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云胡 宗
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 165-174; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.84020

Abstract:
# 以辽河、大洋河及鸭绿江3个水系的75尾刀鲚(Coilia nasus)为试验材料,利用PCR扩增和测序技术研究了3个刀鲚群体的遗传结构。获得的1130~1171 D-loop同源序列中检测出94变异位点和60个单倍型,总群体单倍型和核苷酸多样性指数分别为0.992 ± 0.004和0.010 ± 0.000。分子方差分析(AMOVA)结果表明,98.27%遗传变异来自群体内,群体间遗传分化较小,单倍型聚类分析和网络图显示单倍型分布没有明显的地理谱系结构,3个群体可作为一个遗传管理单元。该结果可为刀鲚的种质资源保护提供参考。 The genetic structure of Coilia nasus was studied based on the sequences analysis of mitochondrial D-loop in 75 individuals from Liao River (n = 20), Dayang River (n = 27) and Yalu River (n = 28), Liaoning province. In 1130~1171 bp of D-loop sequences, there were 94 polymorphic sites and 60 haplotypes. The haplotype and nucleotide diversities were 0.992 ± 0.004 and 0.010 ± 0.000, respectively. AMOVA revealed 98.27% of the total variation was resulted from intra-population differentiation, there was little genetic differentiation among populations. Both NJ tree and MJ network of 60 haplotypes indicated there was no geographic structure among populations. Three populations of C. nasus should be considered as a genetic management unit. The findings may be very useful to protect this species stock.
雷冯 春
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 127-135; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83015

Abstract:
拖网是现代渔业主要作业方式之一,其中单船拖网是拖网渔业中最常见的作业方式。网板是单船拖网系统的重要属具,主要为拖网作业提供水平扩张力。本文通过水槽模型试验和数值模拟研究圆形曲面网板的水动力性能。通过数据处理,获得该网板的升阻力系数、升阻比以及压力中心系数等水动力参数,并根据数值模拟结果分析网板周围的流场流态。结果显示,该网板既有较大的升力系数,又有较高的升阻比,且该网板的曲面外形及导流板结构可有效延缓流的分离,从而增大网板的临界冲角;数值模拟结果与模型试验结果比较近似,对网板最大升力系数及最大升阻比的模拟误差均低于10%,且数值模拟可以有效预测网板的临界冲角。本文建议在条件允许的情况下,利用水槽试验与数值模拟方法开展网板水动力学性能研究。 Trawling is one of the main methods of modern fisheries, of which the single trawling is the common operation types. Otter board is the vital components of a single trawler system; it can provide the desired horizontal opening of a trawl net. In the present study, the hydrodynamic of a circular cambered otter board was studied using flume tank experiment and numerical simulation. The lift/drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio and center-of-pressure coefficient were obtained during the data processing, and the flow distribution around the otter board was analyzed according to the numerical results. It showed that the otter board had a good hydrodynamic performance for its high lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio, and the camber/deflector structure can delay the flow separation. Numerical simulation results showed a good agreement with experiment ones and could predict the critical angle of attack. Simulation errors the maximum lift coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio were under 10%. Given the otter boards are operated in water, it was suggested to apply both flume tank experiment and numerical simulation to study the hydrodynamic performance of otter board.
莫 伟
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 76-83; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82009

Abstract:
在“绿水青山就是金山银山”绿色发展理念的践行下,中国的水产养殖业已经进入了崭新的发展时期,绿色高效的养殖技术层出不穷。而新时代下绿色高效养殖技术的关键在于循环水处理技术。循环水处理大致分为物理处理、化学处理、生物处理。虽然每种处理方法各有千秋,但是在整个循环水处理体系起着相辅相成的作用,各式新型的养殖模式也逐步得到发展。新时代下的水产养殖应做到“顺天时,量地利”,顺应新时代的绿色发展,因地制宜、取长避短,应用合理的养殖模式,寻求经济效益与绿色发展的最佳契合点,才能真正做到“用力少,成功多”。 China’s aquaculture industry has entered a new period of development under the practice of “Lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets”, and green and efficient aquaculture technologies have emerged in an endless stream. The key of green and efficient aquaculture technology in the new era lies in circulating water treatment technology. Recirculating water treatment is roughly divided into physical treatment, chemical treatment and biological treatment. Although each treatment method has its own advantages and disadvantages, it plays a complementary role in the whole circulating water treatment system, and various new breeding modes have been gradually developed. Aquaculture should achieve “favorable weather, favorable geographical conditions” with adapting to the green development of the new era, adapting to local conditions, taking advantage of strengths and avoiding weaknesses. We can truly achieve “less effort and more success” by applying reasonable breeding mode and seeking the best coincidence point between economic benefit and green development.
军武 利
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 84-94; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82010

Abstract:
本实验利用室内模拟法,探究了种植绿狐尾藻(H组)、抛洒底改型微生态制剂(D组)和施用生石灰(S组)对罗非鱼养殖池塘水质和底质营养物含量变化的影响。结果发现:H组对底质中总氮、总磷的去除率最高,分别为32.91%、28.05%。实验期间H组水中的NH+4-N、NH-2-N和TN浓度整体小于其它实验组;S组的NH-2-N和TP浓度显著大于对照组(P +4-N和TN浓度前中期显著大于对照组(P In this experiment, the effects of Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaudich (Group H), modified microecological agent (Group D) and quicklime (Group S) on nutrient content in water and sediment of tilapia culture pond were studied by indoor simulation. The results showed that: Group H had the highest removal rate of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the sediment, which were 32.91% and 28.05%, respectively. During the experiment, the concentrations of NH+4-N、NH-2-N and TN in the water of group H were generally lower than those of other experimental groups. The concentrations of NH-2-N and TP in group S were significantly higher than those in the control group (P +4-N and TN in the early and middle stages were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The nutrient concentration of group D was between group H and group S. The results of the study show that the three methods of improving sediment can reduce the total nitrogen and phosphorus content in the aquaculture pond. Among them, the H group planted with Myriophyllum elatinoides Gaudich had the best effect on removing nitrogen and phosphorus from the sediment, and had almost no effect on the concentration of nutrients in the water, and the comprehensive restoration effect was the best.
渊苏 亚
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 34-43; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.81004

Abstract:
为了说明有色金属矿区周边水体的食物安全问题,以地方特色食物——螺蛳为研究对象,通过采集当地有色金属矿区周边不同水体的螺蛳样品,并采集污染程度较轻或无污染水体中的螺蛳样品作对照,分别用原子吸收光谱法和原子荧光光谱法,测定其不同部位的重金属Cu、Cr、Zn和As的含量,并参照我国食品污染物限量标准,说明其食用部位是否存在食用安全风险。结果表明:1) 在检测的螺蛳样品重金属元素中,Zn的含量最高,Cu的含量次之,其不同部位重金属含量的平均大小排序为Zn > Cu > As > Cr;2) 不同重金属在螺蛳体内的累积量有差异,其中,Zn、Cu、As均为内脏团 > 足肌 > 外壳,而Cr则为外壳 >内脏团 > 足肌;3) 厂矿、城镇、人口密集村落、大型公共活动场所、旅游区和开发区、高强度劳动作业区,其周围区域水体螺蛳样品的重金属含量相对比较高;4) 采集的部分螺蛳样品,其食用部分的重金属含量超标,其中,铬的最大超标倍数为11.44,无机砷的最大超标倍数为3.10,前者超标情况比后者更严重。因此,长期食用有色金属矿区周边水体重金属含量超标的螺蛳及其制品,存在一定的安全风险。 In order to illustrate the food safety issues in the waters surrounding the non-ferrous metal mining area, the local special food, Bellamya quadrata was taken as the research object. By collecting B. quadrata samples from different water bodies around the local non-ferrous metal mining areas, and collecting the B. quadrata samples from the water with less pollution or non-polluted water as a control. The content of heavy metals Cu, Cr, Zn, and As in different parts of the B. quadrata was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic fluorescence spectrometry respectively, and with reference to the national food contaminants limit standards, it is indicated whether there are food safety risks in their edible parts. The results show that: 1) among the heavy metal elements in the B. quadrata samples, the content of Zn is the highest, followed by the content of Cu, and the order of the average content of heavy metals in different parts is Zn > Cu > As > Cr; 2) the accumulation amount of heavy metals in B. quadrata spiral is different, among them, Zn, Cu and As are visceral mass > foot muscle > shell, while Cr is shell > visceral muscle > foot muscle; 3) the heavy metal content of B. quadrata samples in the surrounding areas of factories and mines, towns, densely populated villages, large public activity places, tourism areas and development zones, and high intensity labor operation areas is relatively high; 4) the content of heavy metals in the edible parts of the collected B. quadrata samples exceeds the standard. The maximum limit multiple of chromium is 11.44, and the maximum limit multiple of inorganic arsenic is 3.10. The former is more serious than the latter. Therefore, long-term consumption of B. quadrata and their products with excessive weight metal content in the water surrounding non-ferrous metal mining areas poses a certain safety risk.
蔡 岩
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 45-52; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82005

Abstract:
本文通过在实验室条件下模拟方斑东风螺(Babylonia areolata)养殖池离底铺沙模式,对比了不同进水和排水方式对养殖池水更换效果的影响。结果表明,在上进下排类型中,不同进水方式对沙层下方水体的更换效果没有显著差异(P > 0.05),不同排水方式对沙层下方水体的更换效果影响有显著差异,其中,中间单孔排水效果最好(P In this paper, the effects of different water inflow and outflow designs on water changing efficiency of Babylonia areolata farming pond were compared by simulating the sand-on-bottom-shelve model of Babylonia areolata farming pond under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences in water changing efficiency between different water inflow methods (P > 0.05), but there were significant differences between different outflow methods, and the middle single hole outflow design was most efficient in changing the water body under the sand layer (P < 0.05). The results also showed that the water changing speed of side wall outflow with reverse water seepage in-flow model is significantly faster than that of the middle single hole outflow model with single side water inflow (P < 0.05), but the water changing speed of the whole water body is slower than that of the middle single hole outflow with unilateral inflow model (P < 0.05). The middle single hole outflow with single side inflow model can effectively rinse the accumulated organic matters such as excreta, residual bait, ammonia nitrogen and hydrogen sulfide in the sand layer, and keep the sand layer clean.
智孙 永
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 120-126; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83014

