are subject to changes in the bacterial populations in the gut. Results reveal that intermittent fasting directly influences the gut microbiome by amplifying diurnal fluctuations in bacterial abundance and metabolic activity. This in turn leads to fluctuations in the levels of microbial components (lipopolysaccharide) and metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, and tryptophan derivates) that act as signalling molecules to the peripheral and central clocks of the host. Binding of these substrates to pattern-recognition receptors on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells in an oscillating manner leads to fluctuations in the expression of circadian genes and their transcription factors involved in various metabolic processes. Intermittent fasting thus contributes to circadian rhythmicity in the host and could hold promising implications for the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with disordered circadian rhythms, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. Future intervention studies are needed to find more evidence on this relationship in humans, as well as to clarify the optimal fasting regimen for balanced circadian rhythms.
W.R. Ribeiro, A.G. Queiroz, E. Mendes, M.B. Casaro, C.M. Nascimento, L.S.S.F. Coelho, F.S. Martins, V.R. Leite-Silva,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 199-209; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0134

Abstract:
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a common allergic skin disease that affects individuals subjected to different antigen exposure conditions and significantly impacts the quality of life of those affected. Numerous studies have demonstrated that probiotics suppress inflammation through immunomodulatory effects. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum 51A as a preventive treatment for ACD using an oxazolone-induced murine model. We demonstrated that B. longum 51A exerted a prophylactic effect on oxazolone-induced ACD-like skin inflammation via reductions in ear and dermal thickness and leucocyte infiltration. The administration of inactivated B. longum 51A did not affect oxazolone-induced ACD-like skin inflammation, suggesting that the bacteria must be alive to be effective. Given that B. longum 51A is an acetate producer, we treated mice with acetate intraperitoneally, which also prevented ear and dermal thickening. Moreover, the tissue levels of the inflammatory cytokines and chemokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-33, tumour necrosis factor-α, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5/RANTES were significantly reduced after probiotic treatment, but only IL-33 and IL-10 were reduced when the mice were treated with acetate. These results show that B. longum 51A exerted a potential prophylactic effect on skin inflammation and that acetate represents one potential mechanism. However, other factors are likely involved since these two treatments do not yield the same results.
M. Calgaro, M. Pandolfo, , A. Marotta, I. Larini, M. Pane, A. Amoruso, A. Del Casale, , M. Fiorio, et al.
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 121-136; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0137

Abstract:
In a previously published double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we showed that probiotics intake exerted a positive effect on sleep quality and a general improvement across time in different aspects of the profile of mood state, like sadness, anger, and fatigue in 33 healthy individuals. The present work investigates the impact of the probiotic product, constituted of Limosilactobacillus fermentum LF16, Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus LR06, Lactiplantibacillus plantarum LP01 (all former members of Lactobacillus genus), and Bifidobacterium longum 04, on the gut microbiota composition of the same cohort through a metabarcoding analysis. Both the placebo and probiotic treatments had a significant impact on the microbiota composition. Statistical analysis showed that the microbiota of the individuals could be clustered into three groups, or bacteriotypes, at the baseline, and, inherently, bacterial compositions were linked to different responses to probiotic and placebo intakes. Interestingly, L. rhamnosus and L. fermentum were retrieved in the probiotic-treated cohort, while a bifidogenic effect of maltodextrin, used as placebo, was observed. The present study shed light on the importance of defining bacteriotypes to assess the impact of interventions on the gut microbiota and allowed to reveal microbial components which could be related to positive effects (i.e. sleep quality improvement) to be verified in further studies.
A. Maya-Barrios, K. Lira-Hernandez, I. Jiménez-Escobar, L. Hernández, A. Ortiz-Hernandez, C. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, G. López-Velázquez, P. Gutiérrez-Castrellón
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 137-145; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0171

