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, Tahar Chouihed, Pierre Nazeyrollas, Bruno Levy, Marie F. Seronde, Pascal Bilbault, François Braun, Gérald Roul, David Kénizou, Noura Zannad, et al.
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 25, pp 229-236;

Worsening renal function (i.e. any increase in creatinine or decrease in the estimated glomerular filtration rate) is common in patients admitted for acute heart failure in the emergency department. Although worsening renal function (WRF) has been associated with the occurrence of dismal outcomes, this only appears to be the case when associated with clinical deterioration. However, if the clinical status of the patient is improving, a certain increase in serum creatinine may be acceptable. This WRF, which is not associated with clinical deterioration or adverse outcomes (e.g. during treatment up-titration), has been referred to as ‘pseudo-WRF’ and should not detract clinicians from targeting ‘guideline-recommended’ therapies. This is an important message for emergency physicians to pursue diuretics as long as signs of pulmonary congestion persist to improve the clinical status of the patient. In the present review, we aim to provide clinicians in acute settings with an integrative and comprehensive approach to cardiorenal interactions in acute heart failure.
Jonas Öhman, Veli-Pekka Harjola, Pasi Karjalainen, Johan Lassus
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 112-117;

The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound protocol (CaTUS), combining echocardiographically derived E/e’ and lung ultrasound (LUS), for diagnosing acute heart failure (AHF) in patients with undifferentiated dyspnea in an emergency department (ED). We enrolled 100 patients with undifferentiated dyspnea from a tertiary care ED, who all had CaTUS done immediately upon arrival in the ED. CaTUS was positive for AHF with an E/e’ > 15 and congestion, that is bilateral B-lines or bilateral pleural fluid, on LUS. In addition, an inferior vena cava index was also recorded to analyze whether including a central venous pressure estimate would add diagnostic benefit to the CaTUS protocol. All 100 patients had a brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) sample withdrawn, and 96 patients underwent chest radiography in the ED, which was analyzed later by a blinded radiologist. The reference diagnosis of AHF consisted of either a BNP of more than 400 ng/l or a BNP of less than 100 ng/l in combination with congestion on chest radiography and structural heart disease on conventional echocardiography. CaTUS had a sensitivity of 100% (95% confidence interval: 91.4–100%), a specificity of 95.8% (95% confidence interval: 84.6–99.3%), and an area under the curve of 0.979 for diagnosing AHF (P<0.001). The diagnostic accuracy of CaTUS was higher than of either E/e’ or LUS alone. Adding the inferior vena cava index to CaTUS did not improve diagnostic accuracy. CaTUS seemed helpful also for differential diagnostics of dyspnea, mainly regarding pneumonias and pulmonary embolisms. CaTUS, combining E/e’ and LUS, provided excellent accuracy for diagnosing AHF.
Pieter-Jan Van Balen, , , Audrey A.A. Fiddelers, Peter R. Brink, Heinrich M.J. Janzing
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 133-138;

Equestrian-related injuries (ERIs) are relatively severe compared with injuries in other popular sports. Previous studies on epidemiology of ERIs vary widely and mainly focus on incidence instead of severity of the injury. The aim of this study was to determine incidence, mechanisms and severity of ERIs in two Dutch hospitals (level 1 and level 2 trauma centers) over a 5-year period. All patients with ERIs who visited the emergency departments of VieCuri Medical Centre in Venlo and Maastricht University Medical Centre+ in Maastricht, The Netherlands, between July 2010 and June 2015 were retrospectively included. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Most ERIs occurred in mounted riders (646 events; 68%); 94.9% of which involved a fall. Being kicked (42.5%) or trapped (30.1%) was the most common cause of injury in unmounted riders. Most frequently injured body parts were the upper extremities (43.8%) in mounted riders and lower extremities (40.5%) in the unmounted group. A relatively high percentage of facial injuries (9.7%) were found in the unmounted group. Seventeen per cent of all ERIs required admission. The median Injury Severity Score was 5 in the admitted population and 1 in the total population. Horseback riding is a risky activity. Prior studies particularly studied admitted patients in level 1 trauma centers outside of Europe and demonstrated a high risk of significant injury. However, our study demonstrates that these studies in selected groups might have overestimated the severity of ERIs in the general population.
Inés M. Fernández-Guerrero, , , , Òscar Miró
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 65-70;

The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of the citation of articles from the European Journal of Emergency Medicine (EJEM) from 1994 (EJEM foundation) to 2015 and identify highly cited articles and their principal characteristics and determine a possible correlation between the citations counted in different databases. We obtained the articles published in EJEM from 1994 to 2015 in ISI-WoS (main source) and Scopus, Google Scholar, and Medline databases (accessory sources). The citations were quantified and their annual evolution and the bibliometric indices derived (impact factor and SCImago Journal Rank) were evaluated. We identified and analyzed the highly cited EJEM articles and evaluated the possible correlation between the citations counted for these articles in the databases. Overall, 1705 EJEM articles were cited 9422 times in 8122 different articles. The evolution of the global citation, impact factor, and SCImago Journal Rank from 1994 to 2015 increased significantly. The h-index of EJEM was 30, and 31 articles were considered highly cited (≥30 citations), 16.1% of them being clinical trials. By subjects, 22.5% corresponded to cardiology, 19.3% to emergency department management, and 12.9% to pediatrics; by countries, 81% were from Europe, with Belgian authors publishing four (12.9%) highly cited articles, and French, Spanish, British, and Swedish authors having three (9.7%) each. Two studies in the EJEM achieved the definition of ‘citation classics’ (more than 100 citations). The number of citations in all the databases, except Medline, showed statistically significant correlations. Citation of EJEM articles has progressively increased and EJEM bibliometric indicators have improved; most highly cited articles are mainly by European authors.
, Louise L. Pontoppidan, , Matthias Giebner, Jesper D. Andersen, Christian B. Mogensen
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 29-33;

