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Monica David, Andrei Tiţa, Ionela D. Toma, Cristina-Magdalena Ciobotea, Mădălina F. Bănuţă
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 869-883; doi:10.15835/nsb12410843

Abstract:
Osmotic adjustment is one of the important mechanisms to adapt to drought and it is the only one which is activated under any level of water stress in the plant cells. Grapevine pollen grains response was tested to osmotic stress in fourteen genotypes, initiated by immersion in 55% or 65% polyethylene glycol solutions without and with addition of potassium chloride, to estimate the expressions of osmotic adjustment. The pollen grain test found differences both in the measurements of projected area cytoplasm and expressions of osmotic adjustment present in the cells. Italian Riesling increased pollen grains cytoplasm in PEG solutions with added KCl much more than other genotypes and had the high values for both expressions of induced and overall osmotic adjustment. The results obtained for expression of induced osmotic adjustment underlined the high K+ accumulation capacity of ‘Italian Riesling’, ‘Burgund mare’ 86 Şt., ‘Muscat d’Adda’ 22 Şt., ‘Muscat Ottonel’ 16 Şt., ‘Pinot gris’ 14 Şt. and ‘Argessis’. The lack of correlation between expressions of induced and intrinsic osmotic adjustment indicated that induced osmotic adjustment expressed by K+ might use different mechanisms that are activated at the time of water stress with different levels of solute accumulation. Because the accumulation of K+ in the cells is important in all developmental stages and, in grape yield and quality, pollen responses to induced osmotic adjustment expressed by K+ could be used as a screening method, for establishing the level of drought sensitivity in the grape varieties under water stress.
Shahabab A. Farooqui, Hina Parwez, Rahul Joshi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 794-806; doi:10.15835/nsb12410830

Abstract:
In the present study, we have documented 59 species representing 43 genera of moths under family Erebidae (Leach, [1815]) from Aligarh district, the state of Uttar Pradesh, India. The documented species represents 10 subfamilies of family Erebidae viz., Aganainae (5 species), Arctiinae (10 species), Calpinae (5 species), Ctenuchinae (3 species), Erebinae (22 species), Eulepidotinae (1 species), Hypocalinae (2 species), Lymantriinae (8 species), Pangraptinae (1 species), and Scoliopteryginae (1 species). Out of these 59 species, Sixteen species viz. are Asota plana Walker, 1854; Asota producta (Butler, 1875); Argina astrea (Drury, 1773); Olepa koslandana Orhant, 1986; Utetheisa pulchelloides Hampson, 1907; Eudocima homaena (Hübner, [1823]); Amata cysseus (Stoll, [1782]); Eressa confinis (Walker, 1854); Ophiusa tirhaca (Cramer, 1777); Pericyma cruegeri (Butler, 1886); Anticarsia irrorata (Fabricius, 1781); Hypocala deflorata (Fabricius, 1794); Hypocala violacea Butler, 1879; Cyana puella (Drury, 1773); Lymantria mathura Moore, [1866] and Episparis liturata (Fabricius, 1787) are recorded for the first time from Aligarh district, which also represents their first record from the present state of Uttar Pradesh.
Oluwayemisi S. Olokeogun, Abiodun O. Oladoye, Oluwatoyin O. Akintola
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 959-971; doi:10.15835/nsb12410808

Abstract:
Urban forests are an essential component of urban areas as they provide many environmental and social services that contribute to the quality of life in cities. Urban forests in most cities of Nigeria are gradually becoming bitty as a result of urbanization activities, thereby posing adverse effects. In this study, we assessed the changes in the urban forests cover under the influence of different human settlement (HS) extents across the urban area of Ibadan city using remotely sensed data. The pattern of change(s) in the urban forests cover over 20 years were examined by analysing and manipulating Landsat and Sentinel-2 datasets using Google Earth Engine, ArcGIS 10.1, and Erdas 2014 software. The extents of human settlement (for the year 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020) were extracted (from Landsat datasets), analysed, and mapped to evaluate the status of the urban forests cover under different human settlement extents. The result reveals a substantial land cover changes within the urban area of Ibadan. The urban forest cover decreased from 24.14% to 7.99%. Also, there is a significant decrease in the urban forests cover as a result of a substantial increase in human settlement extent (102,806 to 122,572 pixels). The study provides an opportunity to map the status of urban forest cover and extents of HS in a developing city using remotely sensed data and applications of GIS tools.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12; doi:10.15835/nsb12410868

Abstract:
Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro), Issue 4, Volume 12, 2020: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches or reviews, we invite readers to find news about: The influence of human chorionic gonadotropin on hormonal and haematological profile of postpubertal male albino rats exposed to chronic oral administration of alcohol; Phylogenetic observation in Ariidae, Bagridae and Plotosidae catfishes by COI gene sequence analysis; A preliminary study and new distributional records of family Erebidae (Leach, [1815]) (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) from Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India; Evaluation of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. (R. Br.)) landraces for resistance to stem borer (Coniesta ignefusalis Hampson.) infestation; Photochemical responses of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) plants to heat stress; Vegetative propagation of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) selections; Effect of pre-storage hot air and hot water treatments on post-harvest quality of mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) fruit; Effect of snowmelt regime on phenology of herbaceous species at and around treeline in Western Himalaya, India etc.
Andrea M. Roman, Irina M. Morar, Alina M. Truța, Cătălina Dan, , Liviu Holonec, ,
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 940-958; doi:10.15835/nsb12410867

Abstract:
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was among the first North-American tree species imported in Europe. In Romania, black locust has established itself as a forest tree appreciated for multiple uses. The objective of the hereby study was to identify a quality planting material at black locust using seeds from trees with superior traits from five stands geographically close, located in North-western of Romania. An empirical selection was done, thus trees with the most favourable traits were selected as plus trees. Among the averages of the main traits (tree height, diameter at breast height, basal area, self pruning trunk length, crown diameter) of the plus trees from the five stands, there were registered significant differences, and two stands stood out with a high biomass growth. Even if the stands had different ages (between 20-35 year), the age did not influence significantly the growth traits of the trees. The seeds of the plus trees (open-pollinated) from all the stands had large size (mean seed weight of 0.057 g/seed). The seedling emergence rate was high, especially in the solarium condition (between 52.7-73.7% compared with 33.0-41.3% in the field). Coefficient of genetic correlation and heritability calculated for the seedlings belongings to half-sib families highlighted that black locust breeding can be extremely effective by a proper selection.
Abdulhakeem Abubakar, Olamide A. Falusi, Israel K. Olayemi, Matthew O. Adebola, Yusuf O. A. Daudu, Mohammed C. Dangana
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 807-817; doi:10.15835/nsb12410818