Abstract:
Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are the most common acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children aged ≤5 years. The analysis of published data showed that some probiotics could decrease the frequency and number of days with ARIs. This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of Limosilactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 5289 and DSM 17938 to reduce the duration and severity of ARI symptoms. This randomised controlled trial included children aged from 6 months to 5 years, with pharyngitis or tonsillitis, who were randomised to receive a probiotic product containing L. reuteri ATCC PTA 5289 and L. reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo, as drops, ingested orally for 10 days as adjuvants to the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The main outcomes were the duration and severity of ARI symptoms. The secondary outcomes were changes in salivary immunoglobulin A and inflammatory biomarkers. There was no fever on day 2 and subsequent days in the L. reuteri group (37.3 ±0.5 °C vs 38.6±0.3 °C, P<0.05). Beginning on day 3, the severity of sore throat (5±0.9 vs 8±1.2, P<0.05) was lower in the L. reuteri group. Significant differences in the days with runny nose, nasal congestion, days of non-programmed visits to the medical office or emergency department, levels in tumoral necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and related costs of treatment were observed in the L. reuteri group. The frequency of adverse events was similar between the groups. Therefore, L. reuteri ATCC PTA 5289 combined with L. reuteri DSM 17938 is a safe and effective adjunct to reduce the symptoms of pharyngitis or tonsillitis in children.
E. Mendes, M.B. Casaro, C. Fukumori, W.R. Ribeiro, A.L. dos Santos, P. Sartorelli, M. Lazarini, C.S.B. Bogsan, M.A. Oliveira,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 187-197; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0112

Abstract:
Asthma is an inflammatory lung disease that affects more women than men in adulthood. Clinical evidence shows that hormonal fluctuation during the menstrual cycle and menopause are related to increased asthma severity in women. Considering that life expectancy has increased and that most women now undergo menopause, strategies to prevent the worsening of asthma symptoms are particularly important. A recent study from our group showed that re-exposure of ovariectomised allergic mice to antigen (ovalbumin) leads to an exacerbation of lung inflammation that is similar to clinical conditions. However, little is known about the role of probiotics in the prevention of asthma exacerbations during the menstrual cycle or menopause. Thus, our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with kefir, a popular fermented dairy beverage, as a preventive strategy for modulating allergic disease. The results show that the preventive kefir administration decreases the influx of inflammatory cells in the airways and exacerbates the production of mucus and the interleukin 13 cytokine. Additionally, kefir changes macrophage polarisation by decreasing the number of M2 macrophages, as shown by RT-PCR assay. Thus, kefir is a functional food that potentially prevents allergic airway inflammation exacerbations in ovariectomised mice.
E. Velez, I. Novotny-Nuñez, S. Correa, G. Perdigón, C. Maldonado-Galdeano
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 175-186; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0052

Abstract:
Allergies are a world increasing health issue and most treatments are oriented to alleviate symptoms. Probiotics have several health benefits including the improvement of the immune system. In previous work we found that consumption of commercial probiotic fermented milk (PFM) significantly reduced specific-immunoglobulin (Ig) E in serum and lungs by increasing specific-IgG and controlled allergic response to ovalbumin (OVA) in an adult mouse respiratory allergy model. Here we continued our study determining the mechanism triggered in the gut by the PFM ingestion that influenced the results previously reported. Five groups of BALB/c mice were assessed: normal-control, basal (drinks PFM five days without OVA sensitisation), sensitisation-control (no PFM intake), previous and continuous-PFM administration. Allergen administration: 3 OVA injections (1% in PBS) followed by aerosols exposure for 7 days. We determined total secretory-IgA and cytokines in small intestine (SI) fluid; CD11b+, CD103+, IgA+ cells and cytokine producing cells in SI tissue. In lungs we analysed co-expression of CD4/interferon (IFN)-γ or CD4/interleukin (IL)-10, IgE+ cells and IL-12 production. Results: continuous intake of PFM increased the expression of CD103 marker and decreased CD11b and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Coexpression of CD4/IFN-γ was confirmed in lungs of animals that consumed PFM continuously. This group had a lower count of IgE+ cells and a higher concentration of IL-12. The consumption of PFM reinforces the mucosal barrier by increasing IgA+ cells and induces signalling from the intestine to the lungs by increasing the expression of CD103+ dendritic cells related to regulatory mechanisms. The results found in this work together with those previously reported demonstrated that the intake of PFM induces a clear balance towards the Th1 response, preventing the Th2 allergic response by controlling the previously reported IgE level. According to our model, the intake of PFM could be a good strategy to alleviate the development of allergies.
L. Fernández, A.C. Duarte, A. Rodríguez,
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 107-120; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0132