The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement on triage level between prehospital providers and emergency department (ED) nurses in clinical practice when using the same triage system. The objectives were as follows: (a) What is the agreement of triage between prehospital providers and ED nurses, when using Danish Emergency Process Triage (DEPT) correctly? (b) Which part of the triage process yields the highest agreement regarding the final triage? The study was a prospective and observational efficacy study. Patients transported to the ED by ambulances were included. They were triaged by prehospital providers while being transported by ambulance to the ED, and by ED nurses upon arrival. Triage was done using the DEPT – a five-level triage system based on vital signs and a presenting complaint algorithm. An agreement analysis was performed. DEPT was used correctly by both professions in 292 patients. In 182 (62%) patients the prehospital providers and the ED nurses agreed on the same triage level. This equals to κ=0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41–0.56]. When considering the triage based on vital signs the agreement was 72% (κ=0.46; 95% CI: 0.41–0.47), and based on presenting complaint the agreement was 46% (κ=0.41; 95% CI: 0.37–0.44). There was a moderate interrater agreement on triage assignment between ED nurses and prehospital providers. They agreed on final triage more often if they agreed on triage based on vital signs rather than presenting complaints.
Caroline Legoupil, Isabelle Enderle, Flore-Anne Le Baccon, Claude Bendavid, Lucas Peltier, Estelle Bauville, Jean Leveque, ,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 105-111;

To assess the diagnostic performance of the NG-Test human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) WB, which is a new point-of-care (POC) hCG whole-blood test. This prospective study included women consulted in early pregnancy units for vaginal bleeding and/or pelvic pain with unknown pregnancy status after medical consultation including a pelvic ultrasound scan. A new POC test (the NG-Test hCG WB) and the usual laboratory serum test (considered the gold standard) were performed in patients. The results were interpreted in a blinded manner. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for the NG-Test hCG WB. During the study period, 200 patients were included. The pregnancy rate was 17%. For the laboratory test, with a 5 UI/l hCG positivity threshold, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and Youden index of the NG-Test hCG WB were 89.7, 100, 100, 97.9, and 0.90%, respectively. Considering a 10 UI/l hCG positivity threshold, test sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and Youden index were 96.3, 100, 100, 99.3, and 0.96%, respectively. False-negative cases were either extremely brief pregnancies or residual hCG after miscarriage. The result was obtained within 5 min with the NG-Test hCG WB versus 90±31 min with the laboratory test. It was easy to use. The NG-Test hCG WB showed a high sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV. Its use as triage in the case of a negative pelvic ultrasound exam is a potential strategy to improve patient flow, with an average time saving of 85 min.
Andrew Appelboam, Patrick J. Oades
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 13, pp 177-179;

In young children, cannabis ingestion resulting in coma is very rare. Only nine cases have been reported in the literature and most have occurred in inquisitive toddlers. We review the cases to date and report the youngest recorded case of coma due to cannabis ingestion in an 11-month-old girl. This case highlights the importance of considering toxicological causes and the parental recreational drug history in young children who present with an altered level of consciousness. Child protection considerations are also discussed
, Cedric De Villelongue, Dominique Pateron, Youri Yordanov
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 19-23;

The objective of this study was to characterize retracted publications in emergency medicine. We searched MEDLINE, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify all retracted publications in the field of emergency medicine. We also searched an independent website that reports and archives retracted scientific publications. Two researchers independently screened titles, abstracts and full text of search results. Data from all included studies were then independently extracted. We identified 28 retraction notes. Eleven (39%) articles were published by authors from Europe. The oldest retracted article was published in 2001. The 28 retracted papers were published by 22 different journals. Two authors were named on multiples retractions. The median impact factor of journals was 1.03 (0.6–1.9). Almost all studies were available online [26/28 (93%)], but only 40% had watermarking on the article. The retraction notification was available for all articles. Three (11%) retraction notices did not clearly report the retraction reasons, and most retraction notices were issued by the editors [14 (56%)]. The most frequent retraction reasons were plagiarism [eight (29%)], duplicate publication [three (11%)] and overlap [two (2%)]. Retracted articles were cited on average 14 times. In most cases, the retraction cause did not invalidate the study’s results [17 (60%)]. The most common reason for retraction was related to a misconduct by the authors. These results can question the necessity to normalize retraction procedures among the large number of biomedical editors and to educate future researchers on research integrity.
Joris Datema, Jeroen Veldhuis, Jolita Bekhof
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 24-28;

Lidocaine spray is an effective analgesic of mucous membranes. Lidocaine spray is also used during intravenous (i.v.) cannulation, especially in children. However, the analgesic effect of lidocaine spray during i.v. cannulation has not been studied. We aimed to assess the analgesic effectiveness of lidocaine spray during i.v. cannulation. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial in seventeen healthy adults who received an i.v. cannulation in the right and left elbow, respectively, where the order of application of 60 mg lidocaine spray (Xylocaine 10% pump spray) or placebo spray (chlorhexidine gluconate 0.5% in 70% alcohol base) before i.v. cannulation was randomized. Thus, each participant had an i.v. cannulation in both arms: one with lidocaine spray and the other with placebo spray. The primary outcome was pain intensity assessed by a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale. The secondary outcomes were adverse events, success rate of i.v. cannulation and the degree of difficulty of i.v. cannulation as estimated by the nurse performing the i.v cannulation. The pain score (Visual Analogue Scale) during i.v. cannulation was 18.0 mm (interquartile range: 5.0–34.5 mm) after lidocaine application and 21.0 mm (interquartile range: 11.0–30.5) after placebo application. These scores were not significantly different (95% confidence interval: −9.0–11.0, P=0.698). No adverse events occurred and all i.v. cannulations were successful at first attempt. Local administration of lidocaine is not effective in reducing pain during i.v. cannulation.
, Romain Asmolov, Leslie Grammatico-Guillon, Adrien Auvet, Said Laribi, Denis Garot, Youenn Jouan, Pierre-François Dequin,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 41-46;

In case of acute bacterial meningitis, a decision on the need for intensive care admission should be made within the first hour. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a point-of-care glucometer to determine abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) glucose concentration at the bedside that contributes toward bacterial meningitis diagnosis.We carried out a prospective study and simultaneously measured the glucose concentrations in CSF and blood using a central laboratory and a point-of-care glucometer. We compared CSF/blood glucose ratios obtained at the bedside with a glucometer versus those obtained by the central laboratory. We determined the performance characteristics of the CSF/blood glucose ratio provided by a glucometer to detect bacterial infection in the CSF immediately after CSF sampling.We screened 201 CSF collection procedures during the study period and included 172 samples for analysis. Acute bacterial meningitis was diagnosed in 17/172 (9.9%) of CSF samples. The median turnaround time for a point-of-care glucometer analysis was 5 (interquartile range 2-10) min versus 112 (interquartile range 86-154) min for the central laboratory (P<0.0001). The optimal cut-off of the CSF/blood glucose ratio calculated from a bedside glucometer was 0.46, with a sensitivity of 94.1% (95% confidence interval: 71.3-99.9%), a specificity of 91% (95% confidence interval: 85.3-95%), and a positive likelihood ratio of 10.A glucometer accurately detects an abnormal CSF/blood glucose ratio immediately after the lumbar puncture. This cheap point-of-care method has the potential to speed up the diagnostic process of patients with bacterial meningitis.
Silke Maile, Theddy Slongo
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 14, pp 167-169;