Abstract:
星斑川鲽(Platichthys stellatus)是我国北方重要的海水经济养殖品种,具有广温、广盐、抗逆性强、生长快等优点,且营养价值较高。目前,国内外有关该鱼的营养需求及饲料研究已经有一些报道,但是对某些营养素的研究还是空白。本文综述了星斑川鲽对蛋白质、氨基酸、脂肪、脂肪酸、碳水化合物和微量营养素的需求,蛋白源和脂肪源替代鱼粉和鱼油,功能性饲料添加剂应用等方面的研究进展,旨在为星斑川鲽的精准营养研究及优质高效配合饲料的开发提供参考资料,从而推动其养殖业的健康可持续发展。 The starry flounder Platichthys stellatus is a marine fish species with important economic value; it has the advantages of wide temperature, wide salt, strong stress resistance and fast growth. Up to now, there have been a lot of reports on its nutritional requirements and feed, however studies on some nutrients are still absent. This paper summarized the requirements of starry flounder on protein, amino acids, lipid, fatty acids, carbohydrate and micronutrient, as well as the application of functional feed additives. We hope that this review can provide reference for the study of accurate nutrition and development of high-efficient and environment-friendly formula feed, and thus promote the healthy and sustainable development of Platichthys stellatus aquaculture industry.
序张 伯
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 175-184; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.84021

Abstract:
# 为探究盐度影响与刀鲚(Coilia nasus)腮组织转录组的关系,本实验对取自大洋河流域不同盐度水体的刀鲚的腮组织进行了转录组测序和分析。结果显示:一共有70,964条unigenes被注释;刀鲚的unigene序列与大西洋鲱(Clupea harengus)最为接近;有关细胞进程、生物调节、代谢过程的unigenes占比很高;腮组织部有关代谢功能的转录组表达十分旺盛;生物体系统(Organismal Systems)与环境信息处理的信号通路(Environmental Information Processing)的unigene数最多。 In order to explore the relationship between salinity effects and transcriptome of (Coilia nasus) gill tissues, transcriptome sequencing and analysis were performed on the gill tissues of Coilia nasus from waters with different salinity in the Dayang River basin. The results showed that 70964 unigenes were annotated. The unigene sequence of Coilia nasus was closest to that of Atlantic Herring (Clupea harengus). The proportion of unigenes related to cell process, biological regulation and metabolic process was high. Transcriptome expression related to metabolic function was very vigorous in the gill tissue. Organismal Systems and Environmental Information Processing have the largest number of unigene.
雅练 诗
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.81001

Abstract:
金枪鱼养殖产业在日本、西班牙等国已经取得阶段性成果,但在我国仍处于相关技术研发的起步阶段。本文主要针对5种大型金枪鱼,即太平洋蓝鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus orientalis)、大西洋蓝鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus thynnus)、黄鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus albacares)、南方蓝鳍金枪鱼(Thunnus maccoyii)和大眼金枪鱼(Thunnus obesus)繁殖生物学研究方面所取的阶段性成果(包括产卵季节、产卵水温、产卵水深、雌雄性比、平均产卵频率、性成熟的叉长和体重、平均繁殖力、成熟模式、性腺成熟等级、性腺指数等)进行了梳理与总结,阐明了不同海域金枪鱼群体其繁殖生物学信息的不同之处,为后续我国开展金枪鱼养殖研发工作提供一些参考依据。 The tuna aquaculture industry has achieved phased results in Japan, Spain and other countries, but it is still in the initial stage of related technology research and development in China. This article mainly focuses on the current progress in reproductive biology research (oviposition season, oviposition water temperature, oviposition water depth, ratio of female to male, average oviposition frequency, mature fork length and body weight, average fecundity, maturity pattern, gonadal maturity grade, gonadal index, etc.) of large tuna species, such as the Pacific bluefin tuna (Thunnus orientalis), Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii) and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus), summarizes the existing research results, and finds out the differences in reproductive biology information among different sea tuna groups. It provides some references for the follow-up research and development of tuna culture in China.
郭 鹏
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 61-67; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82007

Abstract:
糖类免疫增强剂是一类能提高机体免疫性能、加速诱导免疫应答反应的糖类添加剂,主要分为低聚糖类免疫增强剂和多糖类免疫增强剂。糖类免疫增强剂具有安全、高效、无毒、低成本、不污染环境等优点,在机体内能够刺激相应的模式识别受体,抑制炎症反应,促进机体非特异性免疫。目前,糖类免疫增强剂已在鱼类、虾蟹等水产动物饲料中广泛使用。本文从糖类免疫增强剂对水产动物的促生长、免疫增强作用及其机理、使用效果等方面综述了糖类免疫增强剂在水产养殖中的研究进展。 Carbohydrate immunopotentiator is a carbohydrate additive which can improve the immune performance and accelerate the induction of immune response. They are mainly divided into oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Carbohydrate immunopotentiators are safety, high efficiency, non-toxicity, low cost and no environmental pollution. They can stimulate the corresponding pattern recognition receptors in the body, inhibit the inflammatory reaction and promote the nonspecific immunity of the body. At present, carbohydrate immunopotentiators have been widely used in fish, shrimp and crab feed. In this paper, the research progress of carbohydrate immunopotentiators in aquaculture was reviewed from the aspects of growth promotion, immune enhancement, mechanism, and application effect of carbohydrate immunopotentiators.
红马 国
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 17-33; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.81003

Abstract:
分别于5月和8月份在黄河入海口及临近海域14个监测点调查采样,并对调查结果进行分析,同时采用ArcGIS软件对河口及邻近海域水质情况进行空间分布趋势研究。结果表明:黄河径流对黄河入海口及邻近海域水环境污染造成了一定的影响;黄河入海口及邻近海域主要受到无机氮、重金属Cu、石油类、DIP的污染;黄河入海口及邻近海域5月份水质污染比8月份严重(Cu除外);分布趋势特征是入海口污染最重,慢慢向邻近海域辐射、递减;南部半封闭海域尤其近海区域污染较其它海域严重。加强黄河水环境的保护,控制黄河水源的污染可以有效地改善黄河口及邻近海域的水质污染状况。 In May and August, samples were collected at 14 monitoring points in the estuary and adjacent sea areas of the Yellow River, and the survey results were analyzed. Meanwhile, ArcGIS software was used to study the spatial distribution trend of water quality in the estuary and adjacent sea areas. The results show that the runoff of the Yellow River has a certain influence on the water environment pollution of the estuary and adjacent sea areas of the Yellow River. The estuary of the Yellow River and the adjacent sea areas are mainly polluted by inorganic nitrogen, heavy metal copper, petroleum and active phosphate. The water pollution of the estuary and adjacent sea areas of the Yellow River in May was more serious than that of August (except copper). The distribution trend is that the pollution in the estuary is the heaviest and gradually radiates and decreases to the adjacent sea area. The southern semi-closed sea, especially the coastal area, is more polluted than other sea areas. Strengthening the protection of the water environment of the Yellow River and controlling the pollution of the water source of the Yellow River can effectively improve the water quality pollution of the mouth of the Yellow River and the adjacent sea areas.
杰徐 峻
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 110-119; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83013

Abstract:
自5月~9月每隔10天对高邮湖畔水产专业合作社的3个双层覆膜护坡河蟹养殖池塘进行水质和浮游藻类监测。结果显示:水体透明度基本保持见底的状态,溶解氧变化范围在(5.4~13.87) mg/L,pH变化范围在7.48~10.05之间;氨态氮的监测范围在(0.1~3.6) mg/L;亚硝酸盐监测数值总体上呈现先增后减最后维持较低的水平;池塘高锰酸盐指数(CODMn)和总磷的变化范围分别在(5.9~15.1) mg/L和(0~0.497) mg/L;总氮含量在(0.2~2.77) mg/L间波动;浮游藻类以蓝藻和绿藻为常见藻;监测结果表明,河蟹养殖池塘中总氮、总磷、CODMn等富营养化相关指标总体符合淡水池塘水排放要求(SC/T 9101-2007)。 Water quality and planktic algae were monitored every 10 days from May to September in three double-layer film-covered river crab ponds in Gouyou Lake Aquatic Cooperatives. The results showed that the transparency of water basically remained at bottom, the dissolved oxygen varied within the scope of (5.4~13.87) mg/L, and the pH ranges from 7.48 to 10.05. The monitoring range of ammonia nitrogen was (0.1~3.6) mg/L. On the whole, the monitoring value of nitrite increased first, then decreased, and finally maintained a low level. The range of permanganate index (CODMn) and total phosphorus was respectively (5.9~15.1) mg/L and (0~0.497) mg/L. The total nitrogen content fluctuated between (0.2~2.77) mg/L. The common planktonic algae were cyanobacteria and chlorophyta. The monitoring results indicated that the eutrophication related indexes such as total nitrogen, total phosphorus and CODMn in the crab pond generally met the water discharge requirements of fresh water pond (SC/T 9101-2007).
天陆 锦
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 103-109; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83012