Abstract:
In the context of the global antibiotic resistance crisis, bacteriophages are increasingly becoming promising antimicrobial agents against multi-resistant bacteria. Indeed, a huge effort is being made to bring phage-derived products to the market, a process that will also require revising the current regulations in order to facilitate their approval. However, despite the evidence supporting the safety of phages for humans, the general public would still be reluctant to use ‘viruses’ for therapeutic purposes. In this scenario, we consider that it is important to discuss the role of these microorganisms in the equilibrium of the microbiota and how this relates to human health. To do that, this review starts by examining the role of phages as key players in bacterial communities (including those that naturally inhabit the human body), modulating the species composition and contributing to maintain a ‘healthy’ status quo. Additionally, in specific situations, e.g. an infectious disease, bacteriophages can be used as target-specific antimicrobials against pathogenic bacteria (phage therapy), while being harmless to the desirable microbiota. Apart from that, incipient research shows the potential application of these viruses to treat diseases caused by bacterial dysbiosis. This latter application would be comparable to the use of probiotics or prebiotics, since bacteriophages can indirectly improve the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract by removing undesirable competitors. On the other hand, possible adverse effects do not appear to be an impediment to promote phage therapy. Nonetheless, it is important to remember their potentially negative impact, mainly concerning their immunogenicity or their potential spread of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, especially by temperate phages. Overall, we believe that phages should be largely considered beneficial microbes, although it is paramount not to overlook their potential risks.
B.I. Layús, M.A. Gomez, S.I. Cazorla, A.V. Rodriguez
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 163-174; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0101

Abstract:
Anti-inflammatory effect of soluble secreted compounds of probiotic bacteria was widely demonstrated as therapy for different inflammatory diseases, but was not investigated in inflammatory eye disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether Lactiplantibacillus plantarum CRL759 cell-free supernatant reduced inflammatory parameters and clinical signs in ocular inflammations. First, we evaluated the effect of L. plantarum CRL759 supernatant in vitro on human retinal cell line, ARPE-19 cells, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Then, we investigated in vivo its capacity to decrease inflammation by local administration on the eyes of mice with endotoxin induced inflammation. In vitro assays demonstrated that L. plantarum CRL759 supernatant reduced the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, nitric oxide and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in LPS-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. Our in vivo data proved that L. plantarum supernatant significantly reduced the clinical score of endotoxin treated mice and diminished levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and protein concentration in aqueous humour. Histological examination showed reduction of infiltrating inflammatory cells in the posterior segment of the eyes. As far as we know, this is the first report showing that Lactobacillus spp. supernatant administered as drops reduces some parameters of ocular inflammation. This promising strategy is safe and could alleviate symptoms and signs of ocular inflammation in people that are refractories to the conventional therapies.
X.M. Tomé-Castro, , , L. Rueda-Ruzafa, G. Molina-Torres, P. Roman
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 5-15; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0111