Abstract:
Characterisation of germplasm collection is imperative for identification and selection of new resistance sources in any crop breeding programmes. Thus, evaluation of pearl millet germplasm for resistance to stem borer infestation was carried out in view of the challenges of poor yield and quality reduction of pearl millet, elicited by its feeding activities. Thirty-five (35) pearl millet accessions were collected from different states where the crop is majorly cultivated in Nigeria. The accessions were characterised for resistance to stem borer infestation on the field. Further confirmation for selected potentially resistant accessions under artificial screen house conditions was done using a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with ten replications each. The field estimated selection index showed that out of the 35 accessions screened, 15 accessions were potentially resistant; 13 resistants with range value of 0.00 to 0.40 and 2 moderately resistant. Further nursery screening confirmed 9 of the 15 accessions to be resistant under artificial infestation. NS-JIL-01 accession was most highly resistant with significant least leaf damage score of 0.25. Significant and positive correlation (r = 0.32) was obtained between days to anthesis and number of larvae per plant at p < 0.01. Negative correlation of percentage internodes damage with panicle diameter (-0.26) and panicle weight (-0.25 gn) at p < 0.01 as well as weight of 1000 seeds (r = -0.19, p < 0.05) were also significant. The identification of potentially resistant accessions on field and confirmation of some of the accessions under artificial screen house conditions indicated, gene for resistance to stem borer infestation in pearl millet could be obtained from the natural eco-type germplasm.
Oluwole O. Oladele, Olajide I. Fatukasi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 842-851; doi:10.15835/nsb12410634

Abstract:
Mature, green and fresh mango fruits were harvested from an orchard and sorted before they were subjected to hot air (HA) and hot water (HW) treatments. Before treatment, the fruits were washed with clean water, disinfected for 10 min in 0.385% m/v of sodium hypochlorite and allowed to air-dry at 26 °C before they were separately immersed in HA and HW at 52 and 55 ºC for 1, 3 and 5 min each before storage at 28 ± 2 ºC and 75 ± 5% relative humidity inside sterilized desiccators where the fruit peel colour change was evaluated at intervals of 5days for 20 days while fruits that were not heat treated served as control. Each treatment contained a replicate of five fruits. After 20 days in storage, the heat-treated fruits were then assessed for post-harvest quality characteristics including weight loss, firmness, titratable acidity (TA) and total soluble solids (TSS). Only fruits treated with HA at 52 °C-3 min and 55 °C-3 min retained the mango peel greenness for 20 days while those treated with HW at 55 ºC-1min and 55 ºC-3 min equally retained the peel greenness but for 15 days in storage. Thus, they were considered as effective and interestingly, the weight loss, firmness; TA and TSS of the treated fruits were not significantly affected by these effective treatments as compared with untreated fruits.
Saheed I. Musa, Felix M. Oke, Charlotte C. Ndiribe
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 920-928; doi:10.15835/nsb12410814

Abstract:
Diesel oil contamination is a growing environmental concern in most crude oil processing regions of the world. This study assessed the efficacy of both fresh and powdered Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) as potential biostimulants in the remediation of diesel oil contaminated soils using three test concentrations (50 g, 100 g and 150 g) and a control (0 g). The remediation process was monitored by assaying the total organic carbon (TOC), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and soil pH before and after amendment with the fresh and powdered E. crassipes for 90 days. The result showed increase in soil pH, TOC, TPH and volatile matter (VM) in comparison with the control due to soil contamination by diesel oil. However, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in soil pH and TOC with the introduction of fresh and powdered E. crassipes at different concentrations. Contaminated soil amended with 100 g of fresh E. crassipes showed the highest TOC loss (59.7%) alongside soil amended with 100 g of powdered E. crassipes (47.36%) while the control showed the least TOC loss (0.91%). Similarly, soil TPH decreased significantly across all concentrations after amendment (p < 0.05). Overall, soil amended with fresh E. crassipes showed higher TPH loss than soil amended with powdered E. crassipes. This study reveals the potentials of using E. crassipes in the remediation of diesel oil contaminated soils. Above all, we demonstrate that fresh E. crassipes is a potentially stronger biostimulant than powdered E. crassipes.
Felicia Cornescu, Gheorghe Achim, Sina Cosmulescu
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 836-841; doi:10.15835/nsb12410752

Abstract:
Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L) is one of the most valuable fruit shrubs of the Cornaceae family, and therefore the vegetative propagation of the valuable selections is necessary because the material obtained must be used for the future. 4 genotypes were studied (2 perspective selections: H1 and H3 and two cultivars used as a control: ‘De Bucovăț’ (B) and ‘De Orhei’ (O) and propagated by grafting (the grafting method used was improved copulation. Biometric observations were focused on diameter below the point of graft (mm), diameter at the graft point (mm), diameter above the graft point (mm), height of graft (cm), number of anticipated, average length of the anticipated (cm), the sum of the anticipated length (cm), the growth increase (cm). Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the grafting method, enhanced copulation, within vegetative propagation, can be successfully used in the production of cornelian cherry planting material next to the other known methods; the growth of the anticipated shoots on plant could cause the appearance of flowering buds and implicitly earliness in fruit-setting.
S. Ravi Shankar, P. Dayanandan
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 852-868; doi:10.15835/nsb12410714

Abstract:
Anatomical and histochemical studies of ovary and caryopsis of sorghum reveal the importance of the chalazal complex in transporting nutrients from maternal sources to the filial diploid embryo and triploid endosperm. The presence of starch, protein, lipid, Ca, K, Mg, and Fe in various tissues at different stages of development can be revealed by a variety of histochemical techniques. Vascular supply ends at the base of the ovary and transport occurs through vascular parenchyma, pigment strand and nucellar projection where symplastic continuity is broken. Nutrients unloaded into an apoplastic placental sac then enter the endosperm and embryo through the aleurone transfer cells. The later possess characteristic wall ingrowth. The single layer of aleurone surrounding the endosperm may also help in transport during later stages of grain-filling. Grain-filling in C4 sorghum is compared with other C4 and C3 grasses showing the variety of strategies evolved to transport nutrients into filial tissues. Standardization of terminologies to describe the tissues of the crease region will help in further research and communication.
Martins S. Akogwu, Chukwuka N. Uchendu, Rita I. Odo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 773-780; doi:10.15835/nsb12410718

Abstract:
This study evaluated the influence of human chorionic gonadotropin on hormonal and haematological profile of postpubertal male albino rats exposed to chronic oral administration of alcohol. Twenty-four mature male albino rats were assigned to four groups (n=6). Group A was the control, given distilled water, Group B was given 30% ethanol (8 ml/kg) orally 3 times a week, Group C was given human chorionic gonadotropin (HcG) (50 IU/kg) subcutaneously 3 times a week and Group D was given HcG (50 IU/kg) subcutaneously + 30% ethanol (8 ml/kg) orally 3 times a week. The study was for 10 weeks, and hormonal profile and haematology were determined. The follicle stimulating hormone of Group B decreased significantly (P
Okechukwu S. Ezeh, Sifau A. Adejumo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 884-900; doi:10.15835/nsb12410651

