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H.B. Zhang, Y.J. Cui, J.Y. Zhang, R.J. Miao, C.L. Liu, Y.J. Han
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0104

Abstract:
As a major group of insects, locusts frequently cause agricultural damage, however, they have high economic value due to their rich nutritional content. In this paper, we systematically summarise the research results on the species, distribution, and functional composition of locusts in China over the past three decades and analyse the differences in research results in relation to experimental methods, locust species, and the experimental dates. In addition, we also introduce the methods for obtaining mass locusts, and discuss the edible, medicinal and feed usage of locusts, and prospect the exploitation of locust resources in order to provide a reference for locust-related research.
D.A. Cheon, T. Jang,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0131

Abstract:
The black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), has become one of the most economically important insects that can be a sustainable replacement for traditional feed for swine, poultry, and aquaculture. Despite its emerging importance, studies examining the nutritional requirement of BSF have been scarce. Here we used nutritional geometry approach to determine the separate and combined effects of dietary protein and carbohydrate content on multiple life-history traits and body composition linked to fitness in BSF. BSF larvae were reared on one of 32 chemically defined diets that varied in protein-to-carbohydrate ratio (P:C=1:16, 1:8, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, or 8:1) and in protein plus carbohydrate concentration (P+C=60, 120, 180, or 240 g/l). Females developed more slowly into larger adults than males, but two sexes responded to dietary variation in protein and carbohydrate in a similar manner. The topography of the nutritional performance landscapes mapped for all measured traits differed significantly from one another, with the optimal P:C ratio being 1:1.71 for preadult survivorship, 1:1.56 – 1:1.11 for development time, 1:3.36 – 1:3.16 for body weight at adult emergence, and 1:1.83 – 1:1.40 for growth rate. Significant divergence in nutritional optima among these components of fitness indicates that the occurrence of fundamental life-history trade-off can be mediated by macronutrient intake. The index representing the preadult performance of BSF had a nonlinear relationship with dietary protein, with the peak centred at the intermediate P:C ratios of 1:1.43 – 1:1.37. The optimal P:C ratio was 1:2.12 – 1:1.70 for lean body weight and 1:14.14 – 1:10.82 for lipid content. Our results highlight the importance of the balanced composition of dietary protein and carbohydrate for optimising BSF performance and have implications for enhancing the mass production of this beneficial species.
, S. Belluco, S. Bellezza Oddon, A. Ricci, L. Bonizzi, D. Lupi, S. Savoldelli, I. Biasato, C. Caimi, A. Mascaretti, et al.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0121

Abstract:
The house cricket Acheta domesticus is one of the species of major interest as alternative protein source for humans in the recent research of sustainable and nutritious sources of food. However, grain feeds, feed for poultry and soybean still represent common source of feeds for the insect industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of some agro-food by-products on the growth parameters of the crickets and the nutritional composition of the final cricket meal. Our study included five by-products (maize grain distiller, fruits and vegetables, grape marc, and two brewery’s wastes), while hen feed was used as a control diet. Substrates were analysed for their microbiological contamination prior to be provided to crickets. No Listeria and Salmonella were detected, but high microbial counts were observed. Crickets grown on the given by-products showed significant differences on the insect’s weight starting from the third week. High mortality was observed on all substrates, except on maize distiller and the control diet. The final cricket meal showed a similar protein content (66-68% as is), while the lipid content was higher in the meal from cricket reared on maize distiller (22% as is). Finally, microbiological and chemical analyses on the cricket meals did not show safety concerns for the consumers. The by-products studied, except maize grain distiller, did not support an optimal cricket rearing, but more studies are necessary to identify a mix-formulation meeting the cricket nutritional requirements.
, A.W. Mukhebi, M.A. Orinda, C.M. Tanga
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0066

Abstract:
Black soldier fly (BSF) farming is emerging as a new farm enterprise in Kenya poised to provide high-quality and affordable alternative protein sources for animal feed production. Consequently, commercialisation and adoption require farmers to understand if the enterprise is economically viable. This study sought to assess the determinants of profitability of the BSF farm enterprise. A census survey was conducted whereby 34 well-established smallholder BSF farmers were interviewed. A double log regression analysis on the determinants of profitability of the BSF farm enterprise was done. The results revealed that 93.6% of the variation in enterprise gross margin was explained by the independent variables. Feed and household size contributed positively and significantly to the enterprise gross margin. Labour was significantly and negatively correlated to the enterprise gross margin. Farm size, gender, level of education, and age of the farmer did not significantly influence the gross margin of the enterprise. Furthermore, the survey showed that a 1% increase in man-hours spent in the BSF farming enterprise would result in a 0.34% reduction in the gross margin while a 1% increase in the usage of the rearing substrate would lead to a 1.38% increase in the gross margin. There is a need for farmers to reduce the man-hours spent in the BSF farms but at the same time increase significantly the utilisation of more rearing substrate to improve their profitability. However, a long-term socio-economic impact assessment on the BSF farming enterprise would be valuable to attract investors and interest in the insect production sector for animal feed.
, S. Chen, X. Wang
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1263-1273; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0011

Abstract:
Vespine wasps, along with other insects, are undergoing decreases at alarming rates. However, wasps are universally disliked by the public and therefore receive little conservation attention. This antipathy may be caused by the vespine sting, which can cause great pain and severe allergic reactions in humans, but it is most likely a result of a lack of public awareness of the various ecosystem services provided by wasps. In this study, we conducted an ethno-zoological survey on the use of vespine wasps, underlining their economic value by conducting face-to-face interviews with local gatherers and sellers in a market in Guiyang city, China. Five species were observed in trade. The larvae and pupae are considered highly nutritional foods with prices ranging from 160 to 300 yuan per kilogram, whereas adults and empty combs are used to produce medicinal wines to cure rheumatism and arthritis. Using the weight of nests encountered in the market, we found that the sale of one nest from each of the five recorded species can produce an economic income up to the average disposable income per year for a rural inhabitant living in this city. Our study can be regarded as a small but important step to promote a positive image of wasps to the public. To reconcile the conflict between vespine stings and conservation, we recommend removing but not destroying nests that threaten people for domestication and sustainable use by experienced gatherers. Furthermore, local knowledge can be incorporated into the management of this threat to public safety.
D. Deruytter, C.I. Rumbos,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1183-1194; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0029

Abstract:
During the last decade the insect sector has witnessed a tremendous growth. A lot of scientific knowledge has been accumulated regarding insect production, processing and industrialisation. However, an issue that has been often overlooked is the management of insect pest infestations in insect production plants. Pyralid moths appear to be the most prevalent insect pest-species in mealworm farms. Although not directly affecting the mealworm larvae, these species can cause severe problems infesting the feed. Their presence in the production facility can lead to the contamination of the mealworm protein with moth protein and the disruption of sieving and processing due to the larval webbing. The management of moth infestations in insect rearing units is rather challenging, as most commonly applied insecticide-based control measures cannot be implemented due to their negative impact on insect production. Therefore, moth control should be based on the integration of several alternative strategies in a holistic approach that combines improved sanitation and hygiene with non-chemical control measures. The application of extreme temperatures, biological control, mating disruption and other control tools for the management of insect infestations in insect producing facilities is being discussed within this review.
M.C. Reguzzi, F. Cominelli, M. Bardone, R. Nicoli Aldini, O. Chiesa, M. Panini, G. Casu,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1177-1181; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0032

