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Results in Journal Notulae Scientia Biologicae: 1,171

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Roghayyeh Sheykhbaglou, Mohammad Sedghi, Mehdi Tajbakhsh Shishevan, Rauf Seyed Sharifi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 2, pp 112-113; doi:10.15835/nsb224667

Abstract:
This study was performed to determine the effect of nano-iron oxide on soybean yield and quality. Field experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were five levels of nano-iron oxide (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 g l-1). Results showed that nano-iron oxide at the concentration of 0.75 g l-1 was increased leaf + pod dry weight and pod dry weight. The highest grain yield was observed with using 0.5 g l-1 nano-iron oxide that showed 48% increase in grain yield in comparison with control. Other measured traits were not affected by the iron nano- particles.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 3, pp 39-46; doi:10.15835/nsb325846

Abstract:
Diversification of production by including a broader range of plant species, can significantly contribute to improve health and nutrition, livelihoods, household food security and ecological sustainability. Exploring the climate impact on any given crop is one of the first priorities to find new suitable areas for production and management of new crops. Summer squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) is an economically valuable plant with various medicinal potentials. In order to investigate summer squash cultivation feasibility under Irans climate, three main agricultural regions (Azerbaijan, Khorasan and central part of Iran (Fars and Isfahan)) were selected. These regions suitability for summer squash cultivation were evaluated by considering three vital climate variables encompass temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours. These regions show distinct and representative climatic conditions of Iran. Annual and growing season average of maximum, minimum, mean temperature, precipitation, and sunshine hours were calculated (May-September) for all locations with 44 years historical weather data (1961-2005) for 8 locations (Oroomieh, Tabriz, Khoy, Mashhad, Sabzevar, Birjand, Shiraz and Isfahan), 39 years (1966-2005) for 2 locations (Kashan and Fassa), 28 years (1977-2005) for 4 locations (Ardebil, Abadeh, Bojnurd and Shargh Isfahan) and 20 years (1985-2005) for 9 locations (Mahabad, Sarab, Maragheh, Parsabad, Khalkhal, Ferdous, Ghaen, Kashmar and Sarakhs). Climatic demands of summer squash were determined by four years field studies at four different locations in Iran. Our results showed Azerbaijan region has a suitable condition for this crop cultivation especially from precipitation and temperature perspectives. Central part of Iran and Khorasan were also found as partly suitable locations however as they are near to deserts with hotter and drier climate, there might be some other crops considered as priorities in these areas.
Syed M. Haque, Syeda J. Nahar, Shimasaki Kazuhiko
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 89-93; doi:10.15835/nsb9110015

Abstract:
The present study investigated the effect of sucrose, trehalose and combination of sucrose and trehalose with modified MS medium on in vitro regulation of protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of Cymbidium devonianum under different quality of lights (white fluorescent tube, green, red and blue LED). As a result of this study, new PLB and shoots were successfully regenerated on modified MS medium under different quality of lights. The highest PLB formation rate (100%) and the highest shoot formation rate (85%) were observed amongst explants cultured on medium supplemented with 10 g/l sucrose + 10 g/l trehalose under green LED. The maximum fresh weight of PLBs, the highest average number of PLBs and shoots were recorded on medium containing 10 g/l sucrose + 10 g/l trehalose under green LED. For plant tissue culture, sucrose is considered an indisputably important carbon and energy source and biosynthesis of trehalose is similar to that of sucrose. The hereby study concluded that the contribution of LED lights, sucrose and trehalose (combined) can induce PLB and shoot formation of Cymbidium devonianum tissue culture without the use of any other plant growth regulator, whereas the green light showed the best formation rate compare with the other studied qualities of lights.
Gurmeen Rakhra, Arun Dev Sharma, Jatinder Singh
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 6; doi:10.15835/nsb.6.2.9327