Atlantoaxial rotatory fixation is a rare disorder in which the atlas gets fixed in a position normally achieved during rotation. Patients present with painful torticollis and a typical 'cock robin' position of the head: rotation, slight flexion and head tilting contralateral to the direction of rotation. During childhood, laxity of the ligamentous apparatus and joint cups allows a wider range of motion and rotation within these joints. Traumatic effects contribute to subluxation at relevant degree (Fiedling type 2 and higher) for which skeletal traction is necessary. Duration of skeletal traction can be reduced to a minimum (24 h), as seen in this patient, when diagnosis is set as early as possible.
C DE Deyne, J Decruyenaere, P Calle, T Vandekerckhove, B Vaganee, R Blanca Garcia, F Colardyn
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 3, pp 69-72;

Jugular bulb oximetry provides the first bedside available information on cerebral oxygen utilization. An extensive analysis was made of all initial jugular bulb oximetry data obtained in 150 patients within the first 12 h after severe traumatic brain' injury. These data revealed initial abnormal jugular bulb saturation values in 57 patients (= 38% of study population), with a predominance of jugular bulb desaturation (observed in 45 patients). This confirms earlier reports that revealed a high incidence of disturbed and inadequate cerebral perfusion in the first hours after brain injury. Jugular bulb desaturation was especially related to systemic causes (such as a lowered cerebral perfusion pressure observed in 29 patients, and a lowered arterial carbon dioxide tension in 24 patients). These findings could have important implications for the emergency management of severely head-injured patients, as outcome might possibly be improved by better attention to all systemic factors that might reduce cerebral perfusion in the early hours after traumatic insult.
V Urban, C Busert, N Hüwel, A Perneczky
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 3, pp 5-8;

In January 1991, an image transfer unit was developed and installed in the neurosurgical department of the University in Mainz. The system provides an image transfer of patient data via fibreoptic cable networks (VBN), ISDN, and public telephone line. In the following 4 years, 432 consultations were recorded. Nine departments were linked within this system. They provided an emergency out-patient department for primary treatment and radiology. The lack of a neurosurgical department in these clinics was made up for by the image transfer system. In these rural medical departments, tele consultation improves the care of daily routine neurosurgical cases, as well as in emergency cases. There is also a decrease of costs due to tele consultation. The image transfer via simple public telephone line was sufficient.
Anne-Maree Kelly, Jan Pannifex
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 53-58;

The aim of this study was to describe the impact of a clinical network-led quality improvement project on compliance with bundle of care elements (individually and as a ‘bundle’) for patients treated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations in the emergency department. A 9-month quality improvement project was performed by a modified knowledge transfer methodology with analysis before and after data collection. The primary outcomes of interest were compliance with key bundle of care elements (individually and as a ‘bundle’). The analysis is descriptive. Seven emergency departments participated in the project. A total of 179 patients were included in the predata and 203 in the postdata. Administration of controlled oxygen therapy (if oxygen given) increased from 74 to 80% (P=nonsignificant). Administration of inhaled bronchodilators increased from 80 to 91% (P=0.004). Administration of systemic corticosteroids increased from 76 to 88% (P=0.003). Administration of antibiotics (if evidence of infection) increased from 85 to 99% (P<0.001). Analysis of a blood gas in nonmild disease increased from 82 to 91% (P=0.04) and administration of noninvasive ventilation if pH less than 7.3 increased from 53 to 81% (P=0.01). Compliance with all appropriate elements of the defined bundle of care increased from 43 to 63% (P<0.001). A locally managed, clinical network-supported quality improvement project resulted in significant improvements in compliance with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease bundle of care elements.
, Marcus P.J.M. Wijffels, Rene K. Marti
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 10, pp 58-61;

To collect information about the management of patients with acute first time shoulder dislocation by (orthopaedic) surgeons in the accident and emergency departments of Dutch hospitals. Questionnaires were sent to 131 (orthopaedic) surgeons of 74 Dutch hospitals. We enquired whether patients with acute first time shoulder dislocation are managed according to protocols in accident and emergency departments; which radiographs are deemed necessary before and after reduction; which reduction methods are generally performed; and what kind of pain relief or sedatives are generally administered. Furthermore, we enquired into the method and duration of immobilization after reduction. The response rate was 73%. Sixty-five per cent of the hospitals are used to managing acute first time shoulder dislocation according to protocols. Making prereduction and postreduction radiographs is standard practice in almost all hospitals. The most favoured methods of reduction are those according to Kocher and Hippocrates. In 85% of cases sedatives are administered before reduction, and in addition to that systemic analgesia is administered in 30%, whereas intra-articular analgesia is preferred in 25% of cases. Apparently, a protocol for the management of acute first time shoulder dislocation is not standardly available in all hospitals. On the basis of current literature and the results of this questionnaire it may be useful to establish a guideline for diagnostic procedures and the management of acute first time shoulder dislocation in accident and emergency departments.
, Gunnar Gamper, Harald Mayr
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 105-107;

This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) after cardiac arrest in Lower Austria. A questionnaire was sent to intensive care units (ICUs) in Lower Austria. Methods of inducing and maintaining hypothermia, the practise of rewarming, concomitant therapies and reasons not to cool were documented. Of the 23 ICUs 10 (43%) used TH. Nine (39%) cooled their patients to 32-34°C and one to 34-35°C. Duration of cooling was 24 h (n=8, 35%), 24-48 h (n=1) or 48 h (n=1). For induction of hypothermia, ICUs used cold infusions (n=5, 22%), surface (n=7, 30%) or endovascular cooling (n=6, 26%). The same methods were used during the maintenance period. Reasons not to cool were insufficient staff resources (n=4, 17%), technical complexity of cooling (n=4, 17%) and too little information (n=3, 13%). In conclusion, TH has been poorly implemented in Lower Austria. The reasons for not using hypothermia could possibly be dispelled by education.
Amandine Aurore, Patricia Jabre, Pierre Liot, Alain Margenet, Eric LeCarpentier,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 73-76;