Abstract:
Okra growth and yield are adversely affected by drought at different growth stages. This is aggravated by poor soil fertility. In this study, the roles of compost applied at 0, 5 and 10 t/ha on the tolerance and morpho-physiological response of okra (NHAe 47-4) exposed to varying levels of water stress (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% field capacity, FC), at different growth stages (vegetative, reproductive and vegetative-reproductive stages) for ten days duration were assessed. Data were collected on okra growth and yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC), leaf photosynthetic pigments (LPG) and proline accumulation. Results showed that drought stress reduced LRWC, LPG, growth and yield of Okra. This reduction was more evident in okra plants exposed to severe stress for 10 days and at the reproductive stage. Soil amendment with compost however, had cushioning effect on drought stressed okra. Compared to control, it increased the LRWC, LPG, growth and yield of okra. The ameliorative roles of compost were however, dependent on stress intensity, compost dosage, okra growth stage and stress duration. Though, okra plants stressed at 25% FC were more affected by drought stress, but compared to the un-amended soil, those grown on amended soil were more tolerant. Higher compost rate was superior to lower rates. Whereas, higher proline accumulation was recorded in plant exposed to 25% field capacity without amendment, proline accumulation was reduced in the plants grown on compost amended soil and exposed to drought which was an indication of stress reduction. Generally, okra stressed at vegetative growth stage only was able to recover rapidly and had better yield compared to those stressed at reproductive growth stage. It is concluded that addition of compost to soil could reduce the drought stress effect on okra.
Bhupendra S. Adhikari, Rahul Kumar
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 901-919; doi:10.15835/nsb12410716

Abstract:
The present study attempts to investigate the phenological changes of herbaceous plant species in early snowmelt microsite and late snowmelt microsite in treeline ecotone (3200-3300 m asl) at Tungnath, western Himalaya. Four sites, each with two microsites (early snowmelt: ES and late snowmelt: LS) were selected and within each microsite, 3 quadrats (1x1m each) were permanently laid and studied for phenology. Eighty-six species were recorded, of which the proportion of perennial forbs, hemicryptophytes and natives was 90, 84 and 70%, respectively. The early phenophase was noticed in the majority of species in ES microsite than that of LS microsite and the timing of different phenophases varied among microsites. The vegetative phase peaked July (75.6%), while flowering, fruiting and seed maturation phases peaked in August (72.1% and 23.3%, respectively) and 71% species attained the senescence during September. This indicates that species might adapt to the different adaptation to a warming climate. Immediately after the snowmelt 10 species were observed in flowering, while 11 species were in the bud development phase. Comparing 13 common species of the present study with those of past in same or similar study areas indicates that timing and duration of vegetative and flowering phenophase (77% and 69%, respectively) have advanced and lengthened, while fruiting and seed maturation have shortened. Furthermore, phenophase initiation has advanced for flowering (69% species), fruiting (46% species) and senescence (38% species) phases. It seems that the early snowmelt influences spring phenology of herb species on the microsite level and may continue to influence the overall phenology of species for the whole growing season in timberline.
Thathiredypalli R. Barathkumar, Muthusamy Thangaraj
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 781-793; doi:10.15835/nsb12410822

Abstract:
To understand the phylogenetic status of Ariidae, Bagridae and Plotosidae catfishes, this study was planned using the barcode gene, cytochrome oxidase I (COI). Totally 71 species were used in phylogenetic reconstructions under maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference criteria. The one-way ANOVA showed that the three catfish families are significantly different (F= 19.79, d.f. = 3; 116, P< 0.0001 (Plotosidae); F= 44.21, d.f.= 3; 986, P< 0.0001 (Ariidae); F= 24.83, d.f.= 3; 1322, P< 0.0001 (Bagridae). In MP, ML and BI based phylogenetic tree of Ariidae, Plicofollis genus displayed as a monophyletic group with higher bootstrap and posterior probability values for all the species except two species of Neoarius, which intervened separating P. polystaphylodon. In the phylogenetic tree of Plotoside, Plotosus genus displayed as monophyletic group with higher bootstrap and posterior probability values for all the eight species. In the case of Bagridae phylogeentic tree, Mystus genus displayed as a monophyletic group with higher bootstrap and posterior probability values for all the species except Mystus montanus forming a distant and distinct clade whereas Mystus tengara collides into monophyletic clade when Neotropius genuswas removed. By this study we could establish a phylogenetic hypothesis for all the 36 catfish families and examine the monophyly status of the subfamilies and genera.
Adriana Bădulescu, Carmen F. Popescu, Anamaria M. Dumitru, Dorin I. Sumedrea
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 818-828; doi:10.15835/nsb12410841

Abstract:
This study presents the main morphological features and the first molecular investigations of four new tomato varieties (Solanum lycopersicum), aiming to obtain their complete characterisation. Evaluation with the standard descriptors for tomato revealed specific and distinct traits for each analysed variety. The molecular analyses for variety identification started with testing three methods for DNA extraction. With an optimized method, which doesn’t need liquid nitrogen for plant tissue disruption, good quality DNA was obtained, in adequate quantities, and well preserved when stored at -20 °C. To highlight the genetic differences among the analysed tomato varieties, nine RAPD primers and ten SSR primers were tested. Of these, the optimal amplification protocols for five RAPD primers and five SSR primers were established. The amplified products obtained with RAPD primers revealed an average number of bands per primer of 8.8 and a total rate of polymorphism of 59.1%; with OPB10 primer was seen the highest number of DNA bands (11), and with OPA07 primer was registered the highest degree of genetic variability among the studied varieties (77.7%). Two SSR markers (SSR 20 and SSR T107) amplified monomorphic banding patterns corresponding to 170 base pairs and 250 base pairs, respectively, for all varieties; with SSR T7, SSR T62, and SSR T70 primers were generated multiple amplification bands, with a different distribution of the bands into the agarose gel for each analysed tomato variety.
Tolulope V. Borisade
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 929-939; doi:10.15835/nsb12410587

Abstract:
The lignin, cellulose and nutrient deposition of litters were assessed in four 0.06 ha plots of Bambusa vulgaris stands in a regenerating forest in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 35 years after ground fire, with a view to providing information on these parameters which are generally lacking in the forest ecosystem. The collected litters were sorted into leaves and twigs, oven-dried at 70 °C to a constant weight, ground and analysed for lignin, cellulose and nutrients. The total lignin and cellulose content in the litters showed significant (p≤0.05) monthly variation. There was no significant (p ≥ 0.05) difference in the monthly nutrient deposition of Na, Mg, K, Fe, N, P, Mn, Zn and Cu, but there was significant difference in the monthly nutrient deposition of C and Ca through the litter fall fraction (p ≤ 0.05) in the bamboo stands in the secondary rainforest. The depositions of C, N, Ca, Mg and Cu were higher in the bamboo stands but lower in Na, Mn and Zn deposition in 1990 and 2013 studies. The bamboo stands contributed significantly to the carbon sequestration, nutrient dynamics and regeneration status of the forest.
Ali Doğru
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 829-835; doi:10.15835/nsb12410815