Abstract:
Obesity and overweight are two of the most health challenges with an increasing prevalence in recent years, in which several complications have been identified to have a high impact in patients’ health conditions. In this vein, an increasing interest in the gut microbiota has emerged as a target for therapeutic strategies in obesity and overweight due to its direct relation with the aforementioned health conditions and complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics as a therapeutic strategy in the management of obesity and overweight. A systematic review of randomised controlled trials was carried out in 6 databases until May 2019 to assess the use of probiotics in obesity and overweight patients. The Jadad Scale was used to assess the quality of the clinical trials. Twenty-three clinical trials published between 2000 and 2019 met the inclusion criteria. The role of probiotics in reducing body mass index and weight as well as changing the visceral abdominal fat area, waist and hip circumference were shown in 14 of 23 trials (60.87%); 14 trials (60.87%) showed changes on patients’ fatty acids and biomarkers; and 4 trials (17.39%) studied the role of the gut microbiota in obese and overweight patients. Some probiotics strains are shown to be effective in reducing body mass index and hip circumference. This review provides evidence of successful results in weight loss using probiotic groups.
, L.M. Lehtoranta, J.C. Eickhoff, M.J. Lehtinen, E.R. Wald
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 85-93; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0068

Abstract:
Several studies have demonstrated a decrease in upper respiratory infection (URI) frequency and severity in subjects taking probiotic supplements. We hypothesised beneficial effects of probiotics on viral URI in children are due to modulation of inflammatory innate immune responses. We tested this hypothesis, providing children with a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bidfidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bi-07 (NCFM/Bi-07) and measuring levels of cytokines in response to stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to toll-like receptor (TLR) 7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848). In this open label study, 21 (2 dropouts) children received probiotic containing 5×109 cfu each of NCFM/(Bi-07) daily for 30 days. Whole blood was taken from each subject at study entry and 30 days for culture of PBMCs. PBMCs stimulated with resiquimod (R848) or unstimulated were incubated and a panel of immune markers was measured. There was a significant decrease in the net (stimulated-null) level of myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor 1 (MPIF-1) (mean decrease 0.1 ng/ml, 95% confidence interval 0.01-0.24, P=0.032) following probiotic supplementation. The change in immune marker levels after supplementation, when analysed together with respect to expected inflammatory/anti-inflammatory effects, was increased for interleukin (IL)-10 and decreased for MPIF-1, IL-8, interferon gamma induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein 3 alpha (MIP-3α) and E-selectin (P=0.01). Adverse events were mild. In conclusion, supplementation with this probiotic combination was safe and resulted in significant modulation of PBMC limited immune response to TLR7/8 agonist R848 and in levels of MPIF-1 and MIP-3α. The anti-inflammatory effect may be one mechanism by which probiotics modulate the immune system however further study is needed.
, M. Mank, B. Blijenberg, R.S. Bongers, K. van Limpt, H. Wopereis, S. Tims, B. Stahl, , J. Knol
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 69-83; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0005

Abstract:
The establishment of the gut microbiota immediately after birth is a dynamic process that may impact lifelong health. At this important developmental stage in early life, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) serve as specific substrates to shape the gut microbiota of the nursling. The well-orchestrated transition is important as an aberrant microbial composition and bacterial-derived metabolites are associated with colicky symptoms and atopic diseases in infants. Here, we study the trophic interactions between an HMO-degrader, Bifidobacterium infantis and the butyrogenic Anaerostipes caccae using carbohydrate substrates that are relevant in the early life period including lactose and total human milk carbohydrates. Mono- and co-cultures of these bacterial species were grown at pH 6.5 in anaerobic bioreactors supplemented with lactose or total human milk carbohydrates. A. caccae was not able to grow on these substrates except when grown in co-culture with B. infantis, leading to growth and concomitant butyrate production. Two levels of cross-feeding were observed, in which A. caccae utilised the liberated monosaccharides as well as lactate and acetate produced by B. infantis. This microbial cross-feeding points towards the key ecological role of bifidobacteria in providing substrates for other important species that will colonise the infant gut. The progressive shift of the gut microbiota composition that contributes to the gradual production of butyrate could be important for host-microbial crosstalk and gut maturation.
, D. Repsilber, D. Geng, T. Hyötyläinen, A. Salonen, C.M. Lindqvist, S.K. Rajan, W.M. de Vos, R.J. Brummer,
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 17-30; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0010