Coronary angiography is often performed in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, but little is known about the factors predictive of a positive coronary angiography. Our aim was to determine these factors. In this 7-year retrospective study (January 2000-December 2006) conducted by a French out-of-hospital emergency medical unit, data were collected according to Utstein style guidelines on all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with suspected coronary disease who recovered spontaneous cardiac activity and underwent early coronary angiography. Coronary angiography was considered positive if a lesion resulting in more than a 50% reduction in luminal diameter was observed or if there was a thrombus at an occlusion site. Among the 4621 patients from whom data were collected, 445 were successfully resuscitated and admitted to hospital. Of these, 133 were taken directly to the coronary angiography unit, 95 (71%) had at least one significant lesion, 71 (53%) underwent a percutaneous coronary intervention, and 30 survived [23%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 16-30]. According to multivariate analysis, the factors predictive of a positive coronary angiography were a history of diabetes [odds ratio (OR): 7.1, 95% CI: 1.4-36], ST segment depression on the out-of-hospital ECG (OR: 5.4, 95% CI: 1.1-27.8), a history of coronary disease (OR: 5.3, 95% CI: 1.4-20.1), cardiac arrest in a public place (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-10.7), and ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia as initial rhythm (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.1-8.6). Among the factors identified, diabetes and a history of coronary artery were strong predictors for a positive coronary angiography, whereas ST segment elevation was not as predictive as expected.
Menno I. Gaakeer, Rebekka Veugelers, Peter Patka,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 86-93;

The objective of this study was to effectuate a consensus of emergency physicians on minimum requirements for facility, diagnostic, and medical specialist availability as a first step toward minimum operational standards for 24/7 available emergency departments (EDs) in the Netherlands. A two-part e-Delphi through online survey was performed between January 2015 and May 2016, using a panel of 20 experts in emergency medicine. The aim of part I was to reach an agreement on a list of possible ED elements and their definitions. The second part addressed the actual study objective to reach consensus on operational standards. Successive rounds were submitted to the members of the panel online using SurveyMonkey. Results of each survey round were discussed and interpreted in agreement with all authors in preparation for the next round. Reaching consensus, defined as 70% or more agreement or disagreement among the panel, on the level of all items was the endpoint of this study. Both parts I and II required five rounds. The dropout rate of the expert panel remained zero. The availability of 52 facilities and diagnostic functionalities and the manner in which 17 medical specialties should be available to every 24/7 ED were agreed upon by the expert panel. An expert panel agreed upon minimum operational standards for EDs in the Netherlands. These results are helpful as a first step toward a more widely supported standard for future 24/7 available EDs in the Netherlands and in addition to this other urgent care facilities.
Sameer Batra, J.G. Andrew
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 14, pp 363-364;

A rare injury pattern of compound distal radius fracture associated with a missed posterolateral elbow dislocation in an adult is described. To the best of our knowledge, this has not been previously described in the literature. The probable mechanisms of injury are speculated to include longitudinal compressive force along with valgus and external rotatory stress to the semiflexed elbow leading to elbow dislocation. A continuation of the impact when her hand hit the ground led to her hand deviating radially resulting in compounding on the ulnar side. Early reduction of the dislocation and rigid fixation of the fracture helped to achieve excellent results. We hope that our experience will highlight the need to examine the elbow in severe wrist injuries and to be aware of the possibility of elbow dislocation.
, Ramanand A. Subramanian, Spencer Nabors,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 94-98;

The importance of early recognition of hemorrhagic shock and its effects on outcome have long been recognized. Traditional vital signs are relatively insensitive as early diagnostic markers of hemorrhage. The shock index (SI); heart rate (HR) divided by systolic blood pressure (SBP), has been suggested as such a marker. We tested the diagnostic utility of the SI in differentiating major from minor injury in trauma patients. Retrospective study of a prospectively collected observational cohort at a level I trauma center. Demographics, injury mechanism, HR, SBP, base deficit and lactate were recorded and Injury Severity Score were calculated. Major injury was defined as either a change in hematocrit greater than 10 or blood transfusion requirement during initial 24 h, or Injury Severity Score greater than 15. One thousand four hundred and thirty-five trauma patients were enrolled, average age 35.2±16.9 years. Two hundred and forty-two were classified as major injury. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curves for SI [0.63 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.67] was significantly less than that for base deficit (0.72, 95% CI: 0.69-0.76) or lactate (0.69, 95% CI: 0.65-0.73). The diagnostic performance of SI was slightly better than HR (0.58) but not SBP (0.61). To reach sensitivity of 90%, the SI must be 0.5, well in the range of a normal SBP and HR. The SI can be a valuable tool, raising suspicion when it is abnormal even when other parameters are not, but is far too insensitive for use as a screening device to rule out disease. A normal SI should not lower the suspicion of major injury.
, , Ali Osman Yildirim, Mehmet Yasar, Erden Kilic, Bilgin Cömert
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 117-120;

The aim of this study was to determine whether GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) and intubating laryngeal mask airway (i-LMA) improve the intubation success rate and could be easily learned and performed by paramedic students when compared with the direct laryngoscopic (DL) method. The study was designed as a prospective randomized crossover trial that included 121 paramedic students. All participants were asked to intubate each Ambu Airway Management Trainer manikins after the lecture and demonstration. Successful intubation was defined as the passage of the tube through the vocal cord within 60 s. At the end of the study, a questionnaire survey was given to all participants about their preferences, and they were requested to define each method on an easy-difficult scale. Successful intubation was achieved by 95 students (78.5%) with DL, 112 students (92.6%) with i-LMA, and 111 students (91.7%) with GVL. Mean time of intubation was 25.06±14 s for DL, 22.32±12 s for i-LMA, and 22.63±10 s for GVL. Success rates of i-LMA and GVL were significantly higher compared with DL (P=0.005 and P=0.006, respectively). No significant difference was determined between i-LMA and GVL in terms of successful intubation (P>0.05). This study showed that GVL and i-LMA provided better intubation success rates and were easier for paramedic students when compared with the classic DL method.
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 86-93;