Abstract:
Livestock farms represent a source of attraction for other species, which find food resources on the animals themselves, in the food supplied to them, in their manure, etc. Insect farms too can suffer infestation by different organisms living on substrates or behaving as parasites and/or predators. Breeding of the black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.) requires organic materials which are attractive for other arthropods (commensals, mycetophages, scavengers, etc.). During recent years, the breeding system adopted at the Di.Pro.Ve.S. of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza (Italy), has suffered the presence of the following ‘pests’: Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera Phoridae), Muscina stabulans (Fallén) (Diptera Muscidae), Monomorium pharaonis (L.) (Hymenoptera Formicidae) and Caloglyphus berlesei (Michael) (Astigmata Acaridae). The use of fermented fruit, vegetables or of an artificial diet to induce egg laying proved to be attractive for small flies such as M. scalaris. This species also takes advantage of the aqueous sugar solution used to feed BSF adults. Infestations by M. scalaris are worrying because its larvae can compete efficiently with those of the BSF in substrate colonisation. Likewise, M. stabulans can be attracted by the substrates, even though this species has not shown the same levels of high competitiveness as the previously mentioned species. M. pharaonis was observed to prey on eggs and newborn BSF larvae. Lastly, infestations by the mite C. berlesei were detected when conditions for the larval development of the BSF were not optimal. This species could also be harmful for the workers involved in the breeding. The establishment of insect and mite populations inside BSF rearing boxes suggests that a careful analysis should be made based on the location of the breeding facility and a series of measures should of course be adopted when this kind of structure and activities are designed and realised.
, K.J. Gitonga, F.M. Khamis, R.S. Copeland, P. Finyange, R. Odhiambo, G. Ddamulira, C.M. Tanga, S. Subramanian
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1243-1253; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0018

Abstract:
Palm weevils, Rhynchophorus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) double as devastating invasive pests of palms, and delicacies in many communities. This study evaluated ethyl acetate and 3-methyl-octan-4-ol for trapping palm weevils from coconut, oil and raffia palms in Kenya and Uganda; taking into account the distance of traps on oil palm from a forest or raffia palm. Eggs from the weevils from different locations were incubated and their larvae reared on sugarcane under laboratory conditions. All the 285 weevils collected were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as Rhynchophorus phoenicis, and the catch was female-biased. 3-methyl-octan-4-ol attracted more weevils than ethyl acetate. More weevils were caught at ~100 m away from the forest than within 15 m outside the forest; and on raffia palm than oil palm irrespective of distance apart. Eggs took ~4 d to develop and 95-100% of pupae developed into adults, irrespective of the collection site. Larval and pupal developmental periods for weevils from Uganda were longer than those of Kenya, resulting in egg-adult development of ~6 months and ~4 months, respectively. The sex ratio of laboratory produced males and females was similar. These results can guide in designing an integrated R. phoenicis management system with a dual benefit of protecting palms from weevil attack and utilising the weevils to improve human nutrition.
M.M. Hasan, M.M. Rahman, K. Kataoka, K. Yura, M.O. Faruque, F.R. Shadhen,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1255-1262; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0163

Abstract:
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to evaluate the market channels, relationship between market intermediates and their functions along with the marketing cost and profit margin of edible wild field cricket Brachytrupes portentosus in Bangladesh. Male respondents were dominantly involved in the insect collection procedure and female were widely engaged in the market. The field cricket trading totally depends on its availability from nature. Generally, this insect becomes available in the winter season (November to February). It was found that insect collectors, wholesaler cum retailers, and local trader cum retailers are the key market intermediates of the four different marketing channels of wild field cricket in Bandarban district of Bangladesh. Among the four observed marketing channels, the channel from insect collectors to the consumer held the big share in the local market. Approximately 43% of the total collection of the wild field crickets occurred through this channel. Both local trader cum retailers and wholesaler cum retailers processed and graded the B. portentosus on the basis of size and sex with the demand of consumers. The net marketing margin was the highest in insect collectors followed by wholesaler cum retailers and local trader cum retailers. The returns on operating capital of insect collectors, wholesaler cum retailers, and local trader cum retailers were 283.7, 48.7 and 42.9%, respectively. The major constraint of edible insect marketing was poor transportation and processing.
, F. Lamaj
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1207-1217; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0058

Abstract:
The artificial diet of Tenebrio molitor has been a focal point of many studies that aimed to design the best diet combination. Recently, studies are focusing on the use of by-products and their efficiency as diets for rearing T. molitor. The rearing was successful on a wide range of by-products-based diets. The feed has a profound impact on the lifespan, growth, productivity and nutritional composition of T. molitor. Productivity is one of the traits highly influenced by the diet’s composition, especially macronutrients. This work aims to study the effect of eight different diets on the weight and productivity of females and their progeny weight: larval weight. Wheat bran, brewer’s yeast, spent grain and bread remains were used to compose the diets, based on different inclusion percentages of each by-product. The nutritional composition, mainly the macronutrients, of the diets had a narrow range of differences. The diets were designed in a way to avoid the effect of different nutritional compositions and study the effect of the by-products type only. Results showed that the female’s weight-change during the egg-laying period was not significant under different rearing diets. Moreover, the female’s productivity measured by the larval number showed no significant difference between the different diets. However, the total larval biomass (452.4 mg) was significantly higher for larvae reared on diet A composed of wheat bran and brewer’s yeast. Also, the total mean larval weight was significantly higher for larvae reared on diets A (3.1 mg) and G (3.2 mg) composed of wheat bran, brewer’s yeast and spent grain. The mentioned diets although composed of different by-products have similar amounts of protein and carbohydrates. These results prove that the type of by-products included in the experimental diets does not affect the reproductive performance of T. molitor, while it can affect larval growth.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.s1

Abstract:
S of the Virtual Conference Insects to Feed the World. November 23-26, 2020.
, C. Adamaki-Sotiraki, M. Gourgouta, I.T. Karapanagiotidis, A. Asimaki, E. Mente, C.G. Athanassiou
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1195-1205; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0035

Abstract:
Much research has been directed towards the optimisation of the mass rearing of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, in terms of diet and rearing conditions. However, an issue that has not been thoroughly investigated to date is the strain effect on the larval growth and performance of T. molitor. To close this gap, the plasticity in growth and development, as well as the feed conversion efficiency and the nutritional composition of larvae of seven T. molitor strains of different geographic origins (Greece, Italy, Germany, Turkey, Spain and USA) were comparatively evaluated in the present study. Based on the results, there were considerable differences in the performance of the strains tested. Larval weight at harvest was the highest for a strain originated from Germany; however, the higher final body mass was at the cost of longer development time and higher feed intake, the latter having a negative impact in the overall performance and productivity of the strain. No significant differences were detected in the larval nitrogen and lipid content among the strains tested. In overall, the Italian strain II had the best growth performance in terms of survival, larval biomass production, development time and feed utilisation. The present study aims to highlight the need for selection of strains with enhanced performance and production traits for mass-production, which will boost the overall productivity of insect farming systems.
H. Jensen, , , T. Chatzopoulos, P. Charlebois
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1219-1233; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0007

Abstract:
Numerous studies show that insects are efficient in converting organic waste into proteins and fats, which makes them an interesting alternative source of feed. Moreover, since around one-third of global food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted, the production of insect-based meals from food waste is considered a sustainable alternative to other protein sources. This paper introduces a quantitative framework able to analyse the economic implications of developing a large-scale insect-based meal industry worldwide, which would require important regulatory changes. Our calculations, based on findings from the literature, suggest that almost 1.4 billion tonnes of food, that could potentially be used as insect feed, went to waste at the world level in 2018, a figure that is projected to rise to 2 billion tonnes by 2030. Results show that the use of food waste for insect meal and oil production would have important downward price impacts on meals and oils (fish- and plant-based), reducing feed costs and stimulating global aquaculture and livestock production, reducing total land use for agriculture production and lead to a lower dependence on protein imports.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1161-1175; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0090