Abstract:
本研究通过对中华绒螯蟹成熟卵巢中的卵黄磷蛋白进行分离,并使用全自动蛋白纯化仪和胶回收的方对其进行纯化,以此为抗原免疫小鼠,使之产生针对性抗体后进行融合筛选,获得稳定额单克隆细胞株,将细胞株培养后打入小鼠腹腔,制备腹水。随后从腹水中纯化收集抗体,并进行Elisa效价监测,结果表明,获得三株单克隆抗体2N17、3G2、2J11效价均高于64 K,抗体浓度为2N17:0.8 mg/ml,3G2:0.8 mg/ml,2J11:0.7 mg/ml。随后通过免疫组化技术对中华绒螯蟹卵黄磷蛋白在其胚胎和幼体中进行定位,结果表明,胚胎发育在囊胚期和原肠期时,卵黄磷蛋白强阳性位点均分布于卵黄物质中,聚集与卵黄岛周边,当胚胎发育至心跳期时,卵黄囊中已无卵黄磷蛋白阳性物质变弱,仅仅分布于卵黄囊外周,围绕肝胰腺前体细胞有弱阳性位点,随后胚胎孵化,卵黄磷蛋白阳性位点消失,大眼幼体的肝胰腺区域无发现,暗示中华绒螯蟹在胚胎发育中期是卵黄磷蛋白动用高峰,而末期卵黄磷蛋白已消耗殆尽,初孵幼体已不带有卵黄磷蛋白。 The vitellogenin protein in the mature ovary of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) was separated, and purified by automatic protein purification instrument and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (Native-PAGE). Mice were immunized with vitellogenin as antigen to produce targeted antibodies. After fusion and selection, a stable monoclonal cell line was obtained. The cell line was cultured and injected into the abdominal of mice to prepare ascites. The antibodies were purified and collected from ascites and titer monitored by Elisa. The titers of the three obtained monoclonal antibodies 2N17, 3G2 and 2J11 were all higher than 64 K, and antibody concentrations were 0.8 mg/ml, 0.8 mg/ml, 0.7 mg/ml, respectively. Then, immunohistochemical technology was performed to locate the vitellin in the embryonic and larvae of Eriocheir sinensis. The results showed that the strong positive sites of the vitellin were distributed in the vitellus material and gathered around the vitellus island during the blastula stage and the gastrula stage. When the embryo developed to the heart beating stage, there was no vitellin in the yolk sac and positive material became weaker. It was only distributed on the periphery of the yolk sac. Weak positive sites were around the hepatopancreas precursor cells, and then the positive sites disappeared after embryo hatching. No positive sites were found in the hepatopancreas of Megalopa, suggesting that the peak of vitellin mobilization was in the middle of embryo development. Vitellin was exhausted in the late stage of embryo development and no exist in the newly hatched larvae.
奇毛 天
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 68-75; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82008

Abstract:
糖类作为机体主要的能源物质,适宜添加有益于水产动物生长且参与机体免疫调控,能够通过改变代谢途径进行能量的重新分配,优化免疫供能。本综述主要就目前国内外关于水产经济动物对糖类的需求量以及糖代谢相关调节方式进行总结回顾,旨在了解水产动物对糖类的营养需求以及相关代谢调控。 As the main energy substance of the body, carbohydrates are suitable to be added to benefit the growth of aquatic animals and participate in the immune regulation of the body. They can redistribute energy by changing the metabolic pathways and optimize immune energy supply. This review mainly summarizes and reviews the current domestic and foreign aquatic animal’s demand for sugars and related adjustment methods of carbohydrate metabolism, aiming to understand the nutritional requirements of aquatic animals for carbohydrates and related metabolic regulation.
闫 丽
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 53-60; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.82006

Abstract:
2019年~2020年每年春夏秋共6次对白洋淀、衡水湖鱼类进行调查,结果显示:白洋淀共发现鱼类44种,隶属6目14科,鲤科鱼类占59.10%;衡水湖共发现39种,隶属于6目13科,鲤科鱼类占61.54%。利用Average Faunal Resemblance和Jaccard系数计算区系指数和相似度指数分别为62.8%和0.456。综合评价两个水域鱼类区系多样性存在紧密并接近周缘关系,群落间相似性属于轻度相似关系。 A total of 44 species of fish, belonging to 6 orders and 14 families, were found in Baiyangdian Lake and Hengshui Lake during the period of 2019~2020. Among them, cyprinids accounted for 59.10%. A total of 39 species were found in Hengshui Lake, belonging to 6 orders and 13 families, of which 61.54% were cyprinids. Using Average Faunal and Jaccard coefficients, the fauna index and similarity index are 62.8% and 0.456 respectively. According to comprehensive evaluation, the diversity of fish fauna in the two waters was close and close to the periphery, and the similarity between the communities was slightly similar.
生朱 天
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 9-16; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.81002

Abstract:
为探究陆生龟类胚胎间是否存在信息交流,本实验以红耳龟(Trachemys scripta elegans)为研究对象,将150枚龟卵随机均分为两组,分别置于27℃和31℃下孵化,分别在孵化15 d (第一个1/4孵化期)、30 d (第二个1/4孵化期)后,从I、II两组各取17枚卵组成第III、第IV组在27℃下混合孵化,检测各组胚胎的心率、孵化期及孵化率。结果显示:第III组整体孵化率和追溯卵的首次分组情况后孵化率都领先于其他各组,第IV组在追溯了卵的第二次分组情况后孵化率也较第I、II组有一定的上升。第I组破壳高峰期在第95~98 d,第II组破壳高峰期在第63~64 d,而第III、IV组破壳时间在I、II组之间。与第I组胚胎心率差异显著性比较可知,第III组和第IV组组合中的第I组的胚胎心率进程明显加快,说明第III、IV两组内的胚胎能够互相影响,推测可能通过信息交流促使发育进度不同的胚胎趋于同步孵化,有助于降低稚龟破壳初期被天敌捕食的比率。 为探究陆生龟类胚胎间是否存在信息交流,本实验以红耳龟(Trachemys scripta elegans)为研究对象,将150枚龟卵随机均分为两组,分别置于27℃和31℃下孵化,分别在孵化15 d (第一个1/4孵化期)、30 d (第二个1/4孵化期)后,从I、II两组各取17枚卵组成第III、第IV组在27℃下混合孵化,检测各组胚胎的心率、孵化期及孵化率。结果显示:第III组整体孵化率和追溯卵的首次分组情况后孵化率都领先于其他各组,第IV组在追溯了卵的第二次分组情况后孵化率也较第I、II组有一定的上升。第I组破壳高峰期在第95~98 d,第II组破壳高峰期在第63~64 d,而第III、IV组破壳时间在I、II组之间。与第I组胚胎心率差异显著性比较可知,第III组和第IV组组合中的第I组的胚胎心率进程明显加快,说明第III、IV两组内的胚胎能够互相影响,推测可能通过信息交流促使发育进度不同的胚胎趋于同步孵化,有助于降低稚龟破壳初期被天敌捕食的比率。
栋罗 国
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 95-102; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83011

Abstract:
近年来我国沿海水产养殖业蓬勃发展并取得了一些成功。在江苏省沿海如东县出现了南美白对虾的小棚养殖,该新兴养殖模式一经推出就受到农渔民争相模仿,他们利用从前的蟹棚来进行养殖并且取得了很好的经济效益和社会效益。但随着养殖行业不断发展,传统的小棚养殖已经不能满足需求。传统小棚需要进行升级改造来适应越来越高的生产条件,而自行淡化标粗、稻虾混养、跑道式改造、生物絮团技术、循环水养殖和多水产品种混合养殖为解决以上问题提供了可能。同时,利用互联网的信息实时交流分析,养殖户可以得到专家的线上指导,对提高养殖的成功率,减少养殖过程中问题的损失有着重大作用。这些升级改良措施既可以满足环保和生态要求,又可以提高养殖户的经济效益,是顺应时代的技术升级。 In recent years, China’s coastal aquaculture industry has developed vigorously and achieved some success. In Rudong County along the coast of Jiangsu Province, there is a small shed culture of Litopenaeus vannamei, which has been imitated by farmers and fishermen as soon as it is launched. They use the former crab shed to breed and have achieved good economic and social benefits. However, with the continuous development of the aquaculture industry, the traditional small shed culture has been unable to meet the demand. Traditional greenhouses need to be upgraded to adapt to higher and higher production conditions, such as self desalting standard coarse, rice shrimp mixed culture, runway type transformation, biological flocculent technology, circulating aquaculture and mixed aquaculture of multiple aquatic species provide the possibility to solve the above problems. At the same time, using the real-time exchange and analysis of information on the Internet, farmers can get online guidance from experts, which plays an important role in improving the success rate of breeding and reducing the loss of problems in the breeding process. These upgrading and improvement measures can not only meet the environmental protection and ecological requirements, but also improve the economic benefits of farmers, which is the technological upgrading in line with the times.
青黄 青
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 136-142; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83016

Abstract:
基底颜色对各种动物的生活方式有着重要的影响。本实验基于黑色和白色两种基底颜色,分别在20℃、25℃和30℃这三种养殖温度下开展基底颜色对黄喉拟水龟幼体生长性状的短期影响研究。结果发现:1) 温度对幼龟的体重和背甲高有极显著影响(P 0.05)。2) 基底颜色对幼龟的各种生长性状均没有显著影响(P > 0.05),温度和基底颜色的交互作用也不显著。3) 相对白色基底而言,黑色基底环境下的幼龟在三种养殖温度下均显示出了更快的生长趋势。 The background color has an important influence on the lifestyle of various animals. In this experiment, based on the two background colors of black and white, the short-term effects of background colors on the growth characteristics of Asian yellow pond turtle larvae were studied at the three breeding temperatures of 20˚C, 25˚C and 30˚C, respectively. The results showed that: 1) Temperature had a very significant effect on bodymass and carapace height of the hatchlings (P 0.05). 2) The background color has no significant effect on the growth traits of young turtles (P > 0.05), and the interaction between temperature and background color was not significant either. 3) Compared with the white background, the young tortoises under the black substrate environment showed a faster growth trend at all three breeding temperatures.
悦姚 新
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 156-164; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.84019