Accurate identification of major trauma patients in the prehospital setting positively affects survival and resource utilization. Triage algorithms using predictive criteria of injury severity have been identified in paramedic-based prehospital systems. Our rescue system is based on prehospital paramedics and emergency physicians. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the prehospital triage performed by physicians and to identify the predictive factors leading to errors of triage. Retrospective study of trauma patients triaged by physicians. Prehospital triage was analyzed using criteria defining major trauma victims (MTVs, Injury Severity Score >15, admission to ICU, need for immediate surgery and death within 48 h). Adequate triage was defined as MTVs oriented to the trauma centre or non-MTV (NMTV) oriented to regional hospitals. One thousand six hundred and eighty-five patients (blunt trauma 96%) were included (558 MTV and 1127 NMTV). Triage was adequate in 1455 patients (86.4%). Overtriage occurred in 171 cases (10.1%) and undertriage in 59 cases (3.5%). Sensitivity and specificity was 90 and 85%, respectively, whereas positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 75 and 94%, respectively. Using logistic regression analysis, significant (P2.5). Predictors of overtriage were paediatric age group, pedestrian or 2 wheel-vehicle road traffic accidents (odds ratio >2.0). Physicians using clinical judgement provide effective prehospital triage of trauma patients. Only a few factors predicting errors in triage process were identified in this study.
, , Hara Roumelioti, Pavlos Lelovas, Nicoletta Iacovidou, , Theano Demestiha,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 108-110;

The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the complications of cardiopulmonary resuscitation after manual or mechanical chest compressions in a swine model of ventricular fibrillation. In this retrospective study, 106 swine were treated with either manual (n=53) or mechanical chest compressions with the LUCAS device (n=53). All swine cadavers underwent necropsy. The animals with no autopsy findings were significantly fewer in the LUCAS group (P=0.004). Sternal fractures were identified in 18 animals in the manual and only two in the LUCAS group (P=0.003). Rib fractures were present in 16 animals in the manual and only four in the LUCAS group (P=0.001). Nine animals in the manual, and two in the LUCAS group had liver hematomas (P=0.026%). In the manual group, eight animals were detected with spleen hematomas whereas no such injury was identified in the LUCAS group (P=0.003). LUCAS devise minimized the resuscitation-related trauma compared with manual chest compressions in a swine model of cardiac arrest.
Constantine Girio-Fragkoulakis, Claire Gardner, Susan Cross, ,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 81-85;

The increasing size of our older population will provide more pressure to UK emergency services. Studies show that older people are more likely to be admitted from the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to evaluate the impact care home (CH) patients have on the ED within a large urban UK city and whether end-of-life planning and alternative pathways can improve quality of care for these patients.Data were collected for 11760 patients of over 65 years of age. CH and non-care home patients attending the ED were compared and an in-depth analysis of the sickest patients was carried out.CH patients were more likely to arrive by ambulance, odds ratio (OR) of 8.09 [95% confidence interval (CI) 6.17-10.6; P<0.001]; have an investigation, OR of 1.51 (95% CI: 1.28-1.77; P<0.001); present with a medical condition or fall, OR of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.75-2.40; P<0.001); to spend more than 4 h in the ED, OR of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.30-1.69; P<0.001); to be admitted, OR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.16-1.50; P<0.001). Of the sickest CH patients admitted (n=73), 63.9% (46 of 72) died within 24 h of admission, 8.3% (6 of 72) had a postmortem, 90.4% (66/73) had a 'do not attempt resuscitation' order after admission. Most, however, had investigations and treatments: venous blood (60 of 73), arterial blood gases (38 of 73), X-rays (48 of 73), intravenous fluids (52 of 73), and intravenous antibiotics (24 of 73).This reflects the demand that CH patients place on emergency services compared with non-care home patients. The results also highlight the importance of end-of-life decisions before ED attendance. Further work is required to identify alternative pathways to improve the quality of care and reduce the impact on secondary care.
Alice Elvy, Laura Harbach,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 124-126;

Atraumatic splenic rupture is an uncommon but poorly defined clinical condition. Its diagnosis may be missed or delayed because of low clinical suspicion, especially in the absence of trauma. The primary aim of this study was to describe the experience with atraumatic splenic rupture in a district general hospital. Over a 6-year period (2004-2010), seven patients were identified, producing an incidence of 1.2/year. Computed tomography confirmed the diagnosis preoperatively in all the cases where it was performed (n=5). All patients required total splenectomy; indications included peritonitis, hypovolaemic shock and failed conservative treatment. Five splenectomies were performed within 24 h of admission. In four cases, no pathological abnormality was identified (atraumatic-idiopathic); abnormal pathologies (atraumatic-pathological) in the remaining three were amyloidosis, lymphoma and focal thrombosis. A high index of suspicion should be maintained by emergency physicians and surgeons during initial evaluation of these patients. Computed tomography scan facilitates the diagnosis and early total splenectomy is often needed.
, Jackie Kim
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 111-114;

Few studies have focused on chronic health needs immediately after natural disasters in middle-income countries. This study examines chronic medical needs during the acute phase after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in an emergency triage clinic in Sichuan, China. Information on physical, social, and public health preparedness was collected in predesigned templates. Descriptive and Pearson's χ2 association analyses were conducted. One hundred and eighty-two evacuees were received at the triage site. Of these, 54% required trauma treatment and 77% of evacuated patients who required care had underlying chronic medical conditions. Tetanus immunizations and the possession of chronic health medication were low, particularly among older patients. Chronic health needs constituted a significant proportion of emergency care during the acute phase in the study population. Effective post-disaster assistance requires attention to demographic and epidemiological population profiles.
, Emma Forsans, Thomas Leclerc, , Solange Ramsang, , Michel Man, Marc Borne
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 77-80;