Abstract:
Bioconversion is the process whereby nutrients are recovered from organic waste products, often by flies, to produce value-added products such as protein for animal feed and lipids for biodiesel production. Currently, research and industry focus on a select few fly species for use in bioconversion that are generalists in their feeding behaviour, the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L., and the housefly, Musca domestica L. More investigation is needed on species of flies that are more suited to underutilised waste streams, including meat processing waste. Species of flies that breed in carrion, such as blowflies (Calliphoridae) and flesh flies (Sarcophagidae) can be used to reduce meat processing waste and produce a valuable source of protein. In this review, we propose more investigation and use of a wider range of fly species for bioconversion of organic waste. Four blowfly species are recommended for use in the bioconversion of meat processing waste or a mixture of manure waste and meat processing waste. Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann) is a large mammal carcass specialist and has been found to be effective at recovering nutrients from abattoir waste within four days and producing large larvae in the process. Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) and Chrysomya megacephala (Wiedemann) naturally breed in carrion and faeces, are associated with pit latrines and respond well under mass rearing conditions, with high egg production. These species would be recommended for a large-scale bioconversion facility that receives mixed waste streams including manure and animal remains. Lucilia sericata is known to produce antimicrobial compounds that assist in wound healing and has been frequently bred and studied and responds well to lab and mass rearing conditions. We recognise the potential obstacles to using alternative species in industrial-scale bioconversion facilities and pose future directions for research to overcome these challenges.
S.-H. Kim, H. Park, W. Kim, J.-H. Song, S.J. Roh, Y.-H. Je,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1235-1241; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0117

Abstract:
The establishment of efficient and sustainable production of industrially important insects necessitates the detailed knowledge of the optimal mixture of macronutrients required for maximising their performance and fitness. The white spotted flower chafer, Protaetia brevitarsis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae), is one of the most important edible insects in East Asia with high nutritional and medicinal value. Here, we report how the ratio of protein to digestible carbohydrate (P:C) in the diet influenced lifespan and reproductive performance in the adults of P. brevitarsis. Throughout their lifespan, beetles were fed ad libitum one of five diets with differing P:C ratio (0:1, 3:7, 1:1, 7:3, 1:0). Both lifespan and the number of eggs produced over the lifetime were maximised at the P:C ratio of 3:7 and declined as the ratio deviated away from this optimal P:C composition. Beetles fed a diet containing only protein (P:C 1:0) not only had the shortest lifespan but also exhibited substantially reduced lifetime egg production compared to those fed the other diets. However, the effects of dietary P:C ratio on daily egg production rate and egg hatchability were marginal. The number of eggs produced at each age stage peaked at the age of week 2 and then gradually declined with increasing age, showing the sign of reproductive senescence. Age-specific egg production was higher in beetles confined to three intermediate P:C ratios (3:7, 1:1, 7:3) than those confined to two extreme P:C ratios (0:1, 1:0) throughout their lifespan. The speed of age-related decrease in reproductive performance was the slowest at P:C 3:7. Our data have implications for optimising the production of this edible insect with emerging economic importance.
T. Chaowattanakul, V.M. Khieu, C. Rojviriya, S. Siriwong, W. Jittanit, W.P. Chanput
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0042

Abstract:
This study evaluated the effects of three drying techniques, tray drying, roasting and microwave vacuum drying, on the physical properties, secondary structures, in vitro protein digestibility and X-ray tomographic structure of crickets (Acheta domesticus) and mulberry silkworm pupae (Bombyx mori L.). The protein contents of dried crickets and silkworm pupae were 49-54% and 51-53% (dry basis), respectively. Roasting produced a significantly higher browning index than the other two methods for crickets and silkworm pupae. The microwave vacuum-dried crickets exhibited the lowest hardness, with hardness values of approximately half those of the tray-dried and roasted crickets. Tray-drying and microwave vacuum drying silkworm pupae produced similar hardness values, which were lower than that of roasted silkworm pupae. The energy consumption of the tray dryer was the lowest, followed by the roaster and microwave vacuum dryer. No significant changes in the secondary protein structure of dried silkworm pupae were observed. A significant decrease in α-helix and β-turn and increase in β-sheet was observed in roasted crickets. Cricket and silkworm pupae powders produced from all drying techniques could be easily digested (90-95% digestibility). This work presents valuable knowledge for understanding the effects of different drying techniques on the properties of dried edible insects, aiming to support the production of alternative and sustainable protein sources for the growing population to improve food security.
J.B. Zhang, Y. Meng, J. Xu, C. Rensing, D. Wang
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0081

Abstract:
The effects of four antibiotics (metronidazole (M) levofloxacin (L), sodium ampicillin (A), and streptomycin sulphate (S)) and their pair-wise combinations at three doses on the development and intestinal bacterial diversity of the black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens) larvae were studied. At a low dose M and L were able to inhibit larval growth. At a high dose, all antibiotics were shown to inhibit larval growth. However, the pair-wise combinational use of the antibiotics did not effectively enhance the inhibitory effect. The gut bacterial diversity of the normal control (NC) was significantly higher than the antibiotic-treated groups with 737 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the larval guts of NC, compared to 305 and 227 from ML and AS. The number of anaerobic bacteria in ML was significantly lower than in NC and AS, with the relative abundance of OTUs from larval guts of ML being only about 0.01, compared to 0.4 for NC and 0.15 for AS. These results indicated that antibiotics at the experimental concentration did not affect the palatability of food for insects, but they would affect the diversity of food and intestinal microorganisms of BSF larvae, and the inhibitory effect of antibiotics on growth and development of BSF larvae displayed in this study was a complex effect.
, S. Forneck, A. Razafindrakotomamonjy, J. Dürr
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0086

Abstract:
Entomophagy is commonly promoted as one solution to fight global food insecurity. Although many research articles have been published on the perception and acceptance of edible insects in Western nations, comparatively little attention has been paid to developing countries. To narrow down the existing research gap, this study investigates insect consumption behaviour in rural areas of Madagascar, a country that is severely affected by chronic malnutrition. The data was obtained from a household survey conducted in January 2020 in the rural commune of Sandrandahy in the central highlands of Madagascar. Using systematic cluster sampling with probability proportional to size, in 12 out of 38 villages, a sample of 216 households was randomly chosen. Multiple linear regressions were used to determine factors that explain differences in the quantities of insects consumed between local consumers. The amount of time households spent for insect harvesting, a variable which was not considered in any of the other studies reviewed, is the single most important factor explaining the amounts of insects consumed. In light of the results, we try to explain why socio-economic factors and most of the product-related attitudinal factors do not play a role in predicting insect consumption patterns in rural areas of Madagascar. More studies with larger samples in Madagascar and other sub-Saharan African countries are needed to validate the results. Future research should seek to make use of mixed-method approaches to provide more context-specific instruments. The promotion of insect rearing as a farming activity, as opposed to harvesting in the wild, is recommended to overcome seasonal availability gaps, exploit the tremendous potential of edible insects for food security, and strengthen the tradition of entomophagy.
T.-K. Kim, H.-I. Yong, J.-M. Sung, H.W. Jang,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1101-1110; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0159

Abstract:
The replacement of conventional protein supply has been studied in the context of continuous population growth and the consequent environmental problems. Among protein substitutes, edible insects have gained relevance due to their high breeding efficiency. This study was conducted to estimate the effect of the partial replacement of porcine myofibril protein (pork protein; PP) with protein extracted from Protaetia brevitarsis (insect protein; IP) in protein-containing solutions and gels. The protein concentration was regulated at 30 and 1 mg/ml for gels and solutions, respectively, and the replacement percentages were increased by 20%. Gels containing IP showed a lower viscosity and thermal stability; the texture and surface of the gels were negatively impacted as the replacement percentage increased. Therefore, heating is not an appropriate method to induce the gelation of IP containing solutions. However, the replacement of PP with IP increased the foam capacity and emulsion capacity in solutions. In conclusion, we show that the partial replacement of PP with IP positively impacts on protein solutions but impairs their gelation.
, S. Dimatteo, S. Moliterni, F. Baldacchino
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1111-1116; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0162