Abstract:
# 根据2018年新开口海湾扇贝养殖区水质、沉积物和养殖生物4次的监测数据,按照单因子评价和环境质量综合指数法评价新开口海湾扇贝养殖区环境质量综合状况。新开口扇贝浮筏养殖区水环境监测结果:溶解氧7.17~12.4 mg/L;COD 0.904~1.56 mg/L;无机氮0.0158~0.339 mg/L,活性磷酸盐0.000428~0.0263 mg/L;石油类0.0144~0.0214 mg/L;重金属汞0~0.0000660 mg/L;铜0.000593~ 0.00202 mg/L;铅0.000428~0.00313 mg/L;镉0.0000640~0.000292 mg/L;铬0.000359~0.00276 mg/L;砷0.00107~0.00248 mg/L;各污染指数均小于1,满足海水水质二类要求。表层沉积物中硫化物31.50~34.00 × 10−6 mg/L,有机碳0.23~0.25%;石油类25.10~32.60 × 10−6 mg/L;铜24.30~33.20 × 10−6 mg/L;铅20.10~33.20 × 10−6 mg/L;镉0.14~0.18 × 10−6 mg/L;铬43.60~52.20 × 10−6 mg/L;砷7.83~11.40 × 10−6 mg/L。生物体内污染物质含量符合第一类海洋生物质量标准。环境质量综合指数98.1,养殖区环境质量等级优良。 Based on the monitoring data of water quality, sediment and aquaculture organisms for 4 times in 2018, the comprehensive status of environmental quality in Xinkaiwan Bay scallop breeding area was evaluated by single factor evaluation and environmental quality comprehensive index method. The results of water environment monitoring in the floating raft culture area of Scallop were as follows: dissolved oxygen 7.17~12.4 mg/L; COD 0.904~1.56 mg/L; Inorganic nitrogen 0.0158~ 0.339 mg/L, active phosphate 0.000428~0.0263 mg/L; Petroleum 0.0144~0.0214 mg/L; Mercury 0~0.0000660 mg/L; Copper is 0.000593~0.00202 mg/L; Lead is 0.000428~0.00313 mg/L; Cadmium 0.0000640~0.000292 mg/L; Chrome 0.000359~0.00276 mg/L; Arsenic is 0.00107~0.00248 mg/L; All pollution indexes are less than 1, meeting the requirements of class II seawater quality. Sulfur compounds in surface sediments were 31.50~34.00 × 10−6 mg/L and organic carbon was 0.23%~0.25%. Petroleum 25.10~32.60 × 10−6 mg/L; Copper is 24.30~33.20 × 10−6 mg/L; Lead is 20.10~33.20 × 10−6 mg/L; Cadmium is 0.14~0.18 × 10−6 mg/L; Chrome 43.60~52.20 × 10−6 mg/L; Arsenic is 7.83~11.40 × 10−6 mg/L. The contents of pollutants in the organisms meet the quality standards of category I Marine organisms. The comprehensive index of environmental quality is 98.1, and the environmental quality of the breeding area is excellent.
玲任 燕
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 08, pp 143-147; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2021.83017

Abstract:
# 水生动物群落配置能够有助于实现对富营养化水体的净化与修复,而且比单一水生动物的效果更加显著。笔者阐述了水生动物对水体净化功能的发展进程、各类水生动物的环境净化作用机理,不同类型的水生动物配置对富营养污染水体的净化效果,提出水生动物在富营养化水体净化应用中亟待重视的相关问题,展望水生动物配置体系的物质、能量输入输出结构,不同程度污染的修复,周年性的修复作用等方面的发展前景。 The configuration of aquatic animals can help to achieve the purification and repair of eutrophic water bodies, and the effect is more significant than that of single aquatic animals. The author elaborated on the development process of aquatic animals’ purification function of water bodies, the environmental purification mechanism of various aquatic animals, and the purification effects of different types of aquatic animal configurations on eutrophic polluted water bodies, and proposed that aquatic animals are urgently needed in the application of eutrophic water purification. Relevant issues that we pay attention to, look forward to the development prospects of the material and energy input and output structure of the aquatic animal allocation system, the restoration of different degrees of pollution, and the annual restoration.
杰赵 孟
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 210-215; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.74029

Abstract:
盐度是影响鱼类生理活动的一个重要生态因子,盐度对鱼类生长性能、肌肉中营养成分、组织结构形态和胚胎发育都有显著的影响。本文就盐度对鱼类各项生理指标的影响而展开综述。 Salinity is an important ecological factor affecting the physiological activities of fish. Salinity has significant effects on the growth performance of fish, nutrient composition in muscle, tissue structure and morphology, and embryonic development. This paper summarizes the effects of salinity on various physiological indices of fish.
李 静
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 198-209; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.74028

Abstract:
本实验通过将海水养殖尾水微生物处理工艺细分为好氧硝化阶段、厌氧反硝化阶段和去除COD阶段,并辅以相应的耐高盐微生物,进行海水养殖尾水处理,同时试验了耐高盐微生物对常用渔药抑菌净的耐受度。结果表明,耐高盐微生物均在5天内完成挂膜,对环境的适应能力较强;水流速和溶氧含量是限制厌氧反硝化处理效果的主要因素;各微生物对正常用量的抑菌净的耐受度较强,用药量增大会导致菌体迅速脱落;工艺细化后,尾水中氨氮、亚硝酸氮、硝酸氮、总氮、COD的去除率均达到85%以上。 In this experiment, the microbial process of mariculture tail water was divided into aerobic nitrification stage, anaerobic denitrification stage and COD removal stage, and high salt tolerant microbes selected from saline alkali land were added to treat mariculture tail water. Additionally, the tolerance of microbes to common used fishery medicine Yijunjing was test. The results showed that the film-forming of all microbes were completed within 5 days, and the adaptabilities to the environment were strong. The flow rate and dissolved oxygen content were the main factors limiting the effect of anaerobic denitrification treatment. All microbes had strong tolerance to the normal dosage of Yijunjing, but rapid abscission would occur when the dosage was increased. After refining the process, the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, total nitrogen and COD in the tail water were all above 85%.
成彭 立
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 178-181; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.74025

Abstract:
目的:优选出曼氏无针乌贼配合饲料的较佳诱食剂。方法:以不同诱食剂为添加剂制备人工配合饲料,观察比较曼氏无针乌贼对人工配合饲料的摄食频率。结果:曼氏无针乌贼对以鸡肝水解为诱食剂的人工配合饲料的平均摄食频率最高(51次/h),显著高于对其他诱食剂人工配合饲料的平均摄食频率(P 生鸡肝 > 生羊肝 > 甜菜碱 > 蚯蚓 > 炒糯米酒糟 + 炒黄豆粉 > 炒黄豆粉。结论:以鸡肝水解物制备配合饲料能明显提高曼氏无针乌贼的摄食频率,可作为曼氏无针乌贼配合饲料的较佳诱食剂。 Aim: To select the best food attractant of Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune compound feed. Methods: Compound feed was prepared with different attractants as additives, and the feeding frequency of artificial compound feed was observed and compared with that of Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune. Results: The average feeding frequency of artificial feed with hydrolyzed chicken liver as attractant was the highest (51 times per hour), which was significantly higher than that of artificial feed with other attractants (P raw chicken liver > raw sheep liver > Betaine > Earthworms > fried glutinous rice lees + fried soybean powder > fried soybean powder. Conclusion: The compound feed prepared from chicken liver hydrolysate can obviously increase the feeding frequency of Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune, and can be used as a better food attractant for Sepiella maindroni de Rochebrune compound feed.
忠罗 相
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 182-187; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.74026

Abstract:
为进一步对长丰鲢的优良性状进行挖掘,本文开展了长丰鲢和鲢的耗氧率与窒息点的比较研究。结果显示:在水温25℃ ± 0.5℃范围内,体质量80~130 g、体长17.1~21.8 cm的长丰鲢和鲢的平均耗氧率分别为0.0875 mg/(g∙h)和0.1251 mg/(g∙h);长丰鲢和鲢耗氧率呈现昼夜节律变化。鲢的平均耗氧率明显高于长丰鲢(P In order to further excavate the fine characteristics of Changfeng silver car, the oxygen consumption rate and asphyxiant point of Changfeng silver carp and silver carp were studied preliminarily. The results showed that oxygen consumption rates of Changfeng silver carp and silver carp were 0.0875, 0.1251.5 mg/(g·h) (the water temperature was 25˚C ± 0.5˚C; fish bodylength was 17.1 - 21.8 cm; and body weight was 80 - 130 g) and there were an apparent difference on the oxygen consumptions of Changfeng carp and silver carp during the day and night. The average oxygen consumption rate of silver carp was significantly higher than that of Changfengsilver carp (P
燕仇 玉
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 171-177; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.74024

Abstract:
海水鱼类养殖作为我国水产养殖业的重要组成部分,其产业日益扩大的同时,也受到多种因素制约。其中饲料投喂是海水鱼类养殖过程中重要一环,选择何种饲料投喂模式对所饲鱼类的身体机能都有不同程度影响。精准的投喂模式,能显著提高鱼类生长性能,降低饲料成本且减轻环境压力。因此,本文对不同投喂模式(投喂频率、投喂率、投喂方式)对海水鱼类生长发育、消化代谢及免疫应激等方面的影响进行概述,以期能为海水鱼类的科学高效投喂及健康养殖提供有效帮助。 As an important part of aquaculture in China, mariculture industry is steadily expanding, but it is also restricted by many factors. Among them, feed feeding is an important part in the process of marine fish culture. The selection of feed feeding patterns has different degrees of impact on the physical function of the fish fed. Accurate feeding patterns can significantly improve fish growth performance, reduce feed cost and reduce environmental pressure. Therefore, this paper summarized the effects of different feeding patterns (feeding frequency, feeding rate, feeding mode) on the growth and development, digestion and metabolism and immune stress of marine fish, in order to provide effective help for scientific and efficient feeding and healthy breeding of marine fish.
东贾 玉
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 07, pp 8-14; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71002

Abstract:
氧气作为需氧生物生存的必要条件,参与生命体各项生命活动,鱼类作为重要的水生生物,水体溶解氧含量显著影响其呼吸、运动、生长、代谢等生理过程。本文通过对不同溶解氧条件下鱼类的生理生化指标、氧化应激、低氧适应以及低氧应答机制的论述分析,探索鱼类低氧适应和耐低氧机制,为鱼类高效养殖技术的研发提供技术支撑,同时也为鱼类耐低氧新品种的选育提供理论依据。Oxygen is a necessary environmental factor for the survival of aerobic organisms and involved in regulating various life activities during life cycle in vertebrate. Fish is an important aquatic animal, dissolved oxygen significantly affects physiological processes including breathing, swimming, growth performance and metabolism. This review mainly focuses on investigate physiological, biochemical and oxidative stress response of fish under different dissolved oxygen concentration, hypoxia tolerance and acclimatization mechanism. These results contribute to provide technical supporting for the development of high-efficiency fish culture technology, and open a door theoretical basis for the breeding of new cultured fish species resistant to hypoxia.
波刘 晓
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71001