Abstract:
In this study, photochemical responses of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) cultivar, ‘Beith Alpha F1’, under moderate and severe heat stress (45 °C and 55 °C, 4 hours) was studied. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement and the results of the JIP test indicated that severe heat stress was more drastically affected the photosynthetic activity as compared to moderate heat stress in the cotyledons of cucumber plants. Severe heat stress, for example, led to the increased level of Fo and decreased level of Fm, Fv/Fo, and Fv/Fm, suggesting remarkable photoinhibition on electron transport reactions in cucumber plants. Also, severe heat stress caused the increased level of accumulation of inactive reaction centers, resulting in a decreased amount of trapped light energy and electron transport on PSII. The enhanced values of DIo/RC and fDo in the cotyledons of cucumber plants indicated that the trapped energy cannot be used for photochemical reactions and lost as heat. Consequently, the reduction of the plastoquinone pool was partly inhibited due to the decreased yield of photochemistry. As a result, it may be concluded that severe heat stress inhibited PSII activity in several points and decreased photosynthetic yield in the cotyledons of cucumber plants.
Ahmad Zare, Seyed A. Moosavi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 702-710; doi:10.15835/nsb12310723

Abstract:
Seed germination may significantly interrupt by water stress due to drought and salinity condition. Salinity can cause osmotic pressure and induce drought stress. Water deficit stress affect normal seed germination and reduce seedling vigor. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of drought and salt stresses on germination characteristics of Echinops ritro and Centaurea virgata. Seeds were germinated with the concentrations of sodium chloride (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mmol) or in polyethylene glycol PEG6000 (0, -0.2, -0.4, -0.6, -0.8, -1 and -1.2 MPa). The highest values of germination parameters were obtained with no osmotic potential or salinity stress. At treatment by PEG, the germination was severely decreased at -0.6 MPa. While, no germination occurred at- 0.8 MPa by PEG. Results revealed that under 118 Mmol salinity, the seed germination of Centaurea virgata declined to 43% which was as close as half of its total seed germination. However, 50% reduction in seed germination of Echinops ritro was observed at 193 mmol salinity. Results indicated Echinops ritro and Centaurea virgata germination was sensitive to both the stresses. However, seedling growth was more sensitive to PEG than NaCl.
Paul B. Ahmodu, Joseph A. Morakinyo, Catherine T. Ahmodu
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 658-672; doi:10.15835/nsb12310731

Abstract:
The fruit of Capsicum plants have a variety of names depending on place and type. This research was focused at studying the exchange of genes amongst members of the genus Capsicum in Nigeria. The process of interspecific and intervarietal hybridization of two (2) species of the genus Capsicum; C. annuum and C. frutasense were carried out and the results show that most of the studied attributes like arrangement of leaves, shape of leaves, leaf density were undetermined while majority with distinct changes follow maternal inheritance. There were less successes among the interspecific crosses and high successes between varietal crosses ranging from 19.5% to 2.4% for the inter-varietal cross and 9.3% to 2.4% for interspecific crosses. This indicates that there are more hybridization barriers among interspecific hybridization than inter-varietal hybridization. The closely related species and varieties had higher percentage success of hybridization and vice versa. Characters such as Hypocotyl colour had partial dominance. Erect flower position is dominant in W and hybrid T*W while pendant is recessive. Red fruit colour at maturity, green fruit stalk colour was dominant while yellow was recessive. A good knowledge of how related species of the genus Capsicum are, the easier it will enable researchers to hybridize and improve the genus.
Ufere N. Uka, Ebenezer J.D. Belford
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 752-768; doi:10.15835/nsb12310703

Abstract:
One of the sources of air pollutants in the surrounding environment is the automobile emissions. Automobiles produce gaseous and particulate matters which are toxic and inflict damage to roadside plants. Roadside trees are notable for the absorption, sequestering of contaminants and the effective interceptor of airborne pollution. In view of this, the present work was based on investigating the macro-morphological and micro-morphological changes that boost the tolerance and continued existence of four roadside trees, namely Ficus platyphylla, Mangifera indica, Polyalthia longifolia and Terminalia cattapa in the incidence of vehicle exhaust emissions in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Three arterial roads representing three different traffic volumes of extreme, heavy and severe were considered as observational sites. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology Campus was selected as the control site. The macro-morphological characteristics of the four tree species showed reduced leaf area, whilst the micro-morphological results revealed that stomata size, number and index were reduced at the arterial roadsides in all the four tree species. There was increased epidermal cell number and length and trichome length at the polluted arterial roadsides when compared to the control. These variations can be considered as pointers of environmental stress and could be used as indicators of urban air pollution.
Abbas Saidi, Zohreh Hajibarat
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 646-657; doi:10.15835/nsb12310823

Abstract:
Auxin response factors (ARF) gene family plays key roles in plant development and act as transcription factors (TFs) in the regulation of gene expression. An extensive bioinformatics analysis including analysis of conserved motifs, chromosomal map, phylogenetic relationships, and expression profiles were performed for the maize ARF gene family. In this study, a set of publicly available 38 ARF maize (Zea mays) nucleotide sequences were downloaded. Using microarray data, a bioinformatics search for identification of TFBs in ARF genes using plant promoter analysis (PlantPAN) was carried out. The 38 maize ARF genes were categorized into three groups (Class I, II, and III). ARF genes have been studied by molecular methods in several different plant species however to better understand the mechanisms of these genes more studies are needed. Gene cluster analysis showed that the same set of genes on the chromosomes were positively correlated with the same number of gene clusters. Several TFBs including AP2/ERF, ERF, WRKY, bZIP, bHLH, GATA, and NAC were identified in the promoter regions. These TFBs are responsible for modulation of several biotic stress-responsive genes. The main aims of the present study were to obtain genomic information for the ZmARF gene family and their expression under abiotic and biotic stresses.
Remigius I. Onoja, Chinwe U. Chukwudi, Nnenna T. Emejuo, Hillary E. Ugwuanyi, Emmanuel U. Ugwueze
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 568-577; doi:10.15835/nsb12310765

Abstract:
This study evaluated the possible ameliorative effect of hydromethanol extract of Thymus vulgaris on hepatorenal toxicity induced by cadmium in male rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups and treated as follows: A (control - 0.5ml of 2% tween 80 in distilled water per os) for 3 weeks and a single subcutaneous dose of phosphate buffered saline, B (single subcutaneous dose of cadmium in phosphate buffered saline at 3 mg/kg); C (500 mg/kg extract per os daily for 3 weeks) and D (single subcutaneous dose of cadmium in phosphate buffered saline at 3 mg/kg + 500 mg/kg extract per os daily for 3 weeks). Cadmium administration resulted in suppression of erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, an elevated total leucocyte count with associated neutrophilia which improved with extract administration. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and total bilirubin concentration increased with decrease in total serum protein and albumin in cadmium treated group B compared to control group A, group C (extract only) and cadmium plus extract treated group D. Cadmium led to a reduction in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities with increase in the level of malondialdehyde. However, co-administration of extract with cadmium in group D reduced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by cadmium. Histopathological examination of cadmium treated groups showed moderate vacuolar degeneration in the liver and degeneration of the kidney tubules which were ameliorated following co-administration with extract. This study shows that Thymus vulgaris extract has a potential protective effect against cadmium induced hepato-renal injury through the suppression of oxidative stress.
Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Geoffrey O. Anoliefo, Ogochukwu F. Olise, Fabian Rackelmann, Milena Sommer, Isaac J. Adekunle
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 500-535; doi:10.15835/nsb12310672

