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Results in Journal Insights in Biology and Medicine: 23

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Shang Kendy, He Jingni
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 6, pp 017-021; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ibm.1001023

Abstract:
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have uncovered thousands of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) loci that are associated with complex traits. However, the majority of GWAS discoveries are located in non-coding regions and the biological mechanisms behind these associations are not well understood. Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have gained popularity in recent years by generating biological interpretable discoveries and facilitating the identification of novel associations that have been missed by GWAS. TWAS has identified more than hundreds of susceptibility genes for many complex diseases and traits, including cancers. Here, in this review, we first summarize TWAS methods, then discuss the opportunities for cancer studies and finally review current challenges and future directions for this method.
Nowzari Hessam, Tuan Mao-Chi, Jorgensen Michael, Michel Marie-Grace, Michel Jean-Francois
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 6, pp 009-014; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ibm.1001021

Abstract:
Introduction: Dead Sea Salt, rich in minerals and ionic compositions and low in Sodium Chloride (NaCl) has many reported unique properties that set it apart from other salts. Objectives: To evaluate the composition of Dead Sea Salt and assess its in vitro cytotoxicity, and efficacy against oral bacterial leukotoxins, oral endotoxins and oral glucan sucrase. Methods: The cytotoxicity was evaluated in an established cell line (solution at 5000 µg/mL of culture medium) using positive and negative control groups. The effect on oral bacterial leukotoxin (LtxA) and different concentrations of lipopolysaccharide and glucan sucrase was established at 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96 hours using the HPLC method (high-performance liquid chromatography). Results: The most predominant elements detected were the water of crystallization (H2O, water that is found in the crystalline framework of salt and which is not directly bonded ), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), potassium chloride (KCl), sodium chloride (NaCl), calcium chloride (CaCl2), bromide (Br -) and sulfates (SO4). In vitro, Dead Sea Salt presented no cytotoxicity and was highly effective against leukotoxin, endotoxin, and glucan sucrase enzyme. Conclusion and clinical significance: We believe that rinsing with Dead Sea Salt has the potential to contribute to the prevention of periodontal, peri-implant and dental disease and merits clinical research.
Bereda Gudisa
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 6, pp 001-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ibm.1001020

Abstract:
Helminthiasis is also known as worm infection, is any macroparastic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms known as helminths. Anthelmintic agents are medicines that used for treatment and inhibition of parasitic infections caused by helminths; which involve both flat worms, such as, flukes and tapeworms and round worms, such as, nematodes. Anthelmintics are categorized into groups depending on the basis of their identical chemical structure and mode of action. Thiabendazole, mebendazole, and albendazole belong to benzimidazoles group of antihelmenthic medicines. From benzimidazoles group of antihelmenthic, thiabendazole was first discovered in 1961 and already a mentioned number of more benzamidazoles were interpolated as wide spectrum anthelmintics. Praziquantel has a particular effect on the enveloping layer of trematodes and increases permeability of calcium ion influx leading to uncontrolled muscle contraction and paralysis. Praziquantel has a particular toxic effect on schistosome parasites, where its mode of action has been resulted more extensively than in cestodes. Coadministration of mebendazole with CYP450 inhibitors medications such as cimetidine, ketoconazole and etc may be increases plasma levels of mebendazole, by extending the half-life and decreasing plasma clearance.
, Jebli Nejib, Hamimed Rayene, Landoulsi Ahmed, Chatti Abdelwaheb
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 5, pp 001-006; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ibm.1001019

Abstract:
The outbreak of new coronavirus acute respiratory disease (SARS-CoV-2) has been a major global challenge for the scientific community to save humanity. While, the unviability of the vaccine keeps most classes of society, especially African countries, suffer from the healthcare problem. Conventional medicine plants become the alternative method for the therapeutic because it contains valuable bioactive compounds. This brief review devoted the importance of medicinal plants such as Citrus, olive, garlic, ginger, green tea, woad, broad-leaf privet, Japanese torreya, and saffron crocus, by their antiviral effects (anti-SARS coronavirus, anti-HSV, and anti-HIV diseases) and their promising uses as probable boosters of the immune and anti-inflammatory response from SARS-CoV-2 infection. Based on scientific reports, bioactive compounds could inhibit 3-chymotrypsin-like cysteine protease and human protein ACE2, where these facts can be attractive to develop effective drugs.
El M Shkal Karema, Azab Azab Elsayed, Attia Ahmed M, El-Banna Sabah G, Yahya Rabia Am
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 4, pp 001-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ibm.1001016