Abstract:
Insects are an emergent source of proteins in the world nutrition, both for humans and farmed animals, moreover they represent a novel food in Europe. The interest in Tenebrio molitor (L.) has particularly grown because its larvae are very rich of high biological value proteins. Although rearing of T. molitor has lately increased, the long-time conservation of alive larvae, very useful for both production and research, needs more information. Research studies conducted so far have investigated the reactions to low temperature on mealworms pupae and adults, or on larvae at 10 °C and for no more than 48 h. The aim of this study is to test the long-term effects of different times of cold storage at 10 °C on the larval survival and on the ability to become healthy adults and to potentially reproduce normally. The insects, divided in experimental groups, were refrigerated on sterile bran (and 10% of yeast) at 10±1 °C and 63% RH for 4 different periods of storage, from 30 to 120 days. Larval survival (i.e. number of larvae alive and number of pupae, expressed as a percentage), weight gain and presence of pupae were detected at the end of each period. The ability to complete the cycle was assessed by detecting the number of hatched pupae, deformed and well-formed adults. Our research results point out the possibility to store T. molitor alive larvae for long time (at least 120 days) at low temperature without significant negative effects on their ability to survive, with a relatively small loss (15.81%) and a very small percentage of deformed adults (4.07%). Further researches will be carried out to test the fertility of the well-formed adults and their ability to reproduce.
P.M. Duarte, E. Maciel, M. Pinho, M.R. Domingues, R. Calado, A.I. Lillebø,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1089-1100; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0112

Abstract:
The need for more sustainable aquafeeds has prompted the exploration of insects as potential ingredients. However, commonly reared insects are not satisfactory regarding their fatty acid composition, lacking omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC PUFA), important nutrients for marine organisms. In this study, we present in detail the fatty acid profile of the long-legged fly Machaerium maritimae Haliday (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), an amphibiotic insect native to European coastal habitats. Specimens of this fly were collected in Ria de Aveiro coastal lagoon (Portugal) and the fatty acid profile was analysed through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Results revealed a remarkably high level of n-3 LC PUFA, (11 μg/mg dry weight, 20% of the fatty acid profile) namely eicosapentaenoic acid, and a low level of saturated fatty acids. This value is higher than what is found in Hermetia illucens (black soldier fly), while comparable to other aquatic insects. We also report the presence of 50 distinct fatty acids, including multiple branched-chain and PUFA, and discuss potential implications of their presence on the ecology of this species. Variation in the fatty acid profile along the landscape is also presented. Our results indicate that M. maritimae can potentially be a high-quality lipid source for marine aquafeeds. Current legislation in Europe allowing the use of insects in aquaculture is restricted to a few selected species, often non-native, however, further research should consider native insects as potential alternatives to current ingredients in aquafeed.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1117-1129; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0126

Abstract:
The demand for healthy, satiating, and convenient products is growing, with ready-to-eat expanded snacks being the preferred. These are produced made by extrusion, which is a versatile and efficient technology, with an immense potential to develop new food products. In addition to satisfy consumer requests, it is interesting to add alternative protein sources to these products, such as insects that have nutritional benefits and ecological advantages. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of extrusion temperature and enrichment with house cricket (Acheta domesticus) on properties of extruded snacks. Extrudates were produced with a single-screw extruder at two barrel temperatures (165 and 175 °C), formulated with corn flour and house cricket powder in mass ratios, 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, and 85:15. Water content, water activity, expansion, porosity, water absorption, water solubility indices; swelling index and hygroscopicity; colour, texture, protein content, in vitro digestibility, and protein bioaccessibility were measured. The results suggest that incorporating edible insects in extruded snacks can be a good alternative to the snacks on the market, since they maintain the appropriate physicochemical characteristics, especially when formulated at low temperatures. Further, they improve the protein content, with the recommended percentage use of 5 and 10% of house cricket, for the formulation of snacks with extrusion at 165 °C.
, I. Vågsholm, A. Jansson, M. Vaga, S. Boqvist, M.J. Fraqueza
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1143-1147; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0157

Abstract:
Interest in insects as food is increasing worldwide, particularly in industrialised countries. Insect-based ingredients are considered novel foods in Europe and there are unresolved concerns regarding food safety. Microbial counts in insects can be high, posing potential health risks to consumers and possibly causing rapid deterioration by spoilage microorganisms. Gut emptying by starvation prior to killing could reduce the microbial load in the insect gut but could also lead to fat loss and lower energy content, reducing the profitability of production. This study evaluated the microbial load (total aerobic counts (TAC), Enterobacteriaceae) in house crickets (Acheta domesticus) starved for 0 h (control), 24 h, and 48 h, and the corresponding fat losses. The 24 h starvation group showed significantly lower (P=0.004) Enterobacteriaceae counts of one log cfu/g, but not TAC, (compared to the control group). TAC was significantly increased (P=0.002), by almost one log cfu/g in the 48 h starvation group compared with the control. Sex of the insects had no significant effect on microbial numbers (P=0.72 and P=0.46 for TAC and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively). Starvation for 24 h decreased fat content in crickets (P=0.02), indicating potential production losses. This shows that starvation is not an effective method for reducing microbial loads in edible crickets.
S. Labu, S. Subramanian, F.M. Khamis, P. Akite, P. Kasangaki, M. Chemurot, C.M. Tanga, F.L.O. Ombura,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1131-1141; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0069

Abstract:
This study investigated the relative abundance and identity of microbial contaminants of the edible long-horned grasshopper (Ruspolia differens) harvested from the wild and traded in informal markets in Uganda, to reveal high health risk points. Raw samples of whole R. differens were collected from wild vegetation, trapping sites and markets. Additionally, samples of plucked and deep-fried ready-to-eat R. differens were collected from the markets. The samples were cultured on standard media for microbial quantification, and pure cultures were characterised using molecular techniques. Bacterial and fungal counts in deep fried ready-to-eat R. differens were ~3- and 2-fold lower, respectively, than in raw samples. Loads of these microbes in deep fried insects were within recommended food safety limits. The highest bacterial counts were detected in whole R. differens samples from the market followed by trapping points. The fungal counts in the raw R. differens were comparable across the sampling points. The bacterial and fungal counts in R. differens in Kampala were not influenced by district of origin. Seven species of bacteria and seven species of fungi were recorded in R. differens samples. The microbial species were most diverse in samples from trapping points and least diverse in the deep-fried insects. The key pathogenic bacteria detected in marketed R. differens were Staphylococcus sciuri, Acinetobacter baumannii and Serratia marcescens, all of which were absent in wild-caught whole insects. Our results demonstrate that R. differens obtained at the trapping sites and markets are contaminated with potentially harmful microbes, therefore they require processing through deep frying to minimise health risks associated with their consumption. Further studies are warranted to elucidate specific handling practices at distribution and trapping points which may prevent introduction of microbes into R. differens.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1061-1063; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.x008

Abstract:
There is a considerable amount of research into consumer acceptance of insects as food in high-income countries. Most of this research has focussed on identifying the reasons why consumers either resist or are enticed into trying eating insects. In this paper I argue that consumers trying insects is an insufficient, albeit necessary first, step towards creating a relevant market for insects as food. I advocate that the creation of such a market requires an increase in research into what makes insect products desirable rather than merely acceptable.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1065-1076; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0020

Abstract:
Insects are efficient converters of different types of low-quality organic matter into biomass rich in good quality protein. Flies are particularly well suited for the biodegradation of organic waste and larval stages can be used as animal feed. Currently, only Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) are accepted for feeding purposes by European authorities. However, there are several other species potentially interesting to be used in animal feed. This review compiles available information regarding species from Calliphoridae family, ranging from scattered records of its use as animal feed to nutritional profile descriptions. Comparisons are made with the most common ingredients used as animal feed, fish meal and soybean meal as well as with other two authorised species by the European regulation, H. illucens and M. domestica. Concerns about pathogen transmission are also discussed. Blow flies present a real opportunity to recycle organic side streams under a circular economy framework and can ultimately contribute to the reduction of nutrients shortage in animal feed. Other advantages include their high fertility, short life cycle, known rearing methodologies and good nutritional profile. Further, their potential as pathogen transmitters is equivalent to the domestic fly. For all these reasons blow flies are good candidates to be used as ingredients in animal feed.
, F. Lamaj, V. Verrastro, L. Al Bitar, F. Baldacchino
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1149-1157; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0129

