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Results in Journal Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation: 3,735

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Liping Bai
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00250.bai

Abstract:
Blogs play an important role in every aspect of our cultural and social life. There has been a lot of research on blogs but very little research on blog translation. Blog translation may refer to translation of articles or comments posted in blogs or any translation done at weblogs. Different from other types of translators, blogger translators are no longer in the bondage to the traditional patrons and professionals as, in addition to the role of a writer/translator, bloggers can take on two other roles at the same time, namely a publisher (a patron) and a reviewer (a professional). This article makes a case study on the quality of Roland Soong’s translation in his famous blog entitled EastSouthWestNorth (ESWN). The finding in this research justifies to some extent the value of blog translation and also the importance of further research on blog translation as well as influential blogger translators.
Wu You
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00248.wu

Abstract:
Globalization has gone digital and presents a new type of connectivity virtually today. Digital globalization has transformed the landscape of translation theory and practice, exerting considerable influence on translation studies and the profession of translators. The translation practice evolves with the change of literary expectations driven by the digital revolution. New translation modes have been cultivated by incorporating two essential features of the age, known as technology and participation. Against this backdrop, Chinese web fiction is going global with establishing and developing overseas volunteer translation websites. With this in mind, this paper analyzes the translation model of Chinese web fiction with respect to digital globalization and argues that the fan-based volunteer translation has emerged as a new paradigm that features the “user participation turn” in translation studies.
Jasmine Man Tong, David Morgan
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00245.ton

Abstract:
In the 1995 preface to Translators through History (Delisle and Woodsworth, 1995), Jean-François Joly, President of the International Federation of Translators, quotes a line by Antoine Berman: “The construction of a history of translation is the first task of a modern theory of translation” (Berman 1992, 1). He elaborates as follows: “Constructing a history of translation means bringing to light the complex network of cultural exchanges between people, cultures and civilizations through the ages. It means drawing a portrait of these import-export workers and attempting to unravel their deep-rooted reasons for translating one particular work instead of another. It means finding out why their sponsors (kings, aristocrats, patrons, high-ranking clergy, etc.) asked them to translate a given work. It means taking into account what the translators themselves have written about their work, its difficulties and constraints.” This paper, as the title suggests, attempts to draw a portrait, based on the documents and letters1 exchanged by the translators themselves, of the collaboration between two translators working on one translation, the Hawkes-Minford Story of the Stone, otherwise known as The Dream of the Red Chamber. The true and complete story can never be known by outsiders, like us, the readers. But through this paper, we can “hear” and “read” the voices of the translators, the publisher and other informants. Let history speak.
Enoch Sebuyungo
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00243.seb

Abstract:
Although underexplored in Africa, the translation of official documents presents a revelatory context for examining translation practice and theory. Through a sociolinguistic and pragmatic lens, this study explores how translating official documents by focusing on linguistic equivalences without taking into account national institutional systems can be misleading. The argument is made that sociolinguistic variables and Grice’s pragmatic maxims are essential in enhancing translation effectiveness. A sample of 151 pairs of source and target documents dating from 2011–2017 was purposively selected. This corpus from nineteen Francophone countries covers three broad categories: Education, Legal, and General Administrative Correspondence. Nineteen translators and fourteen end-users were also interviewed regarding the translation effectiveness of corpus examples. Data is analyzed using sociolinguistic and pragmatic criteria. Finally, the analysis is positioned within the broader scholarship on translation studies to demonstrate how this approach expands our knowledge regarding effective translation.
Changsoo Lee
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00228.lee

Abstract:
The present study aims to demonstrate the relevance of topic modeling as a new research tool for analyzing research trends in the T&I field. Until now, most efforts to this end have relied on manual classification based on pre-established typologies. This method is time- and labor-consuming, prone to subjective biases, and limited in describing a vast amount of research output. As a key component of text mining, topic modeling offers an efficient way of summarizing topic structure and trends over time in a collection of documents while being able to describe the entire system without having to rely on sampling. As a case study, the present paper applies the technique to analyzing a collection of abstracts from four Korean Language T&I journals for the 2010s decade (from 2010 to 2019). The analysis proves the technique to be highly successful in uncovering hidden topical structure and trends in the abstract corpus. The results are discussed along with implications of the technique for the T&I field.
Martin Djovčoš, Pavol Šveda
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00237.djo