Abstract:
Phosphorus (p) is a chemical component that has a concentration in the world’s land mass of around one gram for each kilogram. 85% to 95% of cellular phosphorus is available in the vacuole, 31p-nmr examinations uncovers the inadequacy of inorganic phosphorus (pi) efflux from the vacuole to make-up for a fast reduction of the cytosolic pi focus during phosphorus starvation. Activities of phosphorus use involve biogeochemical mechanisms of phosphorus in soil, the phosphorus cycle, chelation of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and aluminium (Al) and their subsequent removal from forming insoluble phosphorus compounds, transformation of phosphorus in the soil, and fixation of phosphorus in the soil. Phosphorus utilisation occur through solubilization by microbes which could be bacteria, fungi or bio-fertilizers that produce phytohormone, siderophores and antibiotics. However, factors affecting phosphorus solubilization are pH and temperature which are key predominant players for phosphorus adsorption dynamics from the soil and rhizosphere by plants, soil phosphorus transformation, spatial availability and acquisition of soil phosphorus, root architecture, bioavailability and acquisition of soil phosphorus, phosphorus cycling and bioavailability in soil-plant systems, its chemistry as well as its final uptake and utilization by plants. Overall, the phosphorus nutrition of plants is majorly monitored by phosphorus dynamics in the soil/rhizosphere-plant continuum. Given the usefulness of phosphorus to plants and its importance as a strategic resource, a better understanding of phosphorus dynamics in the soil/rhizosphere-plant continuum is necessary to lead the establishment of integrated phosphorus-management strategies involving manipulation of soil and rhizosphere activities, development of phosphorus-efficient crops, and improving phosphorus-recycling efficiency in the future.
Yasmina Benabdesslem, Kadda Hachem, Samia Ghomari
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 673-682; doi:10.15835/nsb12310788

Abstract:
The chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is one of the leguminous species most appreciated by consumers in the Mediterranean basin, while being an important source of protein. Nevertheless, its crop yields are greatly limited by several biotic and abiotic stresses, the main one being Ascochyta rabiei, the causal agent of anthracnose. As traditional breeding methods have proved to be ineffective in controlling this pathogen, resorting to biotechnological methods is necessary. Therefore, in this study, the callogenic capacity of stem and leaflet explants from three genotypes of chickpea, namely ‘FLIP 84-92 C’, ‘ILC 32-97’, and ‘ILC 263’, cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with different hormonal balances of auxins (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]) and cytokinin (kinetin), was determined. For all the genotypes, high percentages of callogenesis were recorded in the different explants grown on an MS medium with 2 mg of both IAA and kinetin. Then, a patho-system of Cicer arietinum calluses with Ascochyta rabiei was investigated, followed by a histological assessment of this interaction. The presence of the fruiting bodies of the pathogen was revealed in the calluses of the ‘ILC 32-97’ and ‘ILC 263’ genotypes. Notably, the latter showed a high sensitivity to the pathogen, as indicated by an abundance of pycnidia in its tissues. As for the ‘FLIP 84-92 C’ genotype, the histological sections showed a total absence of inter- and intracellular fruiting bodies of the pathogen in the callus tissues. Therefore, this genotype was considered as resistant to Ascochyta rabiei.
Beckley Ikhajiagbe, Saheed I. Musa
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 683-692; doi:10.15835/nsb12310777

Abstract:
This study investigated the effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the germination and early seedling growth of Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L., Fabaceae). Pigeon pea were sown in soils containing 5 mg/l, 10 mg/l, 20 mg/l, 30 mg/l and 50 mg/l SA and a control (0 mg/l). The treatment was applied to the plant for 6 weeks from the day of planting. It was observed that the leaflet area increased more in plants that received SA treatment in low concentration (0 mg/l, 5 mg/l, 10 mg/l and 20 mg/l) than in those with higher concentration (30 mg/l and 50 mg/l). The same result was obtained in the total chlorophyll content of the leaves and in average height of the plant (p
Ehizogie J. Falodun, Vivian E. Edafe
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 719-728; doi:10.15835/nsb12310754

Abstract:
Amaranthus cruentus L. is a leafy vegetable that is cultivated mainly for its leaves and grains. Due to high demand for this crop in Nigeria, the need to boost its productivity becomes necessary. Field and laboratory studies were conducted during in two successive cropping seasons at the experimental farm and laboratory unit of the Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City. Three cutting heights C1: (10 cm), C2: (15 cm), C3: (20 cm) and a control C0: (no cutting) and four rates of fertilizer application F0: (Control), F1: (10 t ha-1 poultry manure), F2: (150 kg ha-1 NPK15:15:15) and F3 (75 t ha-1 NPK 15:15:15 + 5 t ha-1 poultry manure) constituted the treatments. The treatments were in three replicate laid out in a (4 × 4) factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design. Data collected were plant height (cm), leaf area (cm2), stem diameter (cm) and number of branches. Fresh and dry herbage yield were taken at harvest. Growth, yield, and quality of Amarathus cruentus were significantly influenced by cutting heights and fertilizer application. In both years, number of branches (3.50 and 6.01) were lowest at C0 compared with other treatments. Herbage fresh and dry yield (49.10 t ha-1 and 18.20 t ha-1) were highest at C3 and was consistent in both years. Similarly, the concentration of K, Ca, and Mg in plant tissue and the uptake of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and Na) increase at C3 compared with other treatments. F3 significantly (p
Evangelia Basdeki, Constantinos Salis, Marianna Hagidimitriou
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 466-485; doi:10.15835/nsb12310784

Abstract:
The Mediterranean basin is characterized by the presence and cultivation of olive trees since antiquity. All of the Mediterranean countries and especially Greece and Italy, are characterized by similar food patterns that are described as “Mediterranean diet”. The core of this diet is the daily intake of plant foods and as its main source of fat is olive oil and particularly in Greece EVOO (Extra Virgin Olive Oil). EVOO contains a large percentage of MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids - approximately 80% of its total lipid concentration), as well as some other substances in smaller concentrations such as oleocanthal, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein etc. The greater the adherence to the Mediterranean diet and to the intake of EVOO as the main fat source, the greater the health benefits encountered. Some of these benefits that have been reported are due to the antioxidant properties of EVOO, its anti-inflammatory effects, its ability to regulate the endothelial function, lipids, haemostasis, coagulation and fibrinolysis. Moreover, EVOO has a positive effect in chronic diseases such as obesity, metabolic and amyloid diseases, while it reduces the risk of cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, it influences the aging process by reducing the genome and proteome damage that lead to aging. All the data collected, demonstrate that a daily intake of EVOO combined with a good percentile of adherence to the Mediterranean diet lead to a healthier lifestyle, longevity and a reduced morbidity rate.
Mostapha Brahmi, Djallal E. H. Adli, Kaddour Ziani, Hemida Houari, Miloud Slimani, Khaled Kahloula
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 578-591; doi:10.15835/nsb12310758