Abstract:
Yellow mealworm is a grain infesting pest that is receiving attention nowadays as an alternative protein source for humans and animals. Its ability to convert low quality feed, like organic by-products, into high-quality food increases its production sustainability. The feeding diet is one of the most important factors in rearing Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), which affects its growth, longevity and nutritional composition. Many by-products have been tested on larvae, but studies are scarce on adults. This work aimed to compare the effect of chicken feed diet (C) and wheat bran (B) by-product, as well as integrating yeast (CY and BY), on the adults’ reproduction and larval growth. Experiment was set up in a complete productive cycle of mass-rearing. The evaluation was done on the reproductive stage of the adults and the development of the larvae until harvesting (appearance of the first pupa). Results showed that the bran-based diets significantly improved the adults’ survival; after 50 days, mean of 110 and 146 adults survived on B and BY diets respectively compared to mean of 23 adults when reared on both chicken feed diets. Besides, wheat bran supplemented with yeast improved the total number of larvae (6,448.2 larvae) compared to bran diet (4,016.7 larvae). Whereas the two chicken feed-based diets had significant positive effect on the average larval weight; the maximum weight reached was 116.3 mg and 145.8 mg for larvae read on C and CY diets respectively compared to 47.8 mg and 57.3 mg on B and BY diets. Nevertheless, in 50 days of reproduction, the total larval biomass was highest on bran supplemented with yeast (283.1 g). In conclusion, the increase of sustainability and efficiency in mass-rearing of mealworms is possible by using appropriate diets on respective stages; bran-based diets for reproduction and chicken feed-based diets for larval growth.
M.C. Nino, L. Reddivari, C. Osorio, I. Kaplan,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1077-1087; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0113

Abstract:
The use of insects in traditional medicine and unveiling the chemical structure of the bright pigments in butterfly wings led to the discovery of bioactive phenolic compounds in the insect bodies. These metabolites have been found not only due to the insect absorption and metabolisation of the plant-derived phenolic present in their diet, but also from the ability of insects to synthesise phenolic compounds de novo through the sclerotisation process. Plant phenolics are secondary metabolites involved in the protection of tissues against UV radiation, herbivores, and pathogens, as well as pigmentation of fruits and flowers. These bioactive compounds exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, and antimicrobial activities, demonstrated through in vitro and in vivo studies. This bioactive potential is thought to occur due to their chemical characteristics that allow them to stabilise reactive oxygen species (ROS), chelate prooxidant metal ions, interact with key enzymes and signal cascades involved in biological pathways. Bioactivity of plant phenolics and both in vitro, in vivo studies, suggest that the dietary compounds absorbed by the insect maintain their chemical and bioactive properties. Further characterisation of the phenolic composition in edible insects and evaluation of their bioactive capacity as well as their bioavailability, could result in discovering additional health benefits of entomophagy apart from macro-nutritional (e.g. protein) content.
Q.X. Sun, X.C. Li, X.H. Tan, Y.W. Dong, C.H. You, H.L. Yuan, Y.Y. Lu, , M. Zhou
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0059

Abstract:
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) are able to utilise a broad range of organic wastes to fulfil their growth needs. To acquire this basic knowledge of its digestive adaptation to various food, five organic wastes (soybean meal [SBM], wheat bran [WB], beer yeast [BY], kitchen waste [KW] and chicken manure [CM]) were fed to 3-day-old BSFL for 16 days. The growth performance, luminal pH of the gut, midgut histology, digestive enzyme activity and intestinal bacterial microbiota of the larvae were assessed. Growth performance was greatest in the KW group followed by the SBM group and was worst in the CM group. Nutrient compositions of larvae were not significantly affected by those of the food sources, with the exception of crude ash. The ultrastructural observations of midgut showed the number of mitochondria in CM and BY groups was less than other three groups. Twenty-four hours after feeding, weakly acidic, acidic, strongly acidic, and alkaline luminal pH values were detected in the anterior, middle and posterior segments of the gut in all groups, but the luminal pH values of the hindgut varied with food source. Significant lipase and esterase activity, cellulase activity, and amylase activity were detected in the intestines of larvae reared on KW, WB and BY, respectively, revealing that digestive enzyme activity was closely associated with the nutrient composition of the food source. Bacterial composition and diversity differed significantly between groups and were characterised by specific indicator bacteria, which may play important roles in food digestibility. The results suggested that different food sources induced adaptive physical, chemical and biological changes in the digestive tracts of BSFL and may indicate that BSFL developed specific strategies for nutrient utilisation and accumulation. The knowledge acquired here will be beneficial for developing rearing protocols to optimise bioconversion in this insect for their various applications.
M.N. Coelho Pinheiro, N. Ribeiro, P. da Silva, R. Costa
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0095

Abstract:
Insects are a new alternative for food and feed and a solution for circular economy. Among the most promising insects, black soldier fly, mainly in the larvae phase, is a solution specially for feed, and in particular in its dried form. The aim of this work was to study the water loss transfer during convective drying of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL). The mass transfer model consisted of mass diffusion with two alternative boundary conditions (no external resistance and convection) and with/without shrinkage, applied with finite elements method, with a triangular mesh of 3,036 elements and a geometry reproducing the shape of the larvae. The moisture diffusion coefficient, estimated from the experimental data assuming an infinite slab, increased from 0.7002×10-10 m2/s at 60 °C to 2.792×10-10 m2/s at 90 °C, with an activation energy of 43.97 kJ/mol. The simulation predicted with detail the water content profile showing a quick water loss on the outer layers of the BSFL at the initial times. The evolution of the overall water content of BSFL during drying was better predicted for long times (when more than 80% of the moisture was removed) and at the highest temperature of 90 °C and showed that diffusion was the dominating mechanism, with small influence of the boundary conditions studied. Although shrinkage between 21 and 29% was considered, depending on the temperature, the inclusion of volume change in the model did not significantly improved the water content prediction.
B. Kim, H.R. Kim, Y.-C. Baek, C.H. Ryu, S.Y. Ji, J.Y. Jeong, M. Kim, H. Jung, S.H. Park
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0113

Abstract:
Here, the effect of microwave-dried black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae meal (HILM) as a dietary protein source on the growth performance and health of broilers was evaluated. A total of 126 male broilers were randomly allocated to three treatments (six replicates of seven birds per group): control diet (CON) of corn and soybean meal and two experimental diets in which soybean meal was replaced with 25% (25HILM) or 50% (50HILM) HILM. The broilers were slaughtered at 35 d to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID), volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, and length and weight of the small intestine. Blood samples were collected from 36 randomly selected birds (12 broilers per treatment) to determine serum parameters and haematological traits. Average daily gain, feed intake, and AID of protein were decreased (P<0.05) in the 50HILM group compared with those in the CON group. Dietary HILM increased (P<0.05) the relative length of the entire digestive tract and total VFAs in the caecal digesta. Serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was the lowest (P<0.01), but the triglyceride levels were the highest (P<0.05) in the 50HILM group. The serum phosphorus level was lower in both HILM diet-fed groups (P<0.01), whereas the creatine phosphokinase level was lower in the 50HILM group than in the CON group. In contrast, the 50HILM group showed higher (P<0.05) monocyte and red blood cell distribution width-standard deviation. In conclusion, dietary microwave-dried HILM positively influenced the VFA and cholesterol levels; however, growth performance was negatively affected by malnutrition caused by low protein digestibility in the 50HILM group. Microwave-dried HILM is a valuable ingredient for broiler diets, with up to 25% substitution showing no detrimental effects on growth performance and health. Further studies are needed to improve HILM digestibility.
, R. Nyunja, D. Chungu
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0091