Abstract:
Using the results of two surveys conducted by the present authors, this paper examines translators’ and interpreters’ behaviour in the translation market and factors that influence it in (Slovak) society. In keeping with the familiar fact that not all translators are alike, we believe that empirically measurable factors enable us to observe behavioural patterns among translators and interpreters that are distinguishable along an axis of specialisation and an axis of professionalisation. The authors conducted two separate surveys involving 550 translators and interpreters – including literary translators, court translators and interpreters, translators of technical texts, audiovisual translators, institutional interpreters, and freelance translators – who worked across Slovakia’s market spectrum. In the analysis of the survey results, we found that, among other things, the level of professionalisation played a crucial role in translators’ decision-making processes within the broader social and professional context. In line with Toury’s (1995, 55) definitions of the norm, we hoped to “distinguish regularity of behaviour in recurrent situations of the same type” according to certain factors, including the degree of professionalisation and age, education, and type of translatorial activity.
Rossella Latorraca, Jacqueline Aiello
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00232.lat

Abstract:
Pushed by the increasing internationalization of education and recent economic dynamics, training programs are shifting their focus to acquiring competences and know-how through real-life materials to enhance learners’ employability and access to the work market. Moreover, recent research has called for the implementation of editing/revision content in translation programs, overcoming the assumed distance between translation and editing/revision professions. In light of social constructivism and process-oriented pedagogical trends in translation training, an intensive twenty-hour seminar was designed and piloted in a Master’s degree program in Specialized Translation with the intent of increasing students’ awareness of the translation process, including translation revision and their sense of perceived competence. Rasch analysis of pre- and post-test questionnaires detected positive changes in students’ self-perceived proficiency in translation, translation revision, and editing, with critical implications for the usefulness of process-oriented, realistic approaches integrating both translation and editing/revision content in translation training programs.
Soledad Díaz Alarcón
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00229.dia

Abstract:
Jean-Claude Izzo, an author committed to reality, recreates in his work Le Soleil des mourants the life of an indigent condemned to exclusion and loneliness. His critique also extends to contemporary society, both urban and dehumanized, and to the institutions and organisms that govern it, incapable of coping with social stigmas. This paper aims to disentangle, through a semantic-stylistic analysis, the homeless figure who stands as the cornerstone around which the story revolves. This paper also tries to identify the textual, linguistic, and cultural singularities that, from a translation studies approach, are regarded as specific translation challenges in this novel. This study puts forth a proposal for the Spanish translation of a selection of passages that support our arguments. The translation decisions are made according to the concept of communicative equivalence (Wotjak 2015) and to the taxonomy of techniques compiled by Hurtado Albir (2008, 269–271). The paper concludes that the concept of communicative equivalence has become a relevant methodology for the translation of Le Soleil des mourants, as it enables the translator to render the denotative elements of the message, the connotative and expressive use of the language, and the author’s communicative intention.
Siwen Lu, Sijing Lu
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00236.lu

Abstract:
The development of digital technology over the past two decades has made audiovisual products an indispensable way of entertainment and witnessed the emergence of new sociocultural phenomena, including the rise of participatory culture and civic engagement. Drawing on the Systemic Functional Linguistics-informed multimodality, this article compares some of the most distinct practices in official subtitles and fansubs in the complex sociocultural context of China. The aim is to examine how fansubbers manipulate semiotic resources to design highly innovative strategies and investigate how these interventionist practices maximize their visibility and increase the film’s participation. The results show that Chinese fansubbers tend to produce subtitles in a highly aesthetic, functional, and semiotically coherent way by breaking the conventions established by the professionals. This tendency is not only a reflection of their resistance and dissatisfaction with the official subtitles under the state constraints but also a manifestation of the rapidly developing participatory culture in this increasingly digitalized world.
José Iglesias Urquízar
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00240.urq