Exacerbation of asthma can be seen during air transport. Severe patients, not responding to conventional therapy, require ventilator support. We evaluated the performance of two transport ventilators, built with turbine technology, the T-birdVSO2 and the LTV-1000, for use during aeromedical evacuation of acute severe asthma. We have assessed the ability of both the ventilators to deliver to an acute severe asthma model a tidal volume (Vt) set at different simulated altitudes, by changing the ambient air pressure. The simulated cabin altitudes were 1500, 2500, and 3000 m (decompression chamber). Vt was set at 700 and 400 ml in an acute severe asthma lung model. Comparisons of the preset with the actual measured values were accomplished using a t-test. Comparisons between the actual delivered Vt and set Vt showed a significant difference starting at 1500 m for both the ventilators. The T-birdVSO2 showed a decrease in the volume delivered, with a negative variation of more than 10% compared with the Vt set. The LTV-1000 showed mostly an increase in the volume delivered. The delivered Vt remained within 10% of the set Vt. The accuracy of Vt delivery was superior with the LTV-1000 than with the T-birdVSO2, but the higher delivered Vt of the LTV-1000 are likely to be more harmful than lower delivered Vt of the T-birdVSO2.
, Anette Von Rosen
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 68-72;

The aim was to elucidate if, by strictly applying the Adaptive Process Triage (ADAPT) scale, the interrater agreement increased among the participating registered nurses (RNs) than when triaging according to the older scale, which allowed subjective interpretations of signs and symptoms. Nineteen patient scenarios were triaged in 2006 by 45 RNs using the previous triage scale, and in 2008 by 30 RNs using ADAPT. There was no significant difference (P=0.65) between the two triage scales with regard to level of overall exact agreement (κ value 0.529 vs. 0.472). The same triage level was more often chosen when using the ADAPT system as compared to the earlier triage scale and dispersion across the triage levels was also reduced when using ADAPT. Eight (42%) of the patient scenarios were triaged as both unstable and stable by ADAPT, and 11 (58%) when the older scale was applied. Fourteen (74%) of the scenarios could not be allocated to a defined triage level by ADAPT. Five main reasons for such triage decisions were identified. Both the triage scales showed moderate overall agreements, while dispersion of triage decisions across several triage levels declined when ADAPT was used. Although the algorithm for acuity allocation by ADAPT seemed well defined, many patient scenarios were triaged as both unstable and stable and thus allocated to various triage levels. If ADAPT is to function as a safe triage tool with low interrater variability, further revision of the triage algorithms is needed.
, , , Massimo Dente, Tiziana Iervese, Marco Spada, Alberto Vandelli
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 11, pp 65-69;

Current guidelines suggest hospital admission followed by home monitoring for high-risk patients with mild head injury and negative computed tomography scan. We tested early home monitoring under the care of a competent observer.A total of 1480 patients with mild head injury and negative computed tomography scan were prospectively studied. Based on clinical status and available home caretakers, patients were managed by in-hospital observation (n = 646) or early home monitoring (n = 834). Outcome measures were: (1) the detection of previously undiagnosed post-traumatic intracranial injury; (2) neurosurgical intervention; and (3) unfavourable outcome (death, permanent vegetative state or severe disability).In the in-hospital arm, nine cases (1.4%) developed intracranial injuries (in three after discharge). In the early home-monitoring arm, six patients (0.7%) had a previously undiagnosed lesion after re-admission (P = 0.773 versus in-hospital arm). No patients with previously undiagnosed intracranial injuries had a neurosurgical intervention. After 6 months, five patients had died in the home monitoring arm (0.8%) versus eight (1.0%) in the in-hospital arm (P=0.785). No permanent disability or vegetative state was observed.Early home monitoring may be safely proposed to selected "high-risk" patients, with an early negative computed tomography scan, normal clinical examination and feasible home monitoring.
, Daniel J.R. Harvey, Jaimie Coleman,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 115-116;

As a result of national guidance in the UK, the number of computed tomography brains performed in patients with minor head injury has increased significantly. The aim of this survey was to establish the requirement for general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation in the management of emergency department patients requiring an urgent computed tomography of the brain. About 300 consecutive scans in emergency department patients were reviewed. The majority (>90%) did not require anaesthetic airway management despite an overall acute scan diagnosis rate of around 25% and 30 day mortality of 10%.
, Sigurdur Marelsson, Vidar Magnusson, Gardar Sigurdsson, Gestur Thorgeirsson
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 64-67;

To access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links fieldAn epithelial cell line, referred to as A163, was established from breast carcinoma derived from a patient with a strong family history of breast cancer but no known breast cancer susceptibility mutation. A163 was propagated in a serum-free culture medium including the epidermal growth factor. Immunophenotypic characterization demonstrated a mixed luminal and basal-like phenotype. When epidermal growth factor was excluded from the culture medium, A163 entered a quiescent period followed by a period of increased cell proliferation in a subpopulation of the cells. The epidermal growth factor-independent subpopulation retained the basal-like phenotype of the parental cell line. Karyotype and fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis showed an amplification of epidermal growth factor receptor on 7q in A163-S1 only, resulting in high expression of total and phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor. The A163-S1 sub-line piles up in culture, indicating a loss of contact inhibition. When grown on transwell filters, A163 shows basal expression of P63 and cytokeratin 14, whereas A163-S1 expresses P63 ubiquitously, and has lost the basal specific expression of cytokeratin 14, indicating a loss of polarity. Furthermore, when cultured in reconstituted basement membrane matrix, A163 form polarized normal like acini. In contrast, A163-S1 form large disorganized structures with lack of polarity. These cell lines may prove useful to understand molecular changes in breast cancer progression, in particular basal-like breast cancer subtype with bad prognosis and no current treatment options
J. Christian Fox, Matthew Solley, , Alexander Zlidenny, Shadi Lahham, Kasra Maasumi
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 15, pp 80-85;

To evaluate the accuracy of emergency physicians using bedside ultrasound to detect appendicitis (BUSA). Patients presenting to the emergency department with a clinical suspicion of appendicitis were prospectively enrolled and received a 5-min BUSA. Patients received routine work-up for acute appendicitis as deemed appropriate by the attending physician. Radiologists and consulting surgeons were blinded to BUSA results. The criterion standard for the presence or absence of acute appendicitis was the pathology report for patients who received appendectomies, and telephone follow-up for patients discharged home without surgical intervention. A total of 132 patients were enrolled. In 44 cases BUSA was positive. Of these, 37 had surgical pathology reports consistent with acute appendicitis, whereas seven did not have appendicitis. In 82 cases, BUSA was negative. Of these, 62 were determined not to have appendicitis, whereas 20 had appendicitis by pathology. Sensitivity for BUSA was 65% [95% confidence interval (CI) 52-76], specificity was 90% (95% CI 81-95), positive predictive value was 84% (95% CI 71-92), and negative predictive value was 76% (95% CI 65-84). The likelihood ratio of a positive BUSA was 6.4 (95% CI 3.1-13.2). Five patients discharged home with a diagnosis other than appendicitis were unable to be reached by telephone, and were excluded from data analysis. Our study gives insufficient evidence to support the use of bedside ultrasound by emergency physicians to rule out appendicitis. The high specificity in our study, however, suggests that with further training, BUSA may be useful to rule-in appendicitis in some patients.
, Hanne Aagaard, Hanne V. Olesen, Hans Kirkegaard
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 34-40;