Abstract:
Faecal microbiota transfer (FMT) consists of the infusion of donor faecal material into the intestine of a patient with the aim to restore a disturbed gut microbiota. In this study, it was investigated whether FMT has an effect on faecal microbial composition, its functional capacity, faecal metabolite profiles and their interactions in 16 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients. Faecal samples from eight different time points before and until six months after allogenic FMT (faecal material from a healthy donor) as well as autologous FMT (own faecal material) were analysed by 16S RNA gene amplicon sequencing and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GS-MS). The results showed that the allogenic FMT resulted in alterations in the microbial composition that were detectable up to six months, whereas after autologous FMT this was not the case. Similar results were found for the functional profiles, which were predicted from the phylogenetic sequencing data. While both allogenic FMT as well as autologous FMT did not have an effect on the faecal metabolites measured in this study, correlations between the microbial composition and the metabolites showed that the microbe-metabolite interactions seemed to be disrupted after allogenic FMT compared to autologous FMT. This shows that FMT can lead to altered interactions between the gut microbiota and its metabolites in IBS patients. Further research should investigate if and how this affects efficacy of FMT treatments.
, H. Hamano, H. Ochi, F. Abe, K. Masuda, H. Iino
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 43-53; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0100

Abstract:
The genus Bifidobacterium comprises various bacterial species, and the complement of species within the human intestinal tract differs from individual to individual. The balance of these bifidobacterial species remains poorly understood, although it is known that the abundance of bifidobacteria increases following the ingestion of prebiotics. We previously conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study of 2 g/day lactulose ingestion for 2 weeks in 60 Japanese women. To study the effect of lactulose ingestion on each bifidobacterial species, here, we measured the abundance of each of the principal bifidobacterial species. After lactulose ingestion, the log cell counts of the Bifidobacterium adolescentis group (8.97±0.08 vs 9.39±0.08, P=0.0019), Bifidobacterium catenulatum group (9.45±0.10 vs 9.65±0.10, P=0.0032) and Bifidobacterium longum group (9.01±0.07 vs 9.29±0.07, P=0.0012) were significantly higher than in the placebo ingestion control group. However, the log cell counts were similar for Bifidobacterium breve (8.12±0.12 vs 8.33±0.12, P=0.20), Bifidobacterium bifidum (9.08±0.12 vs 9.42±0.14, P=0.095) and Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (8.65±0.53 vs 8.46±0.46, P=0.77). Cluster analysis of the log cell count data at the bifidobacterial species level revealed three distinct clusters, but the combinations and ratios of the constituent bifidobacteria were not affected by lactulose ingestion. Furthermore, principal coordinate analysis of the intestinal microbiota in the lactulose and placebo ingestion groups using Illumina MiSeq showed no significant differences in the intestinal microbiota as a whole. These results suggest that 2 g/day lactulose ingestion for 2 weeks significantly increases the abundance of intestinal bifidobacteria, but does not affect the intestinal microbiota as a whole.
F. Blanchet, L. Rault, V. Peton, Y. Le Loir, C. Blondeau, L. Lenoir, M. Dubourdeaux, S. Even
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 95-106; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0146