Abstract:
This article examines the dubbing of the 2014 American gay-themed series Looking and its treatment of sexual references into Castilian Spanish with a view to exploring the role of audiovisual translation in the discursive construction of homosexuality. While some scholars have decried a historical tendency in translation to attenuate or even suppress references in connection with non-normative sex, the dubbing of Looking, I claim, amplifies these references by way of two strategies: up-scaling and increased explicitness. Drawing upon Jeremy Munday’s (2012) concept of “evaluation” and on appraisal theory as expounded by Martin and White (2005), I aim at revealing the significance of the translator’s lexicogrammatical selections and how these may alter the semiotic import of the characters and, thus, of a certain portrayal of homosexuality. Additionally, such choices may be indicative of the translator’s own stance towards issues of sexuality. Though the strategies analyzed may appear to perpetuate commonplaces regarding gay sexual experience, they ultimately serve, I argue, as a device to generate a language that goes beyond diluted expressions of homosexuality.
Zhejie Jiang
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00238.jia

Abstract:
This article provides an early medieval Chinese perspective to further the discussion of adaptation, pseudotranslation, and translation. During the first to the fifth centuries CE, Chinese translation of Buddhist sutras included some unconventional practices. Translators either rendered source texts that were incomplete or partially rendered the complete source texts in their possession. The works were accepted as faithful translations of genuine sources from India and helped disseminate Buddhism, though theoretically, believers would only accept literal translations of sutras. Based on Bastin’s conceptualization of adaptation and the features of Buddhist translations, I have labeled it as “adaptable-translation” and argue that in early medieval China, there were adaptable-translations with pseudotranslation elements and adaptable-translations with the nature of pseudotranslation. Detailed analysis and case studies of five specific modes of “adaptable-translation” will show how they differ from “adaptation” of Bastin and “pseudotranslation” of Toury or Bassnett. Based on the analysis, I argue that a judgment of the nature of a text as a “translation” can be both qualitative and quantitative.
Elizaveta Getta
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00241.get

Abstract:
The study overviews the role of interpreting services in Tanzania, presenting mainly the experience of practicing freelance interpreters. The two official languages of Tanzania – English and Swahili – have separate roles in the country. Although most Tanzanians accept English as a necessary medium of intercultural communication, Swahili is perceived as an important part of Tanzanian national identity. It is the country’s lingua franca. On the one hand, Tanzania aims to preserve communication in Swahili; on the other hand, there is an inevitable need for intercultural communication with the rest of the world that grows especially in the context of globalization. The paper focuses on the role, status, education, working languages, conditions of Tanzanian interpreters, and the requirements of local and international clients. The study also creates a broader context that mentions crucial historical moments that have influenced the country’s current character of intercultural communication.
Miguel A. Jiménez-Crespo
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00230.jim

Abstract:
The emergence of crowdsourcing has opened up novel ways to initiate, produce and deliver translations in our digitally connected world. New practices and processes brought up by these phenomena have undeniably impacted different collectives with an interest in translation, such as language service providers (LSPs), professionals, and Translation Studies (TS). It has also been argued that crowdsourcing can impact public perceptions of translation, rising ethical concerns, issues related to the visibility of translation, or whether everyone can potentially translate (McDonough-Dolmaya 2012). This paper analyzes its potential impact on the realm of professional translation, an issue raised several years ago by a European Union Commission publication (2012, 37–38). It critically analyzes whether the much-feared socioeconomic and socio-professional impact on working conditions of professionals is underway or not. It represents an attempt at charting the potential influence of crowdsourcing on the profession through a critical review of existing literature and industry publications.
Javier Ortiz García
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00234.ort

Abstract:
Resumen Este artículo aborda el problema de la traducción del lenguaje vulgar desde una perspectiva práctica. Para ello, se emplean ejemplos de tres episodios diferentes de la aclamada serie The Wire, donde el uso de este tipo de lenguaje aparece en todos los estamentos sociales y profesionales de personajes. En primer lugar, se contextualiza la serie dentro del espectro televisivo del que procede, el estadounidense, y se analiza la importancia que en ella tiene el empleo del lenguaje vulgar. A continuación, se estudian las diferentes posibilidades estratégicas que el traductor puede emplear a la hora de traducir textos en los que aparece el lenguaje vulgar de manera reiterada. Por último, se examinan cualitativamente los tres ejemplos de la serie seleccionados y sus traducciones oficiales. Se concluye el estudio ofreciendo alternativas a esa traducción disponible en el mercado con el fin de ilustrar un posible visionado del programa más adecuado en el que se ha prestado especial atención al empleo del lenguaje vulgar traducido.
Manon Hayette
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00235.hay