Abstract:
Background: Cyclophosphamide is used for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases, but, it induces oxidative damage and disturbance in the antioxidant defense system. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in biomedical applications and consumer products. ZnO-NPs are protected cell membranes against oxidative damage, decrease free radicals and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and increase the antioxidant enzyme levels. Objectives: The present aimed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of Zn-O nano-particles on oxidative damage and disturbance in the antioxidant defense system induced by cyclophosphamide in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: 24 adult male albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (6 rats of each). Group I (Control group): Received 0.2 ml saline /day i.p. injection for 14 days (day by day), group II, (nZnO group): Received nZnO (5 mg/kg/day) b.w., intraperitoneally for 14 days, Group III (CP group): Received CP (20 mg/kg/day) b.w, day by day for 14 days by intraperitoneal injection, Group IV (CP + ZnO NPs group): Received nZnO group: Received nZnO (5 mg/kg/day) b.w., intraperitoneally for 14 days, plus CP (20 mg/kg/day) b.w., day by day for 14 days by intraperitoneal injection. After 24-hr from the last treatment, all animals were anesthetized using light ether. Blood, lungs, and liver samples were taken and prepared for biochemical measurements. Results: Individual treatment of zinc oxide nanoparticles and CP induced liver cytochrome b5, cytochrome C reductase, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared to the control group, while CP increased P450. The combination of nZnO and CP prevents the elevation of cytochrome b5, P450, cytochrome C reductase, and GST compared with the CP treated group. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and CP increased liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The combination of nZnO and CP prevents the changes in TBARS concentrations compared with the CP. Injection of CP to rats reduced the activities of serum glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) as compared with the control group. However, combination treatment of rats with nZnO and CP increased the activities of these enzymes compared with those treated with CP alone. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and CP increased serum and lung TBARS, while decreased glutathione (GSH) concentration compared to the control group, with more pronounced changes by CP. The combination of nZnO and CP prevents the changes in TBARS and GSH concentrations compared with the CP. Conclusion: It can be concluded that CP induced oxidative stress and disturbance in the antioxidant defense system. Treatment of rats with zinc oxide nano-particles and CP together attenuated the oxidative damage and disturbance in the antioxidant defense system induced by CP. So, Patients treated with CP advised to take nZnO to prevent the side effects of chemotherapy. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the amelioration effect nZnO and other nano-particles against oxidative stress induced by CP in different doses and experimental models.
Luisetto Mauro, Rafa Ahmed Yesvi, Musa Naeem, Syed Md. Abu, Anan Sabit Ibtisam, Haque Tazwan, , Mauro Luisetto, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa, Naeem Musa, et al.
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 4, pp 023-029; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ibm.1001018

Abstract:
Related the extremely transmittable abilities of SARS-CoV-2,a harmonious virus to the bat CoV, gets transmitted by three principal processes-- the inhalation of droplets from the SARS-CoV-2 infected person, contacting to the person, and by the surfaces and materials defiled with the virus. Whereupon bat Coronavirus is mostly like the pandemic causing virus SARS-CoV-2, bats are often deliberated and figured out as a possible primary host although no intermediate has not been defined yet in the wherewithal of transmission. The Spike Glycoprotein plays an important role in the case of penetration with the assistance of the ACE2 receptor and the Receptor Binding Domain. In the human body, infiltrating the nucleic acid into host cells, SARS-CoV-2 attacks one cell and one by one into the whole human body; therefore, infected cases are found symptomatic and asymptomatic considering the immune power. Patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes proceed with their treatment with ACE2 often; therefore, there might be a high chance of getting infected. Whereas the SARS-CoV-2 infects the blood and then lungs, Antigens improvement can be better in order to avoid high-complicated effects. Currently, no vaccination or no accurate cure and treatment has not been defined. An explanation with analysis on SARS-CoV-2 has been performed from the aspect of virology, immunology and molecular biology. Several relevant figures have been included hereby in order to a better understanding of the very concept.
M Luisetto, Luisetto M, Behzad Nili-Ahmadabadi, Hossein Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ghulam Rasool Mashori, Gamal Abdul Hamid, Kausar Rehman Khan, Behrooz Nili-Ahmadabadi, Ahmed Yesvi Rafa, Luca Cabianca
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 2, pp 019-051; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.ibm.1001012

Berezin Alexander E.
Insights in Biology and Medicine, Volume 1, pp 001-008; https://doi.org/10.29328/journal.hjbm.1001001

Abstract:
Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that endothelial cell-derived microparticles (MPs) might contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular (CV) disease. Endothelial cell-derived MPs play a pivotal role in the regulation of the endogenous repair system, thrombosis, coagulation, inflammation, immunity and metabolic memory phenomenon. There is evidence that the MPs are secreted actively accompanied to other regulatory molecules. All these actively synthetizing and secreting factors include proteins, adhesion and intercellular signal molecules, peptides, lipids, free DNAs, microRNAs, and even microparticles (MPs) are defined as cellular secretome. The proteomic profile of secretome is under tightly control of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms, which may altered a secretion of the proteins involved into MPs’ organization. Finally, this may contribute the modification of MP’s after their secretion and throughout transfer to the target cells. As a result, communicative ability of endothelial cell-derived MPs may sufficiently worse. Subsequently, cross talk between some components of secretome might modulate delivering cargos of MPs and their regenerative and proliferative capabilities via intercellular signaling networks. The aim of the review is to discuss the effect of various components of secretome on MP-dependent effects on endothelium.
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