Abstract:
养殖尾水是养殖过程中产生的含有大量残饵、粪便的污水,其中氮磷元素的含量较为丰富,直接排放到水环境中容易导致水体富营养化,引起继发性的生态问题。海水鱼类工厂化养殖是我国《全国渔业发展第十三个五年规划(2016~2020)》中提倡鼓励发展的养殖方式之一。但由于其集约化程度高,对养殖尾水的处理技术要求较高。本文综述了目前我国海水鱼类工厂化养殖尾水处理常用的技术,并分析了各种技术的优缺点,以期为海水鱼类工厂化养殖尾水的处理技术的发展提供参考。 The tail water of aquaculture is one kind of waste water which contains a lot of residual bait and feces. It is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, and it is easily to cause water eutrophication and secondary ecological problems if tail water discharged into water environment directly. Factory aquaculture of marine fish is one of the encouraged aquaculture methods in the 13th five-year plan for national fishery development (2016~2020). However, due to the high intensification, the technical requirements for the treatment of farming tail water are higher. In order to provide reference for the development of the treatment technology of the tail water from the factory, it was summarized on the common technologies for the treatment of the tail water, and the advantages and disadvantages of various technologies are also analyzed in this paper.
任 琰
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 84-92; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.72012

Abstract:
墨西哥湾扇贝(Argopecten irradians concentricus)的闭壳肌重是遗传育种的主要经济性状。本实验测量了壳高、壳长、壳宽、铰合线长、全湿重以及闭壳肌重等6个性状,其中闭壳肌重为因变量,其余5个性状为自变量。分析测得的数据、计算性状的决定系数、对闭壳肌重进行通径分析并且建立两品系的回归方程。结果显示,测量的所有性状的平均数中,选育系均大于对照系,尤其选育系的闭壳肌重更显著地大于对照系;两个品系测量的所有性状分别存在显著的相关性(P The adductor muscle weight of A. irradians concentricus is the main characters of genetic selecting. Six characters were measured, including shell height, shell length, shell width, hinge lines length, total wet weight and muscle weight. Among them, muscle weight was dependent variable, and oth-ers were independent variables. We analyzed the measured date, calculated the determination co-efficient of the character, carried out path analysis on the adductor muscle weight and established the regression equation of the two lines. The results showed that the average of all characters measured in the selective lines was larger than that in the control lines, especially the weight of the adductor muscle in the selective lines was more significant than that in others. There was a signifi-cant correlation between all characters measured in two lines (P < 0.01). Path analysis showed that the most direct impact on the weight of the adductor muscle in the selective lines is total wet weight (0.574), followed by shell length, shell height, shell width and hinge lines length. The total wet weight (0.789) in the control lines had the greatest direct impact, followed by shell height, hinge lines length, shell width and shell length. The calculation of the determination coefficient for each character was consistent with the path analysis, and total wet weight was the largest. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the selective and the control lines. It is also speculated that the weight of the adductor muscle can be increased indirectly by selecting dif-ferent quantitative traits of different lines as the target traits.
蒋 葛
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 93-99; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.72013

Abstract:
为探索背角无齿蚌(Anodonta woodiana)在不同环境条件下生理响应,对背角无齿蚌在不同温度(25℃、30℃)、盐度条件(0、2.5、5、10)下的生理活动和摄食率进行了观察与比较。实验结果发现,在25℃条件下,盐度为0、2.5、5时,背角无齿蚌成贝存活率为100%;盐度10时,24 h存活率77%,48 h存活率62%;在30℃条件下,盐度0时,24h存活率为42%,盐度2.5时,24 h存活率为29%,盐度5时,24 h存活率为0,盐度10时,24 h存活率为0,各试验盐度下48 h存活率为0。实验结果表明,在25℃条件下,各盐度组的个体存活率都显著高于30℃实验组(P In order to explore the physiological response of Anodonta woodiana under different environmental conditions, the physiological activities and ingestion rates of Anodonta woodiana under 2 tempera-ture levels (25˚C, 30˚C) and 4 salinity grids(0, 2, 2.5, 5,10) were observed and compared. The results showed that the survival rate of Anodonta woodiana was 100% at 25˚C in the salinity of 0 and 2.5 and 5; when the salinity is 10, the 24 h survival rate was 77% and the 48 h survival rate was 62%. When the temperature was set at 30˚C, the survival rate was 42%(in fresh water), 29%(salinity of 2.5) and 0(salinity of 5 and 10) respectively after 24 h, and the survival rate was all 0 after 48 h at 4 levels of salinity. Under each test salinity, the survival rate of individuals in the 25˚C experimental group was significantly higher than that in the 30˚C experimental group (P < 0.05). At 25˚C and 30˚C, ingestion rates increased with increasing salinity, reaching peak levels when the salinity increased to a certain point, then dropped following increasing salinity. At a salinity of 2.5, the ingestion rates reached its peak. And at the same salinity, the ingestion rates were higher at 25˚C than at 30˚C. Therefore, the salinity range of Anodonta woodiana is 0~5. The physiological state of Anodonta woodiana at 25˚C, including ingestion, is better than that at 30˚C, and the maximum ingestion rates occur at a salinity of 2.5.
郑 迪
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 77-83; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.72011

Abstract:
肠道气泡堆积是银鲳养殖过程中的常见病,具有发病快,死亡率高的特点,严重阻碍银鲳的规模养殖及推广。为研究肠道气泡堆积对银鲳组织代谢酶活力的影响,2019年3月于东海水产研究所福鼎研究中心采集了15尾肠道气泡堆积的银鲳为病鱼组(11.7 ± 0.8 cm, 42.8 ± 4.1 g),15尾健康银鲳为对照组(健康鱼组) (12.5 ± 0.7 cm, 48.6 ± 5.6 g),分别采集各组样品的肝脏,肾脏,肌肉和鳃组织,并对这四种组织谷草转氨酶活力(AST)、谷丙转氨酶活力(ALT)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和酸性磷酸酶活力(ACP)活力进行测定和比较,实验结果显示:病鱼组肌肉和肾脏中AST活力显著低于健康组(P Intestinal gas bubble accumulation is a common disease in the breeding process of silver pomfret, which is characterized by fast onset and high mortality, and seriously hinders the large-scale farm-ing and promotion of silver pomfret. In order to investigate the effect of intestinal gas bubble accu-mulation on the metabolizing enzyme activity of silver pomfret, fifteen diseased fish were chosen as group diseased (11.7 ± 0.8 cm, 42.8 ± 4.1 g) and fifteen healthy fish as group healthy (12.5 ± 0.7 cm, 48.6 ± 5.6 g). These fish were collected from Fuding research center of East China Sea Fisheries Re-search Institute in March 2019. Liver, kidney, muscle, and gill tissues of each group were collected and used to test their activities of AST, ALT, ALP, and ACP. The results showed that: the activities of in muscle and kidney in group diseased were significantly lower than those in group healthy (P < 0.05); the activities of ALT in liver and muscle in group diseased were significantly lower than those in group healthy (P < 0.05); the activities of ALP in four tissues of the two groups were significantly different; the activity of ACP in liver in group diseased were significantly lower than those in group healthy (P < 0.05), but in gill and kidney, it was significantly lower than those in group healthy (P < 0.05). The results showed that the intestinal gas bubble accumulation would lead to the disorder of tissue metabolism of silver pomfret, and had a great influence on the activity of ALT in muscle and ALP in kidney of silver pomfret. These two indexes of enzyme activity could be an important refer-ence for the detection and pathological analysis of the disease.
杨 蕊
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 48-57; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71008

Abstract:
为探明室内工厂化养殖和室外池塘养殖尖吻鲈(Lates calcarifer)形态性状与体重的关系及形态差异,在海南省陵水县室内工厂化车间及室外池塘对同一批次8月龄尖吻鲈的体重体重(y)、头长(x1)、躯干长(x2)、体长(x3)、全长(x4)、体高(x5)、体宽(x6)、眼间距(x7)、眼径(x8)、吻长(x9)、尾柄高(x10)、尾柄长(x11)等11个形态性状进行了测量,并进行了相关分析、通径分析和回归分析。结果显示,室内工厂化养殖尖吻鲈体重平均值为291.19 g,室外池塘养殖尖吻鲈体重平均值为432.64 g。2个养殖组尖吻鲈除了头长无显著差异外,在体重、躯干长、体长、全长、体高、体宽、眼间距、眼径、尾柄高和尾柄长等方面呈极显著差异(P The relationship between morphological attributes on body weight and morphological differentia-tion of Lates calcarifer was explored, 11 morphological attributes including head length (x1), stem length (x2), body length (x3), total length (x4), body height (x5), body width (x6), eye distance (x7), eye diameter (x8), snout length (x9), the caudal peduncle height (x10), the caudal peduncle length (x11) and y the body weight (y) was measured from Hainan Lingshui indoor industrial culture and outdoor pond culture population of eight month old L. calcarifer by correlation analysis, path anal-ysis and regression analysis. The results showed that the average body weight of L. calcarifer of in-door industrial culture was 291.19 g while the population of outdoor pond culture was 432.64 g. The results also showed that there were extremely significant differences except head length be-tween these two population (P < 0.01). There was a positive correlation among the morphological attributes and body weight of these two groups, and the correlation coefficients reached an ex-tremely significant level (P < 0.01). The path analysis revealed that the direct effects of total length, body height, body width and eye distance on body weight were extremely significant (P < 0.01) in indoor industrial culture population, while the direct effects of total length, body height, body width and eye diameter on body weight were highly significant (P < 0.01) in outdoor pond culture population. The analysis results of determination coefficients showed that the total decision coeffi-cient of morphological attributes to body weight is found to be 0.956 and 0.844 respectively, and indicating the morphological attributes are the main factors to body weight. The multiple regres-sion equation was expressed as yindustrial culture group = −590.25 + 1.21x4 + 3.20x5 + 5.43x6 + 4.93x7, ypond culture group = −713.19 + 1.95x4 + 5.63x5 + 4.53x6 − 13.18x8 were established by stepwise regres-sion analysis respectively.
强高 小
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 129-133; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73018