Abstract:
Our work focused on the impact of chronic lead acetate and manganese chloride poisoning on renal function in Wistar rats. It also tested the efficacy of the essential oil extracted from (Mentha spicata) spearmint in reversing these effects by treating previously poisoned rats with a daily intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml HEM/kg over a 21-days period. Analysis of this essential oil through gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed that the main components are: carvone (42.2%), menthone (20.89%), piperitenone (17.41%) and isomenthone (7.99%). Chronic oral co-exposure to lead and manganese during periods of gestation and lactation resulted in a significant reduction (P
Arun D. Sharma, Inderjeet Kaur
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 536-545; doi:10.15835/nsb12210711

Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), member of corona virus family, is a positive single stranded RNA virus. Due to lack of drugs it is spreading its tentacles across the world. Being associated with cough, fever, and respiratory distress, this disease caused more than 15% mortality worldwide. Mpro/3CLpro has recently been regarded as a suitable target for drug design due to its vital role in virus replication. The current study focused on the inhibitory activity of eucalyptol (1,8 cineole), an essential oil component from eucalyptus oil, against Mpro/3CLprofrom SARS-CoV-2. Till date there is no work is undertaken on in-silico analysis of this compound against Mpro/3CLproof SARS-CoV-2. Molecular docking studies were conducted by using 1-click dock tool and Patchdock analysis. In-silico absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) profile were also studied. The calculated parameters such as docking score indicated effective binding of eucalyptol to COVID-19 Mpro protein. Active site prediction revealed the involvement of active site residues in ligand binding. Interactions results indicated that, Mpro/3CLpro/eucalyptol complexes forms hydrophobic interactions. ADMET studies provided guidelines and mechanistic scope for identification of potent anti-COVID 19 drug. Therefore, eucalyptol may represent potential herbal treatment to act as COVID-19 Mpro/3CLproinhibitor, a finding which must be validated in vivo.
Ananya Nayak, Sohini Ghosh
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 592-607; doi:10.15835/nsb12310749

Abstract:
A study was conducted at the Banaras Hindu University (BHU) campus of Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India to assess the moth fauna of the area. A preliminary checklist was compiled as a base-line contribution to the status of the Lepidoptera diversity of the campus. The campus was surveyed from January to December 2019 and moths were recorded through 83-night surveys and a large number of opportunistic visits in 18 different sites of the campus. The study has recorded a total of 1248 individual moths belonging to 99 morphospecies, 84 genera, and 11 families across different parts of the study area. The most species rich family was Erebidae with 35 species under 30 genera followed by Crambidae (33 species; 28 genera), Geometridae (15 species; 11 genera), Noctuidae (seven species; six genera), and others. However, family-wise abundance data indicated that Crambidae (38.70%) was the most abundant family having highest proportion of moths recorded followed by Erebidae (34.85%), Geometridae (10.73%), Noctuidae (6.81%) and others. This illustrated checklist and the results will improve our understanding of Varanasi’s biodiversity and can be used for improvement of the campus planning and developing strategies for conservation of moth diversity.
NafisehSadat Omidiani, Kailas D. Datkhile, Rajkumar B. Barmukh
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 546-555; doi:10.15835/nsb12310764

Abstract:
Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae), an herbaceous roadside weed in various parts of India, has several therapeutic uses, including the treatment against cancer. This investigation was undertaken to identify the bioactive compounds conferring cytotoxicity to the extracts from its biomass. The powdered leaf, stem, and root biomass was extracted separately in ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol, and methanol. Each extract was tested against the HeLa cell line for the cytotoxicity, but the root-acetone extract was the most cytotoxic. This extract revealed eleven bands. The solution obtained from the ninth band (Rf = 0.87±0.06) exhibited more than 90% inhibition of HeLa cells. The LCMS analysis of this solution showed the presence of 37 compounds, out of which few compounds had been reported from different plants to possess cytotoxicity in various systems.
Ashfak A. Odala, Rasmi A. Ramanathan, Usman Arerath
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 608-618; doi:10.15835/nsb12310770

Abstract:
Attappady is a region of immense biological importance comes under the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve area of India at Palakkad district. Biodiversity study of this hill area has great importance in conservative science. Except a national range study for nematode fauna of banana (Musa spp.) in Indian banana fields, a detailed survey of this agriculturally and environmentally important area has not reported till now. The diversity analysis of plant parasitic nematodes was done with samples taken from rhizosphere soil and roots of banana at this area. Comparing with the reported nationwide study the present study newly reported the presence of Aphelenchus spp., Dorylaimoides spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Rotylenchulus spp., Tylenchorynchus spp. and Tylenchus spp. from the crop banana other than the already reported one’s such as Helicotylenchus spp., Meloidogyne spp., Pratylenchus spp. and Radopholus spp. The analysis of nematode genera in different banana cultivars such as Musa × paradisiaca L. (AAB) ‘Nendran’, Musa acuminata Colla (AAA) ‘Robusta’, Musa acuminata Colla (AA) ‘Kadali’ and Musa × paradisiaca L. (Mysore AAB) ‘Poovan’ revealed differences in the reaction to attack between genotypes, and that the cultivar ‘Nendran’ was the most susceptible one to plant parasitic nematodes.
M. Islam, A. Al Mamun, F. Alam
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 628-636; doi:10.15835/nsb12310761

Abstract:
An efficient protocol for in vitro propagation of Commelina benghalensis was developed. Nodal segments were showed the superb explants in performance for shoot proliferation than other explants. On the other hand, BAP with auxin was better combination. The maximum (90.52) number of explants response and the highest (23.25) number of shoots per plant were obtained from nodal segments on MS medium fortified with 3.0 mg/l BAP+0.1 mg/l IBA. The highest shoot length (17.25 cm) was achieved on MS medium containing 3.0mg/l BAP+0.5mg/l IBA. In vitro proliferated shoots were transferred to full and half strength of MS media where 1.5 mg/l IBA on full strength of MS media was the best to fit for the maximum number (12.69) of roots formation per micro-shoot. Well rooted plantlets were transferred to soil and successfully acclimatized with 97% survival rate. Three extracts i.e. methanol, ethanol, Petroleum ether of C. benghalensis L and four concentrations of each extracts were used against five gram (+ve) and five gram (-ve) bacterial species for the screening of antibacterial activity. Ethanol extracts was the superior in performance. The susceptibility of tested pathogenic bacterial species was increasing compare with increasing of extracts concentration with few exceptions. The highest zone of inhibition was obtained against S. aureus (17.50 mm) and P. aeruginosa (17.44 mm) at 800 mg/l dose level of extracts. It was also noticed that Gram (+ve) bacterial species are more susceptible to Benghal dayflower crude extracts than Gram (-ve) bacterial species.
Mercy O. Bamigboye, Adeyinka E. Ajiboye
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 619-627; doi:10.15835/nsb12310780