Paediatric early warning score (PEWS) assessment tools can assist healthcare providers in the timely detection and recognition of subtle patient condition changes signalling clinical deterioration. However, PEWS tools instrument data are only as reliable and accurate as the caregivers who obtain and document the parameters. The aim of this study is to evaluate inter-rater reliability among nurses using PEWS systems. The study was carried out in five paediatrics departments in the Central Denmark Region. Inter-rater reliability was investigated through parallel observations. A total of 108 children and 69 nurses participated. Two nurses simultaneously performed a PEWS assessment on the same patient. Before the assessment, the two participating nurses drew lots to decide who would be the active observer. Intraclass correlation coefficient, Fleiss’ κ and Bland–Altman limits of agreement were used to determine inter-rater reliability. The intraclass correlation coefficients for the aggregated PEWS score of the two PEWS models were 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. The κ value on the individual PEWS measurements ranged from 0.70 to 1.0, indicating good to very good agreement. The nurses assigned the exact same aggregated score for both PEWS models in 76% of the cases. In 98% of the PEWS assessments, the aggregated PEWS scores assigned by the nurses were equal to or below 1 point in both models. The study showed good to very good inter-rater reliability in the two PEWS models used in the Central Denmark Region.
Gregg Neagle, Lisa Curatolo, John Ferris, Mike Donald, Stephen Hearns,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 123-127;

Prehospital critical care teams comprising an appropriately trained physician and paramedic or nurse have been associated with improved outcomes in selected trauma patients. These teams are a scarce and expensive resource, especially when delivered by rotary air assets. The optimal tasking of prehospital critical care teams is therefore vital and remains a subject of debate. Emergency Medical Retrieval Service (EMRS) provides a prehospital critical care response team to incidents over a large area of Scotland either by air or by road. A convenience sample of consecutive EMRS missions covering a period of 18 months from May 2013 to January 2015 was taken. These missions were matched with the ambulance service information on geographical location of the incident. In order to assess the appropriateness of tasking, interventions undertaken on each mission were analysed and divided into two subcategories: ‘critical care interventions’ and ‘advanced medical interventions’. A tasking was deemed appropriate if it included either category of intervention or if a patient was pronounced life extinct at the scene. A total of 1279 primary missions were undertaken during the study period. Of these, 493 primary missions met the inclusion criteria and generated complete location data. The median distance to scene was calculated as 5.6 miles for land responses and 34.2 miles for air responses. Overall, critical care interventions were performed on 17% (84/493) of patients. A further 21% (102/493) of patients had an advanced medical intervention. Including those patients for whom life was pronounced extinct on scene by the EMRS team, a total of 42% (206/493) taskings were appropriate. Overall, our data show a wide geographical spread of tasking for our service, which is in keeping with other suburban/rural models of prehospital care. Tasking accuracy is also comparable to the accuracy shown by other similar services.
, , Boris Vlottes, , Dennis Den Hartog, Robert J. Stolker
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 25;

Rigid cervical collars are known to increase intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cerebral blood flow might decrease according to the Kellie Monroe doctrine. For this reason, the use of the collar in patients with severe TBI has been abandoned from several trauma protocols in the Netherlands. There is no evidence on the effect of a rigid collar on ICP in patients with mild or moderate TBI or indeed patients with no TBI. As a first step we tested the effect in healthy volunteers with normal ICPs and intact autoregulation of the brain. In this prospective blinded cross-over study, we evaluated the effect of application of a rigid cervical collar in 45 healthy volunteers by measuring their optical nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) by transocular sonography. Sonographic measurement of the ONSD behind the eye is an indirect noninvasive method to estimate ICP and pressure changes. We included 22 male and 23 female volunteers. In total 360 ONSD measurements were performed in these 45 volunteers. Application of a collar resulted in a significant increase in ONSD in both the left (β=0.06, 95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.07, P<0.001) and the right eye (β=0.01, 95% confidence interval: 0.00–0.02, P=0.027) Application of a rigid cervical collar significantly increases the ONSD in healthy volunteers with intact cerebral autoregulation. This suggests that ICP may increase after application of a collar. In healthy volunteers, this seems to be of minor importance. On the basis of our findings the effect of a collar on ONSD and ICP in patients with mild and moderate TBI needs to be determined.
Sandrine Charpentier, , Luc Marie Joly, Abdo Khoury, François-Xavier Duchateau, Raphael Briot, Bertrand Renaud,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 25, pp 404-410;

The aim of this paper was to describe the epidemiology, and diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that emergency physicians use to manage patients presenting with chest pain at all three levels of the French emergency medical system – that is, dispatch centres (SAMUs: the medical emergency system), which operate the mobile intensive care units (MICUs), and hospitals’ emergency departments (EDs), with a focus on acute coronary syndrome (ACS). All patients with chest pain who contacted a SAMU and/or were managed by a MICU and/or were admitted into an ED were included in a 1-day multicentre prospective study carried out in January 2013. Data on diagnostic and therapeutic management and disposition were collected. An in-hospital follow-up was performed. In total, 1339 patients were included: 537 from SAMU, 187 attended by a MICU and 615 in EDs. Diagnosing ACS was the main diagnostic strategy of the French emergency care system, diagnosed in 16% of SAMU patients, 25% of MICU patients and 10% of ED patients. Among patients calling the SAMU, 76 (14%) received only medical advice, 15 (8%) patients remained at home after being seen by a MICU and 454 (74%) were discharged from an ED. Management of chest pain at the three levels of the French medical emergency system is mainly oriented towards ruling out ACS. The strategy of diagnostic management is based on minimizing missed diagnoses of ACS.
Reem G. Al Assaad, Rana Bachir,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 25, pp 440-444;