Abstract:
采集程海野生大眼圆吻鲴,在池塘养殖条件下,人工培育至性成熟,采用人工混合催产药物进行繁殖试验。通过比较发现,大眼圆吻鲴注射催产剂后自然产卵的方法最佳,不仅降低亲鱼的死亡率,而且受精率较高。本研究的结果将对大眼圆吻鲴人工繁育、苗种育成提供一定的技术上指导,为其种群资源的恢复打下坚实的基础。 The wild broodstocks are cultivated to sexual maturity under the condition of pond farming. The reproduction experiment was carried out by using artificial mixture of oxytocin drugs. The test showed that it was the best method for natural spawning after injection of oxytocin, which not only reduced mortality rate of broodstocks, but also had high fertilization rate. The results of this study will provide technical guidance for Distoechodon macrophthalmus artificial breeding and seedling breed breeding, and lay a solid foundation for its population resource recovery.
强高 小
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 134-141; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73019

Abstract:
采用PHA体内直接注射法制备了虫纹鳕鲈(Maccullochella peelii, Mitchell)染色体标本,经空气干燥法,Giemsa染色后,观察虫纹鳕鲈的染色体核型和特征,结果表明,虫纹鳕鲈染色体数目为48条,2n = 48所占的观察分裂相中的比例为82%;核型公式为:2n = 2sm + 10st + 36t,染色体臂数(NF)为50,其染色体相对长度范围为(5.40 ± 0.02)~(2.56 ± 0.01),未发现与性别相关的异型染色体。通过比较分析,虫纹鳕鲈属于高位类类群。本研究为麦鳕鲈属鱼类的细胞遗传学研究提供了重要资料,并为其种子资源的保护及人工繁育育种等奠定基础。 Metaphase of kidney cells was collected to study the karyotype of Murray Cod by in vivo injection of PHA and colchicine, chromosome samples were obtained by using the olchicine-air drying technique, and Giemsa staining. The results showed that the diploid chromosome number of Murray Cod was 48, and 82 spreads showed 2n = 48 chromosomes, which represented 82% of the observed metaphase. The karyotypic formulae are 2n = 2sm + 10st + 36t and NF = 50. The relative length of chromosome was in the range of (5.40 ± 0.02) - ( 2.56 ± 0.01), and the sex chromosome were not found in this species. The comparison of karyotyaes suggested that M. peelii might belong to an advanced and specific evolutionary group. Our study will promote the understanding of the cytogenetic research of the genus Maccullochella, and lay the foundation for the protection of germplasm resources and artificial breeding.
丽秦 亚
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 124-128; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73017

Abstract:
近年来,水产苗种检疫体系受到了社会各界人士的关注,但目前水产苗种检疫还并不完善。笔者从产业必展、食品安全及经济学的角度来阐释水产苗种检疫的重要性,介绍水产苗种检疫的现状和存在的问题,并对痛点问题的解决提出了针对性的解决思路和发展建议。 In recent years, the aquatic seeding quarantine system has been concerned by people; however, the aquatic seeding quarantine system has been not perfect. The author explained the importance of aquatic seeding quarantine from the perspectives of industry development, food safety and economics; the author explains the importance of aquatic seedling quarantine, introduces the current situation and existing problems of aquatic seedling quarantine, and puts forward some targeted solutions and development suggestions.
仁高 淳
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 148-155; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73021

Abstract:
本文通过对江苏省沿海地区的地下水资源分布和质量状况的调查,评估省区的地下水资源分布、类型和水质水量以及可开发利用的潜力。调查研究表明:1) 江苏省东临黄海,海岸线长1040公里,海水可养殖面积139.00千公顷。地处长江、淮、沂、沭、泗等河流下游,湖库河塘沟密布,水域面积大,类型多,有着便利的海洋渔业和内陆渔业,水产资源丰富。内陆水面2600多万亩,目前养殖的经济鱼类30~40种,其中海水鱼类有鲈鱼等少于10个种类;2) 江苏省沿海养殖区域整体地下水资源匮乏;3) 有些养殖场地出现地表面下沉;4) 鱼类可养殖用地受限制;5) 江苏省南部地区如南通市等地区地下水质水温偏高,不适合海水鲆鲽鱼的养殖。建议在现有条件下采取如下措施:1) 建设集约型养殖体系,广泛开展工厂化循环水养殖模式;2) 对适宜养殖区进行合理规划,集中管理。3) 利用南部地下偏高的特点,可以开展鲹科鱼类等高温品种的养殖发展。 Based on the investigations of distribution and quality of the underground water resources in the coastal of Shandong Province, we assess provincial underground water resources distribution. Based on the survey of the distribution and quality of groundwater resources in coastal areas of Jiangsu Province, this paper evaluates the distribution, type and water quality of ground underwater resources and the potential of exploitation and utilization in the provinces. The investigation and research shows that: 1) Jiangsu Province, east of the Yellow Sea, the coastline of 1040 kilometers, marine aquaculture area of 139.00 thousand hectares. The reservoir pond ditch is dense. Inland surface of more than 26 million Mu, the current culture of economic fish 30 - 40 species, of which sea fish have mackerel and other less than 10 species; 2) The overall underground water resources in the coastal aquaculture area of Jiangsu Province are scarce. 3) The ground of some breeding area was sinked. 4) The area of the farmed land is limited. 5) The underground water quality temperature in southern Jiangsu province, such as Nantong City, is high, and it is not suitable for the cultivation of sea otters. It is suggested that the following measures should be taken under the existing conditions: 1) The construction of intensive aquaculture system, extensive development of factory-based recycled water aquaculture model; 2) Reasonable planning and centralized management of suitable breeding areas; 3) Using the characteristics of the high underground water in the south, we can carry out the breeding and development of high-temperature species such as Carangidae fish.
君肇 慧
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 100-106; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.72014

Abstract:
为补充现有传染性胰脏坏死病毒(Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, IPNV)分子生物学检测手段的不足,本研究以Genbank IPNV基因组中编码A片段多聚蛋白的核苷酸序列为靶序列,针对目标序列的6个区域设计了1对RT-LAMP内引物及1对RT-LAMP外引物。通过优化RT-LAMP方法的退火温度、反应时间等反应条件,同时进行了灵敏度试验及特异性试验,建立了IPNV RT-LAMP检测技术。试验结果为:通过优化各反应条件,结果退火温度为62℃、反应时间为45 min时为IPNV RT-LAMP最佳反应条件;特异性试验显示该方法只与目标病原IPNV有扩增反应,与其他水生动物病原无交叉反应,说明该方法具有良好的特异性;灵敏性试验显示该方法能够检测IPNV RNA的低限为0.01 pg RNA,其检测灵敏度是常规PCR方法的100倍,表明本技术具备较高的灵敏度。试验结果表明,本研究建立的IPNV RT-LAMP技术特异性强、敏感性高、操作简便、反应快速,可通过肉眼判定结果,该方法特别适用于传染性胰脏坏死病的现场及野外检测与诊断,为传染性胰脏坏死病的检测及监测提供了重要的技术手段。In order to supplement the lack of molecular biological detection methods of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the nucleotide sequence encoding A-fragment polypeptide in GenBank IPNV genome was used as the target sequence in this study. A pair of RT-LAMP (reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification) inner primers and a pair of RT-LAMP outer primers were designed for six regions of the target sequence. The IPNV RT-LAMP detection technology was estab-lished by optimizing the reaction conditions of RT-LAMP, such as annealing temperature and reac-tion time, and sensitivity test and specificity test were carried out. The test results showed that the best reaction conditions of IPNV RT-LAMP were annealing temperature 62℃ and reaction time 45 min by optimizing the reaction conditions. The specificity test showed that this method only had amplification reaction with IPNV and no cross reaction with other aquatic animal pathogens, which indicated that this method had good specificity. The sensitivity test showed that this method can detect IPNV RNA with a low limit of 0.01 pg RNA, and its detection sensitivity is 100 times higher than that of the conventional PCR method, indicating that this technology has high sensitivity. The results show that the IPNV RT-LAMP technology established in this study has strong specificity, high sensitivity, simple operation and fast response, and can be judged by the naked eye. This method is particularly suitable for the field and field detection and diagnosis of infectious pancreatic necrosis disease, and provides an important technical means for the detection and monitoring of infectious pancreatic necrosis disease.
景曹 文
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 69-76; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.72010

Abstract:
为提高刀鲚生态养殖水平,开展了刀鲚“生态活水”育种试验。试验表明,“生态活水”能全面改善池塘生态环境,加快刀鲚苗种生长,提高成活率,实现节能降耗节本和提质增产增收。试验池刀鲚鱼种平均亩产量分别为19.06 kg和20.2 kg,分别比对照池高出23.0%和30.5%。试验池亩平纯效益分别达8130元和8294元,比对照池亩平纯效益3893元分别提高1.08倍和1.13倍。In order to improve the ecological cultivation level of Coilia nasus, the experiment of cultivating Coilia nasus seedlings with "ecological living water" was carried out. The experiment shows that "ecological living water" can improve the ecological environment of the pond, accelerate the growth of Coilia nasus seedlings, improve the survival rate, realize energy conservation and con-sumption reduction, reduce costs, improve quality, increase production and income. The average yield per 667 square meters of Coilia nasus was 19.06 kg and 20.2 kg respectively, 23.0% and 30.5% higher than that of the control pond. The net benefits of the test tank per 667 square meters are 8130 yuan and 8294 yuan respectively, which are 1.08 times and 1.13 times higher than those of the control tank per 667 square meters.
浦陈 刘
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 15-23; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71003