Abstract:
This research work aimed at synthesizing and investigating the antimicrobial activities of a metallic oxide nanoparticle complex of Moringa oleifera leaves extracts against some microorganisms. Moringa oleifera leaves were washed, dried and blended. They were extracted with distilled water and ethanol using standard methods. The nanoparticle was synthesized by coordinating with manganese oxide. The physicochemical properties were determined following standard procedures. The phytochemical screening was carried out by standard methods. The antibacterial activities were done using agar well diffusion method. Antifungal activity was carried out following the plate technique. The leaves extract had a 75% yield and melting point of 116 °C while the nanoparticle had a yield of 60% and melted at 78 °C with pH of 3.46. The molar conductance of the nanoparticle revealed at 10.6 Ω−1cm2mol−1. The ethanolic extract of the leaves showed the presence of alkaloids, tannin, steroids and saponins. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera exhibited the highest antibacterial activity of 33.05±0.10 mm against Bacillus subtilis while its antifungal activity revealed the highest inhibition of 48.40±0.53 mm at 30 mg/mL against Aspergillus niger. Staphylococcus aureus had a zone of inhibition of 19.00±0.16a using the aqueous extract. The ethanolic extract of M. oleifera nanoparticles showed antibacterial and antifungal activity against B. megaterium and A. niger with a zone of inhibition of 49.21±0.32 mm and 50.35±0.29 mm respectively while the aqueous extract showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus with a zone of 26.00±0.38mm. As it was concluded ethanolic extract in both leaves extract and its nanoparticle, possessed higher antibacterial and antifungal activities than the aqueous extract.
, Ayşe Ö. Ş. Soysal
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 693-701; doi:10.15835/nsb12310766

Abstract:
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important food for more than half of the world’s population. Globally, rice is grown on approximately 160 million hectares with an average annual production of 740.96 million tonnes. Salinity is an important abiotic factor for germination. In this study rice varieties were analysed for salt stress tolerance at germination growth stage. The response of eight rice varieties against six (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150 mM NaCl) salinity levels were studied at germination stage. Seeds of eight rice varieties (‘Yatkin’, ‘Miss-2013 Passali’, ‘Kale’, ‘Manyas Yildizi’, ‘Efe’, ‘Biga Incisi’ and ‘Osmancik-97’) were kept under six salt stress levels. Number of seeds germinated (number), germination rate (%), average germination time, fresh and dry weight of germinated seeds (g), fresh and dry weight of the coleoptile (g), fresh and dry weight of the radicle (g), the length of the coleoptile and radicle (mm) were recorded. The results showed that with increasing salt stress, germination in all the varieties was delayed. The increase in salt stress also reduced every measured trait significantly in all the varieties. Maximum germination percentage (100%) was observed in ‘Biga Incisi’ under all the salt stress levels. Our research data would be helpful for identification of the tolerant varieties which can be studied further in terms of economically.
Mohammad R. Orazizadeh, Mostafa Hosseinpour, Parviz Fasahat
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 711-718; doi:10.15835/nsb12310755

Abstract:
Sugar beet and sugarcane are two major crops for sugar extraction throughout the world. However, the sugar beet importance is not just about sugar production but it also plays an important role in crop rotation and increased productivity in various industries as well as livestock feed. In this study the long-term (2009-16) field trial effect of alfalfa (4 years)-winter wheat (1 year)–fallow (1year)-sugar beet rotation on yield and quality parameters of sugar beet were evaluated for two consecutive rotations. The field trials were carried out at single location in Karaj, Iran, using randomized complete block design with four replications. Analysis of variance showed that the seasonal factors influenced different traits. In the first and second rotations, the root yield ranged from about 56.5 to 83.2 and 61.4 to 77.8 t ha-1, respectively with significant difference among cultivars in the first rotation. However, no significant difference was observed among both rotations in terms of root yield. Same results were obtained for sugar yield in both rotations which illustrates the stability of the above-mentioned traits. Except for sugar content, significant difference was observed among other traits in both rotations. We show for the first time the effect of completing two rotation sequences on sugar beet performance and quality for decision making into a continual expansion/development of crop cultivation.
Adhityo Wicaksono, Jaime A. Teixeira Da Silva
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 769-772; doi:10.15835/nsb12310778

Abstract:
COVID-19 changed 2020 massively after becoming a worldwide pandemic. Many countries affected by the disease witnessed disruptions in the agricultural, farming, industry, production and distribution sectors, causing a loss of crops due to reduced consumer demand. Sales of cut flowers, potted plants and seasonal crops that are sensitive to specific seasons or dates were affected, as were fertilizer and food security. Academics, including plant scientists, with limited work or research conditions during the pandemic, alleviated their work through alternative approaches, e.g., in silico research, or made more time to writing research papers, while student education has largely been placed on hold or held online by lecturers. Most COVID-19 research has focused primarily on medical and social aspects while some plant science-related research has been conducted on the use of traditional medicinal plants as possible alleviating agents, but not cures, to COVID-19 patients. The integrity of science and publishing, including research related to plants, is being tested as cases of superficial research, lax or superficial peer review, and misinformation abound. COVID-19 has thus had limited impact on plant science, and vice versa, thus far, even though it is likely that most plant scientists were affected.
Hussein O. B. Oloyede, Halimat Y. Lukman, Musa O. Salawu
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 556-567; doi:10.15835/nsb12310629

Abstract:
The liver is an important organ performing vital roles that become affected when damaged. The protective potential of ethyl acetate-ethanolic fraction of Carica papaya leaves on acetaminophen-induced liver damage in female albino rats was investigated. Forty female rats were completely randomized into eight groups (A-H) of five rats each. Group A (control), received 1 ml of distilled water, group B (untreated) received 250 mgkg-1 bw of acetaminophen, group C received silymarin (50 mgkg-1 bw) followed by actaminophen (250 mgkg-1 bw), groups D-G received 100, 200, 400 and 600 mgkg-1 bw of ethyl acetate-ethanolic fraction of Carica papaya leaves respectively; followed by acetaminophen administration (250 mgkg-1 bw), while group H (toxicity control) received 600 mgkg-1 bw extract fraction daily. Ethyl acetate-ethanolic fraction of Carica papaya leaves significantly (p
Samira Meziani, Souad Saidani, Noreddine Menadi, Hayet Mehidda, Mohammed Zairi, Lahouaria Labga, Rawda Benguella, Mohammed Benali
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 741-751; doi:10.15835/nsb12310585