Abstract:
Probiotics could help combat infections and reduce antibiotic use. As use of live bacteria is limited in some cases by safety or regulatory concerns, the potential of inactivated bacteria is worth investigating. We evaluated the potential of live and heat-inactivated Lactobacillus gasseri LA806 to counteract Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli infection cycles in an in vitro model of bovine mastitis. We assessed the ability of live and inactivated LA806 to impair pathogen colonisation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMECs) and to modulate cytokine expression by pathogen-stimulated bMECs. Live LA806 induced a five-fold decrease in S. aureus adhesion and internalisation (while not affecting E. coli colonisation) and decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression by S. aureus-stimulated bMECs (without interfering with the immune response to E. coli). The ability of inactivated LA806 ability to diminish S. aureus colonisation was two-fold lower than that of the live strain, but its anti-inflammatory properties were barely impacted. Even though LA806 effects were impaired after inactivation, both live and inactivated LA806 have barrier and immunomodulatory properties that could be useful to counteract S. aureus colonisation in the bovine mammary gland. As S. aureus is involved in various types of infection, LA806 potential would worth exploring in other contexts.
R. Wang, J. Sun, G. Li, M. Zhang, T. Niu, X. Kang, H. Zhao, J. Chen, E. Sun, Y. Li
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 31-42; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0023

Abstract:
Probiotics have been reported to be associated with the alleviation of constipation. The aim of this study was to detect and determine the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis MN-Gup (MN-Gup) on the alleviation of constipation in BALB/c mice and humans, and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying its effect by measuring changes in the concentration of short-chain fatty acids and the composition of microbes in human faeces. BALB/c mice were given MN-Gup by gavage for 14 days. On the 8th day of this treatment, constipation was induced by the application of diphenoxylate via gavage. The results showed that MN-Gup significantly decreased the first black stool defecation time, and significantly increased black faecal wet weight, black faecal number and the gastric-intestinal transit rate (P
J.A. Maldonado-Lobón, , J. Maldonado, M.A. Ali, M.V. Almazán, A. Suanes-Cabello, E. Callejón, R. Jaldo, M.R. Benavídes, A.M. Negrillo, et al.
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 55-67; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2020.0105

Abstract:
Infantile colic is a prevalent condition characterised by excessive crying with no effective treatment available. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Bifidobacterium breve CECT7263 and a combination of this and Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 versus simethicone in reducing the daily time spent crying in colicky infants. A multicentre randomised, open-label, parallel, controlled trial of 28 days was performed in 150 infants who were diagnosed with colic according to the Rome III criteria and who randomly received simethicone (80 mg/day; Simethicone group), B. breve CECT7263 (2×108 cfu/day, Bb group), or a combination of L. fermentum CECT5716 and B. breve CECT7263 (1×108 cfu/day per strain, Bb+Lf group). The main outcomes were minutes of crying per day and the percentage of reduction in daily crying from baseline. Data were analysed per intention to treat. All treatments significantly decreased the daily crying time at the end of the intervention (P-time
Koen Venema
Published: 24 February 2021
Beneficial Microbes, Volume 12, pp 1-3; https://doi.org/10.3920/bm2021.x001

Abstract:
At the start of 2020 we were thrilled to have reached 10 years of Beneficial Microbes! Little did we know that soon after Europe and the rest of the world (with Asia already earlier) would be in lock-down due to COVID-19. It has been a strange year. And now, at the start of 2021, the excitement of having a vaccine is tempered by the fact that everywhere mutants of the virus pop up. Although this was likely to occur, as also the influenza virus keeps mutating, it means that at the moment it is unclear as to whether the current situation of lock-downs and social distancing will remain for a longer period than we had anticipated and hoped for at the end of 2020 when it became clear that several vaccines were efficacious. Some studies have shown a role of the gut microbiota composition in disease severity, together with vitamin D, cholesterol and other factors. It was a hype to write a ‘review’ on gut microbiota and the effect on COVID-19, and also the board of Beneficial Microbes has received several submissions of so-called reviews on the topic. However, all of them were rejected, as they were mere speculations about how the gut microbiota might affect virus infection and disease severity, without any data whatsoever. However, there are some good studies out there that have shown that a proper gut microbiota may indeed influence disease severity, such as recently reviewed by Kim (2021). All in all, this may not be too surprising for the knowledgeable reader, as they would know that the microbiota plays a role in everything that can be wrong with us!
Page of 16
Articles per Page
by
Show export options
  Select all
Back to Top Top