Abstract:
目的:在室内循环水养殖系统中开展不同投喂频率和投喂量对大口黑鲈幼鱼(Micropterus salmoides)生长性能和生理指标影响的研究。方法:设置2个投喂水平(2%和4%的鱼体重量/日)和2个投喂频率(2次和3次/日),共4个投喂处理组,每组设3个重复对照,在12个500 L容积的室内循环水养殖缸中开展养殖试验8周。结果:结果发现,增重率和特定生长率均以T1组最高,显著高于T2和T4组(P 0.05)。饲料系数的最高值和最低值分别出现在T4组和T1组(P 0.05)。T4组的肌肉水分含量相比于T1和T3组显著上升,但粗蛋白和粗脂肪含量则显著下降(P Objective: The present trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding frequency and feeding level treatment on growth and physiological indices of juvenile largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (initial body weight 21.70 ± 0.56 g) in indoor cyclic water system. Method: Totally of 12 tanks were contained (500 L) with 2 feeding levels (2 and 4% body weight/day) and 2 feeding frequencies (2 and 3 times/day) were designed, altogether including 4 treatments with triplicate tanks respectively. 15 fish were selected randomly in each tank and the feeding trial lasted 8 weeks. Result: The results showed that the weight gain and specific growth rate of fish were higher in T1 gruop than those of fish in T2 and T4 groups (P < 0.05), and the data in T3 group were also higher than that of in T4 group (P < 0.05). The highest and lowest feed coefficient ratio was existed in T4 and T1 group, respectively (P < 0.05). The dorsal muscle moisture content in T4 group was significantly higher than those of fish in T1 and T3 groups, while the protein and lipid levels in T4 group showed decreasing trend (P < 0.05). The relatively higher activity of lipase in stomach were found in fish in T1 and T3 groups , and the highest activity of amylase was in T1 group (P < 0.05). The highest activity of trypsin in foregut was also observed in T1 group (P < 0.05). The T4 group showed the highest serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase levels, and the data in T2 group was higher than those of in T1 and T3 groups (P < 0.05). The activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in serum were relatively higher in T1 and T3 groups, on the contrary, the malondialdehyde levels were lower in these two treatments than those of fish in T2 and T4 groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The data generated from the current study suggested that feeding level at 4% BW per day with feeding frequency 2 times per day was optimal feeding strategy for juvenile M. salmoides.
梅杨 晓
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 163-169; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73023

Abstract:
本文介绍了池塘循环微流水养殖模式的组成和优势,总结了池塘循环微流水养殖模式的发展现状及存在的问题,最后提出了优化该模式的建议。 This article introduces the composition and advantages of In-pond Raceway Aquaculture Technology model, summarizes the existing problems of the current development of In-pond Raceway System, and finally puts forward suggestions for optimizing the model.
华姚 高
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 35-41; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71006

Abstract:
[目的]探索研究在温棚池塘罗氏沼虾养殖模式下开展美国鲥鱼混养的效果。选取3个温棚池塘,其中T1和T2对照池塘单养罗氏沼虾(放养密度4万尾/亩),T3试验塘放养相同密度罗氏沼虾,并混养美国鲥鱼苗种6000尾/亩。总养殖时间210天,其中混养期135天。[结果]结果发现,混养模式下罗氏沼虾的存活率、起捕规格和亩均产量比单养模式池塘平均值分别提高4.3%,17.3%和22.4%,而饲料系数则是最低值。美国鲥鱼幼鱼的存活率和特定生长率分别为95.5%和3.54%/day,亩均产量达到399.2 kg。T3试验塘罗氏沼虾亩均利润最高,达到0.99万元。[结论]本试验表明通过温棚池塘养殖开展罗氏沼虾和美国鲥鱼混养模式具有可行性。 (Objective) The present study was conducted to explore the effects of polyculture model of Macro-brachium rosenbergii and Alosa sapidissima under greenhouse pond. (Method) Three ponds were stocked 40 thousands per 666 m2 of M. rosenbergii respectively (T1 - T3), and 6 thousands per 666 m2 of A. sapidissima were cultured in T3 pond as polyculture test group. The total feeding trial lasted 210 days, and 135 days were polyculture. (Result) The results showed that the survival rate (SR), final body weight and average product of M. rosenbergii in T3 pond increased with 4.3%, 17.3% and 22.4% than those of mean data in T1 and T2 ponds, respectively , while the lowest feed con-version rate (FCR) was found in T3 pond. The SR and the specific growth rate of A. sapidissima in T3 pond were 95.5% and 3.54%/day, and the average product was 399.2 kg per 666 m2. The highest output profit of M. rosenbergii (9.9 thousands per 666 m2) was also observed in T3 pond. (Conclu-sion) The results generated from the current study suggested that the polyculture model of M. ros-enbergii and A. sapidissima under greenhouse pond was practicable.
王 峰
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 188-197; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.74027

Abstract:
线纹海马(Hippocampus erectus)是如今海马养殖业热门品种,因其具有高抗病性、繁殖能力强等优势,线纹海马逐渐变成了海马养殖业的首选种。线纹海马在未性成熟前较难分辨雌雄,为了解线纹海马雌雄个体间形态性状的差异,本研究测量及分析了80尾线纹海马5项计量性状及5项标准化性状。对这5项标准化性状进行主成分分析、R-聚类分析,分析得出线纹海马雌雄外部形态差异主要集中在头部和形体特征方面。利用逐步判别分析,从5个标准化性状中筛选出体长:头长、体长:体宽、体长:尾长3个标准化性状并建立了雌雄判别方程式,并将测得样品数据代入方程式重新鉴定,综合准确率为86.25%,经t检验发现,雌雄个体在体长:头长、体长:体宽和体长:尾长上的差异极显著,雄性的体宽、尾长相较于雌性更宽、更长,而雄性的头长相较于雌性则更短。综合此性状差异,可对实现线纹海马快速简便雌雄判别提供一定的方法及理论依据。 Hippocampus erectus is a popular species in hippocampus aquaculture today. Because of its high disease resistance and strong reproductive ability, Hippocampus erectus has gradually become the first choice in hippocampal aquaculture industry. It is difficult to distinguish male from female in Hippocampus erectus before immature. Six quantitative and five standardized traits of 80 Hippocampus erectus were measured and analyzed, in order to understand the difference of morphological characteristics between male and female in Hippocampus erectus. Principal component analysis and R-cluster analysis were used to analyze the five standardized traits. The results showed that the external morphological differences between male and female Hippocampus erectus mainly focused on head and body characteristics. Stepwise discriminant analysis was used to screen out three standardized traits of BL:HL, BL:BW, BL:TaL. The discriminant equation of male and female was established. The measured sample data were re-identified by the equation. The overall accuracy rate was 86.25%. The results of t-test showed that there were significant differences in BL:HL, BL:BW, BL:TaL between males and females. The body width and tail length of males were wider and longer than that of females, while the head length of males was shorter than that of females. By synthesizing the difference of these traits, we can provide a certain method and theoretical basis for realizing quick and simple discrimination between male and female in Hippocampus erectus.
杰周 胜
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 58-68; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71009

Abstract:
为了系统观察并描述尖吻鲈胚胎发育及其各时期特征,试验采用人工注射催产的方法获得尖吻鲈受精卵,然后使用体视显微镜进行拍照、观察,描述各个发育阶段的特征。研究发现,在水温为(29 ± 1)℃的孵化条件下,尖吻鲈受精卵历时15 h 50 min孵化出膜,82 h鳔形成。胚胎发育过程及孵化后发育经历了受精卵阶段、卵裂阶段、囊胚阶段、原肠胚阶段、神经胚阶段、器官形成阶段、孵化出膜阶段和胚后发育8个阶段,共分为32个时期。尖吻鲈与硬骨鱼类发育特征基本相同,不同的是尾牙期和眼囊形成期几乎同时进行。该实验详细描述了热带海水经济鱼类——尖吻鲈的胚胎发育过程,为提高和优化海水鱼类人工繁育和养殖技术提供重要的理论依据。 In order to systematically observe and describe the embryonic development and characteristics of various stages of barramundi, artificial fertilization method was used to obtain the fertilized eggs, and then observe by a stereo microscope, and the characteristics of each development stage were described. Incubation at a water temperature of (29 ± 1)˚C, the fertilized egg of barramundi hatched for 15 h and 50 min, and swim bladder formed at 82 h. The embryonic development pro-cess is divided into eight stages: fertilized egg, cleavage stage, blastocyst stage, gastrula stage, neu-roblast stage and organogenesis stage and post-hatching development. The eight stages are divided into 32 periods. This experiment described the embryonic development process of tropical marine economic fish-barramundi in detail, and provided an important theoretical basis for improving and optimizing the artificial breeding and breeding technology of marine fish.
桥王 剑
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 30-34; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71005

Abstract:
金鱼含有丰富的变异类型,是世界上最重要的观赏鱼之一。本实验比较分析了八个常见金鱼品种(草种为草金,蛋种为望天、虎头和水泡,文种为琉金、珍珠、狮头和鹤顶红)全鱼和不同组织的脂肪含量,发现金鱼不同品种在全鱼、腹肌、背肌、肝胰脏脂肪含量以及与脂肪代谢相关的血清生化指标上存在显著不同。这提示不同金鱼品种可能对饲料脂肪含量存在不同的需求,为金鱼不同品种专用饲料研究和开发提供了科学依据,同时也表明金鱼是研究鱼类脂肪代谢差异的良好模型。 Goldfish, one of the most important ornamental fish in the world, is extremely rich in morphologi-cal variations. The present study was conducted to analyze and compare the crude lipid content in whole fish, abdominal muscle, dorsal muscles, hepatopancreas and biochemical index of serum among eight goldfish breeds. Here, we report that both crude lipid content and distribution are varied between different goldfish breeds. This suggests that dietary lipid requirement might be different from breed to breed. Our results not only provide scientific basis for the research and development of special feed for different varieties of goldfish, but also indicate that goldfish is an excellent model for lipid metabolism research.
全杨 安
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71004

Abstract:
中国是世界上最早开始珍珠养殖的国家之一,也是最早开始规模化育珠的国家之一。目前有资料记载的最早的规模化育珠技术出现在德清一带,高峰时期有5000余户从事珍珠养殖。德清珍珠系统是德清地区宝贵的农业文化遗产,具有极其重要的生态、经济、文化、社会和科研价值。系统地研究德清珍珠养殖技术的起源及传播特点,有利于德清地区珍珠文化的保护与传承。 China is one of the earliest countries in the world to start pearl culture, and is also one of the earli-est countries to start large-scale pearl cultivation. At present, the earliest large-scale pearl breed-ing technology recorded in the data appeared in the area of Deqing. During the peak period, more than 5,000 households were engaged in pearl farming. The Deqing Pearl System is a valuable agri-cultural cultural heritage in Deqing area, and has extremely important ecological, economic, cul-tural, social and scientific research values. A systematic study of the origin and dissemination of pearl culture in Deqing is beneficial to the protection and inheritance of pearl culture in Deqing.
李 住
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 156-162; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73022