Abstract:
Résumé Dès son indépendance en 1830, la Belgique a œuvré pour se créer une identité culturelle à travers l’élaboration d’une littérature nationale. Cependant, la littérature belge francophone est souvent marginalisée et reste méconnue de son propre public, si bien que la « belgitude » de ses auteurs – pour reprendre le terme de Klinkenberg – se voit effacée, au profit d’une identité pseudofrançaise. En outre, cette littérature s’avère mal diffusée à l’international, car peu traduite. Il est donc indispensable d’encourager la recherche en traductologie à ce sujet, ce qu’opère précisément le livre collectif commenté ici, qui dérive du colloque « La traduction de la littérature francophone » organisé à l’Université de Mons en décembre 2018. Après une introduction générale des éditrices Catherine Gravet et Katrien Lievois (p. 7–23), l’ouvrage se divise en quatre parties, intitulées respectivement « Traduction et création », « Travail et Archives de traducteurs », « Traduction et réfraction » et « Inventaires ».
Ke Su
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 332-354; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00222.su

Abstract:
Idioms are one of the most problematic areas of translation. The difficulties in translating them largely come from their semantic opacity due to “the metaphorical use of the words they encompass” (Saeed 2017, 489). This study investigates the strategies used in the translation of metaphorical idioms, specifically idioms with stock metaphors, which have greater metaphorical force and more salient images than dead metaphors. The translation strategies were surveyed in the two English translations of the classic Chinese novel, Hongloumeng (Dream of the red chamber). The results show that the choice of strategies is influenced by the relationship between the source language and the target language, the source text’s status, and the translators’ specific approaches. The images in translated metaphorical idioms received special attention in terms of their removal, retention, and replacement. An analysis of the functions of strategies is also presented. The varied combinations of these strategies further attest to the difficulty in translating metaphorical idioms. Moreover, they also have a role in translators’ style and the effect of the target text.
Danijela Ljepavić
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 273-287; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00220.lje

Abstract:
Résumé Cet article part du constat que le processus de traduction des titres de films ne diffère pas beaucoup de ce que l’ont fait lors de la traduction des autres expressions de la langue, du moins en ce qui concerne les opérations mentales qui sont dans l’esprit du traducteur. Ce qui est différent, c’est l’approche même de la traduction, où un accent particulier est mis sur les aspects stylistiques et pragmatiques. Les simples équivalents lexicaux ne suffisent pas. Ici on parle de la culture, des associations de termes, souvent dans une visée persuasive. L’objectif de cet article est de montrer quelles sont les procédures et la finalité d’une traduction d’un titre de film.
Baimei Wu, Andrew K.F. Cheung, Jie Xing
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00233.wu

Abstract:
This pilot study investigates the formulaic phraseology most frequently used in highly formulaic political documents by examining a self-built bilingual parallel corpus of 43 speeches delivered in United Nations Security Council (UNSC) meetings by Chinese representatives. The study also probes corpus-based approaches to explore formulaic phraseology and demonstrates a method to retrieve Chinese formulaic phraseology from the UNSC corpus. Formulaic phraseology is often seen in political discourse. It can be defined as a sequence, continuous or discontinuous, of words or other meaning elements that are, or appear to be, prefabricated, stored and retrieved whole from memory at the time of use rather than being subject to generation or analysis by the language grammar. This study begins with a literature review of formulaic phraseology, including its features and significance in simultaneous interpreting. It then exhibits a four-step retrieval process with the Sketch Engine software program to acquire Chinese formulaic phraseology from the corpus to fill previous studies’ gap. Key functional units of the Sketch Engine, including Wordlist, N-grams, and Concordance, are used to extract formulaic phraseology from the UNSC corpus. Methodological issues involved in identifying formulaic phraseology, such as length of phraseology and quantitative criteria (frequency and dispersion thresholds), are also discussed in the study. Three types of formulaic phraseology are identified: (1) greeting representatives and other members and expressing appreciation; (2) expressing concerns about the topic of the meeting; (3) expressing China’s viewpoints about the topic of the meeting. The training of interpreters would be more effective if this categorization of formulaic phraseology is incorporated into the curriculum.
Fatima Muhaidat
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 418-439; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00231.muh