Abstract:
Edible insects including termites form a suitable alternative for sustainable provision of animal protein to fight protein-energy malnutrition. It is as cardinal to study the food safety of edible termites as it is for any other food stuff. Twenty seven (27) samples were collected and analysed for total viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae. The microbial load was assessed using culture, microscopic and biochemical methods. The isolates identified in this study include Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, yeasts other than Candida albicans and Zygomycetes. Investigation of the total viable counts and Enterobacteriaceae of open air traded edible termites revealed loads higher than those recommended for minced meat 5.7 to 6.7 log10 cfu/g. The mean ranges were between 6.87 and 9.29 log10 cfu/g for total viable counts and 6.64 and 8.537 log10 cfu/g for Enterobacteriaceae. The presence of E. coli suggests faecal contamination of the sample along the value chain whereas S. aureus, yeasts other than C. albicans, and Zygomycetes indicate unhygienic handling of the food samples. Heat treatments can reduce the loads but may not be effective for enterotoxins and recontamination of the sample is possible. Poor hygiene and sanitation by handlers may contribute to contamination and recontamination of Edible termites. Food safety and hygiene education on processing and handling practices that reduce microbial loads at collection sites, transportation and display points are important especially since termites are sold as ready to eat foods in African open air Markets. Legislation on open defecation, use of toilets and promotion of hand washing hygiene can effectively reduce the risk of contamination with gastrointestinal microflora from faecal matter.
M.F.Z. Ali, S. Nakahara, Y. Otsu, A. Ido, C. Miura,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0108

Abstract:
Dietary manipulation to maintain fish health and reduce bacterial infection through the use of immunostimulants has been widely used worldwide. A broad range of bioactive substances capable of optimising animal health has been found in several insect species, including antimicrobial/antiviral peptides, polysaccharides such as chitin, lauric acid, and insect products such as honey. Recently, we identified a novel bioactive polysaccharide from Bombyx mori, termed silkrose-BM, that can activate innate immunity in mammalian RAW264.7 macrophages and provide effective protection against vibriosis in penaeid prawns. However, the efficacy of dietary silkrose-BM in teleosts remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary inclusion of silkrose-BM in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) after they were artificially challenged with Edwardsiella tarda. The survival of medaka after infection with E. tarda was significantly improved by dietary silkrose-BM at a concentration of 10, 100, and 1000 ng/g. RNA-seq analysis was performed in the intestine and liver of the medaka to identify changes in the transcriptional profiling evoked by silkrose-BM. The dietary silkrose-BM group showed 1,194 and 2,259 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the intestine and liver, respectively, when compared with the control group prior to E. tarda infection. Functional enrichment analysis of DEGs showed several putative genes involved in the Toll-like receptor/nuclear factor κB pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, complement cascade, antimicrobial peptides, and junctional modification. Taken together, these results suggest that silkrose-BM used as an immunostimulant can improve the immune system and resistance to edwardsiellosis in teleosts.
S. Mandolesi, S. Naspetti,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0016

Abstract:
The practice of eating insects, known as entomophagy, is part of a regular diet for millions of people in Asia, Latin America and Africa. However, the use of insects as food is relatively new in Western countries. The present paper explores the willingness to adopt edible insects as food among Italian consumers using Q methodology. A sample of ‘experts’ (e.g. entomologists) and ‘non-experts’ (e.g. students and other researchers) formed the participant sample (P sample). Participants were asked to rank-order a set of 36 images of food dishes prepared using insects (Q sample). Results showed that visual appearance plays an important role in influencing consumers acceptance of insects as food. The Q analysis identified three distinct viewpoints or consumer profiles: Factor 1 ‘The Traditionalist’; Factor 2 ‘The Fast Food Addicted’; and Factor 3 ‘The Insectivore’. This study confirms that visible insects in food may be problematic for the more traditional viewpoint, while results for the other two factors identify possible avenues for better communicating insect-based food.
S. Alagappan, D. Rowland, R. Barwell, S.M.O. Mantilla, D. Mikkelsen, P. James, O. Yarger,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0111

Abstract:
The demand for animal-based protein sources is increasing rapidly. The rearing of insects on bioproducts and their subsequent use as feedstock for animals has been receiving a lot of attention lately. Hermetia illucens, black soldier flies are highly investigated insects owing to their ability to reduce and transform different types of wastes, such as agricultural, household, municipal wastes, and human sludge. The nutritional composition and amino acid profile of black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) raised on these organic wastes is similar to that of several feed constituents making it a suitable material for feed. However, the commercialisation of BSFL is limited due to prevailing unclear legislative requirements regarding their use as feed. In this paper, the legislative landscape involved in using BSFL as feed in different regions is addressed. European Union, Australia, Canada and USA specifically allow the trade and manufacture of BSFL as feed under specific conditions. Interestingly, most countries where entomophagy is a tradition, lack specific regulations concerning their use as feed and are currently drafting regulatory frameworks. Understanding the legislative layout is essential for harmonising the industrial upscaling of BSFL as animal feed.
, A. Verardi, S. Dimatteo, A. Spagnoletta, S. Moliterni, S. Errico
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0101

Abstract:
The challenge of feeding over 9 billion humans by 2050 requires a ‘rethink’ of the current linear food production system. In the view of a circular economy, insects can provide a possible solution to valorise waste to produce new foods and materials, as well as the opportunity to solve some environmental problems. Tenebrio molitor (TM) is the first insect approved by the European Commission as a novel food and widely explored by the research world. Although mass production of TM is still not competitive compared to traditional protein sources, studies and companies in the sector are improving the entire production process to meet the growing need for alternative and sustainable protein foods. The use of food loss and waste to replace commercial feed in TM rearing can improve the economic and environmental sustainability of the production process. Furthermore, the exploitation of the variety of TM-based products can lead to the creation of new value chains and employment opportunities. In this review, we focus on the ability of TM to convert low-value substrates into novel foods and materials, as well as the possibility of using the TM rearing waste to obtain fertilisers and bioproducts, such as chitin and chitosan. TM capacity to degrade plastic waste such as polyethylene and polystyrene, thanks to its highly differentiated gut microbiota, is mentioned. Critical aspects related to sustainability and scaling-up of TM rearing are analysed. Hints on food safety of TM-based products are provided. Therefore, this study is a comprehensive review of TM multifunctionality and, at the same time, identifies possible ways to improve the economic and environmental impact of this insect with a circular economy perspective.
, M. Siwela, R. Slotow, T.C. Munyai
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-20; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0067

Abstract:
Edible insects may be a sustainable source of protein and some other nutrients, especially for low economic status communities. The current study determined the influence of insect type, geographic location and cooking method on the nutritional composition of insects. The investigation would contribute to maximal derivation of the nutritional benefits of insects. Dried samples of four insect types, Gonimbrasia belina (mopani worm), Gynanisa caterpillar, termite soldiers/workers, and termite alates, were procured from different street vendors across Vhembe district in Limpopo Province, South Africa. G. belina samples were cooked by frying, boiling with and without salt addition. Generally, nutrient content varied significantly with insect type and geographic location (P<0.05). Protein content varied from 40 g/100 g in termite alates to 69.75 g/100 g in termite soldiers/workers. Termite soldiers/workers had the highest iron content (range: 545-629.5 mg/kg), whilst Gynanisa caterpillar had the highest zinc content (range: 122.14-150.33 mg/kg). Similarly, Gynanisa caterpillar had the highest levels of lysine (range: 0.80-4.53 g/100 g), threonine (range: 0.79-2.64 g/100 g) and isoleucine (range: 0.63-2.33). On the other hand termite soldiers/workers had the highest levels of valine (range: 2.20-3.47 g/100 g), leucine (range: 2.49-3.87 g/100 g) and phenylalanine (range: 1.38-3.55 g/100 g). Cooking method significantly affected nutrient retention. Boiling with salt added resulted in the highest retention of protein and total mineral content (ash), and, therefore, seems a suitable method for cooking insects. The findings indicate that, if optimally selected and cooked, edible insects can contribute significantly to the alleviation of protein, zinc, and iron deficiencies in target communities.
, J.L Todolí, A. Martínez-Sánchez, S. Rojo
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0068