Abstract:
本实验研究了克氏原螯虾不同发育时期肝胰腺指数变化情况,并比较了肝胰腺中蛋白、总脂、总糖、水分及脂肪酸组成变化,结果表明,1) 克氏原螯虾肝胰腺指数在性腺发育处于六期时(排卵后)和一期时最高,随着性腺发育逐步成熟,雌性克氏原螯虾肝胰腺指数持续下降,此时期也是崇明地区克氏原螯虾的繁殖高峰,性腺发育处于四期时,肝胰腺指数达到最低值。2) 随着性腺的发育,肝胰腺中水分含量逐渐升高,肝胰腺的干物质中,蛋白、总糖含量均随着性腺发育显著下降。3) 肝胰腺脂肪酸组成上,C16:0随着性腺发育逐渐减少,C16:1n7和C18:3n3随着性腺发育先增加后减少,产卵后达到最低,而C18:2n6随着性腺发育逐渐增加。4) 三种高不饱和脂肪酸C20:4n6 (花生四烯酸ARA),C20:5n3 (EPA),C22:6n3 (DHA)均呈显著减少趋势。 This study investigated the variation of hepatopancreas index (HSI), as well as hepatosomatic moisture, lipid, protein, carbo and fat acid contents, of female crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) during the ovarian development period. The results showed that: 1) The decreasing trend was observed on HSI with the development of P. clarkia ovarian from Stage I to Stage IV, but further ovarian development from Stage V to Stage VI increased the HSI. 2) Hepatosomatic moisture showed a slightly increasing trend with the ovarian development, but hepatosomatic protein and carbo contents showed markedly deceasing trends with ovarian development. 3) As for fat acid composition, C16:0 and C18:2n6 respectively showed a slightly decreasing and increasing trend with ovarian development, in addition, C16:1n7 and C18:3n3 both showed an increasing trend with ovarian development from Stage I to Stage IV, but leveled off thereafter. 4) C20:4n6 (ARA), C20:5n3 (EPA) and C22:6n3 (DHA) all showed a decreasing trend with ovarian development.
宗周 文
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 42-47; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.71007

Abstract:
与黄鳝(Monopterus albus)育苗中常用的配合饲料及熟蛋黄相比,探讨枝角类作为黄鳝稚鱼(体长为33.09 ± 0.72 mm,体重为24.35 ± 2.26 mg)开口饵料的可利用价值,本研究在玻璃温室大棚中对上述3种饵料进行了为期24天的对比观察试验。结果表明:以枝角类作为黄鳝稚鱼的开口饵料,稚鱼成活率最高(达到100%),极显著地高于蛋黄组(P 0.05);枝角组黄鳝稚鱼生长速度最快,其体长为51.02 ± 2.06 mm,体重为91.10 ± 12.22 mg,极显著地高于蛋黄组和配合饲料组(P To study the exploitation of cladocerans as a kind of opening diet of Eels larvae (Monopterus albus) with body length was 33.09 ± 0.72 mm and body weight was 24.35 ± 2.26 mg, cladocerans were used in the glass greenhouse for a period of 24 days in comparison with the formula feed and cooked egg yolk used in the larvae of Rice Field Eels. The results showed that the survival rate of larvae fed with cladocerans was the highest (100%), which was very significantly higher than that of egg yolk group (P 0.05). The fastest growing of larvae also occurred in group fed with cladocerans, with an average body length of 51.02 ± 2.06 mm, average body weight of 91.10 ± 12.22 mg, which was very significantly higher than that of other treatment groups (P
友王 保
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 107-114; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.72015

Abstract:
鲟鱼是我国名贵冷水鱼类之一,其生长快速、体型巨大、肉质鲜美,具有重要的科研价值和极高的经济价值。近十年来(2009~2018),我国鲟鱼养殖产量虽然从2.9万吨增长到9.7万吨,产量增加了2.34倍,但养殖地域空间分布和地域产量变动非常巨大。本文依据中国渔业统计年鉴(2010~2019)报道数据,对十年来我国鲟鱼养殖产量进行统计分析并预测其发展趋势,以期为我国鲟鱼养殖产业的发展提供参考。Sturgeon is one of valuable cold-water fish in China, and famous for its growing fast, giant body size, and delicious meat. It has important scientific research and extremely high economic value. In re-cently decade (2009~2018), the production of sturgeon cultivation has increased from 29,000 tons to 97,000 tons, and increased by 2.34 times, however, the spatial distribution and regional produc-tion changed greatly. In order to provide a reference for the development of sturgeon culture in China, a statistical analysis was made on the production of sturgeon aquaculture reported by China Fisheries Statistical Yearbook (2010~2019), and forecast the developmental trend in this paper.
晴盛 雪
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 115-123; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73016

Abstract:
本实验通过PCR方法检测34株广西凡纳滨对虾源副溶血弧菌中喹诺酮类耐药基因qnrC、qnrS和qnrVC的分布情况。耐药基因检测结果表明,34株副溶血弧菌中qnrC、qnrS和qnrVC基因的检出率分别为2.9%、0.0%与2.9%。qnrC基因在防城港市、钦州市、北海市的检出率分别为16.7%、0%、0%。qnrS基因在防城港市、钦州市、北海市的检出率均为0%。qnrVC基因在防城港市、钦州市、北海市的检出率分别为0%、0%、6.3%,三种耐药基因的检出率在三个市的副溶血弧菌之间差异均不显著(P > 0.05)。基于qnrC基因的氨基酸序列同源性比较结果表明,防城港株F17383与副溶血弧菌TOE26912.1、TOP53441.1、OQU02262.1亲缘关系最近,氨基酸同源性分别为100.0%、98.8%和98.8%。基于qnrVC基因氨基酸序列同源性比较结果表明,北海株B13121与副溶血弧菌AXI69764.1亲缘关系最近,同源性为99.4%。 In this study, the distribution of quinolone resistance genes qnrC, qnrS, and qnrVC in 34 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from shrimp in Guangxi was detected by PCR. The detection results of antibiotic resistance genes showed that the detection rates of qnrC, qnrS and qnrVC genes in 34 strains of V. parahaemolyticus are 2.9%, 0.0% and 2.9% respectively. The detection rates of qnrC gene in Fangchenggang City, Qinzhou City and Beihai City were 16.7%, 0% and 0%, respectively. The detection rates of qnrS gene in Fangchenggang City, Qinzhou City and Beihai City were all 0%. The detection rates of qnrVC gene in Fangchenggang City, Qinzhou City and Beihai City were 0%, 0% and 6.3%, respectively. The detection rates of the three antibiotic resistance genes were not significantly different among the strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus of three cities (P > 0.05). Based on the homology comparison of the amino acid sequences of qnrC gene, the Fangchenggang strain F17383 had the closest genetic relationship with V. parahaemolyticus TOE26912.1, TOP53441.1 and OQU02262.1, sharing homology of 100.0%, 98.8% and 98.8%, respectively. And based on the homology comparison of the amino acid sequences of qnrVC gene, the Beihai strain B13121 had the closest genetic relationship with V. parahaemolyticus AXI69764.1, sharing homology of 99.4%.
玉汤 璞
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 7, pp 142-147; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2020.73020

Abstract:
弧菌病是一种由弧菌引起的水产动物细菌性疾病,在我国海水养殖业中具有流行广,发病率高,死亡率高等特点。长期使用抗生素药物会导致细菌耐药性增强以及产生抗生素残留等问题。而中草药具有抗菌、副作用小、不易产生抗药性等优点。基于此,笔者对历年来关于中草药对弧菌的抗菌作用进行综述,旨在为弧菌病的防治提供科学的参考依据。 Vibriosis is a kind of bacterial disease of aquatic animals caused by Vibrio. It has the characteristics of widespread prevalence, high morbidity and extremely high mortality in mariculture industry in China. Long-term use of antibiotic drugs may increase bacterial resistance and antibiotic residues. Most of Chinese herbal medicine has good antibacterial ability with little side effect; meanwhile it’s not easy to develop drug resistance. Based on these above, the inhibitory effect of different kinds of Chinese herbal medicine on Vibrio was summarized in order to provide scientific reference for the prevention and treatment of Vibrio.
涛李 会
Open Journal of Fisheries Research, Volume 6, pp 131-134; https://doi.org/10.12677/ojfr.2019.63017

Abstract:
本实验在工厂化流水养殖条件下,研究不同的投喂率对大菱鲆幼鱼生长的影响。实验设置5档投喂率,分别为1.2%、1.5%、1.8%、2.1%和2.4%,对大菱鲆幼鱼(7.14 ± 0.04) g进行为期6周的养殖实验。结果表明,随着投喂率的提高,大菱鲆幼鱼特定生长率显著升高(P P > 0.05)。饵料系数随着投喂率的增加呈现出先降低再升高的趋势,并在投喂率为1.5%时达到最小值,但在1.2%、1.5%和1.8%之间差异不显著(P > 0.05)。综上所述,大菱鲆幼鱼在密度为240尾/m3、水温为(13.5 ± 0.5)℃流水养殖条件下,适宜的投饲率推荐为1.5%~1.8%。 The experiment was conducted to study the effects of different feeding rates on the growth and survival rate of juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) (7.14 ± 0.04) g under factory flowing water culture system. The feeding rates were 1.2%, 1.5%, 1.8%, 2.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The results showed that the specific growth rate increased significantly (P P > 0.05). With the increase in feeding rate, the feed coefficient decreased at first and then increased, the lowest value was in the 1.5% group, however, there were no significant differences among 1.2%, 1.5% and 1.8% groups (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the optimum feeding rate of juvenile turbot was recommended as 1.5% - 1.8% at a density of 240 fish/m3 and a water temperature of (13.5 ± 0.5)˚C.
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