Abstract:
Drought is one of the major environmental constraints affecting the crops worldwide. Expression of boiling soluble proteins (BSPs) is of paramount importance, because they play important roles in the water stress responses and also in plant metabolism. In this study, the effect of drought on BSPs at vegetative (shoots) and reproductive (seeds) phases of drought tolerant (cv. ‘PBW 527’) and drought susceptible (cv. ‘PBW 343’) cultivars of Triticumaestivum were carried at three different developmental stages. The boiling soluble protein profiles of shoots and seeds were outlined via SDS-PAGE followed by immune-blot analysis using anti-HSP, anti-APase, anti-LEA, anti-SOD, anti-AQUA and anti-CAT antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed that expression of BSPs was modulated differentially in a stress, tissue, developmental stage and cultivar dependent manner. For instance, enhanced expression of seeds BSPs (APase, LEA, CAT, AQUA) was observed in the tolerant cv. ‘PBW 527’ after drought stress. However, no such enhancement was observed in the susceptible cultivar. Similarly, in shoots of cv. ‘PBW 527’, a substantial increase of BSP (SOD) expression was established after drought stress treatment, indicating their role in drought stress adaptation. Further, to gain an insight into the role of BSPs, a time course pre- and post-stress kinetic studies were also conducted in the seeds of tolerant and susceptible wheat cultivars. Based upon the observations, the possible role of boiling soluble proteins (hydrophilins) in water stress tolerance is discussed.
Muthuramalingam Karpagavalli, Muthusamy Thangaraj, Duraisamy Annadurai, Thangappan Ajithkumar, Mahapathra Gyanaprakash, Raman Surabi
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 11, pp 368-372; doi:10.15835/nsb11410475

Abstract:
The CYP family enzymes are broadly used as biomarkers because of their pattern of expression. This study describes the application of in silico tools to predict the physico-chemical characters of CYP1A protein from the catfish, Clarias gariepinus. The nucleotide sequence analysis of C. gariepinus CYP1A gene showed higher similarity with C. batrachus and reflected in the phylogenetic tree. The comparative modelling results showed this CYP1A protein was highly similar with the 3-D crystal structure of human Cytochrome p450 1A1 (PDB: 1BE3). The prediction results depicted that most of the amino acids formed alpha helix. The predicted pI was 9.10, hydropathycity was -0.226, exposed and buried residues were 61.67, 38.33% respectively. Ramachandran plot analysis showed that most of the amino acids falling on the favoured region and exhibited right- handed alpha helices as the most stable secondary structure. Some amino acids were also found to form loops to interconnect different helices. The CYP1A protein was predicted to be localized in the mitochondrion of the eukaryotic cell.
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 8, pp 281-285; doi:10.15835/nsb839873

Abstract:
Testicular morphology and sperm motility were evaluated in cultured Clarias gariepinus (n = 25) purposively assigned to five groups according to their age. The results showed that the testes were paired, elongated, dorso-ventrally flattened structures, situated in the caudal aspects of the body cavity. The mean length of both right and left testes increased linearly with age, being significantly (p < 0.05) higher at 6 months than at 4 and 5 months of age, and also significantly (p < 0.05) higher at 8 months than at 6 months of age, while the mean weight and organo-somatic index of the catfish testes increased linearly until 6 months of age, after which no significant (p > 0.05) increase in the testicular weight and organo-somatic index was observed. Unidirectional progressive movement of spermatozoa was detected in the milt of C. gariepinus at 6, 7 and 8 months of age, but sperm cells were non-motile at 4 and 5 months of age. Histological sections showed seminiferous lobules, whose germinal epithelia were characterized by many cysts enclosing clones of sperm cells. Each cyst enclosed a clone of sperm cells at an identical stage of spermatogenesis. Spermatids and spermatozoa were present in the lumen of the seminiferous lobule. The obtained results indicate that the morphology of the testes of C. gariepinus is similar to the testes of members of the order Siluriformes, but sexual maturity and production of motile spermatozoa may be achieved at 6 months of age in the African catfish.
Elizabeta Misksoka-Milevska, Zoran T. Popovski, Tome Nestorovski
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 9, pp 209-213; doi:10.15835/nsb9210114