Abstract:
Intensive black soldier fly (BSF) Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) rearing has a great importance for the feed industry. The objective of the present work was to perform a systematic study about the effect of the feeding media on the concentration and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) of Ca, K, Mg, Na, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn in BSF fractions. Therefore, the evolution of the concentration of these elements has been studied along the stages of the BSF life cycle (larva, pupa and adult) as well as during its growth (exuviae) and metamorphosis (empty puparia). Two diets consisting of beer bagasse and commercial hen feed moistened with water have been chosen. An inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer has been used to perform the elemental analyses. The obtained results demonstrated that the behaviour was generally, similar for all the elements studied, i.e. an accumulation in exuviae and puparia followed by their further elimination. Moreover, no significant differences in the results as a function of the feeding media have been found. This may be attributed to the fact that the chosen diets were equally favourable for this insect’s growth. The obtained concentrations have been expressed on a dry as well as a wet sample basis. BAF results also suggested that exuviae and puparia could be used as supplements or as bioactive compounds.
, M.M.A. Fagundes, A.M.F. Viana, A.H.S. Paulino, M.E. Silva, E.M. Santos
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0096

Abstract:
This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and biological quality of Gryllus assimilis flour, through the analysis of nutritional and biochemical parameters of tests on young rats (Rattus norvegicus – Fischer). The most deficient essential amino acid was methionine, with a chemical score of 56.40%. For the net protein ratio (NPR) and net protein utilisation (NPU) ratio, the diet containing unsupplemented cricket flour was not enough to reach the NPR and NPU levels of the control group and was insufficient to promote weight gain in the rats. The addition of methionine and wheat bran increased the digestibility of the cricket flour, which resulted in a significant improvement in the levels of cricket protein utilisation, increasing the rates mentioned above and promoting weight gain in the rats. Based on our results, we can state that considering the age of the study animals, cricket meal was a sufficient source of protein for maintenance of body weight, but not for weight gain. Based on biochemical parameters (total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, creatinine, urea), the cricket meal did not compromise the general health of the study animals. We therefore conclude that the addition of other sources of methionine to cricket flour can be a fundamental strategy for better use of cricket proteins in the diet.
M. Cullere, Y. Singh, Z. Gerencsér, Z. Matics, S. Cappellozza,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0084

Abstract:
To determine the effect of the replacement of a dietary vegetable oil with the silkworm oil on the rabbit meat quality, two experimental diets were prepared: the control diet (commercial diet with 13 g/kg sunflower oil), and the control diet with total replacement of sunflower oil by silkworm oil (SWO). Rabbits received the control diet from 5 to 7 weeks of age, followed by the two experimental diets until slaughter at 10 weeks of age. Physical traits, proximate composition and sensory evaluation of the hind leg meat were considered. A seven-day shelf-life at retail display of the loin meat evaluated water holding capacity, pH, L*a*b* colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) attributed to time and to dietary treatment within time. Experimental diets did not modify any of the considered traits measured on the hind leg meat, with exception of the hind leg weight, heavier in the SWO group (P<0.05). Shelf-life trial showed significant differences for L* and b* colour values of loin meat at day 0 of retail display, with higher values for SWO than control group (P<0.05). However, at day 3 and at day 7 no statistical difference was observed between the dietary groups. These colour differences were not attributable to the meat oxidation as TBARs did not vary neither between treatments, nor among retail display time. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the total dietary replacement of sunflower oil with silkworm oil in fattening rabbits did not modify the physicochemical and sensory traits of the meat, as well as its shelf-life.
D. Duhra, F. Buchanan, R. Newkirk,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0065

Abstract:
This study determined if yellow mealworm larvae (YML) grown on deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated wheat would affect broiler chicken performance. The YML were reared on wheat with low (LDW; 630 μg/kg) or high (HDW; 30,730 μg/kg) DON concentrations. The DON concentrations in the dried insect meals were 0 or 17.5 μg/kg for YML grown on LDW and HDW, respectively. Seventy-five male Ross 708 broilers were randomly placed into 15 cages and reared on one of three diets from day 1-35 (five replications/treatment). On day 14, broiler numbers were reduced to four per cage. The diets consisted of a control containing no YML meal (CD) and two diets containing 5% YML meal produced on either LDW (LMD) or HDW (HMD). Feed intake and body weight (BW) were measured over the duration of the experiment to calculate feed to gain ratio (F:G). On day 35, all birds were slaughtered and dissected to collect weights of the breasts, thighs, drums, wings, abdominal fat pads, and organs. Crude protein retention was higher in birds fed the LMD and HMD treatments compared to CD (P=0.0091). Dry matter retention was higher in the HMD diet compared to the CD and LMD diets (P=0.0046). Feed intake was lower in birds fed HMD compared to CD and LMD (P=0.0031) although final BW was not reduced. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of YML did not affect the growth, meat yield or organ weights of the birds. The YML reared on DON-contaminated wheat (up to 30,730 ug/kg) and included in broiler diets at 5% could be an effective means of converting salvage wheat into a safe and sustainable source of protein.
, D. Deruytter, S. Craeye, P. Bleyaert
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0130

Abstract:
Insect production is generally a monoculture where insects are kept in an enclosed environment with a stable climate to maximise production. To maintain these conditions air treatment is necessary, which results in high operational costs. Combining insect rearing with hydroponic greenhouse cultivation (HGC) of fruit vegetables might offer an opportunity for cost reduction. Fruit vegetables generally require more elevated air temperature, while leaving enough space under the substrate supporting gutters to allow insect rearing. In this study the feasibility of combining both production systems was evaluated with mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) and cucumber HGC serving as model species. The influence of the greenhouse climate was assessed by rearing mealworms simultaneous at two locations (a climate room and a cucumber HGC). Furthermore, pruning waste and aesthetically declined fruits could serve as a feed for insects. This was tested by comparing 4 different wet feeds (whole and mashed cucumber pruning, tomatoes and agar-agar). Larval growth was monitored and at harvest the mealworm yield was compared among treatments. Mealworm growth in the greenhouse was on average 8.1% slower than growth in a climate room even though the average ambient temperature in the greenhouse was lower and more variable (22.1±3.30 °C standard deviation compared to 27.0±0.34 °C). Moreover, the results showed that the tested HGC residues can be used as wet feed given that mashed cucumber pruning gave similar results as agar-agar (control) and tomatoes even outperformed the control significantly in terms of growth. ‘Entomoponics’ is introduced as the name for the combination of insect production and HGC of vegetables as a way to create added value in unused heated space inside a greenhouse and valorise greenhouse residues.
, D. Vandeweyer, J. van Schelt,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0073

Abstract:
The main use of black soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens) is currently as an animal feed ingredient. While the bacterial community of the larvae has been characterised repeatedly via sequencing, microbiological safety assessment based on culture-dependent techniques is still scarce. This study focused on the occurrence of the spore-forming foodborne pathogen Clostridium perfringens during rearing and consecutive processing of the larvae, based on observations in a single rearing facility. C. perfringens vegetative cells and spores were determined, in addition to total viable counts, total aerobic spore counts and intrinsic parameters including pH, water activity and moisture content. All samples were obtained from an industrial production plant. In a preliminary experiment, substrate ingredients and dried larvae were analysed, but the larvae were produced with a previous batch of the substrate mixture. A second, more detailed, experiment was performed where all samples were collected sequentially from the same production run (substrate ingredients, substrate mixture, starting larvae, harvested larvae, residue, dried larvae and stored dried larvae). In the two experiments, (presumptive) C. perfringens, as determined on tryptose sulphite cycloserine agar, was found at low numbers in the ingredients and in the second experiment it was also found in the substrate mixture. Over the two experiments, total C. perfringens counts (i.e. vegetative cells plus spores) ranged between 3.0±0.1 and <1.2±0.5 log cfu/g and C. perfringens spores ranged between 2.5±0.1 and <1.0±0.0 log cfu/g. Interestingly, vegetative cells and spores of C. perfringens were below the detection limit in all larvae samples. Therefore, it appears that at this production site and based on the samples investigated, the pathogen did not colonise the larvae. However, these results indicate that insect producers should monitor this pathogen among others, and install good hygiene practices to avoid contamination.
, C.K. Mweresa, M.F.O. Ndong’A
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0047