Fasting during Ramadan is important to Muslims. This study describes changes in emergency department (ED) visits and in frequencies of emergency conditions and impact on clinical outcomes during Ramadan in a tertiary care center in Beirut, Lebanon. Patients presenting to ED during Ramadan 1 month before and 1 month after Ramadan over a 3-year period with specific conditions (acute coronary syndrome, stroke, seizure, diabetes, renal colic, headache or hypertension) were included. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, ED volume, diagnoses, and outcomes were examined during two periods (Ramadan vs. non-Ramadan). Multiple logistic regressions were performed to identify the impact of Ramadan on ED bounce-back and mortality at ED discharge. A total of 3536 patients were included. The daily average ED volume was higher during non-Ramadan months (145.65±22.14) compared with Ramadan (128.85±14.52). The average ED length of stay was higher during Ramadan (5.42±14.86 vs. 3.96±4.29 h; P=0.006). Frequencies and admission rates for the selected diseases were comparable during the two periods, except for patients with acute coronary syndrome or stroke who had lower admission rates during Ramadan. ED bounce-back rates and mortality at ED discharge were higher during Ramadan (odds=1.34, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.74 and odds ratio=2.88, 95% confidence interval: 1.01–8.27, respectively). EDs might experience a decreased in volumes, higher length of stay, and potentially worse outcomes during Ramadan. Changes in the frequencies of ED visits related to common conditions are not expected. Prospective studies documenting fasting status would clarify further the impact of Ramadan.
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 25, pp 429-433;

Computed tomography of the kidneys, ureters and bladder is the recommended imaging modality for suspected urolithiasis. Early scanning is advised in guidelines, but there is limited published evidence to support this recommendation. In a retrospective study, we reviewed patients managed according to a local guideline. Patients without high-risk features were either imaged during their initial visit (if in the daytime) or discharged for outpatient scans. Complications, unplanned returns, final diagnosis, and intervention rates were compared between groups. Fifty-four patients were scanned during their initial visit and 151 were scanned as an outpatient at a median interval of 10 days. Unplanned return rates were lower in those scanned as outpatients (7.3 vs. 24.1%), with no significant difference in complications (2.0 vs. 3.7%; none leading to permanent harm). Those scanned as outpatients were less likely to have a stone proven by imaging (39.7 vs. 64.8%), but did not have a significantly higher rate of proven alternative diagnosis (9.3 vs. 13.0%). There is no evidence in this cohort that discharging patients for outpatient imaging is associated with poorer outcomes, provided that an appropriate clinical risk assessment is carried out.
Cristina Diaz Gomez, Marcus Ngantcha, Nathalie Le Garjean, Nadine Brouard, Muriel Lasbleiz, Mathieu Perennes, François J. Kerdiles, Caroline Le Lan, Romain Moirand,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 59-64;

Introduction to alcohol consumption early in life increases the risk of alcohol dependency and hence motivational interventions are needed in young patients visiting the emergency department (ED). This study aims to investigate the efficacy of a brief motivational intervention in reducing alcohol consumption among young ED patients. This was a blind randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 3 months. Patients were stratified on the basis of age and blood alcohol level of 0.5 g/l or more. A total of 263 patients aged 16–24 were randomized, with 132 patients in the brief motivational intervention group and 131 in the control group, with data collection at 3 months. From September 2011 to July 2012, a psychologist performed the brief motivational intervention 5 days after the patients’ discharge. A phone call was made at 1 and 2 months. The control group received a self-assessment leaflet. The reduction in consumption was determined on the basis of the number of drinks consumed in the last week prior to the survey. The mean reduction between number of drinks at baseline and number of drinks at 3 months in the control group was 0.3 and that in the intervention group was 0.9. This reduction in alcohol use in the brief motivational intervention group was not significant. The study did not show an association between brief motivational intervention and repeated drunkenness [relative risk (RR): 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79–1.24], alcohol consumption at least once a month (RR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.31–2.10) and alcohol consumption at least 10 times during the month (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.96–1.26). We did not observe a significant decrease in alcohol consumption among the youth. Further studies are needed to confirm the positive impact of a brief motivational intervention in the ED.
M. Christien van der Linden, Roeline A.Y. de Beaufort, Sven A.G. Meylaerts, Crispijn L. Van Den Brand, Naomi van der Linden
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 26, pp 47-52;

The aim of this study was to describe the impact of additional medical specialists, non-emergency physicians (non-EPs), performing direct supervision or a combination of direct and indirect supervision at an EP-led emergency department (ED), on patient flow and satisfaction. An observational, cross-sectional, three-part study was carried out including staff surveys (n=379), a before and after 16-week data collection using data of visits during the peak hours (n=5270), and patient questionnaires during 1 week before the pilot and during week 5 of the pilot. Content analysis and descriptive statistics were used for analyses. The value of being present at the ED was acknowledged by medical specialists in 49% of their surveys and 35% of the EPs’ and ED nurses’ surveys, especially during busy shifts. Radiologists were most often (67.3%) convinced of their value of being on-site, which was agreed upon by the ED professionals. Perceived improved quality of care, shortening of length of stay, and enhanced peer consultation were mentioned most often. During the pilot period, length of stay of boarded patients decreased from 197 min (interquartile range: 121 min) to 181 min (interquartile range: 113 min, P=0.006), and patient recommendation scores increased from −15 to +20. Although limited by the mix of direct and indirect supervision, our results suggest a positive impact of additional medical specialists during busy shifts. Throughput of admitted patients and patient satisfaction improved during the pilot period. Whether these findings differ between direct supervision and combination of direct and indirect supervision by the medical specialists requires further investigation.
, John Shepherd,
European Journal of Emergency Medicine, Volume 18, pp 102-104;

Guidelines recommend the use of mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the early post-resuscitation management of select out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) cases. This study aims to assess the current use of MTH and PCI in Scottish Emergency Departments (ED) and Intensive Care Units (ICU). We conducted a questionnaire survey of all the Scottish Emergency Medicine Consultants, EDs and ICUs. MTH was more commonly initiated in ICU than in the ED (19; 91 vs. 7; 37%, P<0.05). Only a minority two (11%) EDs routinely referred OHCA patients for early PCI and only three (16%) EDs receiving patients after OHCA had on-site access to PCI facilities. The use of MTH after OHCA appears to be widespread, although it is infrequently initiated in the ED. The utilization of PCI in OHCA management has yet to be widely established. Increased awareness may increase the use of promising therapies such as MTH and PCI following OHCA to save lives.
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