Abstract:
The microsatellites are specific for each individual genome or species. In order to evaluate the genetic diversity and the relationships within the genus Lycopersicon, microsatellites markers were used. The main objective of this study was to determine the usefulness of the locus LE21085 in the genetic differentiation among six morphologically different tomato varieties of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (var. grandifolium subsp. cultum; var. cerasiforme - red and yellow, var. pruniforme, var. pyriforme subsp. subspontaneum and var. racemigerum subsp. spontaneum). For the microsatellites locus LE21085 were detected two alleles in all estimated tomato varieties, that differed by one base pair (122 and 123 bp). The biggest allele frequency was found for the allelic variant of 122 bp, and its values were: 0.8462 for L. esculentum subsp. subspontaneum var. cerasiforme (red), 0.6923 for L. esculentum subsp. subspontaneum var. cerasiforme (yellow), 0.5769 for L. esculentum subsp. cultum var. grandifolium, 0.6923 for L. esculentum subsp. subspontaneum var. pruniforme, 0.6154 for L. esculentum subsp. subspontaneum var. pyriforme and 0.8077 for L. esculentum subsp. spontaneum var. racemigerum. The average of observed heterozygosity for the locus LE21085 (Ho = 0.5641) was higher than average expected heterozygosity (He = 0.4158). The average PIC value for the locus LE21085 was 0.3294 and it was classified as a modest informative markers. From the obtained results it can be concluded that locus LE21085 could be used in genetic differentiation of tomato varieties, but in combination with other polymorphic microsatellite loci.
Alhassan Attah, Florin Ioras, Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam, Ioan Vasile Abrudan
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 2, pp 121-127; doi:10.15835/nsb234775

Abstract:
Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). To date about 126,000 ha of forests have been certified by the different certification schemes in Africa, despite Africa accounting for 17% of the Worlds forest cover. This has been due to the lack of awareness on forest certification and the low standards of forest management in the tropics. The authors conducted a survey of representative stakeholders, in particular export timber firms in Ghana to identify why Chain of Custody certification in the Ghana Timber sector remains undeveloped. A number of 103 stakeholders were consulted. Results collated indicate that the readiness to adopt chain of custody certification among the sector was low. The lack of a national scheme was cited as the primary reasons deterring the sector from adopting certification.
Aina Arinola Fajuke
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 2, pp 40-42; doi:10.15835/nsb213554

Abstract:
Mosses show fair degree of structural adaptations to different environmental conditions. The effects caused by desiccation were determined in the shoots of six moss species, collected from various locations of the Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife campus, Osun State, Nigeria. Using 0.1 g of fresh weights, desiccation of moss species over time at 0%, 52%, and 100% relative humidity, were determined by putting the shoots into desiccators and reweighing at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 hr and on the 8th day. It was concluded that the locations of the moss species, and the fact that the cell walls of all the mosses were thick, were regarded as the adaptations which helped these mosses survived desiccation stress.
Mahboobeh Nasseri, Hossein Arouiee, Shiva Golmohammadzadeh, Mohammad Hasan Jafari, Hossein Neamati
Notulae Scientia Biologicae, Volume 7; doi:10.15835/nsb.7.4.9650

Abstract:
The present study aimed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the essential oil of Zataria multiflora to control Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus and Aspergillus niger. The essential oil of Zataria multiflora was tested in vitro on PDA (malt extract agar medium) with eight concentrations: 0, 10, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 ppm. This investigation followed the completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. GC-MS evaluations of the essential oil revealed that thymol (35%), carvacrol (34%), cymene-p (9.89%), gamma-terpinene (5.88%) and alpha-pinene (4.22%) were the main compounds of Zataria multiflora oil. The results showed that the essential oil of Zataria multiflora has antifungal activity; the lowest inhibition (75%) was observed in the A. niger, while the highest inhibition (95.3%) was observed in A. solani. Minimum inhibitory concentration for A. solani, R. solani, R. stolonifer, A. flavus, A. ochraceus and A. niger was 200, 200, 200, 300, 300 and 200 ppm respectively. In addition, the present results showed that minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) for A. solani, R. solani, R .stolonifer, A. niger and A.ochraceus was 600, 400, 300, 900 and 700 ppm respectively and none of the tested concentrations were fatal for A. flavus. A. solani and R. solani showed a strong sensitivity to Zataria multiflora essential oil at all concentrations. Findings of the current study suggest that essential oils of Zataria multiflora could be used for control of postharvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits or vegetables.
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