Abstract:
Feeding black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) on locally available organic wastes has the potential of providing an alternative source of protein to fishmeal and soybean used in animal feed formulation. This can also mitigate against increasing accumulation of organic wastes and reduce high costs associated with their disposal. This study assessed the effects of three locally available organic waste substrates namely Irish potato peels, kale remains and bovine ruminal content versus chick mash as a positive control on larval weight gain, prepupal yield, substrate reduction rate, bioconversion rate and conversion ratio of BSFL. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine whether organic feed substrates had significant effects on BSFL while Tukey HSD, post-hoc test was applied for multiple comparisons and mean separation at P<0.05. Organic waste feed substrates influenced larval weight gain and prepupal yield (P<0.01), biomass reduction rate (P=0.04), bioconversion rate (P=0.01) and conversion ratio (P=0.04) of BSFL produced. Kale remains performed better than Irish potato peels and bovine ruminal contents implying that they can be enriched to provide an alternative feed for BSFL instead of chick mash. This study demonstrated that the three locally available organic waste substrates can be used to feed BSFL for sustainable production of animal feed. Black soldier fly larvae have the potential of providing a viable solution for degradation and disposal of ever-increasing quantities of organic wastes in the markets, towns and cities of sub-Saharan Africa.
W. Tollenaar, L. Joosten,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0165

Abstract:
Research on the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (L.) Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is steadily increasing, with a focus on its larvae and applications thereof. The egg stage of this species has received less research. This study describes the phases of embryo development for BSF eggs and the potential of delaying embryo development by using a chilling protocol. The study found that when chilling eggs for 24 hours at 10 °C and 80% relative humidity, the development is paused for a full day. This study presents a window of opportunity for embryo ages, approximately 38-58 hours post oviposition, where the hatch success is the least affected (>80% hatching when compared to control). Outside of this window, the hatch success decreases to 70% and lower. The description of embryo development can be used as a reference tool for quality control purposes. The effect of treatments on eggs can be determined by identifying key processes in development. Furthermore, the chilling of embryos and thus pausing of development can be applied in a production setting.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2021.0030

Abstract:
Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL; Hermetia illucens) are known as an alternative feed for livestock, but their lack of polyunsaturated fatty acids (such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) makes it less valuable. To overcome these problems, BSFL substrate (chicken feed) was fortified with squid liver oil (SLO) at five different concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20%). The growth rate, feed conversion, and nutritional content of BSFL were evaluated at day 15 of rearing. Of the five concentrations, SLO 5% showed the highest growth increase (25.82-fold) among the other treatments (20.63-22.98-fold; P<0.05). The fortification of SLO 5% did not result in differences in survival and feed conversion of larvae compared to larvae fed the control substrate. By rearing BSFL in a substrate containing SLO 5%, the lipid content of the larvae was 32% higher than that of larvae fed the control substrate (P<0.05). The accumulation of lipids was faster in the substrate containing SLO 5% (33.20% for 8 days) than in the control substrate (24.36% for 15 days). The control group of BSFL contained no DHA or EPA, but after rearing on the SLO 5% fortified substrate, the larvae contained DHA at an average level of 2.99 g/100 g lipid and EPA was 2.68 g/100 g lipid. Harvested larvae from SLO 5% treatment was within safe levels of Pb, Cd, As, and Hg (840, 370, 860, and 26.7 μg/kg, respectively), under the EU threshold for animal feed. Based on our results, it concluded that BSFL enriched with PUFAs, DHA and EPA can be considered as important nutritional components of animal feed without excessive heavy metals accumulation by feeding SLO in an appropriate amount.
F.S. Bassett, M.L. Dunn, O.A. Pike,
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 987-1000; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0107

Abstract:
Processing crickets into a versatile dry powder ingredient may facilitate their utilisation in a variety of food products. Three dried cricket ingredients – oven-roasted cricket meal; the same ingredient milled to a smaller particle size, called oven-roasted cricket powder; and spray-dried cricket powder – were prepared and evaluated for their physical, nutritional and sensory properties. Oven-roasted cricket powder had a smaller range of particle sizes and fewer large particles compared to spray-dried cricket powder. Consumer panellists rated oven-roasted cricket powder as less gritty than the other two ingredients. Prepared as a protein drink, oven-roasted cricket powder had the highest viscosity and an intermediate sedimentation rate. Differences between treatments existed in proximate analysis parameters and nutrients, but amounts were similar to previously reported values for cricket powders. Consumer panellists preferred the smaller particle-sized oven-roasted powder over larger particle-sized oven-roasted meal or the spray-dried powder ingredients, as indicated by all sensory acceptance attributes, preference ranking, and purchase likelihood.
, R. Aidoo, J.O. Mensah, A. Mensah, K. Amankwah, B.K. Kyei, J.E. Gbadago, K.A. Konadu, G. Boateng, A.B. Oduro, et al.
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 1051-1060; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0153

Abstract:
Edible insects are increasingly recognised as a source of nutritional security, poverty reduction and overall household wellbeing, particularly in rural sub-Saharan Africa. In Ghana, for instance, edible insects such as the African palm weevil larvae are integral part of traditional dishes, which are widely consumed among different strata of the Ghanaian society. Following the limited supply of these larvae from the traditional source, deliberate efforts at domestication are being promoted as an investment option in Ghana. This paper uses the case study approach based on data from a modern weevil larvae (akokono) micro-farm in the Ashanti region to analyse the financial viability of an insect-based business to guide future investment decisions. Standard capital budgeting tools such as net present value (NPV), benefit-cost ratio (BCR), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period were employed to assess the financial viability of an akokono micro-farm of 5.47×7.62 m dimension. The results show that a capital expenditure of Gh₵ 5,333.17 (US$ 935.61) is required to establish the akokono micro-farm. With a five-year project life and cost of capital of 33.5%, the investment appraisal generates a positive NPV (Gh₵ 6,065.89 = US$ 1,164.3), BCR that is greater than unity (1.34), and an IRR (37%) which is above the current lending rate on the financial market in Ghana. The paper concludes that domestication of palm weevil larvae is financially viable at the micro-scale even in the face of pessimistic assumptions. These findings have practical implications for small-scale enterprise development in addressing problems of malnutrition and unemployment among vulnerable groups like women and youth in the rural economy of Ghana.
A. Lecocq, M.E. Natsopoulou, I.E. Berggreen, J. Eilenberg, L.-H. Lau Heckmann, H.V. Nielsen, C.R. Stensvold, A.B. Jensen
Journal of Insects as Food and Feed, Volume 7, pp 975-986; https://doi.org/10.3920/jiff2020.0156

Abstract:
Optimising the production of insects for food and feed and ensuring their health are growing concerns for producers. Insects suffer from a range of insect pathogenic microorganisms, and the management of such diseases is essential. One solution is the introduction of beneficial probiotic bacteria into the diet of the insects. Here, we show that a lactic acid bacterial strain, Pediococcus pentosaceus, isolated from the gut of the mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, was able to inhibit the growth of selected insect pathogens in vitro. Using in vivo assessments of the host’s fitness benefits conferred by the lactic bacterium we show a significant effect of P. pentosaceus on larval growth rate and survival into adulthood. Gut microbiota analysis focusing on bacterial composition based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing suggests that P. pentosaceus could have successfully colonised the guts, or altered their bacteria, of the larvae that received it. Finally, we discuss our results in the context of mass insect production systems and outline the remaining work needed to explore and secure the role of beneficial bacterial additives in the field.
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