Abstract:
Translating Emily Brontë’s (1818–1848) Wuthering Heights (1847) into Arabic is a complex and multifaceted task. This paper explores the challenges involved in this task by discussing distinctive features of Brontë’s style and their counterparts in Mamdouh Haqqi’s Arabic translation of the novel. Stylistic features under focus include lexis, figurative language, and structure. As for Brontë’s lexis, it intricately knits elements like characters, setting, and themes. To take their readers to the unpredictable world of Wuthering Heights, translators try to find Arabic equivalents suggesting the associations and connotations of the Source Text (ST) style. Among the obstacles translators need to overcome are lexical gaps, as some lexicalized thoughts and experiences in English have no lexicalized equivalents in Arabic. Resorting to paraphrases may result in sacrificing the compactness of the source text (ST) and losing some shades of meaning. Further complications result from dealing with figurative language. Conveying Brontë’s imagery, personifications, and references to abstract notions in terms of material objects requires thoughtful consideration. Furthermore, the structure of Brontë’s language significantly expresses characters’ attitudes and other subtle traits. Less vivacious translations are expected when the function of expressions in the ST eludes translators’ attention. Throughout the discussion, suggestions are made to provide readers of the text in Arabic with better access to the ST. At the same time, the researcher acclaims Haqqi’s translation which reflects a considerable effort to make a landmark of English/world literature accessible to Arab readers.
Belén Labrador
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 140-162; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00211.lab

Abstract:
This contrastive study aims to analyze and compare the usages of one type of sentence connectors, reinforcing additive connectors, in English and in Spanish through a corpus-based approach, which relies on bidirectional translation data. The analysis includes behavioral profiles of each of the list of connectors in each language, comparisons among them, comparisons between original texts and translated texts in both directions, cross-register differences, translational options, and the connectors’ mutual correspondence, which shows the degree of equivalence of each pair of connectors based on how often they are translated into each other. The results show important differences in the use of reinforcing additive connectors, mainly connected with (a) the more even distribution in English as compared with the great predominance of one connector in Spanish, además; (b) a more marked tendency for explicitation in Spanish and for the use of zero translation in English; (c) generally low mutual correspondence values, which seem to reflect high language variation, richness, and complex mapping of resources utilized to connect sentences.
Zaixi Tan
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 206-221; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00214.tan

Abstract:
Applying insights from Shi Er’s philosophic-cultural studies-based “boundary theory” to the construal of the nature of translation, this paper discusses the various aspects of what could be regarded as a generative approach to defining translation, ranging from the idea that translation is a “cross-boundary” activity of communication to the concept of translational generativity and to analyzing the fundamental properties of what could qualify or disqualify given texts as translation. It thus provides a new understanding of the nature of translation enhanced by elements of Chinese philosophy and culture.
Jana Kitzlerová
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 127-139; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00210.kit

Abstract:
This paper consists of confrontational analysis of two Czech translations of Alexander Blok’s famous poem “The Twelve”: one by Bohumil Mathesius published in 1925 (4th ed. 1977) which was considered canonical for many generations of Czech readers; and the most recent one published by Lubor Kasal in 2016. The present study tries to ascertain which translation is more accurate and closer to the Russian original and to identify the flaws and mistakes from the stylistic and semantic point of view which can be found in both translations. The paper discusses whether the two Czech translations under study render the same aesthetic experience for Czech readers as the original for its Russian readers. Both translations are closely examined with emphases on several important aspects: the semantic density of both the original and the Czech translations; the rhythm of the Russian poem and of its Czech versions; the choice of suitable equivalents in both translations. In the end, the assessment of Lubor Kasal’s Czech translation is overall positive, as it meets the requirements for the translator and his translation without serious reservations.
Feng Pan, Binhua Wang
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 222-244; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00215.pan