Abstract:
From this context we have been interested in biochemical and phytochemical parameters of local and foreign varieties of wheat bran whose purpose is to search to see if there are intraspecific and interspecific varietal differences. The study concerned five varieties of soft wheat bran selected at CCLS Sidi Bel Abbés and consumed in many regions of Algeria. The biochemical compounds of grains (proteins, cellulose, ash content and phytochemical (total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity) were determined in all varieties. The wheat bran, the subject and material of this study, was obtained from whole wheat grains collected from three varieties of soft wheat and used in our case to produce and extract the maximum of soft wheat bran. The varieties used were ‘HD’ (SWBHD) and ‘Anzar’ (SWBA) local variety and one imported, ‘Habbour’ variety (SWBHB). Two samples of marketed soft wheat bran, imported, were provided in this work to compare their nutritional components. Different techniques and methods were used in this experimental study (infra-red approach spectrophotometer, flame spectrophotometer). The results obtained show that ‘Eriad’ soft wheat bran (SWBE) is rich in protein with a variation of 15.78% at 18.07%; and is slightly elevated compared to other samples. Regarding the results obtained for cellulose, a high value was recorded for (SWBTAZ) variety 11.3%, and a lower one for (SWBHB) marketed at a value of 3.6%. The maximum concentration of potassium and sodium was obtained in the SWBAZ variety with a level of 3.16 mg/l and 30.36 mg/l respectively. The evaluation of phytochemicals has shown the presence of considerable amounts of polyphenols and flavonoids qualitatively and quantitatively. SWBAZ variety was very rich in total polyphenols, flavonoids and DPPH respectively with values of (1.101±0.01 mg EAG/g) and (0.174±0.001 EC/g) (1.39±0.01 EAG/g) compared to the different varieties studied. In conclusion, the SWBAZ variety could thus be considered, in our case, as an important source of phytonutrients.
Temidayo Ibigbami, Olugbenga Adeonipekun
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 729-740; doi:10.15835/nsb12310768

Abstract:
Pollen allergy is an abnormal response of the immune system to certain pollen grains and these reactions are gradually on the increase all around the world. The need for consistent and accurate data on aero-pollen density as well as the meteorological conditions under which they are prevalent is imperative for appropriate management of allergic conditions in hypersensitive persons. Therefore, to identify the ‘culprit’ pollen related to allergy cases in Lagos, two locations, Ipaja and Ikeja were sampled. Aero-samplers were harvested weekly from February 2016 to July 2016. Acetolysis was done on the samples collected and meteorological data from Nigerian Meteorological Agency and clinical data from Adefemi Medical Center, Ipaja were assessed against pollen counts. The total pollen count of 2,048 was recorded for Ipaja while Ikeja had 820 with main taxa of Amaranthaceae, Poaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Weekly pollen counts were highest in weeks 8 and 10(April) at Ipaja and Ikeja respectively and lowest in weeks 22 and 24(June) at Ipaja and Ikeja respectively. The pollen counts at Ipaja correlated positively with temperature and from the medical records, there was a positive correlation (p
Sunday A. Adeniran, Akeem B. Kadiri, James D. Olowokudejo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 637-645; doi:10.15835/nsb12310686

Abstract:
A qualitative micromorphological assessment of the seven species of Isolona occurring in Nigeria and the Cameroons was undertaken with the aid of light microscope. The stomatal cells are particularly useful, providing stable characters which can be reliably employed in distinguishing the species. Hypostomatic leaves and paracytic stomatal type are generic constant. Possession of only paracytic stomata is characteristic of I. dewevrei whereas other species may have in addition another type such as 1+2 laterocytic stomatal type found only in I. zenkeri and presence of brachyparacytic stomata which shows relatedness of I. campanulata, I. congolana, I. hexaloba, I. pleurocarpus and I. thonneri. The epidermal surfaces appeared glabrous but an indication of hairs is shown by the presence of a glandular trichome base only in I. hexaloba. The epidermal cell characters such as epidermal cell shapes and anticlinal wall patterns seem to intergrade and they are not as definite as the stomatal cells. However, a combination of these features will be helpful in defining the species better and their leaf fragments can be differentiated based on the various characters studied for effective utilization in herbal medicinal research.
Ojo M. Oseni, Omotola E. Dada, Gideon O. Okunlola, Ezekiel D. Olowolaju, Michael S. Akinropo, Akinjide M. Afolabi, Adebisi A. Akinlabi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 486-499; doi:10.15835/nsb12310737

Abstract:
Contaminants in the environment occur naturally and/or through anthropogenic activities. These contaminants become a threat to all living organisms because of their increased in the environment and non-biodegradable nature. In order to protect the environment from these contamination, various techniques have been developed, and among them is phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a technology that employed plant species for reclaiming contaminated soil, air, and water. This technology has been widely accepted in recent times, because of its low cost and environmentally friendly. In addition, augmentation of the contaminated soil, either chemo augmentation or bioaugmentation, have been used for the effective absorption of some of these contaminants. When the plants are grown in the contaminated sites, the contaminant in the soil maybe removed, immobilized, degraded or volatized. These phytoremediation technologies are: phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, rhizofiltration, phyto-stimulation, phyto-stabilization and phytodegradation. Based on the phytoremediation potentials of plants, pollutants are being removed from the environment thereby keeping the environment safe.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12; doi:10.15835/nsb12310824

Abstract:
Notulae Scientia Biologicae (http://www.notulaebiologicae.ro), Issue 3, Volume 12, 2020: The papers published in this issue represent interesting novelties in different topics of life science. Among the exciting researches or reviews, we invite readers to find news about: The effects of Mediterranean diet and EVOO consumption in relation to human health; Molecular docking and pharmacokinetic screening of eucalyptol (1,8 cineole) from eucalyptus essential oil against SARS-CoV-2; Anticancer potentials of leaf, stem, and root extracts of Achyranthes aspera L.; Protective potentials of ethyl acetate-ethanolic fraction of Carica papaya leaves against acetaminophen-induced liver damage in rats; Possible ameliorative effects of hydromethanol extract of Thymus vulgaris on cadmium induced hepatorenal toxicity in rats; Beneficial effect of Mentha spicata essential oil on lead and manganese induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney; Plant parasitic nematode communities associated with the crop banana (Musa spp.) at Attappady Tribal hill area, India; Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of a metallic oxide nanoparticle complex of Moringa oleifera leaves extracts against selected microorganisms; Response of roadside tree leaves in a tropical city to automobile pollution; Is COVID-19 impacting plant science, and is plant science impacting COVID-19?
Dorina Bonea
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 376-386; doi:10.15835/nsb12210683

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Ramazan Saglam, Leyla Seven, Ferhat Kup
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 356-365; doi:10.15835/nsb12210642

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Oluwabunmi O. Arogundade, Olubukola Adedeji
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 318-333; doi:10.15835/nsb12210537

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Mashallah Daneshvar, Farhad Fattahi, Hamid R. Rahmani, Seyed A. M. Modarres Sanavy, Masoud Sami
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 409-419; doi:10.15835/nsb12210767

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Peter J. Chika, Ayobola M. Sakpere, Michael S. Akinropo
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 334-340; doi:10.15835/nsb12210636

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Budi Winarto, Kurnia Yuniarto, Rudy Soehendi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 264-276; doi:10.15835/nsb12210712

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, Ekene V. Ezenduka, John A. Nwanta
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 12, pp 242-250; doi:10.15835/nsb12210724

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