Abstract:
Interpreting is an activity embedded in a particular socio-cultural context that underpins norms of interpreting. Adopting the descriptive translation studies approach, this study aims to find out whether the interpretation for the Chinese government by institutional interpreters is becoming more target-oriented in the decade of the 2010s in comparison with the 1990s. Through both quantitative and qualitative analyses of the Corpus of Interpreted Chinese Government Press Conferences in the 1990s and that of the 2010s, the study reveals that there is a significant increase in the total number of target-oriented shifts in the 2010s, manifested predominantly in “inserting hedges before propositional statements” and “modality shifts to attenuate ST’s categorical force.” Only minimal differences are found for the number of shifts in “explicitation of emphatic meanings,” “specification of Chinese source deictic lexis,” and “explicitation of implicit logic relations” between the two periods. The results thus indicate a general trend of becoming more target-oriented in interpreting, particularly a tendency to mitigate ST’s illocutionary force to a greater extent in the 2010s. Such changes in China’s institutional interpreting are correlated with the evolving socio-political context and the norms of institutional interpreting.
Francesco Saina
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 186-205; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00213.sai

Abstract:
Podcasting is increasingly widespread as a digital medium. However, it has not received sufficient or adequate attention yet, particularly regarding research and translation methodology. This article introduces a translation proposal for Serial, one of the most popular podcasts in the world. The case study aims to raise a debate among scholars and communication experts in order to create common strategies and models for translating podcasts, in the hope that it would pave the way for innovative and valuable communication channels, application in pedagogy, and job opportunities in an unexplored scenario.
Pilar Ordóñez-López
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 163-185; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00212.ord

Abstract:
In recent years, attempts have been made to unveil the role of women in the history of translation and have brought to light women’s contributions to translation, which had generally been overlooked in mainstream discourse on the history of translation. This study focuses on Zenobia Camprubí ’s (1887–1956) contribution to translation. Camprubí, the wife of the Spanish poet and Nobel laureate Juan Ramón Jiménez (1881–1958), translated literary and non-literary texts extensively from English into Spanish. In order to critically evaluate her impact as a translator, a thorough analysis is carried out, based on a mixed range of sources, such as newspapers, private correspondence, previous studies on Camprubí ’s work as a translator, and contemporary research on translation history. The results provide new insights regarding into the reception of Camprubí ’s translations at the time of publication (characterized by frequent comments with value judgments typically for women as well as unfounded questioning of her role as a translator), her unusual and distinctive (co-)translation method, and her presence in contemporary translation literature. Ultimately, this study reveals how, despite her undoubted commitment to translation, Camprubí never really stepped out of her husband’s shadow, which is, regrettably, the case of many other women translators.
Qiang Wang
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 355-383; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00225.wan

Abstract:
Since its promulgation in 1896, the German Civil Code, one of the most influential civil codes in the world, has been translated into English several times. Thanks to the Code’s jurisprudential quality, both its English translation and the translating process are of high value and offer various starting points for profound research. However, so far, there have been hardly any substantial studies of the Code’s English translation, neither from the comparative legal or forensic linguistic perspective nor from other angles. This paper attempts to make a substantive, interdisciplinary – i.e., forensic linguistic – content-related, and jurisprudential study of the Code’s English translation to address this research lacuna. To that end, it focuses on two aspects of the statute law’s provisions, i.e., respectively from the lexical and syntactic perspective.
Hamid Reza Sadeghpour
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 307-331; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00226.sad

Abstract:
This study examines the degree of the adequate transference of humorous ECRs expressions in comedy animations from English into Persian dubbed and subtitled versions. It also identifies the most effective translation strategies for transferring humorous ECRs expressions in the Persian dubbed and subtitled versions. First, ECR-related humorous expressions were identified in the source texts, and later they were classified based on the classification of Nedergaard Larsen (1993, 211) for ECRs. Subsequently, the identified humorous ECRs expressions were compared with their equivalent Persian dubbed and subtitled versions to determine whether they were transferred adequately. To examine the employed translation strategies in transferring humorous ECRs expressions, the study opted for Pedersen’s (2011, 77–97) translation strategies for ECRs. The results showed that translators employed a target-oriented approach in the dubbed versions and a source-oriented approach in subtitled versions. However, both techniques could not retain the humorous criteria of the source texts. At the same time, the findings revealed that humorous ECRs expressions were transferred more adequately in the dubbed versions than the subtitled versions. Situational substitution and cultural substitution (by target culture ECR) strategies were the most effective translation strategies for dubbed versions. Similarly, situational substitution and generalization strategies were the most effective translation strategies for subtitled versions.
Ivana Lončar, Anita Pavić Pintarić
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 288-306; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00221.lon

Abstract:
This paper deals with the challenge of developing a multilingual dictionary of touristic-cultural terms with Croatian as the source language, based on the principles of lexicography which include the rigorous metalexicographic methodology and the practical needs of users (tourism professionals, managers, teachers, and students of philological careers, as well as those related to tourism and hospitality). The project, broadly speaking, is divided into three phases. The current, first phase of research includes the elaboration of a corpus comprising a series of terms, simple units, or expressions from different areas with special attention to the realia of the source language, which do not exist in the target languages (German, English, Spanish and others). The second phase will involve the lemmatization of entries, their classification, the elaboration of appendices, and the modeling of parameters and definers that will be used in the lexicographical definition. The third phase covers the elaboration of the microstructure. At this stage, special emphasis will be placed on the type of lexicographic definitions (and their combinations) that will be used in the dictionary. It is expected that the dictionary would have photographic materials under copyright.
Sinem Sancaktaroğlu Bozkurt, Ayşe Şirin Okyayuz
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 255-272; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00224.san

Abstract:
The transfer of stories across borders in translation, adaptation, or remake is a common phenomenon in the globalized world. In Turkey, translating foreign audiovisual products to enrich the cultural repertoire has been a prominent practice. Focusing on the portrayal of female characters in contemporary remakes of several American TV series aired on primetime national channels in Turkey, this study aims to pinpoint audiovisual norms that guide the “transfer” of these characters for Turkish audience. The analysis seeks to exemplify how remakes deconstruct, reformulate, and thus (re)construct the representations of women’s identities in Turkey. The study initially concentrates on remakes as a genre, moves on to outline the practice in Turkey, and analyzes the reformulation of gender roles in line with Turkish societal norms within the scope of audiovisual translation from the gender perspective. The study singles out a series of norms that seem to guide and color the transfer of female characters in the remakes for the Turkish audience, elaborates on why it is necessary, and suggests the implications of such practices.
María Del Mar Sánchez Ramos
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 384-387; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00223.mar

Vlasta Kučiš, Natalia Kaloh Vid
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67, pp 54-74; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00205.kuc

Abstract:
The current paper presents the analysis of translation strategies and linguistic characteristics in Slovene translations of commercial car slogans from English and German. There is no uniform definition of the advertising slogan in the scientific literature; therefore, we attempt to provide the definition of a slogan in the context of marketing communication. One of the main functions of both social and commercial advertising is to provide information to the target audience and make it act in the way desired by the advertisers. In contemporary Translation Studies, translation is defined as a transnational and intercultural communication activity. Therefore, one of the primary tasks of translators is to mediate not only between languages but also between cultures. The objective of the paper has been to identify and describe the language features of car slogans at phonological, lexical, syntactic, and semantic levels, with due attention to the functionality of these messages in comparison with the messages relayed by slogans in other trades. The study has revealed that, due to the specific market niche, most car slogans tend to use specific language devices and discourse. The theoretical framework is based on German functionalist approaches in Translation Studies – Holz-Mänttäri’s theory of action (Handlungstheorie) and Reiß/Vermeer’s theory of translation’s purpose (Skopostheorie).
Yves Gambier, Ramunė Kasperavičienė
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00204.gam

Abstract:
This article aims at describing the changes in translation by referring to practices such as localization, amateur translation, translating in the media. The changes are enhanced by the computing, information, and communication technologies. In three decades, a new work environment has shaken up the translator’s world. New types of translators are emerging, with a new hierarchy between them, in parallel with a multiplication of labels created for “translation.” The concept of translation has, therefore, become ambiguous and, relating to it, other concepts, such as text, need to be revisited.
Marie-Évelyne Le Poder
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00203.pod

Abstract:
Résumé Cet article présente une proposition didactique visant à améliorer les compétences thématiques et instrumentales des étudiants de traduction économique et financière de quatrième année du Diplôme en traduction et interprétation de la Faculté de traduction et d’interprétation de l’Université de Grenade qui pourrait d’ailleurs être étendue à d’autres centres universitaires. Cette proposition est développée à partir d’une série d’activités liées aux phases d’analyse-compréhension du texte source et de transfert de la langue source vers la langue cible dans la combinaison linguistique espagnol/français. Elle est directement reliée aux objectifs consistant, d’une part, à acquérir des techniques pour surmonter les obstacles de nature cognitive présents dans les textes et, d’autre part, à appliquer certaines notions acquises dans le cours de « Terminologie ». Quant à sa structure, l’article s’articule autour des parties suivantes : l’introduction, la recherche didactique en traduction économique et financière, les fondements théoriques de la proposition didactique, la méthodologie appliquée, la proposition en elle-même et la conclusion.
Antonio Jesús Martínez Pleguezuelos
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00207.lep

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to enlarge the concept of translation with the theoretical basis of the proposals from Edwin Gentzler’s “post-translation studies” (2017) and Susan Bassnett’s “outward turn” (2017). These contributions represent a turning point in the field of translation studies due to the opportunities they present to discover new discursive limits in the rewriting process. Based on this extended concept of translation, this article analyzes the body as a text which is determined by acts of rewriting and, at the same time, as a subversive element that allows us to bring into question the social and cultural rules that define the normativity of sexuality. This article refers to feminist currents including LGBTIQ studies and queer theory, in order to build the necessary theoretical structure to analyze the power of (translated) discourses in the construction of the body and its sexuality. Finally, this article applies this proposal to analyzing specific cases of non-normative bodies so as to observe the power and the influence of translation on the definition and classification of sexual identities.
Szu-Wen Kung
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 67; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00206.kun

Abstract:
While “turns” in translation studies have long been embracing the theoretical complexity integrated into the discussion of various translation phenomena, the theorisation of the use of technology and its impact on translation remains under-represented in scholarly literature of the field (O’Hagan 2016). This article considers the influence of technology on translation and reflects on the question as to how the interactive relationship between technology and translation may be theoretically conceptualised. Taking an approach informed by sociological theory, this article combines critical theory of technology (CTT) and actor-network theory (ANT) to examine the relationship between technology and translation, as well as the translation players involved. With the advent of Web 2.0, techno-empowered collaborative translation in the online TED Talks environment using Amara subtitling platform becomes a useful locale for discussion. Through a participant-observation approach, that is, with the author’s experience in the online translation environment, this article aims to explore how the technological elements in translation often described as “emergent property from new forms of translation practice” (Cronin 2010, 1) may offer critical insights from an epistemological perspective, especially the reciprocity between technology and its users.
Weihe Zhong, Tianyuan Zhao, Mianjun Xu
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 66, pp 883-901; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00199.zho

Abstract:
This paper reviews the history and achievements of professional interpreting and translation education in the Chinese mainland since 1979, discusses the internal and external challenges it faces in the new era and puts forward some measures to accelerate and upgrade its development so as to offer some insights for the future development of translation education in China and beyond. It is hoped that this paper will enable interpreting and translation teachers and scholars around the world to better understand the achievements and status quo of professional interpreting and translation education in the Chinese mainland and will enhance understanding, communication and exchanges of the interpreting and translation education circle internationally.
María Dolores Rodríguez Melchor, Manuela Motta, Elena Aguirre Fernández Bravo, Olga Egorova, Kate Ferguson, Tamara Mikolič Južnič
Babel. Revue internationale de la traduction / International Journal of Translation, Volume 66, pp 950-972; https://doi.org/10.1075/babel.00198.ego

Abstract:
The development of online interactive resources for interpreter training has been at the centre of the agenda in terms of pedagogical assistance and cooperation both for the European Institutions and for their partner universities. Modern videoconferencing systems and online learning technologies provide an excellent alternative to face-to-face classes, offering solutions to the problem of trainers’ availability and engaging learners in synchronous and asynchronous task-oriented activities. In this context, the European Parliament-funded ERITON project was launched in 2014 with the aim of facilitating the dissemination of best practices and enhancing collaboration between EU and non-EU partner universities in the field of conference interpreter training. Forming the strategic core of this project was the use of innovative training methodologies, such as virtual classes and virtual mock-conferences. This paper presents the pedagogical framework of the VCs and discusses the results of an online survey conducted from 2015 to 2017 among students who actively participated in the virtual classes held within the ERITON project. The aim of the survey was to obtain anonymous feedback on the technical set-up of the VCs and on the helpfulness of this format in terms of skill acquisition and progress. The results show that the new medium was well-received and appreciated by respondents, especially since it gave them the possibility to interact in ways and with people that would otherwise be impossible.
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